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Editura Credis
Bucuresti, 2001

Acest volum este numai pentru uz intern i este destinat studenilor

Facultii de Litere, nvmnt de zi, la distana i cu frecven
redus, care studiaz sintaxa frazei prin subordonare.


The workbook is designed for use in conjunction with other course

material, or on its own for intensive work specifically on the syntax
of the complex sentence. It incorporates comprehensive practice on
the main topics in the study of the syntax of the complex sentence in
a variety of types of exercises, to which notes are added whenever it
was felt necessary. Grammar is treated mostly at sentence level.
We hope that the subject index, the study lists, and the glossary will
make the book accessible to the students working on their own.

The Author

1. Clause Types..3
2. The That Complement Clause. .9
2.1. Reported Speech21
2.2.The Sequence of Tenses ............23
2.3. The subjunctive in that complement clauses.26
3. The Infinitive Complement Clause.....28
3.1. Control Predicates.....35
3.2. Nominative / Accusative + Infinitive36
3.3. Nominative / Accusative + Participle42
4. The Participle.42
5. The Gerund....55
6. Verbs used either with an ing clause or with a to-infinitive.....61
7. The Relative Clause....77
8. The Indirect questions.90
9. The Adverbial Clauses....95
10. Revision of embedded and subordinate clauses. 113
Key to exercises....115
Glossary. ..114

By the number of formal predications sentences are generally
classified in:
Simple sentence
He heard an explosion.
Compound sentence He heard an explosion and phoned the police.
Complex sentence
When he heard an explosion, he phoned the
Clauses in a complex sentence are defined in relationship to one
another as:
- main clauses (matrix, superordinate)
- dependent clauses (embedded / subordinate)
By the form of the verb, clauses in a complex sentence are classified
as: finite, non-finite (infinitival, (present / past) participial,
gerundial), verbless clauses.
I. Classify the bracketed clauses as finite or non-finite,
and if non-finite as infinitival, present-participial or
past-participial. Identify the type of construction of
which the following clauses are an immediate
Model: [NP The girl [sitting in the corner]] is my friend.
The bracketed clause is non-finite, present-participial, clause
within a NP.

People [living in London] have many advantages.

[Why she did it] is a mystery.
It was unable [to walk].
He kept [ringing me up in the middle of the night].

5. The idea [that it might be dangerous] had never occurred to

6. They are very keen [for her to have a second chance].
7. Youre going to be in trouble [whatever you do].

II. Decide whether the following dependent clauses are full

clauses, reduced or verbless:


Because he was sick, the boy didnt go to school.

Although very young, he works as hard as an adult.
Once a farmer, always a farmer.
Although hired as a bookkeeper, she also does secretarial work.
Whether true or false, the story should not have been repeated.
Since agreed on by the majority, this measure will be carried out.
If meeting with too many unexpected difficulties, he will abandon
the project.

III. Divide the following complex sentences into main

(matrix) clauses and dependent clauses:
Model: She was apprehensive that the injection might be painful.
She was apprehensive [ that the injection might be painful].
main clause
dependent clause
1. The committee accepted that neither of the two ministers had
acted dishonestly.
2. They think that it is regrettable that John has left.
3. It was concluded that the aircraft was flying at the maximum
permitted speed when the leading edge of the wing opened up,
ripping the wing apart.
4. At one time it was believed that an addict couldnt quit until she
hit bottom and lost everything. Thats true for many people but, it
turns out, not for everyone.

5. It is understood that damage estimated at more than a hundred

thousand pounds has been caused to furniture, fittings and
equipment in the Embassy building.
6. It never entered her head that their divorce would go through
without a financial settlement having been made.
III. Extraposition involves movement of the complement
clause and insertion of the expletive pronoun it.
Extrapose the bracketed clauses:
Model: [That she shant be here] is more than likely.
It is more than likely [that she shant be here].
expletive pron.
extraposed clause

[That he had been lying] was obvious to everyone.

[(For you) to change your mind now] would be a mistake.
He found [to talk things over with her] a great help.
[Why he did it] remains unclear.
[To see them behave like that] makes me mad.
[That things will be better next year] is hoped.
[For you to mention it to her] would be a big mistake.


I. Use brackets to Identify the complement clauses and
indicate the syntactic function they fulfill within the
complex sentence:
Model: It is unfortunate [ that you were not insured].
main clause
embedded that-complement clause
The complement clause functions as a subject for the predicate in
the main clause.


It is regrettable that John has left.

The point is that we are leaving now.
It occurred to me that she might be lying.
The rumour that prices were going to rise led to a rush on the
5. I am quite hopeful that Ill get the job.
6. We were all amazed that the city could charge so much for a
parking ticket.
7. I must say, it doesnt really surprise me that the company went
8. It was astonishing that Sally could manage to do two jobs and
still have time for a social life.
9. There is startling new evidence that the hole in the ozone layer
may be much worse than was at first thought.
10. Many women are conscious that they are being exploited.
11. I appreciate that youve had more than your fair share of bad luck
12. Doesnt it worry you that Stephen spends so much time away
from home ?
13. You can rest assured that there are no additives in his food.
14. I helped you to get this job so its important to me that you make
a success of it.
15. Remind your father that we have visitors tonight.
16. It is a scandal that the racket was allowed to go undetected so
17. It turned out that nobody remembered the address.
18. Police chiefs are confident that the case will be solved soon.
1. But if you arm the police isnt the likelihood that more criminals
will go armed?
2. Its a common belief that one of the ways in which men and
women differ emotionally is that women experience a strong
drive to become mothers.

3. Two of the fundamental bases of British justice are that no one

should be forced to incriminate himself and that neither should he
face trial twice.
4. Many passengers complained that once they emerged from the
train, there were no emergency personnel to greet them.
5. He was to be priest, so, she thought, it could not be that he was
interested in her.
6. The kids have loved him for years while their cynical elders
sneered that he was just a pretty face.
7. Mr. Lightman wrote that there had been a number of
misapplications of funds and breaches of duty.
8. Like Clinton, he is gambling that a recovering economy will
swell the governments coffers.
9. The fact remains that you can produce steel much more cheaply
here than you can in Germany or the rest of the European
10. I decided to give up because I can no longer ignore the fact that it
is bad for my health.
11. David admitted to the clerk that he had been at the scene and had
lent the other youth a knife to get into cars.
12. The story goes that the dish was invented by Kaiser Franz
Josephs cook, who had promised to make his master something
delicious to tempt his jaded appetite.
13. It never clicked that I was homeless until I had been on the streets
a couple of months.
14. It comes as no surprise to learn that magistrates in England and
Wales dislike the new Criminal Justice Act and are now seeking
to modify it.
15. Does it surprise you that polls are showing currently that this
initiative will be approved by the voters?
16. I noticed that he was soaking wet, and for the first time it dawned
on me that he had come down across the fields from the hill.
17. It says a lot for her culinary art that so many of her recipes have
stood the test of time.
18. The president boasted that it would be by far the biggest service
program in American history.

19. At first it was feared that a bomb had caused the blast but now it
appears that the explosion may have been triggered accidentally.
20. However, the article points out that trade with Britains European
partners has risen considerably since 1973.
II. Build up the basic sentences out of the following
pseudo-cleft sentences:
Model: [What John resents] is [that you refuse to discuss the matter].
This pseudo-cleft sentence has been derived from:
John resents [CP that you refuse to discuss the matter].
1. What worried me was that the dog kept growling.
2. What is even more worrying is that many countries are
developing their own nuclear weapons.
3. What we are sure of is that its a boy.
4. What is most likely is that Susan said she would be late.
5. What he informed me of was that they were willing to work
6. What they should be reminded of is that the paper is due on
7. What the critics failed to understand is that his art was not
sacrificed to popularity.
Note: A pseudo-cleft sentence has the following structure:
relative clause + BE + that-complement clause
[What ..] is [that ].
[What he knows] is [that she has found out the truth].
It appears as a result of the reordering of the constituents of a
complex sentence of the type:
main clause + that complement clause functioning as DO.
He knows [that she has found out the truth].


III. There are instances when the complementiser can be

omitted and other cases when it must be preserved.
Comment on the use of the complementiser that
keeping in mind the following clues:
Omit that in informal English after:
a. basic (informal) verbs: say, think, notice, etc.
b. quote clause with the main clause within or at the end
c. after the phrasal modals: would just as soon, would sooner,
(would rather)
Preserve that in formal English:
a. after formal or less frequent verbs: demand, estimate, brag
b. when the that-clause is separated from the main clause by a PP,
AdvP or subordinate clause.
Model: This, I admit, is still an open question.
This example is an instance of quote clause with the main
clause within the that-complement clause.
1. With all the revision youve done, Im sure youll pass your

Most students know good jobs are hard to find.
Everyone knows shes been having an affair with Tom.
Ill come back for that, I promise.
They reckon the French teams better than ours.
As Mc. Cabe says, now its up to the industry to prove him
He had, as he predicted, immediately assumed a non-executive
He figured hed better get out of the building before the cops
When I saw what a lousy driver he was, I figured he was probably
not the best person to learn from.
I really feel you would be happier in a different job.

11. Naomi feels that she has not made much progress in her studies,

but actually shes doing very well.

It is estimated that up to a million people around the country
suffer from various forms of asthma.
I think you all know the song Im going to sing.
Most people think that war is a terrible thing.
Both sides firmly believe that a peace settlement is now possible.
Raising taxes may be unpopular, but we believe its the right
thing to do.
The map says theres six of them.
My aunt, it grieves me to say, gets things confused.
Most of what hes marked on the print-out has behind it the
opinion: I would rather that the broadcasters had not said that.
Who knows if Ill still be running in 1998. I am not saying I will
but I wont rule it out either.
I think he made a tactical blunder by announcing it so far ahead
of time.
A Foreign Ministry spokesman said at a press briefing that
relations with the Community were strained.
The 14-year-old brags that he has escaped from custody 31 times.
Things didnt, he admitted, look good in Russia.
Italian striker Gianluca Vialli will play for Juventus next season,
Sampdoria president Paolo Mantovani confirmed today.
The police would rather you played safe than ended up being
Id just as soon you put that thing away.
It says here they have live music.
I would rather that the theory was stated.

IV. Passivise the verb in the main clause and comment on

the resulting complex sentence:
Model: People assume [that theyll get married some day].
[That theyll get married] is assumed by people.


When we passivise the main verb, the complement clause has

to move from DO position into subject position. However
such a construction is infrequent because a long phrase in
initial position renders the text more difficult. That is why the
complement clause is extraposed from subject position and
moved towards the end of the sentence.
It is assumed [ that theyll get married some day].
1. They say that he knows some influential people.
2. People felt that the social workers were doing valuable work.
3. All medical staff in this hospital consider that this surgeon is a
brilliant practitioner.
4. The board of directors thought that some redundancies in the
company were inevitable.
5. Sir Humphrey explained to the Minister that delays might be
6. The pilot called it a miracle that no one was killed.
7. He considered it a good thing that the parliament would be
8. Ann felt it an injustice that she had been automatically blamed.
9. Tom thought it a tragedy that she had settled for marrying Joe.
10. There were a number of new faces there and so we thought it a
good idea that we all just say who we are beforehand.
11. If you are getting a mortgage, the lender will make it a condition
of the loan that the property is insured, and will usually arrange
12. The institutions simply took it for granted that the debtor counties
should honour their debts in full.
V. Comment on the type of Heavy NP shift:
Did you infer [PP from her sudden departure] [CP that she was

The complement clause functions as a DO for the verb in the

main clause. The typical position of the DO is immediately
after the verb, but the resulting complex sentence sounds
unnatural and rather difficult to understand:
? Did you infer [PP that she was annoyed] [PP from her sudden
The reason for which speakers do not accept such an order of
phrases is that the complement clause is too long. As a
consequence they prefer to move the complement clause
towards the end of the complex sentence; in other words the
CP has to move towards the end by jumping over the PP.
1. We are certain from what we know of late 16 th century
architecture that the chapel was built at that time.
2. The police officer told a surprised group of drivers that the
freeway was closed until further notice.
3. Although I didnt look at him, I could tell from his voice that he
was smiling.
4. Her face betrayed to an observer that she was seriously ill.
5. You will have to demonstrate to the court that the repairs are
reasonably necessary to preserve your property.
6. Hes always drumming into us that we must be consistent.
7. But the C.O. continues to impress on me that I am too old for the
job. I think he wants to force me to relinquish my commission.
8. David admitted to the clerk that he had been at the scene and had
lent the other youth a knife to get into cars.
9. Can you prove to the commission that the effects are not harmful?
10. He hinted strongly that he might be prepared to send troops in.
11. They advised me clearly that I should take out a medical
insurance for my skiing trip.
12. At the inquiry the judge suggested the lawyers that the safety
procedures be thoroughly updated.


VI. Extrapose the complement clauses:

Model: [ That she managed to come] is a wonder.
It is a wonder [that she managed to come].
The complement clause has been extraposed, i.e. extracted
out of its initial (subject) position and moved to the end of the
complex sentence. The position which has been left empty
after movement of the clause must be filled by the expletive
pronoun it.

She doesnt regret that she missed the concert.

That Pam is seeking a divorce surprised us.
We are sure that its a mistake.
That it might be better to postpone our departure was suggested to
We had a scary feeling that we had been trapped.
You might at least have announced that you were moving in on
We insist that he is told the truth.
They agreed that there should be changes.
That recognising syntactic categories at first sight is not easy is

VII. Identify the type of verb that requires a thatcomplement clause choosing from: reciprocal verbs,
equative, quoting verbs with inanimate subject,
phrasal verbs, phrasal modals:
1. Scientists agreed that these lumps of matter must originate in the
asteroid belt.
2. If it does turn out that the inspectors have found highly enriched
uranium, this raises s number of questions.
3. The large size implies that the gaps were created by a star rather
than a planet.

4. An argument with a friend or relative doesnt mean that you dont

get on with anyone.
5. Id sooner he grinned and bore it. He can have a two month rest
in summer.
6. The map says theres six of them.
7. Experts agree that one cause of poverty among the young is the
dramatic rise in the number of single-parent families.
8. Whatll happen is, itll come out that he didnt shoot himself,
Jack shot him.
9. After the war, it came to pass that he did not resume his medical
10. Its hard to say at first why Ed is so remarkable but then it creeps
up on you that this is top-quality son-writing.
VIII. Turn the verb in the main clause into the active voice
and find a suitable noun to function as its subject:
Model: It is claimed that running helps to unleash hidden energies,
both psychic and physical.
They claimed that running helps to unleash hidden energies,
both psychic and physical.
Doctors claimed that running helps to unleash hidden
energies, both psychic and physical.
1. In 1990, it was disclosed that he had contracted the AIDS virus.
2. A short time ago, it was reported that demonstrators had broken
through the police lines and more vehicles were set alight.
3. Until it is shown that the tape is genuine, we have to remain
4. When it was pointed out that she would need considerable
journalistic experience she agreed she didnt have it.
5. It is expected that by the weekend, air traffic, garbage collection
and mail delivery will be back in full operation.
6. It is planned that these hostages will be released in phases over
three months up to late March.

IX. Identify the type of the extraposition pattern:

Model: I really appreciate it [ that you raised me in such a warm and
happy family].
This example illustrates extraposition from the DO position in
the main clause.
1. The League have arranged it so that all games are played before
the Cup final.
2. You have a reputation for extreme discretion. Can I take it that
what I am going to reveal will remain strictly between the two of
3. It transpired that the gunman had been released from jail
4. Then she undermined him, destroyed his confidence in his own
talent, put it about that he was unreliable, a troublemaker.
5. I hate it that you can paint contentedly while Im feeling restless
and bored.
6. It came as little surprise that the twelve ministers found much to
criticise in the reform proposals.
7. Theyd already broken it to the troops that there was to be no
brief period in reserve as promised.
8. It looks increasingly likely that the three national parties may
form a government of national unity.
9. Having been fortunate enough to see his immaculate garden, I
think it highly unlikely that he shares my relaxed approach to
10. When I interviewed him again I put it to him that hed lied to you
and to me about not seeing his wife that afternoon. And he just
caved in.
X. Reformulate in such a way as to have extraposition
from object position:
Model: It might be regarded strange [that he refuses to come].

They regard it strange [that he refuses to come].

1. It was made clear that there was no place for superstition in the
new society.
2. It is considered unlikely that any of the Cabinet changes will
represent any major changes in policy.
3. It was regarded as an affront to civil liberty that any person going
about his lawful business should be stopped randomly by any
4. It is planned that these documents will be released over the next
two weeks.
5. It is considered unlikely that the money will be refunded.
6. Although people have believed that planets exist orbiting around
suns similar to our own, it has been thought unlikely that neutron
stars would have their own planets.
XI. Identify the ungrammatical examples and comment on
the errors:
1. He held her completely responsible for that she took food without
paying for it.
2. She made that she was not interested clear.
3. The judge paid no attention to that she had just lost her husband.
4. That she was foreign made it difficult for her to get the job.
5. That Simon had not been home for three days didnt seem to
worry anybody.
6. The fact that Simon had not been home for three days didnt seem
to worry anybody.



