Sie sind auf Seite 1von 52

02-12-14

Introduction to Vibration Analysis


Programs as Part of a Predictive
Maintenance Strategy
Emad Bitar,
Leader, Bently Supporting Services & Portables,
MEA, Turkey & Pakistan

Emad.Bitar@ge.com
Imagination at work

02-12-14

About me
Emad Bitar Emad.Bitar@ge.com
More than 26 years of experience in Condition Monitoring
Programs: Application Engineer / Application Manager
Expertise in services, support, implementation and Training
with more than 19 years in the Middle East
Expertise in machinery troubleshooting using advanced
vibration techniques
Certified Trainer for advanced vibration , and Certification of
Vibration Analyst I & II from the Vibration Institute (1994).
Certified ISO Vibration Analysis CAT III.
Wrote many technical papers for the Vibration Institute, PdM,
Rotate, Uptime, Maintenance Management
BS and MS in Mechanical Engineering from The University of
Tennessee USA

02-12-14

Few things to start with


Unplanned Downtime:
What does it do to your operation?
How often does it happen?
How much does it cost?

Old Plant:
Are you trying to extend the life of your plant?
Are you trying to increase production with the same equipment?

Maintenance:
What equipment needs maintenance next?
Can we skip this outage and run for few more months?

02-12-14

Many Technologies One Answer


Vibration measurement contains information
from the machine and its surrounding
Every problem on a machine has a distinct
vibration behavior
Any changes in the vibration signature
indicate there are changes in the dynamic
condition of the machine

02-12-14

Many Problems One Technology


Imbalance, Misalignment and Resonance can
be detected and corrected
Bearing defects can be tracked through its
various stages
The severity of gear problems can be identified
without stopping the machine
Wears in mechanical and structural parts
can be distinctly identified and corrected
Electrical problems in motors shows up in the
vibration waveform and spectrum
Lubrication problems produce friction and
impacting with distinctive vibration behaviors
Other problems like cavitations in pump, soft
foot, and belt problems and others can be
trended and diagnosed

02-12-14

Elements of a Vibration Analysis Program


System:
Hardware Data Collector / Analyzer
Software

People:
Personnel
Training

Process:
Workflow
Reports

Management:
Commitment
Funding
Monitoring

02-12-14

Steps of a Successful Vibration Analysis Program


1. Gather machine information
2. Create database
3. Collect data
4. Detect problems
5. Analyze the nature and the severity of
problems
6. Generate reports on equipment status
7. Follow up on findings

02-12-14

Machine Information
Shaft speed
Bearing types
Gearbox design and number of
teeth
Belt lengths and pulleys
diameters
Motor load and number of bars
Coupling type
Number of vanes or blades
Measurement locations and
directions
Sensors type and sensitivity
8

02-12-14

Steps of a Successful Vibration Analysis Program


1. Gather machine information
2. Create database
3. Collect data
4. Detect problems
5. Analyze the nature and the severity of
problems
6. Generate reports on equipment status
7. Follow up on findings

02-12-14

Machine Setup Made Easy: RPM

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

10

10

02-12-14

Library of more than 1 Million Bearings

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

11

11

02-12-14

Criticality, Orientation and Support

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

12

12

02-12-14

Multiple Bearings Option

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

13

13

02-12-14

ISO or TA

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

14

14

02-12-14

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

15

15

02-12-14

Transducer Setup

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

16

16

02-12-14

Spectra and Waveforms

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

17

17

02-12-14

Measured Variables

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

18

18

02-12-14

Setpoints / Alarms

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

19

19

02-12-14

Automated Setup

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

20

20

02-12-14

Copy / Paste

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

21

21

02-12-14

Database Setup Results


Without any vibration knowledge, the
machine has been setup quickly with the use
of normal machine information readily
available in the maintenance library
All the alarm limits, analysis parameter sets
and fault frequencies are easily setup with
the machine
After just few steps, you are ready to collect
data and do analysis

22

02-12-14

Create Routes
Locate machines to be monitored in plant
List of machines and measurement points
Choose logical order for data collection of
machines and points
Do a cold walkthrough to locate the
machines and modify the order to suite the
actual locations
A different route may be created for each
section of the plant
A machine may be on multiple routes

