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Introduction

Thetermqualitymanagementhasaspecificmeaningwithinmanybusiness
sectors.Thisspecificdefinition,whichdoesnotaimtoassuregoodqualitybythe
moregeneraldefinition,butrathertoensurethatanorganizationorproductis
consistent, can beconsideredto have four main components: qualityplanning,
qualitycontrol,qualityassuranceandqualityimprovement. 1Qualitymanagement
isfocusednotonlyonproduct/servicequality,butalsothemeanstoachieveit.
Qualitymanagementthereforeusesqualityassuranceandcontrolofprocessesas
wellasproductstoachievemoreconsistentquality.
QualityManagementEvolution
Qualitymanagementisarecentphenomenon.Advancedcivilizationsthat
supported the arts and crafts allowed clients to choose goods meeting higher
qualitystandardsthannormal goods.Insocietieswhereartsandcraftsarethe
responsibilityofamastercraftsmanorartist,theywouldleadtheirstudioandtrain
andsuperviseothers.Theimportanceofcraftsmendiminishedasmassproduction
and repetitive work practices were instituted. The aim was to produce large

numbersofthesamegoods.ThefirstproponentintheUSforthisapproachwas
EliWhitneywhoproposed(interchangeable)partsmanufactureformuskets,hence
producingtheidenticalcomponentsandcreatingamusketassemblyline.Thenext
stepforwardwaspromotedbyseveralpeopleincludingFrederickWinslowTaylor
a mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. He is
sometimes called the father of scientific management. He was one of the
intellectualleadersoftheEfficiencyMovementandpartofhisapproachlaida
furtherfoundationforqualitymanagement,includingaspectslikestandardization
and adopting improved practices. Henry Ford was also important in bringing
processandqualitymanagementpracticesintooperationinhisassemblylinesIn
GermanyKarlFriedrich,oftencalledtheinventorofthemotorcar,waspursuing
similar assembly and production practices, although real mass production was
properlyinitiatedinVolkswagenafterWorldWarII.Fromthisperiodonwards.
NorthAmericancompaniesfocusedpredominantlyuponproductionagainstlower
costwithincreasedefficiency.
Walter A. Shewhart made a major step in the evolution towards quality
management by creating a method for quality control for production, using
statistical methods, first proposed in 1924.This became the foundation for his
ongoing work on statistical quality control. W. Edwards Deming later applied
statistical process control methods in the United States during World War II,

therebysuccessfullyimprovingqualityinthemanufactureofmunitionsandother
strategicallyimportantproducts.
Qualityleadershipfromanationalperspectivehaschangedoverthepastfive
to six decades. After the Second World War, Japan decided to make quality
improvementanationalimperativeaspartofrebuildingtheireconomy,andsought
thehelpofShewhart,DemingandJuran,amongstothers.W.EdwardsDeming
championedShewhartsideasinJapanfrom1950onwards.Heisprobablybest
known for his management philosophy establishing quality, productivity, and
competitiveposition.Hehasformulated14pointsofattentionformanagers,which
are a high level abstraction of many of his deep insights. They should be
interpreted by learning and understanding the deeper insights. These 14 points
includekeyconceptssuchas:
Breakdownbarriersbetweendepartments
Managementshouldlearntheirresponsibilities,andtakeonleadership
Supervisionshouldbetohelppeopleandmachinesandgadgetstodoabetter
job
Improveconstantlyandforeverthesystemofproductionandservice
Instituteavigorousprogramofeducationandselfimprovement

Inthe1950sand1960s,Japanesegoodsweresynonymouswithcheapness
andlowquality,butovertimetheirqualityinitiativesbegantobesuccessful,with
Japanachievingveryhighlevelsofqualityinproductsfromthe1970sonward.For
example,JapanesecarsregularlytoptheJ.D.Powercustomersatisfactionratings.
In the 1980s Deming was asked by Ford Motor Company to start a quality
initiativeaftertheyrealizedthattheywerefallingbehindJapanesemanufacturers.
A number of highly successful quality initiatives have been invented by the
Japanese (see for example on this page: Genichi Tauguchi, QFD, Toyota
ProductionSystem.Manyofthemethodsnotonlyprovidetechniquesbutalso
have associated quality culture (i.e. people factors). These methods are now
adopted by the same western countries that decades earlier derided Japanese
methods.
Customersrecognizethatqualityisanimportantattributeinproductsand
services. Suppliers recognize that quality can be an important differentiator
betweentheirownofferingsandthoseofcompetitors(qualitydifferentiationis
alsocalledthequalitygap).Inthepasttwodecadesthisqualitygaphasbeen
greatlyreducedbetweencompetitiveproductsandservices.Thisispartlydueto
thecontracting(alsocalledoutsourcing)ofmanufacturetocountrieslikeIndiaand
China, as el1 internationalization of trade and competition. These countries
amongstmanyothershaveraisedtheirownstandardsofqualityinordertomeet