A friend of yours at work sees you during the day and

complains about her work. Report this to another
friend a few days later. Begin your report as
suggested at the end of the text:
Im fed up. Were stock-taking in our department and its
terrible. Ive been working for six hours non-stop, and I cant
do any more. It wouldnt seem so bad if it was raining I hate
having to work so hard when its fine outside. It was just the
same yesterday. I started at nine in the morning, and by five in
the afternoon I was dropping on my feet. I asked my boss if I
could leave at half past five as I had worked late the day before,
but he said I had to get the work finished. I shall be thankful
when its all over.
Mary stopped me at work the other day. She was really fed
(Graver 1995: 175)

II. Rewrite the sentences in direct speech. Note that there

is an implied dialogue, and that the reported version
is, in some cases, very much a paraphrase of the
1. When questioned by the master about the disappearance of a
bicycle from the school cycle shed two days before, the boy flatly
denied having had anything to do with it.
2. Tony accepted without reservation my suggestion that we should
try to get local support for the new theatre company.
3. Michael rang up Jean at the last moment, apologizing profusely
for being unable to go to dinner with her that evening. Despite his
apology, Jean was very put out, and said that he might have let
her know earlier.

4. After the accident, the bus driver accused the motorist of not
looking where he was going, to which the latter retorted that if the
other hadnt been driving so fast, he himself would have had a
chance of stopping in time.
(Graver 1995: 179)
III. Replace the verb says by one of the less frequently
used reporting verbs: agree, whisper, mutter, boast,
object, admit, protest.

I can speak six languages fluently, he said.

That car you are driving is my property, he said.
Yes, I broke the windows with my catapult, the boy said.
You cant take me to prison. I know my right, the man said.
We dont have enough money to carry out the plan, said the
6. This teacher doesnt know what hes taking about, said the
7. Well, yes; if the weather is bad, we cant go, he said.
(adapted from Graver 1995: 176)
IV. Write a statement consistent with the reporting verbs:

he sneered.
he stammered.
he snapped.
he announced.
he retorted.
.he groaned.
.he conceded.
.he gasped.
.he complained.
he observed sarcastically.
.he commented derisively.
he answered sharply.

13. .he whispered shyly.

14. .he said callously.


I. Explain the following exceptions to the rules of the SQT
in terms of shift of domain or shift of temporal
1. The Secretary of labour stated the other day that in the past
couple of months there have only been 200 lost man days.
2. Bill told me yesterday that the situation has not improved yet.
3. I have never said you were stupid.
4. (He has met her several times but) he has never told his wife that
he had met her.
5. (He has met her many times and ) he has promised her that he
would not say anything to his wife.
6. The tourist discovered that all the buses stop at the central market.
7. I told you that the road is closed and will soon be repaired.
8. The old man said he never locks the back door.
9. Tom said Ann arrived last week.
10. Henry asked if I received the telegram this morning.
11. The clerk said that the best coffee comes from South America.
12. We were told that the new radio service is to start operating next
13. I told you that you are not to use this telephone for your private
14. Who said hes coming later?
II. Account for the ungrammaticality of the following:
1. *The Greek thought that the sun goes round the earth.
2. *The teacher told us that water boiled at 100o centigrade.

III. Choose a suitable tense, whether for reported speech

(dependent upon the verbs in italics) or for direct speech
(within quotation marks):
A spokesman for the environmental group Greenpeace said that
fishing with drift-nets (1 kill) not only fish but also seals, dolphins
and sea birds, which (2 not/ can) see the plastic-fiber filaments and so
(3 swim) into them, (4 become) entangled, and (5 drown). He pointed
out that this type of net (6 can) be up to 55 km. long and 15 in. deep,
and added that a global ban on its use (7 be) proposed and discussed
at the United Nations the following week. A fishermens
representative replied that his Organisation (8 oppose) any attempt to
prohibit drift-net fishing until scientific research (9 produce) evidence
to show that it (10 be) definitely harmful. I suppose, commented the
Greenpeace spokesman, that when the research (11 be) finished all
the marine mammals and sea birds (12 vanish).
The Mercian insurgents have announced that they (13 capture)
Revod, the countrys main port, from the government forces. Their
leader General Mot told journalists that they (14 launch) a new
offensive last Friday and (15 take) the town early on Sunday
morning. The government, he said, (16 boast) that they (17 never I
give up) Revod. But, he continued in his excellent English, they
(18 have). So you (19 can) see now, if you (20 fail) to do so in the
past, that they (21 make) only idle boasts and that their final defeat
(22 be) certain. General Mot declared a month ago that the capture
of Revod (23 be) a great propaganda coup for the insurgents, and he
was right.
At a recent symposium on renewable energy sources, Professor
Warner was asked if wind power (24 can) compete commercially
with conventional sources such as coal and oil. His reply was that if it
(25 receive) comparative financial investment it (26 now I be) just as
competitive. But, he said, the Government (27 so far/ invest) in wind
power sums which (28 be) quite ludicrous in comparison with its
investments in coal and oil and, above all, in nuclear power, which

(29 be) shown to be the most expensive energy source of all. He said,
too, that research into wave power (30 not only/ be) grossly
underfunded in the past but actually suppressed. Did* you know, he
asked, that this country (31 be) at one time at the forefront of
research in this field, but that the fruits of this work (32 since/ be)
reaped by other countries? And that this (33 happen) because nuclear
power (34 be) the altar upon which the Department of Energy (35
sacrifice) our future welfare?
Lord Justice Cleaver, in pronouncing judgement at the Court of
Appeal, said that Mrs. Rudge, who (36 be) wrongfully accused of
shop-lifting five years before, (37 since/ live) with the terrible burden
of having to clear her name. But, he now reminded the Court,
Superstores legal counsel (38 say) that the company (39 no longer /
insist) that there (40 be) some truth in its allegations against Mrs.
Rudge. Counsel makes it quite clear, he went on, that Superstore
(41 admit) that a very serious error (42 be) made. The Judge stressed
that, the increase in the libel award to 15,000 (43 be) not to be
taken as setting a standard for such awards, which (44 normally/ be)
left to the decision of juries. But in this case Mrs. Rudge (45 be)
entitled to greater damages than those the jury (46 award) her last
year in the High Court.
After the Appeal Court hearing, Mrs. Rudge said she (47 believe) in
British justice again. It (48 not / be) the money that (49 really /
matter), but he fact that I (50 have) a public apology from
Superstore. She recalled how she (51 be) arrested by a store
detective, searched, and locked in a cell for several hours. When the
case (52 come) to trial in 1987 no evidence (53 be) offered and she
(54 be) acquitted. But I (55 live) under a cloud of suspicion until this
very day.
* The use of the past tense here is idiomatic; in meaning and in its
influence as a reporting verb upon the following tenses it is the
equivalent of 'Do you know ... ?

I. Justify the use of the subjunctive and state the syntactic
function of the following complement clauses:
1. My desire is that she should leave off her work and go on a
2. He proposed that we should postpone our departure.
3. It is only fair that you should know the truth.
4. She accepted his suggestion that she should dismiss her taxi and
ride back with him.
5. It is imperative that the Government should take some immediate
steps in the direction of Irish self-government.
6. His intention was that his two sons should follow his trade.
7. It is only natural that a mother should not wish to be parted from
her children.
8. He insisted that the trip should be postponed.
9. I am anxious that nobody should know where I am going.
10. They came to the agreement that talks should be held twice a
11. The estate agent was astonished that anyone should want to buy
the house it was in such terrible condition !
12. I suggested that we taper off the counseling sessions.
13. The publisher sent me a letter with the request that I should write
a review of the play.
II. Give the correct form of the verb in brackets:

Is it important that this paper (be written) in one hour?

It is imperative that they (to send) the goods immediately.
It was necessary that the money (to be returned) quickly.
It was vital that she (to get married) to John.
It was right that the old professor (to be appointed) Headmaster.

Use the should + infinitive forms instead of the subjunctive above.

III. Rewrite the following using the subjunctive:
Model: How odd! Both our wives have the same name.
Its odd that both our wives should have the same name.
1. Quite naturally, youre upset about whats happened.
2. Its incredible ! Weve been living in the same street for two years
and have never got to know each other.
3. You missed the one talk that was worth hearing. What a pity !
4. Thats curious ! He asked you to come rather than me.
5. Its typical of him. He expects everyone else to do all the work.
6. Isnt it odd ! They are getting married, after all theyve said about
7. You have to pay so much tax. Its crazy !
8. Look over the agreement before you sign it. This is essential.
9. Read the instructions carefully before you start answering the
questions. This is important.
10. How splendid ! Youll be coming to live near us.
11. Youve bought the house we once thought of buying ourselves.
How interesting !
12. Emergency supplies must reach the area quickly. This is vital.
(Graver 1995: 42)


I. Rewrite the sentences, deleting the subject of the
embedded clause:

She swore she wouldnt tell anyone.

I promised I would have a word with Nick when he returned.
We have agreed that we have to follow up this incident.
He had already resolved that he would agree to nothing at this
first meeting.
5. He kept threatening that hed push the button on this remote
control bomb device.
(Cobuild 1996: 33)
II. Comment on the verbal properties of the infinitives:
1. Its better to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all.
2. She seemed always to be falling asleep.
3. I dont think there is anything more to be done. Thank you for
your help.
4. He asked for only one thing to be left in peace.
5. He was found to have lied about his business experience.
6. The thief is assumed to be hiding in the woods.
7. We searched everywhere for the dog, but it was not to be found.
8. I seem to have made a mistake in the address.
9. She seems to have been greatly admired in her youth.
10. The Governments counter-inflation strategy may be being
blown off course.
11. In Hitchcocks latest film there is not a corpse to be seen.
12. You seem to have been making lot of mistakes lately.
a. The infinitive can have aspect and voice. A passive progressive
infinitive may be phonetically awkward and rarely used.

III. Use the correct form of the infinitive for the verbs in
brackets. In preparation you should study list 1 at the end
of the book:
When I called on the Mc Arthurs, Harry chanced (1 garden) for one,
not (2 fish), and so I was able to have a chat with him. He and Mary
seem (3 have) a very happy marriage so far, dont they? But their son
Charles played rather a nasty trick on them the other day, when he
pretended (4 injure) in a cycle accident that had never taken place.
When he told them the truth he made matters worse by saying theyd
been stupid (5 believe) his story. His mother was so upset by his
behaviour that she wants his pocket-money (6 stop) for six months.
IV. Comment on the use of the short infinitive:
1. He had opened the door and was about to climb in when he
noticed a figure detach itself from the shadows of the building
and make its way towards him.
2. It s hard to watch youth slip away in the mirror and realize that
youre no longer growing up but growing old.
3. The first half of this year saw arrears rise up to record levels.
4. Even during his electoral campaign, he was careful never to let
himself be committed to any definite promises of freedom for all.
5. Knowledgeable, friendly staff can help you make your choice
from the hundreds of different rings.
6. His few opponents can safely be let go.
7. Could you help me (to) unload the car?
8. Have Mrs. Hansen come in, please. (mainly US)
9. Ive never known him (to) pay for a drink. (perfect tenses of
know only)
10. What a fire-door does is (to) delay the spread of a fire.
Note on usage: the to-less infinitive is required after:
a. the causative verb make (=compel), have:
She made the children clean up their own rooms.

She had the maid clean all the rooms.

b. Let (=allow), bid (=request)
They let the children stay up late on weekends.
She bid the children be quiet.
c. Verbs of physical perception: hear, observe, look at, feel, etc.
I heard the whistle blow a few minutes ago.
d. Expressions: let know (=tell, inform), let have (=send, give),
let go of (=release)
d. The omission of to is optional with help:
She helped the old woman (to) cross the street.
e. The omission of to is optional in pseudo-cleft constructions:
All I did was (to) give him a little push.
What I did was (to) give him a little push.
V. Correct and comment on the errors in the following:

*She lets her children to stay up very late.

*I must to go now.
*She was heard say that she disagreed.
*Dont let to go of Mummys hand.
*Ill let you to know my holiday dates next week.
*She was made repeat the story.
*Could you let me to have the bill for the car repair?

VI. Apply the tough movement to the following:



It is tough [to cut with this knife].

It is tough [PRO to cut with this knife].
This knifei is difficult [ PRO to cut with ti ]

It is easy to play sonatas on this violin.

It is surprisingly difficult to follow this injunction.
It is quite simple to operate these machines.
It is often interesting to listen to old people.

5. It is barely possible to live with John.

6. It is easy to fall in love with him.
7. It is tough to work with such a boss.
8. Its a pleasure to see this performance.
9. It is very difficult for Tom to learn Chinese in a year.
10. It will be easy and cheap to collect the council tax.
11. It is great fun for us to be with Margaret.
Note: Tough movement allows a non-subject constituent of the
infinitival clause to move into the subject position of the main clause.
VII. Identify the syntactic function of the following
infinitive clauses:
1. It is usual for John to go jogging to lose weight.
2. Dont bother to see us to the station.
3. He demanded to be flown to Sweden, but instead the plane landed
at Helsinki.
4. The paramedics rush to help.
5. A: Only a woman could invent such a story.
B: Indeed, it needs a woman to invent such a story.
6. It remains our aim to maintain its real value over a run of years.
7. One night he awoke to find her crying softly.
8. It accentuates wrinkles to fill them with face-powder.
9. Their coach was eager for them to succeed.
10. Another airplane was standing by to take her to Rome.
11. It is a crime to listen in on private conversations with scanners.
12. You are always in my thoughts and it pains me to think of you
struggling all alone.
13. A: Only a great actor like Sir Lawrence Olivier could play this
B: It would call for a great actor like Sir Lawrence Olivier to play
this part.
14. He came here (in order) for her to find out the truth.

15. Shed begun composing as a child in Berlin, so it meant a lot to

her to have her music performed here.
16. The public authorities have ordered passengers and crew not to
leave the aircraft during stopover.
17. It became a policy to increase the number of magistrates.
18. He claims to have had no inside knowledge.
19. Women deserve to be treated as professionals.
20. The high-backed leather chair was too uncomfortable to sit in.
21. James had often said that while it was one thing to have children
dependent upon you, it was intolerable to be materially dependent
on them.
22. A: Only a Mercedes could cover this distance in such a short
B: You are right, it would necessitate a Mercedes to cover the
distance in such a short while.
23. Three researchers collaborated to investigate how a ewes brain
changes to accommodate her need to recognise her own lamb.
24. For some peculiar reason it suited her to live like a character in a
Victorian melodrama.
25. Reforms seldom come from the top down so it behoves us to put
presure on the decision makers.
26. To keep customers loyal, the two firms are vying to provide the
best sales and service backup.
27. It makes a world of difference to be dying for your ideas.
28. She survived to record her experiences as a cave dweller in the
beleaguered city.
29. They were so concerned about the Pacific yew tree that they
petitioned to have it included on the endangered species list.
30. She hoped to find an English audience receptive to her
watercolours and her images of contemporary life.
31. Graduates with first-class degree still queue up to teach in
Ulsters grammar schools.
32. He claims to have had no inside knowledge.
33. Everyone leaving the library can now expect to be searched.


VIII. Reinforce the following statements using the model.

You may use various adverbs or clauses that show
agreement: yes, indeed, certainly, naturally, expectedly,
youre right, no doubt, undoubtedly, etc. Work in pairs:
Model: A: Only a genius could have written this poem.
B: Yes, it would call for a genius to write this poem.
1. A: Only a good mechanic could fix your engine.
B: ..(take)
2. A: Only a second Higgins could teach you English in such a short
B: ...(call for)
3. A: Only a good student could turn this text into English.
B: (take)
4. A: Only a very good surgeon could operate on him.
B: (need)
5. A: Only a fast car can do so many miles per hour.
B: .(necessitate)
(Cornilescu 1996)
IX. Identify the syntactic functions of the For-to infinitive:
1. It has become common practice for winemakers to add acid to
some sun-ripe wines to boost freshness.
2. Her parents consented for her to marry that Norwegian.
3. Sometimes it takes courage for us to approach the subject of the
death with another survivor.
4. It didnt take too long for everyone to catch on to the real
meaning behind the doublespeak.
5. We will plead for him to be released on bail.
6. Maybe it doesnt make sense for us to get together, he said.
7. The band was playing too loudly for him to hear me.
8. It was becoming quite difficult for me to commute the fifty miles
from my home and office in Chicago several times a week.

9. He has emphatically asked for the stove to be lit in the early

10. It looks bad for a civilized country to have these kinds of
11. The book has too many pages for Bill (to) read it in four hours.
12. It seems almost impossible for me to find myself in a relationship
without wanting to get away at some point.
X. Comment on the extraposition

of the infinitive

Model: It accords with the public interest [to prosecute].

