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IIM, IIT, Education, Blogging, Bharatpur, Hong Kong


Created: 2/18/2013 1:53 PM
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microblogging

Education
Q. What is your view about allowing foreign universities to establish their institutions in India?
1. welcome step - economy needs it. Safeguards have been built in the Bill to prevent against fraudulent entrants. But we need to also secure interests of poor students.
2. Would also put pressure on domestic private and government institutions to improve.
3. we intend to increase R&D. we want to produce more phds. if professors paid well, good for R&D.
Q. Won't it threaten our existing government institutions? professors will go away.
1. faulty to assume pool of professors will remain constant. reverse migration of professors.
2. threat of large scale migration overdone. Leading professors already have offers from other institutions. Money is not the only criteria for them. Other criteria like autonomy, quality of
students, reputation of institute are already important.
3. Reputation of harvard in india would always be less than harvard in US. Here we are blessed to have some excellent institutions.
Q. Won't it increase the cost of education? Won't it get out of reach of the deprived sections?
1. can have USO or RTE kind of solutions.
Q. What problems do you see in our educational system?
1. elitist - contrary to the claims no equality of opportunity. example, children of farmers in IITs.
2. lack of infrastructure.
3. quality of education.
Added to this, the absence of the traditional annual examination (students cannot be detained in the same class until class VIII) means that the students failure to grasp what is being taught does not
ring any warning bells before class IX.
The basic qualification to apply for a diploma teacher training course is class XII. Only a minuscule number of these courses are up to the mark. Such teachers are recruited on low salaries and have
to work in abysmal conditions. It is hardly surprising that they are unable to impart good quality education
dropout rates betw een elementary and secondary schools continue to be high, and betw een the secondary and post-secondary stage they are even higher. This is a particularly serious problem for girls, w ho have to travel
longer distances to attend secondary schools

Q. What problems do you see in our higher educational system?


1.
2.
3.
4.

elitist.
management - highly skewed.
inefficiency in private sector - for profit clause.
need strong regulator.

Q. Shouldn't we ban coachings?


1. We can ban it on paper but it would be very difficult to oversee its implementation. Because this is against the market forces. I think laws going against the market forces have a
lesser chance to succeed. So we should instead focus on correcting the market forces. eg. girl child.
Q. recently we are seeing that quality has been decreasing in the private education institution, what we should do?
1. make education 'for profit'.
2. strong regulator.
3. Unfair Practices (Prohibition) in Higher Education Bill.
Q. Do you think there is any use of educating everyone in society?
1. modern thoughts - help solve many problems like outlook towards women, casteism, communalism, better governance.
2. human resource development.
Q. there r so many institutes cropping up in the country what is ur opinion about the quality of education they r offering?
1. some good, but many not good.
2. that is why we need a for profit sector (transparency), strong regulator.
Q. most of d cream is in medical and engg college,is it good for country
1. job prospects... so inclination towards medical and engg. but not good.
2. management, expand research sector, foreign universities.
Q. Do u know abt the research scenario in IITs.
1.
2.
3.
4.

not as good as one wants. but many steps taken.


increased M Tech and PhD intake.
Kakodkar committee - 1K to 10K, repayment of taxpayer money for those entering jobs.
but ultimately have to make research an attractive career so that students don't go abroad for research.

Q. Dont u think in lower education system, there is stress on mugging and cramming?
1. to an extent, yes.
2. teacher training, regular accreditation.
3. board exam after 5th class. focus should be on concepts.
Q. How can we increase our R&D output?
1. need of the economy - can't follow foreign model because we have ample scope to adopt technologies. but innovations are needed to adapt those to our conditions. need frugal

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innovations.
2. increase venture capital and ease of doing business.

Prominent Indian Ornithologists

Bharatpur
Bharatpur- The 'Eastern Gateway to Rajasthan', was founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in 1733 AD, it was once an impregnable well fortified city, carved out of the region formerly known
as Mewat. The trio of Bharatpur, Deeg and Dholpur has played an important part in the history of Rajasthan. The place was named as Bharatpur after the name of Bharat, the brother
of Lord Rama
Bharatpur is also known as 'LOHAGARH'. It is bound on the north by 'Gurgaon' district of Haryana, on the east by Mathura and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh, on the south by Dholpur
and Karauli, on the southern west by Jaipur and on the west by Alwar, all in Rajasthan. There is a forest called 'GHANA' means dense forest within a distance of about 5 Km. from
District Head Quarter which remains green during the rainy season. Bharatpur Ghana's plan was prepared in 1896 by the State Engineer for driving and confining the wild cattle in the
dense forest with 250 species of migratory birds during the monsoon season and 'winter' season, which is famous all over India and world for being a great sanctuary of birds.
There are only three main seasonal rivers in this District, namely Ban Ganga, Rooparel and Gambhir. Ban Ganga starts from Ramgarh Dam of Jaipur district , passes from Bharatpur
and meets in river Gambhir near tehsil Bayana of District Bharatpur. Gambhir river starts from Panchna Dam of district Karauli and after passing from Bharatpur meets River Yamuna
in Uttar Pradesh. Rooparel River starts from hills of district Alwar and enters into Bharatpur from tehsil Kaman. Instead of this, a Dam, namely, Bandh Baretha is situated near the
village Baretha on river Kakund which starts from the hills of district Karauli. The water of this dam is used for drinking and irrigation purpose for this district.
Bharatpur district is known not only for agriculture production but also known for oil industries. Mustard seeds and other agriculture products come to the market

Bird Sanctuary- Keoladeo National Park


Siberian White Crane or the Snow Crane
A paradise for the avian world, and the pilgrimage for the bird lovers, it was known as the best duck shooting resort in the British empire. But was declared a reserve for birds in 1956 and
later upgraded to National Park. UNESCO has listed it as a world heritage site.
Water coming through the Ajan Bandh starts filling the various ponds and lakes of the Park.
hundreds of large, medium and little cormorant, darter, purple and Grey heron, various species of egret, painted, open-billed, white necked and black necked stork, white ibis,
spoonbill, night heron and other birds
lthough small in size, 29 sq. km. onl
The name "Keoladeo" is derived from the name of an ancient Hindu temple devoted to Lord Shiva in the sanctuary's central zone while the Hindi term "Ghana" implies dense, thick areas of
forest cover. It is mainly famous for siberian crane. It was the only habitat of siberian crane in the world, other than siberia. Now with course of time, this endangered species has stopped
reaching the park. The main reasons for this are being cited as lack of conservation measures in India, diversion of water for farmers instead of saving the wetlands as per then Chief
Minister Vasundhara Raje's orders,[10]hunting during migration in Pakistan and the Afghanistan as well as the war against Taliban in Afghanistan.
The sanctuary was created 250 years ago and is named after a Keoladeo (Shiva) temple within its boundaries. Initially, it was a natural depression; and was flooded after the Ajan Bund was
constructed by Maharaja Suraj Mal, the then ruler of the princely state of Bharatpur, between 17261763. The bund was created at the confluence of two rivers, the Gambhir and Banganga.
The park was a hunting ground for the maharajas of Bharatpur, a tradition dating back to 1850, and duck shoots were organised yearly in honor of the British viceroys
The park is a fresh water swamp and is flooded during the monsoon. For most part of the year, effective wetland is only 10 km2. The rest of the area remains dry
The management objective is to allow the area to flood and dry out annually, rather than be maintained as a system of permanent marshes. Water for the wetlands is supplied from the dam
outside the park boundaries. Usually some 14.17 million cubic meters of water is the estimated annual requirement of the park. The water level inside the park is regulated by means of
dykes and artificial embankments. The alternative arrangement of water in case of emergencies such as danger of marshes and water bodies drying out completely is ensured through four
boreholes so that survival of the aquatic flora and fauna is not endangered before the arrival of monsoon.
The Keoladeo National Park (KNP) is a Ramsar Wetland Site and a World Heritage site. Due to acute water scarcity the ecosystem of the Park has been affected badly and this has
resulted in reduction in the arrival of migratory birds in the National Park. Water supply is essential for the National Park, which is a wetland and a Ramsar site facing acute shortage of
water for the last few years. Currently apart from rain fall the Park receives water from Ajan Bund, a temporary reservoir via the Dakan canal. Through a small canal dug last year water
from Khokhar Weir (Bees Mora) is also available. The total requirement of water for the Park is estimated at about 14.17 Million cubic meters (500 MCft). The supply from Ajan Bund is
irregular and subject to the bund being full to the extent of reservoir level at 8.5 meters. During the last several years either water is not supplied or supplied insufficiently. The project had
been prepared keeping in view the need for 400 MCFT of water during late July to August, for a period of 30 days to the Park which is to be had by diverting and lifting flood waters of
Yamuna. The project thus covered diversion of water during monsoon through underground pipes with lifting arrangements over a length of 16 km. from the off-take point of Goverdhan drain
near Santruk village

Slim Moizuddin Abdul Ali (12 November 1896 20 June 1987)[1] was an Indian ornithologist and naturalist. Sometimes referred to as the "birdman of India", Salim Ali was among the
first Indians to conduct systematic bird surveys across India and his bird bookshelped develop ornithology. he was instrumental to create the Bharatpur bird sanctuary. Ali influenced the
designation of the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary and in decisions that saved the Silent Valley National Park. One of Ali's later interventions at Bharatpur involved the exclusion of cattle and
graziers from the sanctuary and this was to prove costly and resulted in ecological changes that led to a decline in the numbers of many species of waterbirds
Silent Valley National Park (Malayalam:
District in Kerala, South India
Ornithology is a branch of zoology that concerns the study of birds