Internationalstandardsandcustomerdemands.TheISO9000seriesofstandards
areprobablythebestknownInternationalstandardsforqualitymanagement.
There are a huge number of books available on quality management. In
recenttimessomethemeshavebecomemoresignificantincludingqualityculture,
theimportanceofknowledgemanagement,andtheroleofleadershipinpromoting
andachievinghighquality.Disciplineslikesystemsthinkingarebringingmore
holisticapproachestoqualitysothatpeople,processandproductsareconsidered
togetherratherthanindependentfactorsinqualitymanagement.
Theinfluenceofqualitythinkinghasspreadtonontraditionalapplications
outsideofwallsofmanufacturing,extendingintoservicesectorsandintoareas
suchassales,marketingandcustomerservice.2
NeedandConceptofQuality
Inthepresentageofliberalization,privatizationandglobalization,thereisa
stiffcompletionineverywalkoflife.Inmarketingtoo,customerwantsgoodof
superior quality at a cheaper rate. Hence Qua1ity has become a major
characteristic, which is considered by the buyers of all types of products. The
quality image that is retained in the buyers mind works as a key element in
determiningthemarketdemandofvariousproducts.Soinordertopromotesales
andtherebyaccelerateprofitability,aproducermustmaintainahighdegreeof

Qualityinitsproducts.Asamatteroffact,theQualityoftheproductmustbe
maintainedateverylevelwhetheritispresaleorpostsale.Thesuperiorquality,
themoresalesandtherebymoreprofitsareachieved.
AsregardstheconceptofQuality,itconnotesacharacteristicoftheproduct,
whichguaranteesfitnessforuseorIntendedfunction.AmericanSocietyfor
QualitycontroldefinesQualityas,Totalityoffeaturesandcharacteristicsofa
productorservicethatbearonitsabilitytosatisfyagivenneed.Butnowaday
when there is a global competition, Quality has become the result of an
intelligenteffort.Theremustbeastrongwilltoproduceasuperiorproduct.As
regardsaproduct,Qualitygenerallysignifiesthedegreeofexcellence.However,
when examined closely this meaning of quality needs to be modified because
different products have different utility for different customers. The quality of
product, therefore should be defined as Fitness for the purpose. The overall
qualityoftheproductdependsonthesumofallthecharacteristicsandattributes
whichhaveabearingonitsenduse.
ThetermqualitycanbemodifiedasCustomerssatisfactioninallaspects
i.e. quality at all stages or to achieve the fitness for use and environment.
AccordingtoDr,Juran3,threeconsiderationsaresignificant:

(i) Quality of Design : which means conversion of customer needs into


specificationsandplanning.Acompanyhavinghighdegreeofexcellencecan
treatitscustomerscourteouslybecauseofitsrelativelylargesize,technical
expertiseandexperiencethatareavailablefordealingwithproblems;
(ii) QualityofConformance:whichinvolvesconversionofspecificationsinto
productthroughvariousprocessestoconformtothespecifications;and
(iii) QualityofPerformance: whichsignifiesperformanceofaproducttothe
customer satisfaction. Trouble free performance of the product for
considerable time, timely service and spares, customer education, proper
instructionsforoperationandmaintenanceetc.ensurequalityofperformance.
In this way, Quality should be primarily customer driven, production
driven or competitor driven. Accordingly, the quality control procedures are
necessarilybeestablishedunderawellthoughtoutqualitypolicyandprogrammes
tosatisfycustomersneedswhichvaryfromoneproducttoanotherandalsofrom
timetotime.Therearevariousfactors,whichinfluenceconsumersperceptionof
quality.ProminentfactorscanbehighlightedwiththehelpoffollowingTableNo.
1.1.
TableNo.1.1
ShowingFactorsInfluencingConsumersPerceptionofQuality

Atthepointof

BeforePurchase

Purchase

Afterpurchase

CompanysBrand

Performance

Easeofinstallation

Nameandimage

Specifications

Anduse

Previous

Commentsof

Handlingofrepair,

Experience

Salespersonnel

Claims,warrantyetc

OpinionsofFriends

Warranty

Spareparts

Store

Provisions

Availability

Reputations

Serviceand

Service

Publishedtest

Repairpolicies

Effectiveness

Results

Supportprogramme

Reliability

Advertisedprice

Quotedpricefor

Comparative

Forperformance

Performance

Performance

Thus, the first step for implementation of Quality is to know the


customers real needs by marketing personnel and. then to put them into the
hardwarebythecompanywidequalitycontrolproceduresuntilthecustomersuse
quality is assured, A neverending exercise for customer/ market needs
identificationhastobecarriedoncontinuouslyinordertoattractthecustomers
andtostandagainstthecompetitors.
AccordingoMr.J.S.JavaliinHMTLtd.5
RightFirstTime
RightNextTimeand