The infinitive complement clause has been extraposed from
subject position.
1. I deemed it a great honor to be granted an interview with him.
2. At an emergency meeting of teachers and parents, it was agreed
to send home all 3000 pupils at Chigwell county primary, Essex,
until further notice.
3. Drivers still consider it a challenge to negotiate the long, desolate
stretches of road with few services.
4. It comes as no surprise to learn that magistrates in England and
Wales dislike the new Criminal Justice Act and are now seeking
to modify it.
5. He saw it as his duty to further the aims of the Party.
6. It is up to them to stay competitive.
7. We grabbed sleep when we could and took it in turns to keep
8. I owe it to my country to fight for what is right.
9. They deem it more important to privatise state property quickly
than to settle in advance the details of a market economy.
10. It was left to him to assess the needs of the various underground
groups and disperse the cash according to these needs.
11. You were born to be happy and you owe it to yourself to achieve
this goal.

12. The Romans regarded it as undignified to compete naked in front

of spectators.
13. They say the West views it as legitimate to intervene in areas
where they feel their economic interests are threatened.
14. In the late 1980s, it was regarded as almost trendy to be a nonstop single-minded workaholic yuppies.
15. I sometimes find it a strain to be responsible for the mortgage and
household bills each month.
16. He has always made it his business to know about these things.
17. The senator calls it wasteful to give free immunizations to those
who ca afford to pay.
18. She dodged into the nearest toilet and remained there until she
judged it safe to emerge.
19. Courts in Scotland have rules it illegal to clamp a car parked on
private ground and then to demand a fine.
20. He argues that federal subsidies have rendered it hard to
differentiate between good farmers and bad.
21. This was a chance for them to stretch-to explore different themes
and let it all hang out.
XI. Disambiguate by paraphrasing in such a way as to give
two readings for the sentence. Explain where the
difference lies:
It would be pleasant for Martians to land in Las Vegas.

I. Discuss the co-reference relationship of the PRO
subject of the infinitive with the arguments in the
matrix clause:
Model: The guard asked the prisoner to leave the room.

The guard asked the prisoneri [ PROi to leave the room].

PRO is co-referent with the DO of the verb ask. Hence this
verb is an Object Control predicate.
1. Today he authorized the Bank of England to raise interest
2. He challenged the Prime Minister to produce evidence.
3. They encouraged peasant families by incentives to grow
alternative crops.
4. What has moved the President to take this step?
5. Recent evidence is leading historians to reassess that
6. Politeness obliged me to go on with the conversation.
7. The protests have prompted the President to call a state of
8. He doesnt trust the government to keep from taping his
9. Lieutenant Maines selected the best five soldiers to blow
up the bridge in preparation for the attack.
10. They appointed a committee to consider changes to the
Prison Service.
11. Sue persuaded the teacher to leave earlier.
12. Sue persuaded the teacher to be allowed to leave earlier.
13. Grandpa promised the boys to take them to the zoo.
14. Grandpa promised the boys to be allowed to go to the zoo.
15. They targeted major celebrities to promote the book.
16. They designated him to organize a new filing system for
the whole office.
17. The government has already earmarked some of the troops
to be called to the war zone at a moments notice.
18. John agreed with Bill to kiss Mary.
19. The police car signaled the motorist to turn left.
20. The speeding car signalled to the pedestrian to turn left.




Paraphrase the finite That Complement clauses:

a. by an Accusative + Infinitive construction
b. Passivize the main verb to get the Nom+Inf
construction, where possible:

Model: I knew [ CP that this message was outdated].

I knew the messagei [ ti to be outdated].
The messagei was known [ ti to be outdated].
1. Lincoln held that the Union was indestructible.
2. Some believed that he had connections with the FBI.
3. They found that the Democrats were notably more approving than
the Republicans.
4. They discovered that the girl had heard of Mussolini and his
5. They showed that much of the traditional dogma was irrelevant.
6. I dont consider that he is a very fine example of anything.
II. These sentences contain the verb make followed by an
constructions and find the reason for the use of the
particle to after the verb make:
1. What made her choke with anger?
2. Everybody expects that Philip will be made to give evidence in
3. The teacher made her prune away unnecessary adjectives.
4. The judge made the criminal restore the stolen property.
5. Im sorry that Mr. Johnson was made to retire before Easter.


III. The verb have may be used in Acc+ Inf structure with
two different interpretations:
a. CAUSE, b.
1. A: The plumber refuses to fix the faucet now.
B: Forget about it. Ill have him fix it when he has finished his
2. A: Has she ever hurt his feelings?
B: No, he has never had her hurt his feelings.
3. A: Have you ever been searched by the police?
B: No, Ive never had the police search me.
IV. Replace the finite complement clause by a Nominative
+ Infinitive construction. (Note that the Accusative +
Inf is not allowed with these verbs):
They admitted [CP that the opponents had played a better game].
*They admitted the opponentsi [ti to have played a better game].
The opponents were admitted [ to have played a better game].
1. The police conjectured that the substance found in the sink was
2. They deduced that the murderer had escaped up the chimney.
3. It happened that I was standing next to her when she fainted.
4. They disclosed that another diplomat had been arrested for
5. They maintained that the prisoner was innocent of the charge.
6. They recollected that she had attended the ceremony in the
company of an unknown gentleman.
7. After they granted him the loan, they verified that he was the true
owner of the house.
8. The critics guarantee that the play will be an instant success.
9. It was rumoured that a dangerous convict was hiding in the

10. I supposed that the citizen had both a duty to be loyal to the state
and the right to change the government.
11. It was eventually proved that the man had been hiding in the
12. They think that there are more than 3,000 different languages in
the world.
13. He said that there was a disagreement between the Prime Minister
and the Home Secretary.
V. Rewrite the sentences substituting a that-clause for the
Acc + inf construction:
The witness later disclosed his evidence [ to have been perjured ].
The witness later disclosed [CP that his evidence had been perjured].
1. Many British people consider it to be cruel to use live animals
in laboratory experiments.
2. The climbers reckoned the ascent to have taken nearly five
and a half hours.
3. The man was accused of receiving goods, knowing them to
have been stolen.
4. The public clearly suspect the Government to be hiding the
full truth about what happened.
5. Pressed by shareholders for further details, the chairman
confessed it to be likely that profits would show a further fall.

Comment on






He was believed to be working for that company.

It would be lucky for him to succeed as he desires.
He seems to have believed that firmly.
She is supposed to have paid visits to this family in her youth.

5. They assumed him to be working on that novel.

6. He was asked to take the ladder with him.
7. It is forbidden for tourists to bring pets on board.
8. Sorry to be such a bore.
9. Mary allowed herself to be examined by the surgeon.
10. I dont want there to be any trouble.
Note: The subject of the infinitive can be retained, raised or deleted.
VII. Replace the Nom+Inf constructions by a that
complement clause:

There were understood to be no injuries.

Therei were understood [ti to be no injuries].
It was understood [that there were no injuries].

1. There appeared to be no progress following todays talks.

2. There are reckoned to be thirty-seven different groups.
3. There seems to exist a large and impressive body of evidence that
points to reincarnation.
4. There appeared to be a woman in the car, accompanied by a man.
5. There were reported to be wounded on both sides.
6. They wish it to be known that they cannot make any exceptions to
this rule.
VIII. Comment upon the errors caused by improper
1. *They say his company to be in trouble.
2. *Doris was wanted to be a manager.
3. *Our staff are liked to say what they think.
IX. Decide whether the following examples contain control
predicates or raising verbs:


1. I was walking down the hall, looking into rooms, and this
gray-haired guy motioned me to come into his room.
2. They are expected to be summoned to appear in court next
month for a variety of offences.
3. Lots of countries try to coax people to return bottles by
insisting on a refundable deposit.
4. The price was reckoned to be too high.
5. Over the last three or four years, they have egged each other
on to agree a whole series of initiatives to tighten up
immigration and asylum laws.
6. My education was the most important thing to my mother, and
she pestered my father to pay for me to go to the best schools.
7. The French government is believed to be planning to send
transport helicopters to work alongside the German
8. Its much easier to bribe the children to mow the lawn than to
get down on their hands and knees pulling down weeds out.
9. There are no vested interests that would compel us to conceal
the truth.
10. Far too many handicapped young people have been
condemned to operate at a lower level of education and
achievement than their abilities warrant.
11. Kims gnawing conscience and guilt led her to overeat.
12. I did nothing wrong, yet Im being made to suffer like this.
13. You helped me to hold on and to continue to mother my own
children at times when I didnt think I could even go on
14. Off the east entrance we obediently awaited the signal
permitting us to enter.
15. Islands are seen to offer solitude, relaxation and a safe retreat,
a womb of security.
16. I do not permit myself to be influenced away from whet I
think is the right thing to do.
17. He had been scheduled to return to Washington, but now he
clearly hoped to stay on.
18. Mrs Mills said yesterday she was honored to have been

19. He says the banning of his English play decided him to write
something about censorship.
20. He will have a fitness test on his injury this morning, but is
unlikely to be cleared to play football.
21. He distrusted human reason, knew it to be fallible.
22. New mothers have been observed to touch the feet and hands
first, then the body, and then the babys face.
Control predicates are three-place predicates, while raising verbs are
two-place predicates.


I. The Acc + Present Participle construction is chiefly used
with verbs of physical perception. Join the sentences
Model: The thief was just leaving the premises. The security guard
perceived him.
The security guard perceived the thiefi [ ti tv leaving the
1. Norman was rehearsing his part. Shirley could hear him from her
2. The accused man was just entering the bank. The investigator
observed him.
3. The rain was splashing against the window and a wind was
howling in the storm. Alone in her room, the woman could hear
4. Fear was filling my heart. I sensed it.
5. He was about to go into hospital. I couldnt bear that.
6. The room is hot. You have to put up with that.
7. Her father might see them together. Erin didnt want to risk that.


II. Turn the following sentences into an Accusative +

Participle construction:
Model: I suddenly found [CP that I was following the wrong lead].
I suddenly found myselfi [ ti following the wrong lead].
1. On the way out of college, he found that he was being approached
by a man he didnt quite know.
2. Groups of craftsmen now feel that technological changes are
threatening their position.
3. I remembered that he had tried to lock the door without success.
4. The secretary observed that the solicitor was speaking to Sir
Walter deferentially.





Model: Nobody can ever recall him firing anybody.

Nobody recalls that he ever fired anybody.
1. Glover could not risk four men standing up in court and telling
the judge he had ordered them to kill someone.
2. Men had been observed entering and leaving the house with large
bags, the police were told.
3. Despite Robins importance he was kept waiting a long time.


Identify the syntactic






1. Not knowing what to do, I telephoned the police.



Anyone touching that wire will get a shock.

Theres Neville, eating as usual.
Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching.
It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our
6. Not wishing to continue my studies, I decided to become a
dress designer.
7. Knowing her pretty well, I realised something was wrong.
8. Well soon have you walking again.
9. Have you ever heard a nightingale singing?
10. She came to the city looking for a job.
II. Identify the syntactic function of the past participles:
1. Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks. (If )
2. Most of the people invited to the reception were old
3. In came the first runner, closely followed by the second.
4. Served with milk and sugar, it makes a delicious
5. Once deprived of oxygen, the brain dies.
6. Leave in the oven until cooked to a light brown colour.
7. Well have to get the car repaired before Tuesday.
8. I can make myself understood pretty well in English.
9. The house looked abandoned.
10. She says shes got a broken heart.
11. Rejected by all his friends, he decided to become a monk.
III. Rephrase the following sentences using Absolute
Participial constructions:
Model: The party was over, so everybody left.
The party being over, everybody left.

1. The questions were asked and so the students had to answer them.
2. The food had been cooked, so we decided to sit down and have
3. Robert didnt want to give evidence in court, so the trial was
adjourned for a week.
4. The fog never dissipates before ten oclock and so the plane will
take off after that time.
IV. Turn the following Absolute Participial constructions
into complex sentences with subordinate clauses
that express accompanying circumstances:
Model: [ Nobody having any more to say], the meeting was closed.
[Since nobody had any more to say], the meeting was closed.
1. All the money having been spent, we started looking for work.
2. A little girl walked past, her doll dragging behind her on the
3. Hands held high, the dancers circle to the right.
4. A car roared past with smoke pouring from the exhaust.
5. The children not wanting to leave the beach, their mother decided
to stay a little longer.
V. Turn the following absolute present
constructions into full dependent clauses:


1. The film being Hitchcocks swan-song, disappointment has been

tempered with politeness.
2. Today being Shrove Tuesday, a lot of people will be making
3. That being the case, I think we had better adjourn the meeting.
4. All things being equal, we should win on Saturday.
5. Monday being a public holiday, the trains may be less frequent.

VI. An archaic form of the present participle contains the

prefix a-. Rephrase in modern English:
1. With his giant mausoleum abuilding, .
2. Go ahunting
3. Set the bells aringing
Note on usage: In dialectal speech, the present participle with a- is
also heard with progressive verbs: Im not agoing.
VII. A few participles change their meaning according to
their position. Paraphrase the participles:

A concerned expression
An involved explanation
The people concerned
The people involved
An adopted child
The solution adopted

VIII. State whether the following participles are part of a

verbal or adjectival predicate:
1. She was frightened by a mouse that ran into the room.
2. Shes always been terribly frightened of being left alone in a
3. Joe is excited about the possibility of going to the States.
4. The kids were so excited by the noise that they couldnt get to
5. I was annoyed by the way she spoke to me.
6. Im annoyed with you.
7. I am surprised at/by your attitude.
8. The burglar was surprised by the family coming home
9. He was badly shocked by his fall.

10. We were shocked at/by the prices in London.

11. His whereabouts are known to the police.
12. The hills are covered in snow.
13. The room was filled with thick smoke.
Note: Verbal passives take an AGENT by-phrase.
In an adjectival passive the past participle can be followed by an
idiosyncratic preposition, it can be modified by an intensifier (very)
or prefixed by un-.
IX. Use the verbs: drink, shrink, sink, rot in the past
participle form to modify the nouns:

cheeks/ cloth;
wreck/ ship;
fruit/ vegetables;

X. Decide whether the following participles are wellrelated or misrelated. Rephrase so as to avoid the
misrelated participle:

Sitting in his favourite armchair, he opened his Sunday magazine.

When using this machine it must be remembered that
Standing on the platform, the men addressed the crowd.
Waiting for the bus a brick fell on my head.
Looking out of the window, a breathtaking view was seen.

NOTE: The subject of an adverbial clause can be omitted if it is the

same as the subject of the main clause. The resulting construction is
called a (well)-related participle:
While she was looking out of the window, she saw an old
PROi looking out of the window, shei saw an old man.

When the adverb clause has a different subject from the main clause,
the construction is considered to be incorrect by many speakers and
it is termed misrelated participle:
*Looking out of the window, there was a wonderful range of
XI. However misrelated participles are considered correct
in the following examples. Explain why:
1. Being French, its surprising that shes such a terrible cook.
2. Judging from recent events, the Government appears to be
gaining in popularity.
3. He did quite well, taking everything into consideration.
4. Having so little time, there was not much that I could do.
5. Broadly speaking, dogs are more faithful than cats.
6. Considering everything, it wasnt a bad holiday.
7. Strictly speaking, the Isle of Man is not part of the United
8. Regarding the question of absenteeism, a sense of responsibility
seems to have been lacking in some workers.
9. Supposing there was a war, what would you do?
10. Judging by the time he took over it, it must have been a difficult
11. Granting this to be true, what follows?
12. Taking everything into consideration, they ought to get another
13. Judging from his expression he is in a bad mood.
14. Seeing that there is plenty of time, there is no need to hurry like
NOTE: Misrelated participles seem quite natural with:
a. anticipating it or there

b. with parenthetic expressions

c. when the subject of the participle is felt to be the pronoun one
d. the participle has the force of a preposition (with regard to)
XII. Comment on the difference in meaning:
1. The manager reprimanded the man pounding on the table.
2. The manager reprimanded the man, pounding on the table.
XIII. State whether the following -ing forms are gerunds or
1. Choosing his words with care, the speaker suggested that the
Government was mistaken in its attitude.
2. Choosing the prettiest girl in the competition proved difficult.
3. He regretted having picked Jones as captain of the team.
4. Having picked the team to meet India in the final test match, the
selectors now have to wait till Tuesday to discover whether or
not their choice was wise.
5. He wasnt asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being
considered insufficiently popular with all members.
6. He felt very flattered at being considered the best man to take on
the chairmanship of the society.
7. He denied having been told to service the engine before take-off.
8. Having been told that bad weather was on the way, the climbers
decided to put off their attempt on the Eiger until the following
(Graver 1995: 162)
Note: Gerunds fulfill the same syntactic functions as NPs.
Participles are reduced adverbial clauses.