), (Core zone: 236.74 square kilometres (91 sq mi)) is located in the Nilgiri Hills, Palakkad

Iron Fort
The city and the fort of Bharatpur have been believed to be founded by Maharaja Suraj Mal in the early 17th century. During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 5,123 km and its

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rulers enjoyed a salute of 17 guns


Bharatpur is also known asLohagarh and Eastern Gateway to Rajasthan The Iron Fort, also called as The Lohagarh Fort, true to its name stood solidly in front of many British attacks,
and frustrated them to ends. It faced the British onslaught four times and after a long siege they had to withdraw, but Lord Lake, however was successful in capturing it in 1805. It is very
different from the other forts in state, there is no flamboyance associated to fort but it generates an aura of strength and magnificence. The fort is surrounded with moat which was
previously filled with water to ward off the enemy attacks. The sandy ramparts were strengthened by sandy battlements, thus the enemy guns proved of no avail. Some interesting
monuments in the fort are Kishori Mahal, Mahal Khas and Kothi Khas. Moti Mahal and towers like Jawahar Burj and Fateh Burj were erected to commemorate the victory over the Mughals
and the British army . The Gateway has paintings of huge elephants. The Government Museum, Bharatpur is located inside the historic Lohagarh Fort

Microblogging is a broadcast medium that exists in the form of blogging. A microblog differs from a traditional blog in that its content is typically smaller in both actual and aggregated file
size. Microblogs "allow users to exchange small elements of content such as short sentences, individual images, or video links".[1] These small messages are sometimes called microposts
The term "weblog" was coined by Jorn Barger[10] on 17 December 1997. The short form, "blog", was coined by Peter Merholz, who jokingly broke the word weblog into the phrase we blog
Bruce Ableson launched Open Diary in October 1998, which soon grew to thousands of online diaries. Open Diary innovated the reader comment, becoming the first blog community where
readers could add comments to other writers' blog entries
In Russia, some political bloggers have started to challenge the dominance of official, overwhelmingly pro-government media. Bloggers such as Rustem Adagamov and Alexei Navalny have
many followers and the latter's nickname for the ruling United Russia party as the "party of crooks and thieves" and been adopted by anti-regime protesters.[24] This led to the Wall Street
Journal calling Navalny "the manVladimir Putin fears most" in March 2012.[25]

Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements that
are targeted to site content and audience.
The webmaster inserts the AdSense JavaScript code into a webpage.
Each time this page is visited, the JavaScript code uses inlined JSON to display content fetched from Google's servers.
For contextual advertisements, Google's servers use a cache of the page to determine a set of high-value keywords. If keywords have been cached already, advertisements are served for
those keywords based on the AdWords bidding system. (More details are described in the AdSense patent .)
For site-targeted advertisements, the advertiser chooses the page(s) on which to display advertisements, and pays based on cost per mille (CPM), or the price advertisers choose to pay
for every thousand advertisements displayed
Consumer Generated Advertising refers to advertising on consumer generated media. This term is generally used to refer to sponsored content on blogs, wikis, forums, social networking
web sites and individual Web sites
Similarly, the term Communal mark eting refers to a marketing practice that incorporates public involvement in the development of an advertising/marketing campaign. Such a campaign
invites consumers to share their ideas or express their articulation of what the brand means to them through their own personal stories, with the use of print media, film oraudio. The resulting
consumer-generated content is then incorporated into the campaign.
Blogs have led to some disintermediation and a breakdown of the traditional advertising model where companies can skip over the advertising agencies (previously the only interface with the
customer) and contact the customers directly themselves. On the other hand, new companies specialised in blog advertising have been established, to take advantage of this new
development as well.
However, there are many people who look negatively on this new development. Some believe that any form of commercial activity on blogs will destroy the blogospheres credibility
In 2009, NDTV issued a legal notice to Indian blogger Kunte for a blog post criticizing their coverage of the Mumbai attacks.[71] The blogger unconditionally withdrew his post, which resulted
in several Indian bloggers criticizing NDTV for trying to silence critics
In India, blogger Gaurav Sabnis resigned from IBM after his posts questioned the claims of a management school IIPM
In June 2005, an Indian online magazine called Just Another Magazine (JAM) published an article accusing IIPM of misleading students and the public with its advertisements by using
institutional rankings published in 2003 which were no longer valid. The article said that the IIPM is not accredited by UGC or AICTE.[66] After a court ruling, the article was removed from the
internet. JAM's editor Rashmi Bansal later published similar content in her blog. In response, IIPM called JAM's statements an attempt to spread baseless rumours and filed a lawsuit
against Bansal.[67] In a court ruling on June 2010, Bansal was ordered to take down her blog article.[68][69] Gaurav Sabnis, an IBM employee at that time, was forced to resign from his post
after IIPM threatened to burn IBM laptops in front of IBM's Delhi office
In December 2013, Livemint.com reported that public-interest litigation filed in 2010 by Mahesh Sarma, the editor of Careers 360, led to the Delhi High Court barring IIPM from publishing any
TV, print or online advertisements without first obtaining the courts approval, given that past IIPM advertisements had potentially misled the public.[62][63] According to Livemint.com, the
interim court order was based on an affidavit by the University Grants Commission (UGC), which stated that IIPM advertisements had the potential to mislead innocent students and public
at large; a UGC committee investigating the issue had found that the "practice of issuing such dubious advertisements by IIPM to attract students deceptively should be stopped forthwith

Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine's "natural" or un-paid ("organic") search results. In general, the
earlier (or higher ranked on the search results page), and more frequently a site appears in the search results list, the more visitors it will receive from the search engine's users
As an Internet marketing strategy, SEO considers how search engines work, what people search for, the actual search terms or keywords typed into search engines and which search
engines are preferred by their targeted audience. Optimizing a website may involve editing its content, HTML and associated coding to both increase its relevance to specific keywords and to
remove barriers to the indexing activities of search engines. Promoting a site to increase the number of backlinks, or inbound links, is another SEO tactic.

A reverse blog is a type of blog that is characterized by the lack of a single, specific blogger. In a traditional blog a blogger will write his or her comments about a given topic and other
users may view and sometimes comment on the bloggers work. A reverse blog is written entirely by the users, who are given a topic. The blog posts are usually screened and chosen for
publication by a core group or the publisher of the blog

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Blog-based books have been given the name blook. The book based on Julie Powell's blog "The Julie/Julia Project" was made into the film Julie & Julia, apparently the first to do so.

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The GBP/USD pairing is known by traders as the cable, which has its origins from the time when a communications cable under the Atlantic Ocean synchronized the GBP/USD quote
between the London and New York markets.[4] The following nicknames are common: Fiber for EUR/USD,Chunnel for EUR/GBP, Loonie and The Funds for USD/CAD, Aussie for
AUD/USD, Guppy for GBP/JPY, Yuppy for EUR/JPY, and Kiwi for the New Zealand Dollar NZD/USD pairing. New innovations include Barney for USD/RUB and Betty for EUR/RUB after the
fictional characters the Rubbles in The Flintstones.

IIMs are registered as societies under the Indian Societies Registration Act.[4] However, the administration of all IIMs and the overall strategy of IIMs is overseen by the IIM council. The IIM
Council is headed by India's Minister of Human Resource Development and consists of the chairpersons and directors of all IIMs and senior officials from the Ministry of Human Resource
Development of the Government of India.[5][6]
Cal first, then A, lko in 84. Total 13 iim, latest is kashiour. Udaipur is under the mentorship of indore. In 1981, the first IIM Review Committee was convened to examine the progress of the three existing IIMs

and to make recommendations. The committee noted that the three IIMs were producing around 400 PGP graduates every year and that they had reached their optimum capacity. It
proposed the opening of two more IIMs to meet the rising demand of management professionals. IIM Lucknow also serves as the mentor institution for IIM Rohtak and IIM Kashipur.[2Board of
Governors of IIM Lucknow is chaired by Jamshed J. Irani, the former Managing Director ofTata Steel.[39
Iim bill w ill give legal sanction for iims to give degrees. Iim council pow ers w ill also be expanded.The

proposed IIM Council will be a coordinating body and a forum to discuss, Thakur said. The

council will not be like the IIT Council. IIT Council has real power. They can fix their salary. They can give directions but this is (just) a coordinating body. I dont know what
kind of harm it will (cause), Thakur said.
Deemed university is a status of autonomy granted to high performing institutes and departments of various universities in India. This status of "Deemed-to-be-University", is granted
by Department of Higher Education, Union Human Resource Development Ministry, on the advice of the University Grants Commission (UGC) of India, under Section 3 of the University
Grants Commission (UGC) Act, 1956.[1][2]
The UGC began in 1956 after Indian parliament passed the University Grants Commission Act "to make provision for the co-ordination and determination of standards in Universities and for
that purpose, to establish a University Grants Commission.".[3]
The deemed university status enables not just full autonomy in setting course work and syllabus of those institutes and research centers, but also allows it to set its own guidelines for the
admissions, fees, and instructions to the students.
Application of Act to institutions for higher studies other than Universities. The Central Government may, on the advice of the Commission, declare, by notification in the Official Gazette, that
any institution for higher education, other than a University, shall be deemed to be a University for the purposes of this Act, and on such a declaration being made, all the provisions of this
Act shall apply to such institution as if it were a University within the meaning of clause (f) of section 2.
and Section 2 clause (f) states
"University" means a University established or incorporated by or under a Central Act, a Provincial Act or a State Act, and includes any such institution as may, in consultation with the
University concerned, be recognized by the Commission in accordance with the regulations made in this behalf under this Act.
The UGC Act doesn't seem to provide any clear definition of a deemed university.
My own understanding of a deemed university is as follows.
1. It is autonomous in the sense of setting its own educational agenda (courses, syllabus, teaching methodologies etc.)
2. It is administratively autonomous in the sense that it does not need to abide by the rules and regulations of any other university on adminstrative matters.
3. It can award degrees under its own name, instead of that of an university to which it is affiliated.
4. It cannot be an affiliating university in the sense of allowing other institutions to affiliate themselves to it.
5. It cannot be a purely teaching institution. Research has to be an integral part of its activities.