RightEveryTime.
Isawaytoachievequality?Doingthingsrightfirsttimeisquality.Thatis
howqualityisbuiltintotheproduct.
Similarly, Mr. H.R. Dawer, in HMT Ltd., states that Quality is not an
accident. It is always the result of high intension, sincere effort, intelligent
directionandskilfulexecution.6
AccordingtoMr.S.L.NaharinHMTLtd.7,Qualityisnotmerelylimitedto
products,itencompassesservices,treatmentandworketc.
Theeasiestwaytodefinequalitywouldbethedegreetowhichaproduct
meetstherequirementsofacustomer.8 Ashorterdefinitionofqualitythathas
achievedacceptanceisQualityiscustomersatisfaction.Fitnessforuseisan
alternativeshorterdefinition.9
Tosummarize,qualitymeansexternalandinternalcustomer satisfaction.
Productsfeaturesandfreedom fromdeficienciesarethemajor determinantsof
satisfaction.Acloserexanimationofthetwocomponentsrevealsfurtherinsights
inmanufacturingindustriesTableNo.1.2givenbelow:
TableNo.1.2
ShowingInsightsinManufacturingIndustries
ProductsFeatures

Freedomfromdeficiencies

1.Performance

1.Productfreefromdefectsanderrors

2.Reliability

atdelivery,duringuse,andduring

3.Durability

servicing.

4.Easyofuse

2. Sales billing and other business

5.Serviceability

processesfreeoferrors.

6.Availabilityofoptionsand
expandability
7.Reputation.
Every company should therefore imbibe quality awareness and
consciousnesstoturnoutqualityproducts.
QualityManagement
According to Dr. J.M. Juran10 Quality Management is the process of
identifyingandadministeringtheactivitiesneededtoachievethequalityobjectives
ofanorganization.

TableNo.1.3
ShowingChangeintheScopeofQualityManagement
Topic

ContentsofLittleQ

ContentsofBigQ

Products

Manufacturedgoods

Allproducts,goods
andservices,whether
forsaleornot.

Processes

Industries

Processesdirectly

Allprocesses,

relatetomanufacture

manufacturingsupport

ofgoods

businessetc.

Manufacturing

Allindustries,
manufacturingservice,
governmentetc.

Attainmentofqualityobjectivesrequirestheperformanceofawidevariety
of identifiable activities or quality tasks. Obvious examples are the study of
customersqualityneeds,designreview,producttestsandfieldcomplaintanalysis.
The traditional scope of quality activities is undergoing a radical and exciting
changewherebyqualityisrequiredtobemaintainednotonlyinmanufacturing
industries (little Q) but application of quality concepts are required to be
maintainedtoallproducts,allfunctionalactivitiesandallindustries.Thefollowing
TableNo.1.3summarizesthechangeinscopeofqualitymanagement.
In order to achieve the requirements of quality, meeting with the
expectationsofthecustomerandalsotoprotecttheinterestofthecompanyin
termsofoptimumcostforthedesiredquality,everycompanyshoulddevelopsand
implement a quality management system tailor made to suit its needs. Such a

systemshouldbedesignedtoperformthemajortasks.ThefollowingTableNo.
1.4 summarizes the major tasks for managing quality. Universal Processes for
managingquality:
TableNo.1.4
ShowingUniversalProcessesofManagingQuality
QualityPlanning

QualityControl

QualityImprovement

Establishqualitygoals

Choosecontrol

Provetheneed

Identifycustomers

Chooseunitsofmeasure Identifyprojects

Discovercustomers

Setgoals

Organizeprojectterms

CreateaSensor

Diagnosethecauses

Developprocess

Measureactual

Provideremedies,

features

performance

Provethatremedies

needs
Developproduct
features

areeffective
Establishprocess

Interpretthedifference

Dealwithresistanceto

controlstransferto

andtakeactiononthe

changeandcontrolto

operations

difference.

holdthegains.

For the triology of quality processes to be a successful framework for


achievingqualityobjectives,itisnecessarythattheprocessesrestonafoundation
ofinspirationalleadershipandenvironmentandpracticesstronglysupportiveto
quality.
Qua