XIV. Complete the sentences, using:

a) a participial clause, and b) a gerundial clause:


Deciding not to go any further that day, .

Deciding not to go any further that day, we put up at the
nearest hotel.
(The participle functions as an adverbial modifier of the verb
in the matrix clause)
Deciding on where to spend ones holiday
Deciding on where to spend ones holiday can be a difficult
(The gerund functions as the subject of the matrix clause)

1.a. Looking hard at the prisoner,

b. Looking at pictures in art-galleries
2.a. Reading between the lines,
b. Reading aloud
3.a. Trying desperately to reach the chalet before nightfall,
b. Trying to teach backward children
4.a. Swimming strongly and confidently,
b. Swimming in the sea
5.a. While digging the foundations of the house,
b. Digging in the garden in hot weather
6.a. Driving round the difficult Le Mans circuit with superb skill,..
b. Driving a night
7.a. Finding himself short of petrol,
b. Finding the best way of doing things
8.a. While doing his homework,
b. His always doing things in a hurry
9.a. While tuning up his violin,
b. Tuning pianos
10.a. Calling on a friend late at night,
b. Your calling on us just at this time
(Graver 1995: 167)

XV. Rephrase the following sentences using a Present

Participle in the passive voice to replace the relative
Model: The room [which is being painted now] used to be decorated
by my niece.
The room [being painted now] used to be decorated by
my niece.
The relative clause is reduced to a participial clause by
deletion of the relative pronoun and the auxiliary.
1. There was an important link between the work which was being
done in Scotland and the future development of England.
2. The drinks which are being fixed now will be offered to the other
3. The premises had become inadequate for the increased volume of
work which was then being executed.
4. The houses which are now being built are going to be quite
XVI. Choose the correct form, infinitive or participle:
Im glad Zenas learning to relax. I saw her yesterday evening quietly
(1 read) a book. All Id ever seen her (2 do) before was (3 open) one
to flip through the pages.
Marilyn called on her mother the other day and found her (4 lie) on
the sofa scarcely able to move. When they got her to hospital she was
found (5 suffer) from pernicious anemia.
When there is a bit of home decorating to be done the rest of the
family are enthusiastic to begin with, but usually leave me (6 finish)
the job. Once, when their favourite television programme came on, I
was left (7 stand) on the stepladder (8 hold) the end of a piece of

How are you (9 get) to Amsterdam on Thursday, by rail or by air?

I havent decided. Whichever way I go, the problem is to know how
I'm (10 get) there in time for the committee meeting at two.
Marilyn got her father (11 lend) her some money to start her business
with. I hear she's got her office (12 run) very smoothly now.
You want to see Harry McArthur? I'm afraid he's gone (13 fish) and
won't be back for some time.
Really? I thought hed gone (14 meet) Christine at the station and
would be back quite soon.
The Managing Director says Denis isnt (15 use) the company cars
without his personal permission. Apparently he damaged one the
other day.
He damaged mine once. I can assure you he's not (16 borrow) it
again under any circumstances.
The sound of gunfire sent us all (17 run) for cover. When silence
reigned once more we sent two of the platoon (18 find) out what had
Sir James is very persuasive; I can see hell soon have you (19 vote)
for him if you listen to him any longer.
What would you have me (20 do), then - not (21 go) to any more of
his political meetings?
Do you know what Ive just heard Sheila (22 say)? She said shed
never speak to Helen again. Apparently Helen's been overheard (23
say) uncomplimentary things about Sheila's mother. Among other
things, she was heard (24 say) she was practically illiterate.


Mary McArthurs taking Charles and Christine up to London

tomorrow (25 see) the sights. While his wife takes his son and
daughter (26 sightsee), Harry's taking his nephew David (27 fish). I
take this (28 mean) that he wants David to catch the fishing bug too.
I was watching Willie in his architects office the other day (29 work)
on the plan of a new building when I saw him absentmindedly (30
write) Sheita in one of the rooms. He noticed me (31 watch) him
and blushed.
First I heard the door (32 click). Then, as I lay there in the dark, I
heard footsteps slowly (33 approach). Then I heard them (34 stop). I
could feel my heart (35 beat). The police had observed a man (36
loiter) outside the block of flats several days before, and had come
(37 tell) me about it. He had been seen (38 be) particularly interested
in the first-floor flats. Could this be the person that had come (39
creep) into my flat in the middle of the night? I was never (40 know),
because at that moment my corgi gave a sleepy growl - enough,
apparently, to scare the intruder away.
(Gethin1992: 115)
Note: Verbs taking either the infinitive or the participle fall into three
a. verbs of perception: feel, hear, notice, observe, overhear, see,
acc + infinitive constructions refer to a complete event
acc + participle constructions refer to part only of an event:
Yesterday I saw Robert eat a whole cake in 20 minutes.
You often see him eating platefuls of food after a football
b. verbs of movement: come, go: + infinitive of purpose
+ participle to describe an activity

In the old days when people were poorer, tramps used to

come knocking on our door to beg a crust of bread.
c. find, get, have, leave
find + acc + infinitive
find + acc + participle

(by investigation)
(by chance)

The police, searching for the murderer, found a man hiding in

a ditch.
They later found him to be unconnected with the crime.
get/ have + acc + infinitive
get/ have + acc + participle

(expressing result)

Ill get him to repaint/ have him repaint the whole room.
Ill soon get/ have the house looking nice and smart.
leave + acc + infinitive
leave + acc + participle

(with a commitment)
(in a condition, position, etc.)

I. Practise aspect and voice in gerundial complements:
Model: They accepted his application. He was relieved about it.
He was relieved about their/ them having accepted his
application. (perfect aspect, active voice)
He was relieved about his application having been
accepted by them. (perfect aspect, passive voice)
1. The editor didnt publish his book. He was angry about it.

2. The judge sentenced his friend for four years imprisonment. He

was mad about it.
3. They rejected him. He was furious about it
4. They drafted him for the second time in two years. He was
displeased about it.
5. The employees were not paid cost-of-living bonuses. They were
furious about it.
6. They decorated the soldiers for bravery. Their commander was
proud of it.
II. Paraphrase:
1. He sat in an armchair although he had been offered a chair.
2. She didnt come to their wedding-party, although she had been
kindly asked to.
3. The building looked new, but it had been erected in the late
4. Bill didnt participate in the competition, although his coach had
said he should.
III. For each of the sentences below, say whether the ingphrases indicate a past action or a possible future
1. The boys were expelled after admitting smoking cannabis.
2. For best results, she advises using olive oil rather than
vegetable oil.
3. Witnesses described hearing a loud bang.
4. The committee recommended increasing the tax on fuels.
5. I dont regret telling her my suspicions.
6. I cant remember sitting on the floor and eating an egg
7. Several passengers reported seeing smoke coming from the
8. They suggest opening up unused land around the airport.

(Cobuild Dictionary)
IV. Transform the finite clause into a full gerund:
Model: She regretted that her brother had not been promoted.
She regretted her brother/ her brothers not having been
1. They reported that the enemy had been defeated, in all the major
2. I cannot imagine that anyone could dislike him.
3. She doubts that it is so easy to forgive.
4. Do you mind that I am smoking in your room?
5. You must excuse that I am not convinced by assurances only.
V. Use the gerund and insert a preposition:
Model: He went crazy because she had gambled his fortune away.
He went crazy because of [ her having gambled his fortune
1. They got the news that he was about to return home, instead of
having been slain by the enemy.
2. I informed him that the church was well worth seeing.
3. He insisted that she should accept the invitation.
4. I was not aware that the house had been let.
5. The manager was often accused that he had been hot-tempered.
6. Weve been assured that we will get plenty of support from local
VI. Use a gerund and omit the abstract nominal the fact, the
instant, etc.:

Perhaps the fact that I was here prevented her coming to you.
Perhaps [NP the fact [CP that I was here]] prevented her coming to you.
Perhaps [ my being here] prevented her coming to you.
The complex NP with the head fact followed by a that complement
clause can be replaced with a gerund.
1. The fact that she was staying away so long was beginning to
make him uneasy.
2. From the moment when he first spoke to me, his voice connected
itself with an association in my mind which I could not define.
3. The fact that they are making Germany pay in coal is having a
disastrous effect on our mining industry.
4. The thought that you are Sir Anthonys son, captain, would itself
be a sufficient recommendation.
VII. Insert the correct missing prepositions after the nouns
and adjectives below:
1. You could not doubt his pleasure seeing the boy.
2. She was on the verge declaring that she could face it.
3. He wondered if there was any point giving James his version
of the story.
4. Do you know the difficulty there is nowadays raising
subscriptions digging.
5. She was stubbornly adverse asking for directions.
6. He was prone living in the shade of Robins achievements.
VIII. Identify the complex object constructions with the
structure: Acc + ing verbal form. Find reasons to
decide whether the ing verb is a participle or a
Model: Nobody can ever recall him firing anybody.
The ing-verbal form firing is a gerund required by the verb
in the main clause recall, expressing a mental activity.

1. A move there would involve him taking a cut in salary.

2. Police observed a man entering the building.
3. They hope to reach an agreement to avoid the case ending up in
4. The picture showed Joey jumping into the air, his arms and legs
spread wide.
5. Edna Lawrence survived a gas blast which brought her home
crashing down on top of her.
6. Neighbours heard the child screaming and called the police.
7. The film had the audience cheering and crying.
8. She had caught her daughter stealing money from her purse.
9. Liberal Democrats started this day making their objections to the
republican plan clear.
10. Glover could not risk four men standing up in court and telling
the judge he had ordered them to kill someone.
11. We get another customer for our hospital, and this justifies us
spending money on new equipment.
12. The process of digestion involves the animal using energy.
13. I can imagine her getting upset.
Note: The distinction depends on the verb in the main clause. The
Acc + present participle is always used after:
a. sense perception verbs
b. the verbs (find, leave, send, catch)
c. causative verbs (have).
The gerund is used after:
a. transitive verbs
b. verbs expressing mental activity or emotional state
IX. Comment on the subject of the gerund:
Model: He was quite pleased about passing the exam.
He was quite pleased [that he had passed the exam].


Note: The paraphrase with a that-complement clause clearly shows

that the subject of the infinitive has been deleted because it is
identical with the subject of the main clause. The syntactic
representation uses an index to suggest the identity of reference for
the two subjects:
Hei was quite pleased about [ PROi passing the exam].

They acknowledge having been defeated.

I regret saying your son is a fool.
Our success depends on their coming in time.
It is difficult to envisage many big hotels being built.
Gretchen realized that it had been a mistake to let Molly talk her
into coming all the way down to New Orleans.
6. Practise giving your speech in front of a mirror.
7. These criminals deserve locking up.
8. Joans son was coerced into giving evidence against her.
9. This technique involves removing the surface layer of the bone.
10. I wouldnt mind them not coming till tomorrow.
11. I cant bear being treated like that.
12. He provoked the team into rethinking their diagnosis and ordering
a number of investigations.
X. The control theory is relevant for the interpretation of
the PRO subject of the infinitive and the gerund.
Decide whether the PRO subject in the following
examples is controlled (by a NP available in the main
clause or an implied Agent) or free (PROarb):
Model: I enjoyed reading the Bald Soprano.
Ii enjoyed [PROi reading the Bald Soprano]
The reference of PRO is controlled by the Subject of the main
a. Kissing Betty is not easy.
b. I resorted to going there.


Going there is fun.

Shooting duck is illegal.
I did it in the hope of making more money.
Seceding from the union was never considered.
Can a machine be built that could fool a human judge into
thinking it was a person
h. Killing his dog upset John
XI. Use brackets to identify the gerundial clause and state
its syntactic function:
Model: It is fun learning foreign languages.
It is fun [learning foreign languages].
[Learning foreign languages] is fun.
The gerundial clause has the syntactic function of subject
for the predicate is fun.

He narrowly missed being seriously hurt, if not killed.

He barely escaped being run over by a car.
It was late when they reported having seen the accident.
Weve been assured of getting plenty of support from
other schools.
The government should not be pressured into making
hasty decisions.
Scientists use film role models to brainwash fussy
youngsters into liking spinach and broccoli.
The adverts principal task is to hag the user into buying a
copy of the program.
A small business went bankrupt after being trapped into
paying for two machines when the first one broke down.
Dining out is a bit of a treat and a psychological boost
which can spur you into keeping up with your diet the
following week.


XII. Translate into English:

1. Simplul fapt de a te duce s o vezi la spital va nsemna foarte
mult pentru ea.
2. Mi se preau de asta data ridicole i inutul ei la mine i faptul ca
el se bucura spunndu-mi acest lucru.
3. Adic ce rost are s acorzi un statut social unor ini a cror
activitate nu e strict necesar?
4. mi amintesc nc cum bteai la main dimineaa devreme fr
s te opreti mcar pentru o igar, iar cnitul mainii de scris se
auzea de afar.

Exam questions
I. Label the following constructions with infinitives and
gerunds. Discuss whether gerunds behave more like
clauses or like nominals:
1. Model:
a. It appears [that he still loves her]
b. He appears [ t to still love her]
complex clause: Nom + Inf. obtained as a result of SSR.
c. [ His appearing [ t to still love her]] pleased her. Poss-Ing
d. [ Him appearing [ t to still love her]] pleased her. Acc-Ing
e.*[ His appearance to still love her] pleased her. nominalization
In examples from (b) to (e) the subject of the infinitive he is raised
into the subject position of the higher verb appear (where it becomes
a nominative subject of a finite verb in (b), a possessive subject of the
gerund in (c) and an accusative subject of the gerund in (d)). To put
it shortly, the clause in (b) and the gerunds in (c) and (d) allow the
raising of the subject of the infinitive. The nominalization in (e) does
not permit raising. This means that, with regard to this syntactic
process raising - the gerund behaves like a clause and not like a


a. He believes [that she is faithful to him].

b. He believes her [ t to be faithful to him].
c. [His believing her [ t to be faithful to him]] was a fact.
d. [Him believing her [ t to be faithful to him]] was a fact.
e. *[His believing of her to be faithful to him] was a fact.

a. It is easy [for anybody to please John].
b. It is easy [ PROarb to please John].
c. John is easy [PROarb to please t].
d. [ Johnis being so easy [ PRO to please ti ] was a relief.
e. [ Johni being so easy [ PRO to please ti ] was a relief.
f. *[ Johns easiness to please t] was a relief.
II. Comment on the subject of the gerund in the following
I am disappointed by it/ its raining all day.
I am disappointed by it being certain that shell quit.
I am disappointed by there being no alternative to this
I am disappointed by it being built so slowly.
She doubts it being so easy to forgive.
III. Discuss coordination with gerundial constructions,
speaking about agreement with the verb. Which of
the two gerunds is more nominal?
Model: [NP John] and [NP Mary] bother me.
*[NP John] and [NP Mary] bothers me.
Coordinated NPs agree with a verb in the plural.
* [That John came] and [that Mary left] bother me.
[That John came] and [that Mary left] bothers me.

* [John coming (so often)] and [Mary leaving (so often)]

bother me.
[John coming (so often)] and [Mary leaving (so often)]
bothers me.
[Johns coming] and [Marys leaving] bother me.
* [Johns coming] and [Marys leaving] bothers me.
As far as coordination is concerned, Acc-ing behaves like , while
Poss ing behaves like ..


I. Fill in the gaps in these sentences using the -ing form
(the gerund) or the to-infinitive form of the verb given
in brackets, and explain the difference in meaning:
Verbs of mental activity: recall, remember, forget, regret
Model: Did you remember. your voting form? (post)
Did you remember posting your voting form?
you actually posted the form before the moment of recalling
the event
Did you remember to post your voting form?
you planned to post the form and the event took place after
the moment of recalling your plan

a. I remember them just before his sixtieth birthday.(visit)

b. Remember the door. (lock)
c. Too often we forget , taking ourselves and life too
seriously. (laugh)
d. I think they regret it to us. (sell)
e. Ill never forget Barcelona to win the Cup-Winners
Cup. (beat)
f. I regret. that I am unfamiliar with her work. (say)
g. He regretted the small boy, who was now crying loudly.
1. I recall (think) to myself that he looked the
personification of orthodoxy.
2. When I am on edge, I somehow forget (smoke).
3. I didnt remember (post) the letter, so I still have it with
4. All of a sudden I felt a sensation that I remembered often
(feel) before.
5. He recollected (have heard) that she was abnormal.
6. Ill never forget (go) to Paris with her.
7. I will never forget (send) you a card on your birthday.
8. He could not remember (come) from the bar to the
9. I forgot (tell) my sister about the party, so I do not know
whether she will come.
10. I now regret (tell) you what I really think.
11. I remember (drink) my way through the festival itself.
12. Ill never forget (wait) for bombs to fall.
Ing refers to an event which actually happened beforehand, i.e.
before the moment of remembering or forgetting.
To-infinitive is used when talking about something that you had
planned to do, in other words, something that was/ is going to
happen after the moment of remembering or forgetting.