A committee will examine and make provisions for foreign universities ranked amongst the best in academia and intending to open campuses in India to
be recognised as deemed-to-be universities.
Just two years after the University Grants Commission laid down stringent guidelines for granting deemed-to-be university status to educational institutions, the Human
Resource Development Ministry has constituted a committee to review the UGC (Institutions Deemed to be Universities) Regulations, 2010. It will also make provision for
foreign universities, ranked among the best in academia and intending to open campuses in India, to be recognised as deemed-to-be universities.
If the 2010 guidelines strongly opposed by private institutions, seeking the deemed university status are diluted, it will help the 44 deemed-to-be-universities escape derecognition as recommended by the Tandon Committee in 2009 for their overall poor performance, and also facilitate the entry of foreign universities through the deemed
universities route.

IITs are governed by the Institutes of Technology Act, 1961. 16 iits now.Each IIT is an autonomous institution, linked to the others through a common IIT Council, which oversees their
administration. Iitk 1959, kgp 51. Kanpur US assistance. Kanpur is mentor of jodhpur
On the recommendations of the Sarkar Committee, four campuses were established at Mumbai (1958), Chennai (1959), Kanpur (1959), and Delhi (1961). The President of India is the most
powerful person in the organisational structure of IITs, being the ex officio Visitor,[45] and having residual powers. Directly under the President is the IIT Council, which comprises the ministerin-charge of technical education in the Union Government, the Chairmen of all IITs, the Directors of all IITs, the Chairman of the University Grants Commission, the Director General of CSIR,
the Chairman of IISc, the Director of IISc, three members of Parliament, the Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, and three appointees each of the Union
Government, AICTE, and the Visitor.[46]
Under the IIT Council is the Board of Governors of each IIT. Under the Board of Governors is the Director, who is the chief academic and executive officer of the IIT.[47] Under the Director, in

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the organisational structure, comes the Deputy Director. Under the Director and the Deputy Director, come the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the Students' Council,
and Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer of the IIT and overviews the day-to-day operations.[47] Below the Heads of Department
(HOD) are the faculty members (Professors, Associate Professors, and Assistant Professors). The Wardens come under the Chairman of the Hall Management Committee.[48]

first test called the JEE (Main), will be held during the month of April 2013 (both offline and online). This test will be conducted by CBSE. The second test, called the JEE (Advanced), will be
held on 2 June 2013 (only offline). Only 1,50,000 of the top rankers in JEE(Main), which includes students from all categories( GE, OBC(NCL), SC and ST ) will be eligible to appear in
JEE(Advanced).Admissions to IITs will be based only on category wise All India Rank (AIR) in JEE(Advanced) subject to the condition that such candidates are in the top 20 percentile of
successful candidates of their Boards in applicable categories.
many western universities that have an elected senate, the IITs have an academic senate. It controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations and results, and appoints
committees to look into specific academic matters. The teaching, training and research activities of the institute are periodically reviewed by the senate to maintain educational
standards.[60] The Director of an IIT is the ex-officio Chairman
IITs have a special status as Institutes of National Importance under the Indian Institute of Technology Act, due to which the degrees provided by IITs need not be recognised by
the AICTE.[73] The
In Indian context, the issuances of banks, select financial institutions ( NABARD, EXIM, SIDBI), central and state governments' issuances are termed as bonds whereas all other corporates are
allowed to issue debentures. The idea is that when it comes to debentures the issuances and approvals pertaining to the terms are governed by the companies act and therefore it's
compulsory to have an account with exchange to trade in same. On the other hand, bonds are governed by RBI. For trading them, you don't need to be registered on an exchange. The
requirement is of a direct account with RBI or a custody account with a bank.

Hong Kong
Hong Kong's WW2 history
Q. What is hong kong famous for?
1. financial hub, gateway to china, disneyland :-)
is hk monetary system good for india? economic system? laissez faire?
Q. Why can't we have a disneyland in India?
1. big affair, expensive tickets. HK caters to China.
2. As S Asian middle class grows, Disney won't be able to ignore India.
Q. Should government give subsidies for establishment of disneyland?
1. advantages - tourism, employment, investment.
2. carefully weigh the opportunity costs of money, R&R.
Q. Do you mean governments should not incentivise investment?
1. should. because important to grow overall size of the pie.
2. clear, objective guidelines. discretion and granting incentives on ad hoc basis should be avoided. often corporates misuse their influence.
3. parliament should wield more influence. example of coal mines.
Q. What are the differences in both societies?
1. women are truly liberated - demographic dividend pool in india.
2. education - abide by rules, corruption, rule of law.
3. poverty, equality of opportunity.
Q. But in India so many educated people openly flout rules. How can you say education makes people more law abiding and gives civic sense?
1. They do so because they think they can bend the system. even if they were uneducated they would have flouted rules. rule of law.
2. other side of the story - some of them think these things are wrong because of education.
Q. Why is corruption so low in Hong Kong?
1. rule of law, educated people - know rights. overall a better system is created.
2. e-governance, ombudsman.
Q. Don't you think HK is more materialistic than us?
1. insufficient experience to compare in detail - but I think we are already growing materialistic. even there i found people who value friendship, relationships, parents. I don't see how
they are different from us.
HK is a special admin region of china.Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after the First Opium War (183942). Originally confined to Hong Kong Island, the colony's
boundaries were extended in stages to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and then the New Territories in 1898. It was occupied by Japan during the Pacific War, after which the British resumed
control until 1997, whenChina resumed sovereignty.Under the principle of "one country, two systems", Hong Kong has a different political system from mainland China.Although it has a
burgeoning multi-party system, a small-circle electorate controls half of its legislature. That is, the Chief Executive of Hong Kong, the head of government, is chosen by an Election
Committee of 400 to 1,200 members, a situation that will be in effect during the first 20 years of Chinese rule. public transport travelling rate exceeding 90 percent,
In 1839 the refusal by Qing Dynasty authorities to import opium resulted in the First Opium War between China and Britain. Hong Kong Island was occupied by British forces on 20 January
1841 and was initially ceded under the Convention of Chuenpee as part of a ceasefire agreement between Captain Charles Elliot and Governor Qishan, but the agreement was never ratified
due to a dispute between high-ranking officials in both governments.[62] It was not until 29 August 1842 that the island was formally ceded in perpetuity to the United Kingdom under
the Treaty of Nanking. The British established a crown colony with the founding of Victoria City the following year.[63]
Under British rule, the population of Hong Kong island had increased from 7,450 Chinese residents, mostly fishermen, in 1841 to over 115,000 Chinese and 8,754 Europeans in Hong Kong
(including Kowloon) in 1870.[64]
In 1860 after China's defeat in the Second Opium War, the Kowloon Peninsula andStonecutter's Island were ceded in perpetuity to Britain under the Convention of Peking.