23

02-12-14

Route Setup

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

24

24

02-12-14

3. Data Collection
Routes that contain
Machines and
measurement points
are transferred to
portable or online
analyzers

25

02-12-14

Sensor Selection
The sensor converts
the vibration into an
electronic signal
The most common
sensor is an
accelerometer
The sensor is
commonly attached
using a magnet
Other vibration
sensors:
Velocity Pickup
Displacement

26

02-12-14

Mounting the Sensor

Proper mounting is
very important
Repeatability is
essential
Good mechanical
transmission path
from the bearing

27

02-12-14

Repeatability
Vibration changes when the
speed and load change
The machine must operate in
the same state during every
test
Check the speed and load
with each measurement
Collect data in the same
location, direction and
methodology every time
Best Option - collecting data
from permanently installed
sensors

28

02-12-14

Periodicity
Vibration is directional,
so data must be taken in
3 directions:
Horizontal
Vertical
Axial

On every bearing
Typically once a month
C anne ry M oto r - O E (left ) - H orizonta l - Ac c F req 120 000 C PM
18 /02 /200 0 8 :43: 18
O /A ll 3. 169 m /s /s rm s

1.2

0.8

m/s/s rms

Some machines require


vbOnline system

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

2 0,0 00

40 ,00 0

6 0,00 0
C PM

80 ,0 0 0

1 00 ,00 0

12 0,0 00

29

02-12-14

Transfer Data to the Database


Captured data on every
point is stamped with
time and date
All data on the route and
off-route is transferred
to the database

USB

Data can be transferred


using:
High speed USB cables
Network connections

Ethernet
Wireless
LAN

USB Memory Sticks

30

02-12-14

4. Problem Detection
Vibration levels on every Analysis Parameter on
every point are automatically checked against
its corresponding alarm Limits
Exception Report generates a list of machines
and measurement points that only exceed the
pre-set alarm levels

31

02-12-14

Alarms in Database Structure

Color Coded Structure


to indicate the
severity of the
problem and its exact
location

32

02-12-14

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

33

33

02-12-14

Exception Report

34

02-12-14

5. Diagnose Nature and Severity of Faults


Every Mechanical, Electrical or
Structural fault has a distinct vibration
behavior
Any changes in the vibration signature
indicate changes in the dynamic
condition of the machine
A single vibration measurement
provides information the machine and
its surrounding structure and other
machinery

35

02-12-14

Plant

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

36

36

02-12-14

Machine

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

37

37

02-12-14

Machine

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

38

38

02-12-14

Component

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

39

39

02-12-14

Bearing

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

40

40

02-12-14

Measurement Location

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

41

41

02-12-14

Pattern Recognition

42

02-12-14

Training Courses

Advanced
Training
(> 3 years)

Intermediate
Training (1-2 years)

Basic
Training (4-6 months)

43

02-12-14

Fault Frequencies
Special calculations are used to indicate where specific
problems can be found on the spectrum called Fault
Frequencies

44

02-12-14

Advanced Analysis
Orbit - Orbit Example - Side
7/26/2007 2:05:43 PM
Filter: 1X .. 4X
Revolution: 1
0.6

0.4

mils (Vertical)

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

7/26/2007 2:05:43 PM

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2

0
mils (Horizontal)

0.2

0.4

0.6

3600 RPM

45

02-12-14

Steps of a Vibration Program


1. Gather machine information
2. Create database
3. Collect data
4. Detect problems
5. Analyze the nature and the severity of
problems
6. Generate reports on equipment status
7. Follow up on findings

46

02-12-14

Generating Machine Diagnostic Report

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

47

47

02-12-14

Title or Job Number | XX Month 201X

48

48

02-12-14

Steps of a Vibration Program


1. Gather machine information
2. Create database
3. Collect data
4. Detect problems
5. Analyze the nature and the severity of
problems
6. Generate reports on equipment status
7. Follow up on findings

49

02-12-14

Key Points in a Successful Vibration Program


Trained and committed expertise
Intuitive Software and hardware
Committed management
Clear work process

50

02-12-14

Some of our customers

51

02-12-14

QUESTIONS???
52