Verbs of saying
Represent the absent Subject of the infinitive or ing complement
clause and state whether it is free or controlled:

I advised her (wait) until the proper time.

I advised (wait) till the proper time.
I recommend you (buy) this dictionary.
I urge him (make) haste.
A few of the committee had urged (hang) him as a
possible example.
I proposed to her (walk) out with me.
I did not tell you the truth this morning when you
proposed (we confess) our faults.
I forbid you (address) your mother in such terms.
They forbid (bring) dogs to the lecture halls.

Note: Use an ing-form if there is no object in the main clause. If there

is an object, use the infinitive.
Aspectual verbs: begin, start, cease, continue
Model: He started eagerly reading an article reprinted from The
The adverb eagerly indicates a specific event.
She started to be interested in music only late in life.
The infinitive suggests a dispositional property rather than a
specific event locatable in space and time.
1. When we started (make) a profit, the whole atmosphere was
2. The blackbird started (sing) piercingly as I looked out of the

3. Language is a natural human growth; it follows, therefore, that it

never ceases (change).
4. Edward continued (enjoy) his lessons.
5. She put papers in the machine and began (type) furiously.
6. Clocks of varying reliability were continuing (strike) eight
oclock in all directions.
7. His fame began (spread) and he did very nicely.
The gerund makes reference to a specific event which can be
located in space and time; it often takes a manner adverbial or other
adverbials describing aspects of the action
The infinitive expresses potential action (disposition
properties of the subject, generic actions, predictable, regularly
repeated actions, complex or gradual action).
Though begin and start may be used with either the infinitive
or ing, there is a tendency to use the infinitive for events that are
impersonal (It begins to get cold) or involuntary (I began to get cold),
and ing for voluntary actions (We started getting ready)

Stop (bother) me!

They stopped (help) the old lady to cross the street.
I cant stop him to the press.(talk)
They stopped the way.(ask)

Note: Ing-form suggests interrupting an action, the infinitive shows

Verbs of emotional reaction
1. I saw her off to the station; I liked (go out) with an attractive girl.
2. As he was giving them the absurd story, he discovered that he
loved (fool) people.

3. I hate (break up) this session, but I have a hell of a pile of letter to
attend to.
4. She enjoyed (be) a rich little girl.
5. He began to wave his hands in the air, as though he could not
tolerate (be stopped) in his way.
6. He drinks very little alcohol and at parties prefers (have) ginger
7. Yesterday I went for a walk in the woods; I liked (walk) in the
These verbs take the gerund, when our feelings accompany or
follow what happens. The gerund indicates real occurrences, i.e. an
emotional reaction to a real event.
These verbs take the infinitive when we have feelings
beforehand about what may happen. The infinitive implies that there
is a disposition for actions of a certain kind, for generic actions.
The gerund associates with [+duration], the infinitive
[+repeated] action.
Discuss the difference in meaning:
Model: We all love to be in love.(several occurrences of the state)
We all love being in love. (a continuous durative event)
I adore to be engaged.
I adore being engaged.
Dread, regret are used respectively with the infinitives to think and
to say (also to tell, to inform), but with the ing of verbs that describe
what almost certainly will happen (dread) or what has happened
I dread ... what may happen (and so Ill try not to think
about it)
I dread to the hospital (but Im going)

I regret your husband is seriously ill (I dont like to say

what Im going to say, but)
Do you regret her? (hurt)
Other verbs
The verbs below are used either with the infinitive or the gerund
according to their meaning:

= attempt, endeavour + Infinitive

= experiment with + gerund

Defence lawyers tried the case dismissed. (have)

Try . your tea or coffee without sugar. (drink)
Again and again I tried , but no sound came (speak)
I couldnt help sorry for him. (feel)
Both tried money by journalism, but opportunities
failed. (get)
I tried to bed immediately after dinner, but I could not
sleep. (go)
Hester kept still in her tree, trying . (not fidget).
Christine has tried hiccuping for over an hour. (stop)
Has she tried salted water? (drink)

Note: If you try to do something, you make an effort to do it.

If you try doing something, you do it as an experiment.
Mean = intend + infinitive
= entail + gerund
1. I talked to him and he thinks he means (help) you.
2. Ive been meaning (phone) you all week.
3. Passing such a law would mean (throw) the nation back
into the dark.
4. We mean (start) at dawn tomorrow.
5. Im sorry I didnt mean (be) rude.

6. I meant (ask) you to buy some potatoes on your way home

but I forgot.
7. I mean (get) to the top by sunrise.
8. He is determined to get a seat for the ballet even if it
means (stand) in a queue all night.
9. Tell him that getting up earlier will mean to bed earlier
10. He meant early but overslept. (get up)
Note: Mean in the sense of involve, have as result, can be
followed by an ing-form, in the
sense of intend by an
1. Careful exercise or gentle massage can help . the
muscles. (relax)
2. I couldnt help the argument. (overhear)
3. Forty thousand letters of protest to the government helped
his name. (clear)
4. I cant help that it was a mistake to let him go. (feel)

Note: Help + inf suggests that somebody assists in an action.

Cannot help + ing, you cannot prevent yourself from doing it.


= have a need (people) + infinitive

= be in need of (things) + gerund or passive infinitive
a. I need to you. (talk)
The plants need . (water)
The rule needs at. It should be changed. (look)
We need ... sure we can afford the alternations.(be)
Most of the house will need (rebuild)

He deserves hanging for this.
He deserves to be hanged for this.

He deserves being hanged for it.

1. The gunmen deserve locked up. (be)
2. Local residents agree that the wildlife deserves . (protect)
3. They were a better team than us and deserved . (win)
Note: An active gerund is semantically equivalent to a passive toinfinitive. A passive gerund is likewise allowed.
Come, go
1. Bob came from the room next door. ( run)
2. She came me on Monday. (see)
3. I went .down the stairs and bruised my thigh. (tumble)
Note: Use -ing to show manner, to-inf to indicate purpose.
Go on
1. 1.He disregards what others say, quietly planning to go on
things his own way. (do)
2. After the calf muscles, go on the knees, then the upper leg.
3. When I tried to interrupt, he ignored me and went on ...
4. The marriage is a disaster. I dont know how they go on
together. (live)
5. He began by showing us where the island was and went on
us about its climate. (tell)
6. He went on about his accident. (talk)
7. After eating two dozen oysters, Robert went on a huge
steak with chips. (consume)
8. He went on long after the others had finished. (eat)

Use the gerund to show continuation of an activity and the infinitive

to indicate interruption and change of activity.
Want wish + infinitive
be in need of + gerund
1. Except for the money who would want a lawyer (be)
2. The whole matter of the inheritance wants (look into
Understand have the impression + infinitive
understand why + gerund
1. I understood her she didnt like strawberries. (say)
2. I cant understand anyone not them (like)
II. Choose the correct form, full infinitive or ing:
Helen should stop (1 criticise) people behind their backs. Has she, I
wonder, ever stopped (2 think) what people must be saying about her
in return?
If you say I sent Sheila and Ken an invitation to our party I suppose
I must have, but I completely forget (3 do ) so.
You certainly did, because here it is; you gave it to me to hand on to
them, but I forgot (4 do) so.
I regret (5 say) that Sheila didnt get the headmistresss post she
applied for. She now regrets (6 apply) for it, because the application
took up a lot of her time.
Although I dont like (7 look after) Zenas alligator while shes away
I do so because I wouldn't like Zena (8 think) I was afraid of it.
The McArthurs elder daughter simply loves (9 ski), and would
clearly love nothing so much as (10 turn) professional and (11
become) an instructor.

The worlds political and social problems have, quite honestly, ceased
(12 interest) me. I ceased (13 try) to put the world in order soon after
leaving university.
Do you mean (14 tell) me that Willies firm of architects didnt
accept that wonderful contract with the Town Hall?
Yes, I do, because if they had it would have meant (15 give up) an
even better contract in New York.
It was getting dark and storm clouds were beginning (16 form) when
we eventually arrived at the mountain hut. Wed begun (17 think) we
might have lost our way.
Robert is putting on weight. He says he cant help (18 eat) large
meals however hard he tries. He hopes that the new football season
may help him (19 take) off a few pounds.
You say youve tried (20 stop) (21 snore) but have failed. Have you
tried (22 sleep) on your stomach?
Although I generally prefer (23 be) frank to (24 be) secretive, on this
particular occasion I prefer (25 keep) my opinion of Denis to myself,
if you dont mind.
My uncle started (26 smoke) heavily a couple of years ago and now
his health is starting (27 deteriorate).
Lady Blenkinshop says she got my cheque. Well, I remember (28
write) it, but I don't remember (29 post) it to her.


However good one may think it is (30 get) out into the fresh air at
weekends, its no good (31 try) (32 convince) Toby of that; he prefers
indoor pursuits like billiards.
I see that Ken has arrived to play tennis with us. I understood him
(33 say) yesterday that he wouldnt have time for a game today,
didnt you?'
Yes, I did, but I can understand him (34 change) his mind when he
heard Sheila was here.
I dread (35 think) what my father's reaction will be when I tell him
the news. Thats why I'm dreading (36 go) home tomorrow for the
I hate him (37 criticise) me the way he does. But Id hate him (38
think) his criticism had any effect upon me, and so I keep quiet.
My mother wants me (39 cut) the lawn. I know it wants (40 cut), but
I really havent time this weekend. 112
(Gethin 1992: 111)
III. There is almost no difference in meaning between the
gerund and the infinitive, when they occur with the
following groups of verbs:
a. verbs concerned with beginning, ending, or continuing an
b. verbs concerned with someone elses feelings or attitudes
c. verbs concerned with not doing something


Say to which group each of the following verbs and

sentences belongs: (cannot) bear, begin, (not) bother,
cease, continue, hate, intend, like, love, omit, prefer, start:
1. They began going out together and some ten months later decided
to marry.
2. As time passed and he grew colder, he also began to grow tired.
3. I cant bear being shouted at.
4. I cannot bear to watch the film from beginning to end because of
the bad memories it brings
5. Some people have said they will not ever bother going back to
their destroyed homes.
6. He ran out, not bothering to close the door.
V. Read the semantic classification of verbs used with a
a. Verbs concerned with starting, stopping, continuing an
action: begin, burst out, carry on, cease, come, continue, finish, get,
give up, go, go around, go on, keep, keep on, leave off, quit, resume,
start, stop, take to
b. Verbs indicating that someone does not do something:
avoid, (not) bother, escape, omit, resist
c. Verbs concerned with doing something which may not be
successful or may be dangerous: chance, risk, try
d. Verbs indicating that someone likes or dislikes something:
adore, appreciate, (cannot) bear, detest, dislike, (cannot) endure,
enjoy, hate, like, love, mind, resent, (cannot) stand, (not) tolerate
e. Verbs concerned with attitudes towards the future: dread,
(cannot) face, fancy, fear, look forward to
f. Verbs concerned with plans or ideas about the future:
anticipate, consider, contemplate, count on, debate, figure on,
imagine, intend, look into, plan on, reckon on, see about


Match the sentences to the meaning groups given above:

1. I tried ringing his home, but they told me he wasnt there.
2. Rather than correct her, I kept trying to change the
3. Many other people today said they could not tolerate
doing nothing.
4. He left word that he had rung, but carefully omitted
leaving his own number.
5. Since race cars arent insured, you risk losing everything
if you hit something solid.
6. I hate he sight of guns and dislike touching them.
7. I havent been in any trouble and I dont intend getting
into any.
8. Stop treating me like a schoolgirl.
9. He moved silently in the darkness to avoid awakening his
wife and two sons.
10. He did not want to risk going back to his apartment.
11. I dont appreciate being treated like a suspect.
12. She was hungry, but she couldnt face eating.
13. In this case, you should consider seeking professional
g. Verbs concerned with attitudes and ideas about the past
(remembering, forgetting, regretting): forget, miss, recall, regret,
h. Verbs concerned with speaking or writing: acknowledge,
admit, advise, advocate, debate, deny, describe, forbid, justify,
mention, propose, recommend, report, suggest, urge
i. Verbs indicating that someone postpones an action: delay,
postpone, put off
j. Verbs concerned with a logical relation between two
actions, events, or states: allow, involve, justify, permit, prevent, save

k. Verbs concerned with needing or deserving action or

treatment of some kind: deserve, need, require, want
1. I suggest following a simple rule: never ask anyone anything
about his or her life that you are not prepared to reveal about your
2. Many women delay having children until later in life.
3. He cant remember committing the murder, although all the
evidence points to her guilt.
4. Miles is in good health and doesnt dry unless he wants feeding or
5. Nothing could ever justify destroying such a life.
6. My brother had suggested that I take the bus because it would
save having to find a place to park in Manhattan.
7. Whatever the future holds, I will never regret meeting him.
8. The judges recommended giving more modest prizes.
9. I asked if there were any problems that needed sorting out.
10. Many young couples have postponed having families because of
the recession.
11. His route to school involves crossing three main roads.


I. Decide what type of relative clause appears in each
example and identify the antecedent where possible:
Model: If you cant do it, well find someonei [CP whoi can].
The bracketed clause is a restrictive relative clause whose
antecedent in the main clause is the indefinite pronoun
1. Joe, who was always early, was there already.

2. Farmers now keep livestock inside wherever possible.

3. In 1945 George Orwell published Animal Farm, which is
surely one of the greatest books of the century.
4. Refugees said they picked up whatever belongings they could
carry .
5. The Ruxford prize is to be awarded to Professor Diggermann,
whose recent excavations have completely revolutionised our
ideas about fourth-century Iceland.
6. The apple tree, swaying gently in the breeze, had a good crop
of fruit.
7. It emerged that he had a violent criminal record, of which the
welfare agencies had been unaware.
Note: Relative clauses may be: restrictive, non-restrictive or free;
finite or non-finite.
II. Identify the antecedent:
1. Mrs. Foster speaks excellent French and Spanish, which has
enabled her to help me in my contacts with clients from
2. He won a huge sum of money on the national lottery, which
enabled him to buy a house and send both his sons to
3. She started drinking and staying out late at night, which
caused her parents a great deal of anxiety.
4. Thirty thousand people paid to watch the fight, which more
than satisfied the promoters.
5. He gave up his job and devoted all his time to tennis, which
amazed his friends and infuriated his wifes family.
6. Maxwell scored a hat-trick against Italy, which ensured his
selection for the next international match.
7. My wife had gone to concert, and the children were at a
birthday party, which meant that I had to get my own supper.


III. Decide whether the following clauses are that

complements or relative clauses:
Model: They came to the agreement that talks should be held
twice a year.
*They came to the agreement which talks should be held
twice a year.
Since that cannot be replaced by which, the embedded
clause is a complement clause.
1. He was motivated by the conviction that these tendencies
would increase.
2. It is not for nothing that sports people call their clothes their
strip. Athletes now wear clinging, black garments that leave
nothing to the imagination.
3. She accepted his suggestion that she should dismiss her
taxi and ride back with him.
4. The gate that opened onto the lake was open.
5. The belief that the children of working mothers suffer is
rejected by most child psychologists.
6. It is important that you should know precisely what is
7. For dessert there was ice cream that Mum had made.
8. Since alcohol is drying, it stands to reason that those products
marketed for women with dry skin have little or no alcohol.
9. The publisher sent me a letter with the request that I
should write a review of the play.
10. A poll shows that the majority of Americans reject the
notion that the Soviet Union is a military threat.
11. They are anxious to ensure that emergency assistance is
efficiently distributed.
12. How did it come about that a man so shrewd and wise as
David should fall for such a blatantly obvious confidence


Note: That may be replaced by which or zero only in relative

IV. Join the sentences by changing the second sentence
of each pair into a restrictive (or defining) relative
clause. (Use contact clauses where possible).
Indicate the initial position of the relativized
constituent by using a trace (t) co-indexed with the
Model: The aims are very laudable.
The society is pursuing these aims.
The shared constituent is these aims, which initially
appears as a DO for the verb pursue. This constituent is
replaced by a relative pronoun which introduces the relative
clause and which is co-indexed with the antecedent in the
main clause.
The aimsi [CP whichi the society is pursuing ti] are very
The initial position of the relativized constituent these aims
is indicated by trace (t). Since the relative pronoun is not a
subject of the relative clause, it can be omitted and a contact
clause appears:
The aimsi [CP i the society is pursuing ti] are very laudable.
1. The exhibition was not very interesting. My friend took me to
see it.
2. One of the chief things is to save money, manpower, and time.
A computer can do this.
3. Immigration is an issue. This issue raises strong emotions.
4. The gales caused widespread damage. They swept across
southern England last night.