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In 1894 the deadly Third Pandemic of bubonic plague spread from China to Hong Kong, causing 50,000100,000 deaths.[65]
In 1898 under the terms of the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory, Britain obtained a 99-year lease of Lantau Island and the adjacent northern lands, which became known
as the New Territories.[66] Hong Kong's territory has remained unchanged to the present.[67][68] Hong Kong's population recovered quickly as a wave of migrants from China arrived for refuge
from the ongoing Chinese Civil War. When the PRC was proclaimed in 1949, more migrants fled to Hong Kong for fear of persecution by the Communist Party.[66] Many corporations in
Shanghai and Guangzhou shifted their operations to Hong Kong.[66]
construction of Shek Kip Mei Estate in 1953 followed a massive slum fire, and marked the beginning of the public housing estate programme designed to cope with the huge influx of
immigrants. Trade in Hong Kong accelerated even further when Shenzhen, immediately north of Hong Kong, became a special economic zone of the PRC, and Hong Kong was established
as the main source of foreign investment in China.[73] The manufacturing competitiveness gradually declined in Hong Kong due to the development of the manufacturing industry in southern
China beginning in the early 1980s. By contrast, the service industry in Hong Kong experienced high rates of growth in the 1980s and 1990s after absorbing workers released from the
manufacturing industry
In accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration, and the underlying principle of one country, two systems, Hong Kong has a "high degree of autonomy as a special administrative
region in all areas except defence and foreign affairs.primary pillars of government are the Executive Council, the civil service, the Legislative Council, and the Judiciary. The Executive
Council is headed by the Chief Executive who is elected by the Election Committee and then appointed by the Central People's Government.[87][88] The civil service is a politically neutral
body that implements policies and provides government services, where public servants are appointed based on meritocracy.[24][89] The Legislative Council has 60 members, half of whom are
directly elected by universal suffrage by permanent residents of Hong Kongaccording to five geographical constituencies. The other half, known as functional constituencies, are directly
elected by a smaller electorate, which consists of corporate bodies and persons from various stipulated functional sectors. The entire council is headed by thePresident of the Legislative
Council who serves as the speaker.[90][91] Judges are appointed by the Chief Executive on the recommendation of an independent commission.[19][92] implementation of the Basic Law,
including how and when the universal suffrage promised therein is to be achieved, has been a major issue of political debate since the transfer of sovereignty. In 2002, the government's
proposed anti-subversion bill pursuant toArticle 23 of the Basic Law, which required the enactment of laws prohibiting acts of treason and subversion against the Chinese government, was
met with fierce opposition, and eventually shelved.
In 2004 the government failed to gain pan-democrat support to pass its so-called "district council model" for political reform.[96] In 2009, the government reissued the proposals as the
"Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012". The document proposed the enlargement of the Election Committee, Hong
Kong's electoral college, from 800 members to 1,200 in 2012 and expansion of the legislature from 60 to 70 seats. The ten new legislative seats would consist of five geographical
constituency seats and five functional constituency seats, to be voted in by elected district council members from among themselves.[97] The proposals were destined for rejection by pandemocrats once again, but a significant breakthrough occurred after the Central People's Government accepted a counter-proposal by the Democratic Party. In particular, the Pan-democracy
camp was split when the proposal to directly elect five newly created functional seats was not acceptable to two constituent parties. The Democratic Party sided with the government for the
first time since the handover and passed the proposals with a vote of 4612.[98]Hong Kong has a unitary system of government; no local government has existed since the two municipal
councils were abolished in 2000.
The Hong Kong Government has traditionally played a mostly passive role in the economy, with little by way of industrial policy and almost no import or export controls. Market forces and
the private sector were allowed to determine practical development. Under the official policy of "positive non-interventionism", Hong Kong is often cited as an example of laissez-faire
capitalismFollowing the Second World War, Hong Kong industrialised rapidly as a manufacturing centre driven by exports, and then underwent a rapid transition to a service-based economy
in the 1980s.[143] Since then, it has grown to become a leading center for management, financial, IT, business consultation and professional services.[141] Government intervention, initiated
by the later colonial governments and continued since 1997, has steadily increased, with the introduction of export credit guarantees, a compulsory pension scheme, a minimum wage, antidiscrimination laws, and a state mortgage backer.
The government maintains a policy of "mother tongue instruction" (Chinese: ) in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese,[178] with written Chinese and English. In secondary
schools, 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised, and Mandarin-language education has been increasing
All land in Hong Kong is owned by the government and leased to private users. By restricting the sale of land leases, the Hong Kong government keeps the price of land at what some would
say are artificially high prices and this allows the government to support public spending with a low tax rate
In general Hong Kong has no capital gains tax. However, employees who receive shares or options as part of their remuneration are taxed at the normal Hong Kong income tax rate on the
value of the shares or options at the end of any vesting period less any amount that the individual paid for the grant.

Hong Kong's mini-constitution under China promises eventual democracy for the SAR, but little progress has been made over the past decade 2004, Beijing decreed that Hong
Kong could not have universal suffrage before 2012. In 2007, after the pan-democrats defeated a package of reforms almost identical to the ones proposed in November,
Beijing again postponed the date until at least 2017.
There is also concern that Beijing will allow universal suffrage only after Hong Kong passes some sort of antisedition law that could make it illegal to campaign for democracy in
the mainland the way Liu Xiaobo did or to call for the independence of Hong Kong, Tibet or the Uighur autonomous region of Xinjiang. In 2003 an antisedition bill proposed by
the local government was defeated after a million people took to the streets in protest. Beijing has not formally made the antisedition law a precondition to democracy, but there
have been subtle hints that it may be a factor: in December, Chinese President Hu Jintao praised Macau, China's other SAR, which has passed one.
To help people survive on such low incomes, the government provides public housing to about 50% of the population.
It is a far higher proportion than in the UK where less than 10% live in subsidised housing, but is beaten by Singapore, another supposed bastion of economic liberty, where
about 85% of people live in public housing.
In October, Hong Kong's leader announced it would provide more subsidised homes amid widespread discontent over sky-high property prices. The Hong Kong government

has a majority stake in Hong Kong Disneyland, which has made a loss each year since opening 2005, and is the major shareholder in MTR Corp, which runs the city's
underground and light rail network.
With low corporate and personal tax rates and no capital gains or inheritance tax, the government relies on land sales for revenue.
But this policy has fuelled the belief that the government favours powerful property developers over ordinary people.
A small number of developers, often owned by high-profile tycoons such as Li Ka-shing, have built fortunes from this system and they now dominate many other sectors of
the economy.

The colonial government kept control of a critical resource: land. It granted only limited leases, with the sole exception of the local headquarters of the Anglican church.
The property market that has since developed, an almost impenetrable blend of government and tycoons, could satisfy no free-m. property market's distortions feed
through to other sectors, such as retailing. Another exception to the free-market rule is the currency's peg at around $7.80 to the American dollar. And the state has also
had a habit of granting or tolerating monopolies, for example in gambling. Hong Kong's way has by no means been synonymous with perfect competition.

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The Haijin (Chinese: ; pinyin: Hi Jn; literally "sea ban") order was a ban on maritime activities imposed during China's Ming Dynasty and again at the time of the Qing Dynasty.
Intended to curb piracy, the ban proved ineffective for that purpose. Instead it imposed huge hardships on coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

And in 2008, in the midst of the global financial crisis, Hong Kong introduced universal deposit
insurance, which it had explicitly rejected in the 1960s. The law is set to expire at the end of the year,
but regulators and bankers say unofficially that it would be unthinkable for the territory to allow a
bank to collapse.
Perhaps the most intriguing change, although little noticed so far, is a new monopoly law, a draft of
which was entered into the government records on July 2nd. In principle, such a law should foster
competition. In practice, it is likely to extend the purview of the state into private business, not least
mergerswhile leaving established monopolies, often associated with the government, entrenched.
Behind the scenes some of these have been busily seeking exemptions.Only a few years ago it appeared that the
government's steps into the economy would be curtailed by experience. Heavy subsidies to create a Disney amusement park and a place called Cyberport, to encourage
the development of internet-related companies, both drew strong criticism. The park has not been a success and Cyberport is best known as an investment coup for the
tycoon who was able to obtain cheap land under an industrial scheme that could be resold as luxury flats.

2009 reform package


Main article: Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012
On 18 November 2009, the government published the "Consultation Document on the Methods for Selecting the Chief Executive and for Forming the LegCo in 2012" which proposed to
enlarge the Election Committee for the chief executive election from 800 members to 1,200 in 2012 and increasing the number of Legislative Council members from 60 to 70. It would also
give elected District Council members more seats on the Election Committee and five of the new LegCo seats.[22]

2005 reform package


The government put out its blueprint for the so-called 'district council model' for electing the chief executive and the legislature in 2007 and 2008. It suggest increasing the number of Legco
seats from 60 to 70. Of the 10 new seats, five will go to geographical constituencies. The remaining five will be elected among 529 district council members, including 102 government
appointees.[17]
Hong Kong Basic Law Article 23 is the basis of a security law proposed by theGovernment of Hong Kong. It states: [1]
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region shall enact laws on its own to prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition, subversion against the Central People's Government,
or theft of state secrets, to prohibit foreign political organizations or bodies from conducting political activities in the Region, and to prohibit political organizations or bodies of
the Region from establishing ties with foreign political organizations or bodies.
On 24 September 2002, the government released its proposals for the anti-subversion law. It is the cause of considerable controversy and division in Hong Kong, which operates as a
separate legal system in accordance with the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Protests against the bill resulted in a massive demonstrations on 1 July 2003. In the aftermath, two Executive
Committee members resigned and the bill was withdrawn after it became clear that it would not get the necessary support from theLegislative Council for it to be passed. The bill was then
shelved indefinitely.
to advise on the eradication of corruption. It supported the creation of the Basic Law on Independent Commission against Corruption Ordinance in February of
1974, which instantiated the Independent Commission against Corruption (ICAC). Hong Kongs success in substantially reducing corruption has been hard earned by
a close partnership between the community and the ICAC. ICAC has the powers of investigation, arrest, and detention and of granting bail, which are fundamental
to any law enforcement agency. It contributed to maintaining Hong Kong as a fair, just, stable and prosperous community. It also educated the public against the
evils of corruption by the use of television and radio commercials, as well as by printing advertisements to publicize the work of the ICAC.The Corruption Prevention
Department examines practices and procedures of government departments and public bodies to reduce corruption opportunities and offers corruption prevention
advice to private organizations upon request. so ICAC officers can arrest and detain each other without a warrant. They are not affected by personnel
administration, and usually get higher salaries than other governmental officials which helps combat any inclination to accept monetary gifts.Singapore demands
that administrative officials strengthen self-control or self-inspection for the purpose of eradicating the causes of corruption. By providing high salaries, rewards
and excellent working conditions for the public officials, Singapore makes them more devoted to their work and thus helps prevent possible corruption (Quah, 1995,
1999).
Thousands of people joined in this cry. The proverbial last straw on the camel's back came when a corrupt expatriate police officer Peter Godber, who amassed assets worth HK$4 million.
During the week when he had been given notice by the Attorney General to explain details of his assets, he managed to flee the country on June 8, 1973.
Godber's escape unleashed a public outcry. Students spearheaded a mass rally in Victoria Park, protesting and condemning the government for failing to tackle the corruption problem.
Demanding prompt government action, protesters took to the streets.Under pressure, the government was quick to take action. Sir Alastair Blair-Kerr, a senior judge, was appointed to form a
commission of inquiry into Godber's escape.
Sir Alastair, in his report, pointed out that unless an independent agency of anticorruption is set up, the people will never be convinced that the government is serious about fighting
corruption.
This led Governor Sir Murray MacLehose (who then was the head of the government) to vociferously advocate an independent anticorruption organisation in a speech at the Legislative
Council in October 1973.
Thus, the ICAC was established in February 1974. The first job of the ICAC was to complete Godber's trial. He was extradited from England, found guilty of conspiracy and taking bribes, and
sentenced to four years' imprisonment.This landmark judgment kicked off a new era of transparency in Hong Kong. Initially, newspaper editorials and cartoons poked fun and showed
cynicism towards the ICAC, stating that if a corrupt head is in charge of it, there is no hope.
However, when over 200 police officers were arrested in the first year itself on charges of corruption, people realised that the ICAC meant business. A survey 2010 showed that 95% of people

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had faith in the working of the ICAC.The ICAC right from its inception has adopted a strategy to fighting corruption on three fronts the operations department, the corruption prevention
department and the community relations department.In a recent public speech, Tony Kwak Man-wai, former head of operations for 27 years with the ICAC, stated: "One of (the ICAC's)
success factors is its three-pronged strategy fighting corruption through deterrence, prevention and education. All three are important but in my view, deterrence is the most important.

On trial are property-mogul brothers Thomas and Raymond Kwok of Sun Hung Kai Properties HK:0016 +0.97%
secretary Raphael Hui with 34 million Hong Kong dollars ($4.4 million) in cash, loans and other inducements.

SUHJY +1.53% and two others who are accused of providing former chief

Rajasthan, Jaipur, Kanpur, Lucknow, Hyderabad


Created: 1/19/2013 8:56 PM
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ganesh_Shankar_Vidyarthi

Dara Singh and Sorahbuddin encounter cases

Solar energy in Rajasthan


1. Rajasthan is one of the leading states of India in the field of solar energy. The total photovoltaic capacity has passed 500 MW, at the end of the 2012-13 fiscal year.
2. Jodhpur leads with 293 MW, followed by Jaisalmer and Bikaner.
3. A 4,000MW Ultra Mega Green Solar Power Project (UMPP) is being built near Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan.
1. It would be set up and run by a joint venture of five public sector utilities Bhel, Powergrid Corporation of India, Solar Energy Corporation of India, Hindustan Salts limited and
Rajasthan Electronics & Instruments Limited.
2. The first phase of the project, which would be 1,000 mw is expected to be commissioned in 2016.
3. Notably, Rs 5.50 per unit would be the lowest ever tariff for solar power in the country.
Solar Processing Zone
1. A 35,000 km2 (14,000 sq mi) area of the Thar Desert has been set aside for solar power projects, sufficient to generate 700 to 2,100 GW.
2. The Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Park at Dhursar village near Pokran in the Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan is one of a large number of solar parks expected to be built in a 35,000 km2
area of the Thar Desert that has been reserved for solar power projects.
3. Jodhpur, for long the capital of Marwar Kingdom, is called the Sun City and Jaisalmer, famous for sand dunes, is known as the Desert City. In between these two historic cities, in
the interiors of the Thar desert we have created a solar oasis called as Rajasthan Solar Processing Zone (Raj SPZ). The first private solar park in India with 100MW capacity.

Bhadla Solar Park, Jodhpur District, Rajasthan.


Key features of Solar Park:
10,000 hectares of land identified for the park
3000 MW capacity of solar power plants to be set up
Three more solar parks
Three more solar parks
In addition to Bhadla Solar Park in Jodhpur, three additional solar parks are in the pipeline; one in Jaisalmer, where 16,000 hectares of government land
have been identified as potential sites, and the other two in the city of Bikaner and the town of Barmer, both in the northwest of Rajasthan.

Tourism in Rajasthan

1. The share of Rajasthan tourism to the state Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is 13.68 per cent.
2. Total foreign tourist in India: 6.5 mm. Rajasthan gets 1.5 mm.
Q. Reasons for Rajasthan being a bimarou state.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Backward economy. Per capita income (47K < 60K) < national average. Share of agriculture is 22%, share of services is only 48%.
Water scarcity and other resources.
High tribal population (13%).
Traditional discrimination against women.
Difficult terrain.

Q. Rajasthan's position according to HDI ? Why is it so low ?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Backward economy. Per capita income (47K < 60K) < national average. Share of agriculture is 22%, share of services is only 48%.
Literacy poor, high tribal population.
Poor health delivery.
Difficult terrain.

Rajasthan's position is 17th with 0.434 HDI and is low HDI state.

Q. What do u know about SEZs in Rajasthan?


1. Mahindra World City (Jaipur) Ltd. Kalwara Village, Jaipur, Rajasthan IT/ITES
2. Kisan Udyog khara, Bikaner.

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3. AIC Hindoun City.


4. Kaladwas Industrial Estate (SEZ) Udaipur
Q. What are the problems of industry in Rajasthan?
1. Creation of skilled manpower is required, low literacy, low female participation.
2. Acquisition of land is another problem.
3. No effective single window system. SWS do not have a common application form (CAF). As a result, entrepreneurs have to separately fill the requisite forms of each
department/agency. This process leads to multiple visits by the entrepreneurs to the departments concerned.
4. Lack of water.
5. Low income leading to lack of local demand. Poverty now is 25%.
Q. What are the strengths of Rajasthan for industrial development?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Delhi - Gujarat corridor.


Higher education.
Low cost.
Good roads, power situation.

Q. Why is Rajasthan lagging behind in services (only 48% compared to 60% national)
1. Poorer state (5% of population, 3% of GDP).
2. Backward in education.
Jal Mahal SC Decision
The Supreme Court has given its nod to the controversial Jal Mahal tourism development project near Jaipur's Mansagar lake with certain modifications in the 2005 lease deed, executed
by the state government and scrapped by the Rajasthan High Court in 2012.
A bench of justices Gyan Sudha Misra and Pinaki Chandra Ghose last month set aside the High Court verdict cancelling the multi-crore rupees Jal Mahal tourism development project
adjoining the 17th century lake.
It, however, reduced the lease period for from 99 to 30 years and also said that some portion of the leased out 100- acre land will be kept aside to be under the control of the state
government as it formed part of the adjoining lake.

Police Performance Measuring System


In a bid to increase the efficiency of cops including the station house officers (SHO)s and investigating officers, the Rajasthan police headquarters have introduced a new monthly grading
system. Cops would be given marks starting from one to 10 while dealing and solving different crime cases and in case of negligence, corruption charges and indiscipline minus marking
would be done. And this would be done by computer-generated system to avoid biases.
There are at least 17 indicators which are put in software which will have to be filled up by the police station level officers on everyday basis. Out of every month he or she will get marks.
And these marks would be added in the annual performance appraisal of the cops.
There would be separate marking in plus for promptness in investigation, reaching at the crime scene and control the situation, behavior with the complainants, reduction of crime in the
area, execution of warrants, seizure of stolen goods, getting breakthrough in crimes varying from theft, murder and dacoity."
And most importantly scoring goods marks can also fetch out of the way promotion to the concern cop and also demotion.
However if he will face any disciplinary action on any negligence, facing corruption charges and is unable to control a mob where SP or IG rank officer intervened, he will have to get a
negative marking,"

Jaisalmer Fort Cleanup & Manvendra Singh Shekhawat


- I love Jaisalmer campaign was started by him.
- In the first, I mobilized hoteliers, members of guide welfare, some residents , officials and tourism department. All I asked for was manpower, not money,"
- After scrubbing clean the approach road, Shekhawat has now taken upon himself the job of cleaning the Gadisagar Lake and Sonar fort.

Rajendra Singh - Waterman


- Johad / Tankas: These are simple mud and rubble barriers built across the contour of a slope to arrest rainwater. They are built across a slope with a high embankment on the three
sides while the fourth side is left open for the rainwater to enter. They are very common in the Thar
- There was a severe drought in Alwar district in Rajasthan during 1985-86. In 1985, volunteers from the Tarun Bharat Sangh (TBS), a voluntary organization led by Rajendra Singh,
came to Alwar.
- The Alwar District had once thrived, but logging, mining, and other industrial activities resulted in land degradation that intensified flooding and droughts. The traditional water
management system using Johads was abandoned. TBS revived the tradition of building Johads.
- Rajendra Singh (born 6 August 1959) is a well known water conservationist from Alwar district, Rajasthan in India. Also known as "waterman of India", he won the RamonMagsaysay
Award for community leadership in 2001

Lucknow

History
- Lakshmana, who was the brother of Lord Rama, laid the foundation of the ancient city. It was then called Lakshmanpur.
- Awadh's political unity can be traced back to the ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala, withAyodhya as its capital. Modern Awadh finds historical mention only in the time of Akbar, in the
late 16th century.
- Nawab - the plural of the Arabic word 'naib', meaning 'assistant' - was the term given to governors appointed by the Mughal emperor all over India to assist him in managing the Empire.