5. Members of the local sub-aqua club came across a wreck. It

had lain on the sea-bed for over 200 years.
V. Join the sentences by changing the second into a
defining relative clause paying attention to the
position of the preposition. Use traces to indicate the
initial position of the relativized constituent and of
the pied-piped preposition:
Model: I dont find the person a very congenial companion.
Im sharing a flat [ PP with him].
I dont find the personi [CP whomi/ Im sharing the flat with ti] a
very congenial companion.
I dont find the personi [CP withk whomi Im sharing the flat tk ti ] a
very congenial companion.
1. This is a job. You can take your time over it, because Im not
in any particular hurry.
2. Some foreign businessmen thought that British exports should
increase after devaluation. I spoke to these businessmen
3. The language teachers association provides a medium.
Through this medium ideas can be shared and discussed.
4. The mens decision to return to work provides a breathing
space. Both men and management can think again during this
breathing space.
5. They came to a plateau. Around the plateau stood a circle of
high mountains.
6. The two sides have agreed to have further talks on a pay and
productivity structure. Under this pay and productivity
structure the men would be paid at an hourly rate.
7. Coronary thrombosis is a disease. High sugar consumption is
believed to play a part in this disease.

If the relativized constituent is a PP functioning as a PO then both

preposition stranding and pied-piping are possible.
If the relativized constituent is a PP functioning as an Adverbial
Modifier (of place, time, manner, etc), then only pied-piping is
VI. Underline the common constituent in the following
pairs of sentences then join them by changing the
second into a relative clause which should preserve
the structure of the original sentence:
Model: We came within sight of Everest.
The summit of Everest has attracted so many climbers.
We came within sight of Everest, the summit of which has
attracted so many climbers.
1. The US President is unlikely to seek a second term of office.
His administration has been under constant fire during the last
eighteen months.
2. The car driver was sent to prison for six months. The entire
blame for the accident rested on his shoulders.
3. Lord Nelson was famous for his naval exploits. A column was
erected in his memory in Trafalgar Square in London.
4. I have the pleasure in introducing to you the man. Without his
generosity your society would cease to exist.
5. The fire started on the first floor of the hospital. Many of its
patients are elderly and infirm.
6. Many back-benchers are finding it difficult to support the
Government. They have considerable misgivings over some of
the Governments policies.
Note: It should be kept in mind that whose, the possessive form of
the relative pronoun, is often preferred to the prepositional phrases
(of which, of whom)


VII. Use that or which to introduce defining relative clauses

when the antecedent denotes a thing:
Model: It is a book [CP that will be very popular].
That is preferred because its antecedent in the main clause
a book is a subject complement for the verb to be.
1. This is the funniest film has ever come from Hollywood.
2. The leader of the expedition marked out something
seemed to be the best route.
3. The relief agencies have promised to do all lies in their
power to bring food to the starving population.
4. The first statement was issued by the press attache at the
Palace gave very few details.
5. He is something is known as a bellyacher he is always
complaining about something.
Note: With antecedents denoting things, the choice of that or
which seems more a matter of individual taste; but there are a
few cases where that is preferred to which:
a. when the antecedent is an indefinite pronoun
b. when the antecedent is qualified by a superlative or by
an ordinal numeral
c. when the antecedent is the complement of to be
VIII. Rephrase using free relative clauses:
1. The thing that the speaker said next was lost in the general
2. Why dont you explain the thing that you have in mind?
3. The teacher tested the students to see if they remembered the
things which they had learnt.
4. The thing that you are asking me to do is out of the question.
5. What a nuisance! Thats just the thing which I didnt want to
6. The thing that amazes me is where he gets all his energy from.

7. Would this be the thing that you are looking for?

8. Mind the things that you say to him; hes very sensitive.
IX. Define the type of subordinate clause. Rewrite the
sentences, substituting a non-defining relative
clause for the clauses in italics:
Model: Few people could follow the speaker, since he spoke
extremely quickly.
The subordinate clause is an adverbial clause of cause.
Few people could follow the speaker, who spoke
extremely quickly.
1. In 1930 the Company moved from its home in West Street,
since this was now too small for its ever-increasing volume of
2. His doctor advised him to change to an outdoor job, as this
would be much better for his health.
3. This new car will be popular with family motorists, since it
seats five people in comfort and takes a mountain of luggage.
4. The MP was disowned by his constituency party, having failed
to support the party line in Parliament on numerous occasions.
5. Many teachers are enthusiastic about overhead projectors,
since they are more flexible in use than the traditional
6. When our car needs servicing, I always take it to our local
garage, because it gives better and quicker service than some
of the larger garages in town.
Note: Non-defining clauses sometimes have an explanatory
function: they may suggest an adverbial idea, implying the reason
or cause of the facts presented in the main clause.


X. Join the sentences, using non-defining clauses with a

prepositional construction:
Model: The country now has 300 power stations.
All of them are part of a national network.
The country now has 300 power stations, all of which are
part of a national network.
1. He published half a dozen novels. None of his novels sold
more than 500 copies.
2. The eighty-nine passengers all escaped without serious injury.
Four of the passengers were British.
3. The speaker posed four highly important questions. The
answers to these questions proved illuminating.
4. The UN proposed the establishment of an international peacekeeping force. The composition and power of this force would
be a matter for agreement among UN members.
5. The plans for the new by-pass have now been approved by the
Local Authority. By means of this by-pass, heavy congestion
in the city center will be considerably relieved.
6. The Labour Partys latest manifesto contains many new
proposals. The more radical of these proposals will hardly
please those on the right of the party.
7. I should like to pay tribute to our loyal and hard-working
staff. Without their unremitting support it would not have been
possible to produce last years spectacular rise in profits.
8. The Government intends to introduce a new Bill on taxation.
The study of its provisions will be the work of experts on both
sides of the House.
9. Wilhelmina is tall and slim unlike her parents. Both parents
are short stocky individuals.
10. I would now like to say a word of thanks to our patron. None
of our achievements would have been possible without our


11. The campaign for Nuclear Disarmament attracted some very

influential supporters. Some leading politicians are among
these supporters.
12. For electoral purposes, the United Kingdom is divided into
constituencies. Each of them returns one member to
XI. Identify the antecedent of the relative clause and
replace the words in italics by when, where, why or as:
1. He remembered several occasions in the past on which he had
experienced a similar feeling.
2. Shakespeare arrived in London about 1586, and there, some
time later, he became a member of the Lord Chamberlains
company of players.
3. I cant think of any reason for which you should take all the
blame for what happened.
4. The fire brigade arrived two hours after the alarm was first
raised, and then it was too late to save much of the building.
5. If he doesnt want to join us (and this may well be the case)
we can always ask someone else to make up a foursome.
6. Johns a very lonely person, and the particular friends that he
has tend to be rather odd characters.
7. You have exactly the problem with your car that we had when
we first bought ours.
8. We had completely misjudged the situation, which fact we
later discovered.
Note: where and when may function as relative adverbs in the
same way as which and who. As may introduce a defining
relative clause after the same or such:
The student wasnt working hard, and such work [ as he
had done] was very poor.
As may also introduce a non-defining relative clause that has a
coordinating function.

And he later admitted, it was a stupid thing to do.

[As he later admitted], it was a stupid thing to do.
Unlike the other types of relatives, the one introduced by as can
precede, as well as interrupt or follow it:
It was, [as he later admitted], a stupid thing to do.
It was a stupid thing to do, [as he later admitted].
XII. Choose either the singular or the plural forms of the
verbs and possessive adjectives, depending on
whether the noun functioning as antecedent denotes
a single entity or a group of individuals:
1. Our Association, consistently pressed for greater

employment opportunities for the disabled, will publish

proposals in the near future.
2. Englands team, now superbly fit, will be doing
best next week to revenge for last years defeat.
3. The government, hoping to ease export restrictions
soon, not taken a decision yet.

XIII. Rewrite the sentences so as to emphasize the words
in italics by means of cleft sentences:
Model: The government now needs a new sense of purpose.
It is [NP a new sense of purpose [CP that the government
1. An inquest revealed that poisonous mushrooms had caused his
2. I didnt realize the value of education until after I left school.

3. Two persistent journalists uncovered the scandal.

4. Cheap rented accommodation is now desperately needed in
London and other large cities.
5. The trouble started when the police arrived.
6. He doesnt pass his exams because he doesnt work hard
7. I telephoned you in order to warn you about what was
XIV. Turn the following cleft sentences into pseudo-cleft
Model: It was her beauty [CP that impressed everyone].
[CP What impressed everyone] was her beauty.
1. It was the drug, not the disease, that killed him. He would still
be alive today if he had not taken that drug.
2. Her height is striking enough but it is her face which amazes
3. He was at Hove yesterday, and it was a fair bet that it was
Alan Wells who he had gone to watch.
4. It was my new dress not my new shirt that I ruined,
5. It was this defiant stand against Europe that finally cost her the
6. Though it cannot be denied that appearance is the first step
towards attraction, it is similarity of attitude that is often a
deciding factor when it comes to pursuing a relationship.


XV. Comment on the type of postmodification and

reconstruct the finite relative clauses. Give the
simple sentences which were joined to form the
Model: The man [CP for John to consult] is Wilson.
This is an instance of non-finite (infinitival)
postmodification obtained as a result of the reduction of
the relative clause in:
The mani [CP who(m)i John should consult ti] is Wilson.

The pretty girl in the corner is Mary.

The procedure to be followed is very simple.
The dog barking next door sounded like a terrier.
Any coins found on this site must be handed to the police.
The place for you to stay is the Hilton.
The substance discovered almost by accident, has
revolutionized medicine.
7. The next train to arrive was from York.
8. From the stories in this book, it can be seen that the
average age of those women marrying is 17.
9. The scholar, to be seen daily in the British Museum, has
devoted his life to the history of science.
XVI. Turn the phrases in apposition into full relative
1. Bell, a Scotsman, was born in Edinburgh in 1847.
2. The Headmaster, a grey-haired man in his early fifties, rose to
introduce the Chairman of the Governors.
3. The guest speaker will be Jason Broad, the well-known
detective story teller.

4. He eventually opened a hotel in Margate, one of Englands

best known holiday resorts.
5. His most successful book, Memories of tomorrow, has sold
over two million copies.
6. Nurse Harrison, calm and methodical as always, bandaged the
wound and made her patient comfortable.
XVII. Define the syntactic function of the following relative
Model: Instability is [CP what they fear most].
The relative clause functions as predicative in the
structure of the matrix clause.

What once took a century now took only ten months.

She began what will be her main job for the week.
Come and see me whenever you feel depressed.
He is greeted by large enthusiastic crowds wherever he goes.
You should vote for whichever proposal you think best.

Exam question
Embed the second clause in each pair into the first.
Comment on the result of the derivation by applying
the following steps:
a. relativize the shared constituent
b. embed by means of the complementiser that
c. apply wh-movement
d. apply deletion.
1. Is the offer still open?
You made the offer last week.
2. The exhibition was not very interesting.
My friend took me to see the exhibition.

3. The development projects are daring.

They are thinking about the projects.
4. They chose Mary. They rely on Mary.

I. Identify the wh-phrase for each indirect question and
use a co-indexed trace to indicate its initial position.
State the syntactic function of the wh-phrase
Model: Dont ask who my informant was.
Dont ask [CP whoi my informant was ti].
The wh-phrase in its initial position replaced the phrase
functioning as predicative.
1. The government is also debating what sort of treaty it wants.
2. She began to explain where each muscle was, and urged him to
concentrate on that particular spot as she worked it.
3. The Health Secretary said the aim was to inform the public how
to get he best out of the new arrangements.
4. A passer-by inquired why the television cameras were there.
5. During his visit he underlined how critical the grain credits are to
6. The Environmental Protection Agency is investigating whether to
make these test compulsory.
II. Verbs which introduce indirect questions belong to four
meaning groups. Match the following examples with
the meaning groups below:
a. the ask group: verbs concerned with speaking or writing
b. the think group: verbs concerned with thinking about
c. the discover group: verbs concerned with coming to
know something or bringing something to mind.

d. the show group: verbs concerned with showing that a

situation exists or showing what it is like.
e. the determine group: verbs concerned with influencing a
III. Reconstruct the direct questions:
1. The book describes how to set up a self-help group.
2. Its like people arguing whether to put out a fire in the
house while the house burns down.
3. Chernobyl mercilessly reminded us what all of us would
suffer if a nuclear thunderstorm was unleashed.
4. About seven years ago she felt she had to ask herself
whether she really wanted to spend her life teaching.
5. Republicans in Congress are asking themselves how best
to use their new-found political capital.
IV. Decide which of the following are relative clauses and
which are indirect questions:
1. We cannot estimate what the local interest will be.
2. They are furious. They want action. But they dont agree what the
problem is or what the action should be.
3. I cant think of any reason why you should take all the blame for
what happened.
4. He arrived in London where he became a member of a theatre
5. Vacant land taxes enable the government to influence where
development occurs.
6. Its too early to speculate where the problem occurred.
7. Some American reviewers have criticised him for failing to
suggest how to govern a modern society without a belief in
8. Apart from habits we picked up as children, there are many other
factors which influence what we choose to eat.

9. Several times she heard her name being called but when she
turned around to see who it was, no one was in the room.
10. Note down when you first became noticeably fatigued.
11. I knew what it takes many people a lifetime to learn.
12. What amazes me is where he gets all his energy from.
V. State the two meanings of the following sentence. Then
explain the ambiguity of the sentence in terms of the
wh-movements that might have taken place and the
positions from which the wh-forms may have
When did Prince Charles announce that he would fly here?
VI. Syntactic functions of indirect questions:
1. How to implement such tactics was discussed on Birminghams
local radio station.
2. He and Petra argued about what to wear.
3. The incident underlines how easily things can go wrong on
4. You can judge how warm your cat is by the posture he adopts.
5. He witters on about how rising paper and print costs have made
this regrettable increase unavoidable.
VII. Formulate the restrictions on the use of if instead of
whether to introduce indirect questions::

He asked me whether I had read the report or not.

He asked me whether or not I had read the report.
He asked me if I had read that report or not.
* He asked me if or not I had read that report.


Whether they come in time or not is of no concern to me.

*If they come in time or not is of no concern to me.


He inquired whether to run the tests that day.

*He inquired if to run the tests that day.

Exam questions
Long wh-movement
I. Represent the process of successive embedding of the
simple sentence in (a) into the structure of the
complex sentence in (b) to build up wh-questions
and cleft constructions. Apply wh-movement to the
underlined constituent:

Mary saw the thief.

Frank claimed that Jane said that Peter believed that Mary
saw the thief.


Betty never met her sons fiance.

Mary told John that Jane said that Lisa knew that Betty never
met her sons fiance.


Tim never knew the truth.

Ann said that Susie thought that Tim never knew the truth.

Restrictions on the long wh-movement.

1. Define the type of clauses from which a wh-phrase
cannot be extracted:
2. Define the types of wh-phrases that cannot be extracted
out of these clauses:
a. Ben found a principlei [ whichi solves the problem].
Ben found a principlei [ whichi solves whatk].
* Whatk did Ben find a principlei [ whichi solves tk]?

b. He rejected the idea [ that they could not cure that disease].
He rejected the idea [ that they could not cure whatk ].
* Whatk did he reject the idea [ that [ they could not cure tk ].
c. John rejected the suggestion [ that he should talk [PP to someone]].
John rejected the suggestion [ that he should talk [PP to whomi]].
*To whomi did John reject the suggestion [that he should talk [PP ti]].
d. They are looking for an au-pair [who is [AP very intelligent]].
They are looking for an au-pair [who is [AP how intelligent]].
*[How intelligent]i are they looking for an au-pair [who is ti ]].

[ That Jane was speaking to him] bothered you.

Did [ that Jane was speaking to him] bother you?
[That Jane was speaking to whomi] bothered you.
*Whomi did [that Jane was speaking to ti ] bother you ?

Note: However, the wh-movement cannot apply freely, there are

syntactic restrictions which prohibit the extraction of a wh-element
out of its initial position. A construction from which a constituent
may not be moved by a transformation is designated as an island.
Just as it is not always easy to leave from an island go to the
continent, so the wh-phrases cannot leave certain constructions.

I. Use when, whenever or as to fill the gaps in the following:
1. he grew older his temper improved. (His temper got better every
2. he grew older (he reached the age of, say, 40) his temper
3. he left the house (while he was still in the doorway) he suddenly
remembered where hed seen her before.

4. he left the house (after leaving it) he turned right.