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- In the beginning, Faizabad (founded by Nawab Saadat Khan) was the capital of Oudh. It was shifted to Lucknow by Nawab Asaf ud daula in 1775 and also built Bara Imambara. Oudh
Nawabs were Iranis.
- The Bara Imambara was built in the year 1784 by the fourth Nawab of Awadh known as Asaf-ud-Daula. It was built as a part of a relief project for a major famine that took place in the
year 1784. It is also called Asfi Imambara after the name of the Nawab who got it constructed. The central hall of Bara Imambara is said to be the largest arched hall in the world. The
roof stands steady till date without any pillars to support it.
- The Bara Imambara is known for its incredible maze called Bhulbhulaiya. It is said that great treasures are hidden in the secret tunnels of this maze.
- Chhota Imambara also known as Hussainabad Imambara was built by Muhammad Ali Shah, it was to serve as his own mausoleum. It is also known as the Palace of
Lights because of its decorations during special festivals. The chandeliers used to decorate the interior of this building was brought from Belgium. Thousands of labourers worked on the
project to gain famine relief.
- The British Residency of Lucknow is a famous historical landmark of this place. It served as a refuge for approximately 3000 British inhabitants for almost 90 days during the uprising
of 1857. The Residency still has the graves of around 2000 British soldiers who died in the Revolt of 1857. Only a 1000 inhabitant survived this tough ordeal. On November 17th, the
British troops led by Sir Colin Campbell defeated the Indian forces.
- The British appointed a resident in 1773, and over time gained control of more territory and authority in the state. They were disinclined to capture Awadh outright, because that would
bring them face to face with the Marathas and the remnants of the Mughal Empire.
- In 1798, the fifth Nawab Wazir Ali Khan alienated both his people and the British, and was forced to abdicate. The British then helped Saadat Ali Khan to the throne. Saadat Ali Khan
was a puppet king, who in the treaty of 1801 ceded half of Awadh to the British East India Company and also agreed to disband his troops in favour of a hugely expensive, British-run
army.
- Coins in the name of the Mughal emperor continued to be struck. It was only in 1819 that Nawab Ghaziuddin Haidar finally started to strike coins in his own name.
- Lucknow became the provincial capital in 1920 when the seat of government was moved from Allahabad.
Economy
Lucknow is famous for its small scale industries that are based on unique styles of embroidery, namely, Chikan and Lak hnawi Zardozi, both of which are significant foreign
exchange earners.
Zardozi is a Persian word that means Sewing with gold string.
Chikan was introduced by Nur Jehan Creation of a chikan piece begins with the use of one or more pattern blocks that are used to block-print a pattern on the ground fabric. The
embroiderer then stitches the pattern, and the finished piece is carefully washed to remove all traces of the printed pattern.[4]

Kanpur
History

- Just after creating the universe, Lord Brahma performed the Ashvamedha at Bithoor and established a lingam there.
- Another legendary site at Bithoor is the Valmiki Ashram, where Valmiki wrote Ramayana. Seeta spent her days in seclusion at the Bithoor ashram
bringing up her twin sons, Lava and Kush.
- Kanpur is believed to have been founded by members of the Chandela dynasty. The city's name is believed to derive from Kanhiyapur Others believe that the name is derived
from Karnapur .
- 1207 AD, Raja Kanti Deo of Prayag (connected to the throne of Kannauj) established the village Kohna, which later came to be known as Kanpur.
- The first mention of Kanpur was made in 1579 during Sher Shah's regime.
- Up to the first half of the 18th century, Kanpur was an insignificant village. Kanpur passed into British hands under the treaty of 1801 with Nawab Saadat Ali Khan of Awadh. Kanpur
was an important British garrison.

Satti Chaura Massacre & Kanpur Massacre


- During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, 900 British were besieged in the fortifications for 22 days by rebels under Nana Sahib Peshwa. They surrendered on
the agreement that they would get safe passage to the nearby Satti Chaura Ghat whereupon they would board boats and be allowed to go by river
to Allahabad.
- Soon afterwards, the departing British were shot at, by the rebel sepoys, and were either killed or captured. Many were killed and the remaining 200 British women and children were
brought back to shore and sent to a building called the Bibighar.
- After some time, the commanders of the rebels decided to execute their hostages. The rebel soldiers refused to carry out orders, and butchers from the nearby town were brought in
to kill the hostages three days before the British entered the city on July 18. The dismembered bodies were thrown into a deep well nearby.
- The British under General Neill retook the city and committed a series of retaliations against the rebel Sepoys and those unfortunate civilians caught in the area, including women,
children and old men. The Kanpur Massacre, as well as similar events elsewhere, were seen by the British as justification for unrestrained vengeance.
- The British dismantled the Bibighar and raised a memorial railing and a cross at the site of the well. In 1862, they built a church called All Souls' Cathedral in memory of those killed;
renamed the Kanpur Memorial Church.

Economy
- Kanpur was known as the "Manchester of India" during the 20th century.
- Industries like leather and textiles, pan masala (The famous brands -"Pan Bahaar" & "Pan Parag" and many others originated in the city), soaps and detergent, plastics, food
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processing, 2 wheelers, engineering are important.

- Kanpur has several locational advantages, i.e., location at a vantage point on four national highways; raw material availability for many industries, viz.
leather, food processing, plastics etc., proximity to large markets, availability of skilled manpower due to various institutes located within Kanpur and
existing traditional industrial base attracting skilled workers to the city.
- Akhilesh Yadav wants to set up a high-tech city in Kanpur on PPP model. It would house IT, financial institutions and hotels, auto companies, sewage and
effluent treatment plants.
Education
- HBTI = Harcourt Butler Technological Institute is the oldest technology institute in Kanpur.
- GSVM College = Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi Medical College
- Kanpur University is now called Chatrapati Shahuji Maharaj University
- Chandr Shekhar Azad Agricultural University, Central Pulse Research Institute, Leather Institute

Chandra Shekhar Azad & Kanpur


- After suspension of the non-cooperation movement in 1922 by Gandhi, Azad became more aggressive, socialist and revolutionary.
- He met Ram Prasad Bismil who had formed the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA). Azad was impressed with the aim of HRA, i.e., an independent India with equal rights and
opportunity to everyone without discrimination of caste, creed, religion or social status.
- On introduction, Bismil was impressed by Azad, when Azad reportedly put his hand over a lamp and did not remove it till his skin burnt.
- He was involved in the famous Kakori Train Robbery of 1925 and the shooting of J.P. Saunders at Lahore in 1928 to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai.
- Alfred Park, where he became "Shaheed", has been renamed Chandrashekhar Azad Park.

HRA
- HRA was formed by Bismil, Sachindra Sanyal in 1924 just after two year of the non co-operation movement. In the aftermath of the Kakori train robbery in 1925, the British clamped
down on revolutionary activities. Prasad,Ashfaqulla Khan, Thakur Roshan Singh and Rajendra Nath Lahiri were sentenced to death for.
- In 1912, Rasbihari Bose and Sachindra Nath Sanyal made an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Lord Hardinge by throwing a bomb at him in Delhi.
Sukhdev Thapar
- Sukhdev himself took active part in several revolutionary activities like the 'Prison hunger strike' in 1929;
- Sukhdev was the accomplice of Bhagat Singh, and Shivaram Rajguru who were involved in the assassination of Deputy Superintendent of Police, J.P. Saunders in 1928.
- Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw the bomb in the central assembly.

Kakori Train Robbery (1925) by Bismil and Ashfaqullah Khan


- One day while traveling on a train from Shahjahanpur to Lucknow Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil noticed every station master bringing money bags into the guard's cabin which was kept
there in cash chest. This cash chest was handed over to the station superintendent of Lucknow junction. Bismil decided to loot the government money.
- On August 9, 1925, train travelling from Saharanpur to Lucknow was approaching the town of Kakori, when one of the revolutionaries pulled the chain to stop the train and overpowered
the guard.
- Bismil was the pen name, real name was ram prasad. While Ashfaqullah Khan wrote under name of 'Hasrat'.
Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi
- Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi was born in Kanpur, was an Indian journalist, a leader of the Indian National Congress. He is mostly known as the founder-editor of the Hindi
language newspaper, Pratap
- It was through this paper that he waged his famous fights for the oppressed peasants of Rae Bareli, and faced many sedition charges and jail.
- He was a member of Swaraj Party.
- In 1931, Kanpur fell into an orgy of communal rioting. Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi threw himself in the midst of furious mobs. It was on this mission of mercy that he was butchered to
death by a mob.

Kachchwahas and Mughals


- Bharmal's elder brother Puranmal succeeded the throne in 1527 after Rana Sanga had lost Battle of Khanua (1527).
- Puranmal was the first person to realize that Mughals were trustworthy and was the first to offer services of Rajputs to Mughals.
- Puranmal fought in the battle of Mandrail in favour of Mughals in 1534 to win the fort of Bayana for them.
- Next year Bahadur Shah of Gujrat besieged the fort of Chittor, upon which Humayun himself started to fight against him. Rani Karmawati sent a Rakhi, but Humayun did not arrive in
time.
- If he would have arrived in time and helped Karmawati, perhaps it would have been Sisodias as their close allies.

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- Bharmal's policy towards Mughals was merely extension of his brothers policy.