5. we approached the town (came gradually nearer to it) we
wondered whether thered be room in the hotel.
6. we reached the town (after arriving) we sent Tom to find out
about hotels.
7. you dont know a district it is always a good thing to have a
8. the manager is out (every time he is out) his assistant signs the
9. A revolver appeared round the edge of the door it swung open
(The revolver appeared before the door was fully open.)
10. the sun rose the fog dispersed. (the more sun, the less fog)
II. Identify the type of clause introduced by as:
1. He did his work as his employer had instructed.
2. He cant speak English as well as he writes it.
3. He decided to spend his holiday in Austria, as he had never been
there before.
4. As he was posting the letter, he suddenly realised that he hadnt
put a stamp on the envelope.
5. Youve made the same mistake as you made before.
6. I am not as disheartened as people think.
7. As the distribution started the crowd stampeded and many were
crushed or trampled underfoot.
8. Neil Mitchell, of Friends of the Earth: We havent left it too late
to survive, but weve left it too late to have the world as we used
to know it.
III. Say whether the clauses introduced by while express
contrast (concessive or adversative) or time:
1. Please watch my luggage while I purchase my train ticket.
2. While he disliked cats, he permitted his wife to have one.
3. He would like to have a dog, while his wife would prefer a cat.

5. While he denied doing any harm to the owner, he admitted

stealing the money.
6. While I admire that artists work, I dont like him personally.
IV. Discuss the structure of the following reduced
adverbial clauses:

When a boy, I went to the lake every summer.

When in the army, you must obey all commands.
She turns on the radio when doing the housework.
When young, we are full of hopes and anxieties.
War, when waged for a long time, can destroy the morale of a
Repairs will be made wherever necessary.
He will work wherever needed by his company.
The house is very comfortable if a little small.
He is very friendly, if he is an aristocrat.

V. Comment on the ungrammatical example:

1. * While (he was) still a boy, his ambition was to become a doctor.
2. *The reason the car broke down is because we drove too fast.
3. *Because he doesnt like her is no reason to treat her so badly
VI. Underline the archaic subordinators, and comment on
the kind of style in which they are used:
1. The court jester began to imitate the royal gestures of the king,
whereupon (or whereat) the king began to laugh uproariously.
2. I will be betrayed thrice ere I die.
3. Albeit his ordeal was almost beyond human endurance, he held
steadfast to his goal.
4. We will die ere we surrender.
5. We have lived and we have learnt, albeit the lesson was a costly

6. Albeit that he was sorely wounded, he remained cheerful in spirit.

Note: Albeit was considered archaic, but it is now being revived.
Whereat / whereabout indicate time
VII. Identify the subordinators that introduce concession
1. Though she was primarily concerned with my correspondence,
she also played a major part in the reorganisation of our general
2. For all that she was a heavy woman, she danced with unusual
grace and ease.
3. Though he tried with all his might, he could not lift the trap-door.
4. While he denied doing any harm to the owner, he admitted
stealing the money.
5. They decided to postpone the match even though the weather
conditions were better than they had been for weeks.
6. Granted that he has always provided for his children, still he has
never given them any real affection.
7. He went ahead with his plan although all the experts advised him
against it.
8. Conceded that his testimony is unimpeachable, still it might be
merely circumstantial evidence.
9. However hard he worked, he never seemed to have any money.
10. We dont have to do what he says even if he does work for the
11. Admitted that what you say is true, still there is much to be said
for the other side.
12. Albeit that he was sorely wounded, he remained cheerful in spirit.
13. Whatever (no matter) he has done, he is still your friend and
needs help.
14. The profits, if a little lower than last years, are extremely healthy.


VIII. Identify the subordinators that introduce clauses of

1. They had to move because their building was to be torn down.
2. Since he couldnt take his wife with him, he decided not to go to
the conference.
3. As he was in a hurry, he hailed the nearest cab.
4. Now that hes inherited his fathers money, he doesnt have to
work any more.
5. Whereas a number of conditions in the contract have not been
met, our company has decided to cancel the contract.
6. Inasmuch as every effort is being made to improve the financial
condition of this company, the term of the loan will be extended.
7. As (so) long as its raining, I wont go out tonight.
8. His application for the job was rejected on the ground(s) that he
had falsified some of the information.
9. Seeing that no one wants to go out tonight, well stay home and
watch television.
10. He is like his father in that he is very susceptible to feminine
11. Those arguments moved him all the more that they came from a
man of great authority.
12. The arguments are all the more weighty (in) that they come from
a man of great authority.
13. The house was very quiet, isolated as it was on the side of a
14. He came to very few of the meetings, not that he thought they
were not important, but because he had too much work to do.
Whereas and inasmuch as are used in formal language for
arguments, decrees, preambles, resolutions.
Seeing that is informal.
In that and all the more combine the meaning of extent with that of

Being that used as a subordinator of cause is regarded as

IX. Analyse the structure of the reduced clauses of cause:
1. On account of his extreme timidity, Mr Black did not try to
advance himself professionally.
2. On account of his being extremely timid, Mr Black did not try to
advance himself professionally.
3. Being extremely timid, Mr Black did not try to advance himself
4. Mr. Black being an extremely timid person, he did not try to
advance himself professionally.
5. An extremely timid person, Mr. Black did not try to advance
himself professionally.
6. Extremely timid, Mr. Black did not try to advance himself
X. In the following examples the subordinators have the
following structure: PP + as/ that/ the fact that. What type
of adverbial clause do they introduce ?
1. As far as I am concerned, she can do whatever she likes with the
2. Ill remember you as long as I live.
3. So long as we have no trouble with the car, we should arrive at
our destination in four hours.
4. As long as youre going to the kitchen, please, get me a ginger
5. Call me as soon as you arrive in town.
6. He studied night and day for fear that he might not pass the bar
7. For the purpose that justice might be better served, a special
committee was appointed.
8. They left very early in order that they might arrive before dark.

9. In the event that she doesnt call by noon, Ill have to call her.
10. Radium treatments were given him in the hope that the cancer
cells might be destroyed.
11. We can take care of this matter on condition hat payment is made
in advance.
12. Shes suing for divorce on the grounds that he deserted her and
the children.
13. All the efforts of the United Nations are directed to the end that
peace may finally prevail all over the world.
14. Because of the fact that they had made their reservation too late,
they couldnt get on the plane they wanted.
15. Everything would have gone well with the plane but for the fact
that one of the props caught on fire.
16. Despite the fact that he was well-known all over the world, he
was an extremely modest man.
17. Due to the fact that all trains were delayed, the station was
crowded with people.
18. Except for the fact that her nose was a little long, she would be
very beautiful.
19. He does a full days work in spite of the fact that he is eighty
years old.
20. In view of the fact that all the able-bodied men were fighting at
the front, the women had to do all the work.
21. She lived to a ripe old age, notwithstanding the fact that she had a
weak heart.
22. He was fired on account of the fact that he had stolen money from
the company.
23. Owing to the fact that not enough members are present to call our
meeting to order, we will have to chancel the meeting.
24. She insisted on accompanying her husband through the fields
regardless of the fact that the rain was ruining her dress.
XI. Replace the infinitive showing purpose by a full clause:


1. Capital has always been raised and spent to ensure the continual
provision of ample and reliable supplies of pure water.
2. When the parents were killed, a fund was set up to provide for the
3. This particular piece of music was written to commemorate the
Silver Jubilee of the late King.
4. Everything possible must be done to preserve the good reputation
of the company.
5. The museum authorities had a gallery specially built to house the
new collection.
6. He even sold his house to raise money for his election campaign.
XII. Rephrase so as to have inversion in main clauses
followed by result clauses:
Model: He protested his innocence so consistently and firmly that
even his most violent accusers began to have trouble.
So consistently and firmly did he protest his innocence that
even his most violent accusers began to have trouble.
1. There have been so many books written about this subject that a
student hardly knows where to start.
2. His argument was so full of inconsistencies that no one could take
it seriously.
3. It was such an amazing coincidence that everyone suspected it
had been secretly planned in advance.
4. These truths cut so strongly against the grain of common sense
that they are difficult to believe even after one is confronted with
their proofs.
5. In my opinion, there will be such a violent reaction to the new
measures that the government will be forced to change its mind.
6. His play would have aroused so much criticism that the
management would have been forced to take it off after a couple
of performances anyway.

7. She was injured so badly that she had to go to the hospital.

8. He was so powerful that none dared resist him.
XIII. Underline the phrase that anticipates the comparative
clauses and state what structure that phrase has:
1. I wasnt looking forward to the meeting, so I decided that I would
stay no longer than was absolutely necessary.
2. Its hard to say why David isnt doing better at school; hes
certainly no less intelligent than the other children in his class.
3. In years gone by it was by no means unusual for people to live
out their whole lives going no farther afield than the neighbouring
4. The doctor reported that his patient was no better and no worse
than he had been the previous day.
5. Unemployment is no higher now than it was under the last
XIV. In formal style part of the predicate of a concessive
clause may precede the subordinator:
1. Fool though (as) he was, he knew how to make money.
2. Foolish though (as) he was, he knew how to make money.
3. Badly damaged as (though) she/it was, the ship managed to reach
4. Rashly as he had behaved, he didnt deserve the punishment he
5. Detest him as (though) we may, we must admire what he has
6. (As) quickly as he worked, he couldnt finish the job on time.
7. (As) much as they wanted to, they couldnt get to see their new


XV. Underline the subordinator and use the correct form of

the verb:
1. Pour boiling water on the coffee grounds, wait till the grounds
(settle), then strain the coffee into a jug.
2. By the time you (give) the children their meal you wont have any
appetite left.
3. He was determined to keep the two dogs apart because he knew
that the moment they (see) each other theyd start barking.
4. Some people say that a man shouldnt think about marrying till he
(save) up enough money to buy a house.
5. Youre a fool to go into teaching. Im going into business. In ten
years time when you (queue) at the bus stop Ill be driving by in
my Bentley.
6. When you (pick) fruit in the holidays to take out your salary I
(cruise) round the Greek islands in my private yacht.
7. When I (see) all there is to see, Ill buy a small island and settle
down there.
8. The window-cleaner was in fact one of a gang of safe crackers.
He hoped that while he (clean), or (pretend) to clean windows he
would be able to have a look at the safe.
9. He said he would lend me money whenever I (need) it.
XVI. Identify the type of clause in which inversion applied:
1. The oysters now opened up at the time the tide would have
flooded Evanston had the town been on the shore and not
perched on the bank of a Great Lake 580 feet above sea level.
2. Powerful though they were, they never dared to challenge the
authority of the King.
3. Had we known about it a few days earlier, we could have made
the necessary preparations.
4. Fool though (as) he was, he knew how to make money.
5. The death toll wound have been much greater had it not been for
the prompt assistance rendered by the rescue services.

6. The demonstration would have passed off quite peacefully had

the organisers taken a few elementary precautions.
XVII. Comment on the subordinator in the following
conditional clauses:
1. If in doubt, ask for help.
2. If about to go on a long journey, try to have a good nights sleep.
3. You are welcome to stay with us as/ so long as you share the
4. His style, if simple, is pleasant.
5. Imagine we could fly. Wouldnt that be fun!
6. Supposing you fell in love with your boss, what would you do?
7. You can borrow my bike providing / provided you bring it back.
8. Ill give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday
9. You touch me again, Ill kick your teeth in.
10. You want to get in, you pay like everybody else.
11. Had we not spent all our money already, we could have bought
that camera.
12. But for your help, I dont know what Id have done.
13. Should you see Annie, give her my love.
14. Whether she is at home or whether she is visiting others, she
always has her knitting with her.
15. As (so) long as someone was willing to treat her, she would go to
the movies.
16. The company will agree to arbitration on condition (that) the
strike is called off at once.
17. In the event (that) the performance is called off, Ill let you know
at once.
18. She would forgive her husband everything, if only he would
come back to her.
Note: In (the) event that and on condition (that) are formal.


XVIII. Comment on the following examples of mixed

Model: If he was there, I would have seen him.
Perhaps he was there
If he had been there, I would have seen him.
He was not there
1. If you had followed your fathers advice and gone into the army,
you would probably be a colonel by now.
2. If the Company had become part of the Authority in April 1994,
charges would already be 50% higher than they are now.
3. He frankly admits that he would still be a labourer if it hadnt
been for the war.
4. He would be a rich man today if he hadnt got involved in that
5. My father says that the industry would still be making a profit if
the government hadnt taken it over.
6. I wouldnt be here now if he hadnt leaped into the water to save
7. If the boy had listened to his parents last year, he wouldnt be in
trouble now.
Note: Conditional statements that refer to the past may be a blend of
the real and the unreal. A real clause expressing uncertainty may
combine with a main clause that indicates lack of reality.
A past unreal conditional clause may be used with a present real
main clause.
XIX. Comment on the structure of the following reduced
conditional clauses:
1. If still alive, he must be at least ninety years old.
2. If out of question, please, let me know.

3. If meeting with too many unexpected difficulties, he will

abandon the project.
4. If carefully done, the experiment should be very successful.
5. I will go if only for a few moments.
6. She will apologize if only to avoid bad feelings.
7. He would do it if only because he loves her.
8. The rumour may be true: if so, he will be in trouble with the
9. We must pay our taxes: if not, we will be in trouble with the
10. Not having food, we cannot survive.
11. Deprived from food, we cannot survive.
12. If a success, the experiment could lead the way to many
13. Without food, we cannot survive.
14. To survive, we must have food.
XX. Identify the subordinators introducing the clauses of
exception (negative condition):
1. The building would have been already finished except that a
trucking strike had delayed delivery of some materials.
2. But that his Assailants pistol failed to fire, he would surely be
dead now,
3. Save that he lapsed into vulgarity every now and then, he had
great appeal to his genteel women readers.
4. This antique vase is in very good condition, only there is a little
crack near the top.
5. The police could get nothing out of the boy beyond that he had
become separated from his mother in the crowd.
6. Other than (the fact) that he is now in good financial condition, I
have no news to report.
Note: A clause of exception is introduced by a subordinator
equivalent to if it were not (for the fact) that therefore may be
interpreted as a kind of negative condition. But that and save that are

formal. Occasionally excepting that and saving that are also used.
Only is informal.
XXI. Underline the subordinator discuss the structure of
the reduced clauses of manner and reconstruct them:
Model: He left the room [CP as though angry].
The clause of manner has been reduced to the adjectival
He left the room [CP as though he was angry].

They all treat him as if he were a king.

He walked around as though he was in a daze.
She always does as her husband tells her.
Winstons taste good like a cigarette should.
He looks like he needs more sleep.
He wants the right to spend his allowance how(ever) he pleases.
They behave toward him as they would toward a king.
As though still a king, Lear demanded all the privileges of
9. Everything went off just as planned.
10. He opened his mouth as if to speak.
11. His illness disappeared as if by magic.
12. She plays with him as a cat with a mouse.
13. He treats his wife as a child.
14. This text will be concerned, as was classical rhetoric, with
persuasive discourse.
15. The word maize comes from the American Indian, as do many
other words which describe American flora and fauna.
XXII. Comment on the following clauses of degree:
Model: She is more shy than unsocial.
She is more shy [CP than she is unsocial].
1. The new machine is just as efficient as the old one.

2. The new machine works more efficiently than the old one. Rather
than (sooner than) give up his car, he would give up his house.
3. As well as she can sing, I can also sing.
4. More efficient than my supervisor I can never become.
5. She desires happiness more than wealth.
6. This house cost more than I had expected.
7. Take as much (money) as you need.
8. The volcano erupted much more violently than was foreseen.
9. He never reads as much as is required of the class.
10. She is never so beautiful as when she is angry.
11. His mind is never so sharp as in the morning.
12. You could not put the plant in a better location than right here.
XXIII. Analyse the following clauses of proportion or

As he acquires more power, he becomes more unscrupulous.

The sooner (that) a man begins to enjoy his wealth, the better.
As you sow, so shall you reap?
In proportion as the value of land increased, taxes on the land
became higher.
5. The project will succeed only to the extent that each of us puts his
best efforts into it.
6. The more haste, the less speed.
7. We can earn more or less according as the company can give us
overtime work.
8. The more difficult the job is, the better he likes it.
9. As (so) far as we can see, he appears satisfied with this
10. The more (that) life disappointed him, the more he sought refuge
in books.
11. Insofar as I understand modern art, I find it very exciting.
12. You will succeed to the degree that you apply yourself diligently.
13. The more guests that come, the better,
14. Only as he grew older did he realize the truth of what his father
had told him.

15. Just as his love for her grew stronger, so did his need to see her
more frequently.
16. The sooner you can arrive, the better.
17. The more people that sign up for the trip, the cheaper will be the
18. He became more cynical the older he grew.
XXIV. Identify the embedded and the subordinate clauses
in the following complex sentences:
1. When the doorbell rang, Marianne thought it might be Jake
arriving earlier than he had promised.
2. They so obviously enjoyed life, enjoyed the things they did
together, that it almost escaped their attention that some people
did not approve of the family.
3. Though the course of events which led to the cataclysm is well
known, it remains astonishing that a whole society was
overthrown so easily.
4. Whatever his many faults, we would not begrudge him the glory
that would rightly be his.
5. The sooner the elections are held, the better the party will do, and
thats one of the reasons why they would like them brought
XXV. Learners of English sometimes make mistakes
concerning the use of that as an indicator of
embedding or subordination. Correct the errors and
state the type of the dependent clause :
1. It is two months now that I left Germany.
2. The weather has been very good, except for two days that it
3. I was shocked by the sight that I could hardly speak.
4. He closed the door quietly that nobody would hear him.
5. Children are not as easy to please nowadays that they were in
the past.