Humayun and Karnawati and Panna Dhaya and Chittor Fort


- After Babur had captured the throne of Delhi in 1526 AD, Rana Sangram Singh or Rana Sanga of Mewar lead a confederation of RajputKings against Babur but lost the Battle of
Khanua in 1527 and died shortly afterwards from his wounds.
- Rani Karnavati was his widow and took up the regency in the name of her elder son Vikramjeet, a weak ruler.
- In the meantime, Mewar was attacked for the second time by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, at whose hands Vikramjeet had earlier received an defeat.
- Rani Karnavati wrote to the nobles to come forward for the sake of the honour of the Sisodias, and was able to persuade the nobles to fight for Mewar, if not for Vikramjeet. Their sole
condition was that Vikramjeet and Uday Singh should go to Bundi during the war for their personal safety.
- Rani also sent a Rakhi to his brother Mughal Emperor Humayun, calling him a brother and asking for help. Humayun abandoned an ongoing military campaign to ride to her rescue,
thus her name became irrevocably linked to the festival ofRaksha Bandhan.
- Rani Karnavati agreed to send her sons to Bundi and told her trusted maid Panna to accompany them and take good care of them.
- In 1537, Banbir killed Vikramaditya and usurped the throne. He tried to kill Udai Singh also, but Udai's nurse Panna Dhai sacrificed her own son to save him from his uncle Banbir and
took him to Kumbhalgarh.
- The fort was sacked three times between 14th and 16th centuries; in 1303 Allauddin Khilji defeated Rana Ratan Singh, in 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat defeated
Bikramjeet Singh and in 1567 Emperor Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II who left the fort ( jaimala and patta bravely fought but died) and founded Udaipur. Each time the men
fought bravely rushing out of the fort walls charging the enemy but lost every time. Following these defeats, Jauhar was committed thrice by more than 13,000 ladies and children of the
Rajput heroes who laid their lives in battles at Chittorgarh Fort, first led by Rani Padmini wife of Rana Rattan Singh who was killed in the battle in 1303, and later by Rani Karnavati in
1537 AD.( siege of 1303, 1535, 1567 AD).

Jaipur
History
- Vidyadhar Bhattacharya was the chief architect of Jaipur under Sawai Jai Singh II. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand
(Moon) Pol.

- first planned city of its time, Jaipur was planned by Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, a Bengali architect, in a grid system with wide straight avenues, roads,
streets and lanes and uniform rows of shops on either side of the main bazaars, all arranged in nine rectangular city sectors (chokris).
- In 1876, during the regime of Sawai Ram Singh, the whole city was painted pink to welcome Prince of Wales. Albert Museum also came up then only.
Tourist Attractions
Nahargarh
- The fort was originally named Sudarshangarh, but it became known as Nahargarh, which means 'abode of tigers'.
- The popular belief is that Nahar here stands for Nahar Singh Bhomia,[1] whose spirit haunted the place and obstructed construction of the fort.[2] Nahar's spirit was pacified by building
a temple in his memory within the fort, which thus became known by his name.
- It was built in 1734 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur.
- During the Indian Mutiny of 1857, the Europeans of the region, including the British Resident's wife, were moved to Nahargarh fort by the king of Jaipur, Sawai Ram Singh, for their
protection
Hawa Mahal
- It was built in 1799 by Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh, and designed by Lal Chand Ustad in the form of the crown of Krishna.
- The original intention of the lattice was to allow royal ladies to observe everyday life in the street below without being seen.
- Royal family of Jaipur, during their reign, also used the palace as a hot weather retreat, during the suffocating summer season of Jaipur, for several years,
since the unusually designed window screens provided the much needed cool breeze and ventilation.
Jantar Mantar

- Therefore jantar mantar means literally 'calculation instrument


- The Samrat Yantra, the largest instrument, ts shadow carefully plotted to tell the time of day.
Amber Fort
- Amer Fort was built by Raja Man Singh I.
- built with red sandstone and marble consisting of the Diwan-e-Aam, the Diwan-e-Khas, the Sheesh Mahal or Jai Mandir, and the Sukh Niwas where a cool climate is artificially created
by winds that blow over the water cascade within the palace.

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- At the entrance to the palace near the forts Ganesh Gate, there is also a temple dedicated to Sila Devi, a goddess of the Chaitanya cult which was given to Raja Man Singh when he
had defeated the Raja of Jessore, Bengal in 1604. called it as Sila Devi as it was carved out of one single piece of a stone slab.
- This fort, along with Jaigarh Fort, located immediately above on the Cheel ka Teela (Hill of Eagles) of the sameAravalli range of hills, is considered as one complex, as the two are well
connected by a subterranean passage. This passage was meant as an escape route
- Amer was known in the medieval period as Dhundar (got its name from the Dhund river) and ruled by the Kachwahas from the 11th century onwards between 1037 and 1727 AD, till
the capital was moved from Amer to Jaipur.
- Earlier to the Kachwahas, Amer was a small place built by [Meenas] in the town they consecrated to Amba, the Mother Goddess, whom they knew as `Gatta Rani'. Founded by
the Meena Raja Alan Singh.
- Main entry is through the Suraj Pole (Sun Gate) which leads to Jaleb Chowk. This was the place where armies would hold victory parades with their war bounty on their return from
battles. Ganesh Pol is the entry into the private palaces of the Maharajas. On the right side of the Jaleb Chowk there is a small but an elegant temple called the Sila Devi
Jaigarh
- The fort was built by Jai Singh II in 1726 to protect the Amber Fort.
- The fort features a cannon named Jaivana, which was then the world's largest cannon.
- It became one of the worlds most efficient Cannon foundry mainly due to the abundance of Iron ore mines in the vicinity of the fort. Most of those Cannons were massive mostly 16 ft
long and had to be prepared within a single day.
- Jaivana Cannon was never used in any battle. The cannon was fired only once with a charge of 100 kilograms of gunpowder and when fired covered a distance of about 35 kilometres.
The barrel is 20.19 foot (6.15 m) in length and weighs 50 tonnes. It has a diameter of 11 inches (280 mm).
City Palace
- The palace was built between 1729 and 1732, by Sawai Jai Singh II.
- It includes the Chandra Mahal and Mubarak Mahal

Sisodia Rani ka Bagh


- It is a hallmark of Sawai Jai Singh-2 love for his queen from Udaipur. The garden constructed in the year 1728 was a gift that the erstwhile founder of the
Pink City gave to his beloved queen
Jal Mahal
- Jal Mahal (meaning "Water Palace") is a palace located in the middle of the Man Sagar Lake. Jal Mahal, built by Sawai Pratap Singh in 1799 in the middle of the picturesque
Mansagar Lake as a summer palace.
- It got silted up heavily thereby reducing the surface area of the lake. The silt deposited (estimated to be about 2,500,000 cubic metres) was contaminated with effluents (untreated
sewage) from the city drainage causing intense eutrophication.
- As part of the restoration effort Jal Mahal, along with Mansagar Lake was leased out in 2005 for 99 years to Jal Mahal Resorts Pvt Ltd (JMRPL) -- a firm jointly owned by Kalpatru
Group and Jaipur jeweller Navrattan Kothari and Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation (RTDC) under a public private partnership by Ashok Gehlot. The government had provided
100 acres of land and permitted reclamation of 15 acres of land from the lake for the construction of resorts and hotels for a nominal fee of Rs 2.5 crore per annum.
- But the project has courted its share of controversies delaying the ambitious multi crore tourism project. JMRPL submitted a revised plan that permit increasing the number of rooms
from 200 to 435 in two proposed hotels, claiming additional land and this grossly violates the original conditions of the contract.
- The Ashok Gehlot government is accused of reversing the previous government's restriction of 35,000 sq m of built-up area as mentioned in the bid proposal to increase it three times,
thus allowing hotel capacity to increase from 200 rooms to 435 rooms with a likely provision of one more hotel.
- Also, the developer is accused of grossly undervaluing the property at Rs 35 crore and paid up Rs 1.43 crore as stamp duty. The states Director General Stamps reassessed the
property at Rs 1,600 crore in July this year and asked the company to deposit Rs 63 crore as stamp duty which has not yet been complied with.
- Complaints about violation in construction plan in the first phase and acquiring 15,000 sq m additional land have also been made against the company.
- Compounding the matter, the Rajasthan pollution control board has mentioned in its audit report that even after the implementation of a centrally sponsored Rs 20 crore projects for
cleaning up the Mansagar Lake, the quality of the water in the lake has not improved to the desired level which contradicts the claim of the JMRPL.

- The Supreme Court will now determine the future of Jaipur's Man Sagar lake and the famed 17th century monument in its middle, Jal Mahal. The
construction of a seven-star hotel and market complex spanning 100 acres of land around the monument was struck down by the Rajasthan High Court on
May 17, 2012 after three PILs claimed that the Ashok Gehlot government went out of its way to approve the project, on a 435 acre area estimated to be
worth Rs.15,000 crore, at an annual lease fee of Rs.2.52 crore.
- On September 4, a Supreme Court bench of Justices P. Sathasivam and Ranjan Gogoi adjourned until September 20 the hearing on an appeal against a
criminal case and arrest warrants against Vinod Zutshi, who headed Rajasthan Tourism Development Corporation when the project contract was signed in
2005, and Navratan Kothari of JRPL, who was represented by lawyer Abhishek Manu Singhvi.
- The government seemingly looked the other way as JRPLrolled out plans for massive commercial construction by reducing the lake size. Rajasthan High
Court, in its May 17 verdict, had observed that work in the first phase, where 15 acres of submerged land was reclaimed and the lake's water level reduced
to get another 85 acres of the lake bed, has already damaged the Man Sagar's ecosystem. The lake area has also been shrunk to ensure that commercial
establishments planned in the second phase-including two 435-room hotels, 200 shops, a multiplex, mall, convention centre, bar and a wedding court-are
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safe from water.