6. It worried me that the letter had not arrived, especially that it

had never happened before.
7. Sitting next to me was an old lady, that seemed to be sound
8. In spite of that she had three small children, he sent her to
prison for six months.
XXVI. Underline the two-word subordinators and state the
type of clause they introduce:
1. Inasmuch as no offer has been made to pay for the damage, our
company will have to take this case to court.
2. Our firm will do whatever is necessary insofar as we are able to.
3. I have no complaint about my job beyond that it is boring.
4. But that he needed money desperately, he would never have
turned to his brother for help.
5. That house is just what we want, except that it is too expensive.
6. Both girls are similar in that they love expensive clothes.
7. Now that we are ready to leave, we must say goodbye to all our
8. Now that it has started to rain, the crops will be saved.
9. I have no complaint about the hotel, only that it is dull here.
10. We should be able to do the job for you quickly, provided (that)
you give as all the necessary information.
11. The plan would have gone off very well, save that one of the
officials became very greedy.
12. Seeing that its getting dark, wed better go inside.
13. He travelled through half the world so (that) he might see her
once again.
14. The furniture arrived damaged, so (that) we had to send it back.


XXVII. Read the following examples and have fun with the
movie stereotypes then:
a. comment on the structure of the complex sentences:
1. A man will show no pain while taking the most ferocious beating
but will wince when a woman tries to clean his wound.
2. When paying for a taxi, dont look at your wallet as you take out
a bill, just grab one at random and hand it over. It will always be
the exact fare.
3. Any person walking from a nightmare will sit bolt upright and
4. It is not necessary to say hello or goodbye when beginning or
ending phone conversations
5. Even when driving down a perfectly straight road it is necessary
to turn the steering wheel vigorously from left to right every few
6. It does not matter if you are heavily outnumbered in a fight
involving martial arts, your enemies will wait patiently to attack
you one by one dancing around in a threatening manner until you
have knocked out their predecessors.
7. Any lock can be picked by a credit card or a paper clip in
seconds, unless its the door to a burning building with a child
trapped in it.
8. If being chased through town, you can usually take cover in a
passing St. Patricks day parade at any time of the year.
9. Once applied, lipstick will never rub off even while scuba
10. If staying in a haunted house, women should investigate any
strange noises in their most revealing underwear
b. state the syntactic function of the non-finite infinitival
1. It is easy for anyone to land a plane proving there is someone in
the control tower to talk you down.

2. The Chief of Police will always suspend his star detective, or give
him 48 hours to finish the job.
3. A single match will be sufficient to light up a room the size of
RFK Stadium.
4. It is always possible to park directly outside the building you are
5. Most laptop computers are powerful enough to override the
communications systems of any invading alien civilisation Police
Departments give their officers personality test to make sure they
are deliberately assigned a partner who is their total opposite.
c. comment on the adverbial clauses:
1. If you need to reload your gun, you will always have more
ammunition even if you havent been carrying any before now.
2. A detective can solve a case once he has been suspended from
3. Should you wish to pass yourself as a German officer, it will not
be necessary to speak the language. A German accent will do.
4. When they are alone, all foreigners prefer to speak English to
each other.
5. If a large pane of glass is visible, someone will be thrown through
it before long.
6. Mothers routinely cook eggs, bacon and waffles for their family
even though their husband and children never have time to eat it.
7. Television news bulletins usually contain a story that affects the
character at the precise moment that they are watching.



I. Analyse the structure of the following complex
1. Many passengers complained that once they emerged from
the train, there were no emergency personnel to greet them.
2. The opponents of this view countered that the unwillingness
to carry out strategic attacks would weaken deterrence by
showing a lack of resolve.
3. Once I realized how much time I was spending at work, and
how little I was enjoying life, I decided that things had to
4. We soon discovered that almost everything we had hidden
had been found, and either carried off or wantonly destroyed.
5. Rigid with fear, Jessica remembered that the window was
6. Research shows that the more children are hit, the more likely
they are to be aggressive themselves.
7. Federal law requires that consumers be informed whenever an
investigative report is ordered.
8. I propose that we examine two basic trends, moving in
opposite directions.
9. Since sound is actually the motion of molecules, it follows
that the fastest speed with which the air molecules can get out
of the way is the speed of sound.
10. It happened that we had a number of very competent women
so it was not difficult to pick a woman to do it.
11. How did it come about that a man so shrewd and wise as
David should fall for such a blatantly obvious confidence
12. A policeman said it appeared that the bag had contained two
tubes filled with pieces of lead which flew into the air injuring
eleven people.

13. This doesnt necessarily mean that sport can improve your
emotional health; it could simply be that people with a more
extrovert personality are more likely to enjoy sports in the
first place.
14. The bigger the cost, the more it matters that the money should
not be wasted.
15. It is to his credit that the bitterness he felt over his recent
failure did not alter his determination to carry out his
regimental duties to perfection.
16. It is rumoured that his farmhouse resembles a fortress, with a
panic-button to alert the police in the event of intruders
breaking in.
17. Though it cannot be denied that appearance is the first step
towards attraction, it is similarity of attitude that is often a
deciding factor when it comes to pursuing a relationship.
18. When word got out that we had spent nearly $1.6 million on
a single sixty-second commercial, irate shareholders began
firing off letters.
19. It was concluded that the aircraft was flying at the maximum
permitted speed when the leading edge of the wing opened
up, ripping the wing apart.
20. At one time it was believed that an addict couldnt quit until
she hit bottom and lost everything. Thats true for many
people but, it turns out, not for everyone.
21. It is understood that damage estimated at more than a hundred
thousand pounds has been caused to furniture, fittings and
equipment in the Embassy building.
22. It never entered her head that their divorce would go through
without a financial settlement having been made.


Reported speech
III. 1. killed/ kills, 2. could not / cannot 3. swam / swim 4. became /
become 5. drowned / drown 6. could / can 7. would be 8. would
oppose 9. produced 10. was 11. is 12. will have vanished 13. have
captured 14. launched 15. took 16. had boasted 17. would never give
up 18. have 19. can 20. failed 21. make/ have made 22. is 23. would
be 24. could / can 25. had received 26. would now be 27. had so far
invested 28. were 29. had been 30. had not only been 31. was 32.
have since been 33. has happened 34. is/ has been 35. sacrifices/
has sacrificed/ is sacrificing 36. had been 37. had since lived/ been
living 38. had said 39. no longer insisted/ was no longer insisting 40.
was 41. admits/ has admitted 42. was 43. was 44. were normally/
would normally be 45. is 46. awarded 47. believed 48. is not 49.
really matters 50. have had 51. had been 52. came 53. was 54. was
55. have lived / been living
The Infinitive
IV. 1. to be gardening, 2. fishing, 3. to have had, 4. be injured, 5. to
believe, 6. to be stopped.
The Participle
XI. 1a, 2 c/ d, 3 b / c, 4 a, 5 c, 6 b, 7 c, 8 d, 9 b, 10 b/ c, 11 b/ c.
XVI. 1. reading 2. do 3. open 4. lying 5. to be suffering 6. to finish
7. standing 8. holding 9. getting 10. to get 11. to lend 12. running
13. fishing 14. to meet 15. to use 16. borrowing 17. running 18. to
find 19. voting 20. do 21 go 22. say 23. saying 24. to say 25. to
see 26. sightseeing 27. fishing 28. to mean 29. working 30. write
31. watching 32. click 33. approaching 34. stop 35. beating 36.
loitering 37. to tell 38. to be 39. creeping 40. to know

Verbs used either with an ing clause or with a to-infinitive

II. 1. criticising 2. to think 3. doing 4. to do 5. to say 6. applying 7.
looking after 8. to think 9. skiing/ to ski 10. to turn 11. to become 12.
to interest 13. trying 14. to tell 15. giving up 16. to form 17. to think
18. eating 19. (to) take 20. to stop 21. snoring 22. sleeping 23. being
24. being. 25. to keep 26. smoking/ to smoke 27. to deteriorate 28.
writing 29. posting 30. to get 31. trying 32. to convince 33. to say 34.
changing 35. to think 36. going 37. criticising/ to criticise 38. to think
39. to cut 40. cutting
Adverbial clauses
IV. 1. cause 2. degree (extent) 3.4.5. exception 6. cause, extent,
manner 7. time 8. cause 9. exception 10. condition 11. exception 12.
cause 13. purpose 14. result
V. 1. degree (extent) 2. time 3. condition 4. cause 5. time 6.7.8.
purpose 9. condition 10. purpose 11. condition 12. cause 13. purpose
14. cause 15. exception 16. contrast (concessive) 17. cause 18.
exception 19. contrast (concessive) 20. cause 21. contrast
(concessive) 22. cause 23. cause 24. contrast (concessive)
XXVI 1. since 2. when 3. so that 4. so that 5. as 6. since/ as 7.
who 8. fact that


ADJUNCT: an optional constituent of a sentence such as the adverbs
of time, place, frequency, degree, manner, purpose, etc. or a
subordinate clause.
She met him at the museum.
She met him when she visited the museum.
ANTECEDENT: an expression which is referred to by some
pronoun or anaphor Thus, John is the antecedent of the anaphor
himself in a) and in b) the antecedent of the pronoun whom is
a. John cut himself shaving.
b. He is someone [ whom we respect].
ARGUMENT: a NP or a clause required by a predicate.
[NP I ] believe [NP Mary].
I believe [CP that she tells the truth].
The verb believe functioning as a predicate requires two arguments
to form a correct sentence in English. The arguments are realised
either by NPs or by clauses.
BRACKETING: a technique for representing the categorial status of
an expression. The phrase is enclosed in square brackets, and the lefthand bracket is labelled with an appropriate category symbol:
[NP the student]


CLAUSE: the basic sentence unit consisting of a predicate and one

or more argument NPs or clauses. A clause forms a simple sentence
or is part of a complex sentence:

I believe the story.

The verb believe takes two argument NPs I and the story to form
a simple sentence.

I believe
[ that she is a good writer].
main clause + embedded clause

The verb believe takes two arguments: the Subject NP I and the
Object clause that she is a good writer. The Object NP has been
replaced by a clause.
CLEFT CONSTRUCTION: a construction whose members are
derivable from more elementary clauses by dividing cleavingthem into two parts, one of which is highlighted, while the other is
subordinated in the form of a relative clause having the highlighted
element as antecedent. For example, the sentence:
Mrs. Smith gave Mary a dress.
can be turned into the following cleft sentences:
It was Mrs. Smith who gave Mary a dress.
It was Mary that Mrs. Smith gave the dress to.
It was a dress that Mrs. Smith gave to Mary.
Structure: It + be + emphasized constituent + relative clause
COMPLEMENTISER: an element such as that and for, or
sometimes a covert category that introduces a complement clause:
It is strange [ that I should be talking to you here].

It is strange [ for me to be talking to you here].

I guess [ -- he is a good student].
COMPLEX SENTENCE: a sentence containing at least a
subordinate clause:
I know [ that she works very hard ].
COMPOUND SENTENCE: a sentence containing two or more
main clauses:
[ Hes rather lazy ] but [ she works very hard ].
CONSTITUENT: a word or group of words functioning as a unit in
a larger construction
CONTROL PREDICATES: three-place predicates in the main
clause whose arguments control the reference of the Subject of the
DEPENDENT CLAUSE: a clause other than the main clause of a
DISTRIBUTION: a set of positions in which a particular category
can occur.
EMBEDDED CLAUSE: a dependent clause functioning as the
argument of a predicate:
Teresa denied [ that any money was missing].
EXTRACTION: an operation by which one constituent is moved out
of another. Thus in:
Who do you think [he saw --]?

The pronoun who has been extracted out of the position marked in
the bracketed clause, and moved to the front of the overall sentence.
EXTRAPOSITION: a syntactic process which moves a clause
functioning as subject (or direct object / prepositional object) to the
right, to a position beyond the main predicate. It also involves the
addition of a dummy pronoun (it) which takes over the vacated
subject position as in:
[That he had been lying] was obvious to everyone.
It was obvious to everyone [that he had been lying].
[To change your mind now] would be a mistake.
It would be a mistake [to change your mind now].
She doesnt regret [ that she missed the concert].
She doesnt regret it [ that she missed the concert].
FINITE CLAUSE: a clause with the verb in the indicative mood.
HEAVY NP SHIFT: movement of a longer NP constituent from its
original position to the end of the construction (without insertion of
the expletive pronoun it)
She sold [NP a small ancient Chinese box] very quickly.
She sold very quickly [NP a small ancient Chinese box].
Heavy NP Shift can also apply to clausal constituents:
*They took [CP that she was a student] into consideration.
They took into consideration [ CP that she was a student].
INDICATIVE MOOD: the mood used to express what is real or
true, expressed as finite verbs in English


INDIRECT QUESTION: an interrogative complement clause (i.e.

an interrogative clause used as te complement of a word like ask,
unsure, question, etc.):
I wonder [ what he will do].
I dont know [if he will turn up].
INFINITIVE: the uninflected form of the verb which is used when
the verb is the complement of a modal auxiliary like can, or the
infinitive particle to.
He can speak French
He is trying to learn French.
+ing: an inflectional suffix which has two main roles:
a. it can serve as a progressive suffix which produces the
He was smoking.
b. it can serve as a suffix used to derive the gerund form of a
She doesnt approve of my smoking a pipe.
INVERSION: a movement process by which the relative order of
two expressions is reversed.
clause, one which can often stand on its own as an independent
MODIFIER: traditionally, the adjective is a modifier or modifies the
noun as in tall men, and the adverb is a modifier of the verb;
Eat slowly!
PARTICIPLE: the +ing and +n forms of a verb are traditionally
said to be participles. More specifically, the +ing form (when not

used as a gerund) is said to be imperfective/ progressive/ present

He is leaving.
whereas the +n form is said to function as a perfective/ past participle
as in (a) or a passive participle as in (b):
a. He has stolen them.
b. They have been stolen.
PASSIVISATION: a movement operation whereby the complement
of a verb becomes its subject (a) or the subject of an infinitive
complement becomes the subject of a passive auxiliary (b):
a. The jewels were stolen.
b. The ministers were thought to have lied to the Parliament.
PREPOSITION STRANDING: if a question or a relative clause
contains a verb or an adjective with obligatory preposition, the pre
position may be left behind, orphaned or stranded:
Who(m) do you depend on?
Mary [ whom we depend on ] is his sister.
PIED-PIPING: a process by which a moved constituent drags one or
more constituents along with it when it moves. Thus the pronoun
whom is moved to the front of the sentences in (a) and (b) but in (b)
the preposition to is pied-piped along with whom.
Who were you talking to?
To whom were you talking?
PRO: represents the understood subject of an infinitive complement
of a control predicate:

John decided [ PRO to leave].

John decided [ that he should leave].
clause as a Subject or complement:

a sentence with a wh-

[What I need ] is a good holiday.

A good holiday is [ what I need].
[What Mrs. Smith gave Mary] was a dress.
A dress is [ what Mrs. Smith gave Mary ].
Structure: relative clause + be + emphasized constituent
emphasized consituent + be + relative clause
RAISING: a syntactic process involving movement of the Subject of
the complement clause into the main clause in Subject or Object
position. As a result, the complement clause becomes non-finite:
They believe [ that the story was true].
They believed the story [ to be true].
The story was believed [ to be true].
embedded in a noun phrase and usually modifying the head noun.
[NP The man [who is reading the newspaper]] is my father.
Head relative clause
SOT Sequence of tenses: a set of rules regulating the use of tenses
in the complement clause depending on the tense of the main verb
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD: the mood expressed with uninflected
verbs in English finite clauses, used to indicate that the situation is
hypothetical or that it is dependent on some other situation or that
action is recommended.

They recommended to us [that we should read that book].

SUBORDINATE CLAUSE: a dependent clause functioning as an
adjunct grammatically, an optional clause:
The family returned to the villa after the car had broken down.
SUBORDINATORS: members of a closed class of words defined
precisely by their role in marking clause subordination: when, if,
because, etc.
TOUGH MOVEMENT: movement of a non-subject constituent of
an infinitival clause into the subject position of its main clause:
It is a pleasure [to teach her ].
Shei is a pleasure [ to teach ti ].
TRACE: a [t] is used to mark a slot from which a constituent has
been moved
Wh-movement: a type of operator movement whereby an expression
containing a wh-word (who, which, whet, where, when, etc.) is moved
to the front of a particular clause.
Wh- phrase: a phrase containing a wh-word:
[ whose book ] did you buy?



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