- But on August 21, 2012, the court's apprehensions were vindicated when just 177 mm of rain flooded Jaipur and outlying areas. The change in the lake
basin in the first phase appears to have affected the water flow and alignment of two crucial drains, Brahmapuri and Nagtalai. As a result, the lake water
began flowing in the reverse direction on August 21, the first time in four centuries. The flow razed most of the lake embankment along the Jaipur-Delhi
road, submerging it eight feet under water. The road leading to Amer Fort was cut off from the walled city and thousands of houses were flooded.
- Gehlot faces allegations of having been unduly accommodating towards the company, owned by Mofatraj Munot, billionaire promoter of the Kalpataru
Group, his friend of three decades. KGK Enterprises, which later became JRPL on November 10, 2004, was allowed by the government on October 17,
2003, to compete even though it had no prior experience in such projects.
Albert Hall
- fine example of Indo-Saracenic architecture. The building was designed by Sir Samuel Jacob and was opened as public museum in 1887.
- It is named after King Edward VII (Albert Edward), during whose visit to the city as the Prince of Wales, its foundation stone was laid on 6 February 1876. built by ram singh.
Govind Dev Temple
- The image of the deity (murti) was brought from Vrindavan here by Raja Sawai Jai Singh II, the founder of Jaipur. According to popular legend, Lord Krishna's image in the temple looks
exactly like Krishna's form during his incarnation on Earth.
- SHRI BAJRANABH WAS AROUND 13 YEARS OF AGE, he asked his Grand Mother(daughter-in-law of Lord Krishna) as to how Lord Shri Krishna looked like; Then He made an
image as per the description given by her. She however, said that not all but the Feet of that image looked like those of Lord Shri Krishna. He made another image, yet she said that the
Chest looked like that of Lord Shri Krishna. Thereafter, He made the Third Image and looking at the same she felt Blush and Nodded that yes that was what Lord Shri Krishna Looked
Like!!! The First One came to be known with the Name Lord "Madan Mohanji". The Second One got recognition as Lord "GOPI NATHJI". AND the Third One, The LIVE Divine Majestic
Holy Image is LORD "GOVIND DEVJI"
Galtaji

- The site consists of several temples and sacred k unds (water tanks) in which pilgrims bathe. It is believed that Saint Galav spent his life at Galtaji, practiced
meditation, and did penance
- The temple is dedicated to sun god.
8 Gates

- Eight gates for entering into the walled city of Jaipur. They are namely, Ajmeri gate, New gate, Sanganeri gate, Ghat gate, Surajpole gate, Samrat gate,
Zoravor Singh gate and Gangapole gate.
JLF
Asia's biggest literary festival. happening since 2006
- The Diggi Palace Hotel serves as the main venue of the festival.The festival directors are the writers Namita Gokhale and William Dalrymple and is produced by Sanjoy Roy of
Teamwork Productions. The Festival is an Initiative of the Jaipur Virasat Foundation founded by Faith Singh,

Economy
- Chief industries are metals, marble, jewelry (gold, diamond and stones), handicrafts.
- The 'Mojri' footwear is very common in Jaipur. It is made of soft camel leather and is designed and embroidered.
- The rulers of Jaipur patronized a number of arts and crafts. They also had good relations with the Mughals. They invited skilled artisans, artists and
craftsmen from India and abroad. The communities settled in the city and made Jaipur their home. As a result, Jaipur is a major hub for arts and crafts.
- Blue Pottery is Turko-Persian in origin. The name 'blue pottery' comes from the eye-catching blue dye used to color the pottery No clay is used: the 'dough' for the pottery is
prepared by mixing quartz stone powder, powdered glass, Multani Mitti, borax, gum and water. Some of this pottery is semi-transparent and mostly decorated with animal and
bird motifs. Being fired at very low temperature makes them fragile. The range of items is primarily decorative. It was brought to Jaipur by Sawai Ram Singh II. The Jaipur king had sent
local artisans to Delhi to be trained in the craft. However, by the 1950s, blue pottery had all but vanished from Jaipur, when it was re-introduced through the efforts of the muralist and
painter Kripal Singh Shekhawat,[3] with the support of patron Gayatri Devi.

Demography
- According to the 2011 census Jaipur district has a population of 66,63,971. ( 10th most populous dist in india ). Jaipur District has an area of 11,152 km.
Pop density 598, female ratio: 909, more than 50% urban pop.
- City pop: 36 lacs, city area: 467 sq. km. Jaipur is a metropolitan city coz pop > 1 mm. Mayor: Smt. Jyoti Khandelwal.
Geography
- Banas and Banganga are most important rivers.
- Maharaja Ram Singh also built Ramgarh lake to supply water to the burgeoning city.
Problems of Jaipur
- Water: To solve this, we need proper water management, stop encroachment on water bodies (Ramgarh, Amani Shah ka Nala, Jal Mahal).
- Traffic Jams: To solve this, we need to remove encroachments, restart various flyovers and roads, jaipur - delhi road, jaipur metro.
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- Handicrafts & industry: To encourage them, we need to provide good incentives, skill training, good infrastructure, exhibitions, marketing.
- What state needs more is higher speed trains between Delhi-Alwar-Jaipur and better road connectivity so that IT industry can spread from Gurgaon to Jaipur/Alwar. ALready Jaipur
has many engineering colleges.
- Power situation: Rajasthan has power deficit.

Jaipur Metro
- Present status: (a) The ninth Metro train arrived in Jaipur out of total 10 ordered. (b) an expert team continued the oscillation trials now at max speed of 90
kmph. After the trials only one more safety clearance would be needed. (c) The Jaipur Metro train in its first phase (Mansarovar to Chandpole) will have four
coaches on its 9.25-km route.
- Atul Gadgil, chief project manager of Delhi Metro Rail Corporation said. DMRC is the agency entrusted for building the Jaipur Metro project.
Controversy over Jaipur Metro and Barmer Refinery
- Vasundhara's criticism: (a) Metro not viable in Jaipur until 2025, even Sreedharan said when her govt. approached him in 2005. (b) Huge expenses of
Rs. 11,700 crores overall Rs. 3,400 crores in 1st phase could have been used to build many flyovers and roads. (c) Instead of building under PPP, govt
utilized its own funds. Due to this JDA has come under loss. (d) risks the heritage of jaipur.
- Vasundhara on Barmer refinery: (a) State's share is just 26% while HPCL is 74%. This is despite state offering land and interest free loan of Rs. 4000
crores. The oil too belongs to the state.
- Balanced view on Metro: (a) Phase 1 is over, huge money has been spent. But viability of Phase 2 can be assessed at this point. (b) Despite criticism,
Vasundhara has provided Rs. 486 crores for Metro in her budget. (c) What state needs more is higher speed trains between Delhi-Alwar-Jaipur and better
road connectivity so that IT industry can spread from Gurgaon to Jaipur/Alwar. ALready Jaipur has many engineering colleges.
- Balanced view on Refinery: (a) Agree state should have got a better deal, but to shelve project now will be loss to the state. Think about the employment
and industrial development project will yield to the state. (b) Despite her criticism, she has allocated Rs. 400 crore for the refinery in the budget. (c) Focus
should not be on fighting between centre and state, but to utilize the revenues properly and not to face resource curse.

Rajasthan Economy
Rajasthan is a major producer of textiles. Rajasthan is the second largest producer of polyester fibre in India. Bhilwara is the largest city in suitings production and export and Pali is
largest city in cotton and polyster in blouse pes and rubia production and export.
- Several prominent chemical and engineering companies are located in the city of Kota.
- Rajasthan is pre-eminent in quarrying and mining in India. The Taj Mahal was built from the white marble which was mined from a town called Makrana, Nagaur.
- The state is the largest producer of cement in India. Production happens in Ajmer, Pali, Bhilwara, Alwar. Reasons are: Presence of large limestone reserves, Well developed presence
of supply chain and marketing channels, Presence of lignite for the power development for captive consumption.
- It has rich salt deposits at Sambhar, copper mines at Khetri, Jhunjhunu and zinc mines at Dariba, Zawar mines at Zawarmala for zinc.
- Jodhpur sandstone is mostly used in monuments, important buildings and residential buildings. This stone is termed as "chittar patthar".
- Rajasthan produces 70% of countries Guar or gawar... which is used in shale gas fracking now.
- Biggest wool and opium producer in India.
Crude Oil
- Rajasthan is presently earning rupees 15 crore per day as revenue from crude oil sector. This earning is expected to reach Rupees 25 Crore per day in 2013 ( increase of 10 Crore or
more than 66 percent).
- Government of India has given permission to extract 3 lakh barrel of crude per day from Barmer region which is presently 1.75 lakh barrel per day. Once this limit is achieved
Rajasthan will become leader in Crude extraction in Country. Presently Bombay High is leading with 2.5 lakh barrel crude per day.
Tourism
- It accounts for 8% of GSDP and Rajasthan gets 15% of total foreign tourist arrivals.
Advantages of Rajasthan
- Location: Delhi --> Mumbai, DMIC, dedicated freight corridors, Golden Quad, good roads.
- Talent pool: So many engineering colleges
- Law and order: peaceful state.
- industry friendly governments and political stability.
- traditional skilled workforce.
- raw materials: Cash crops and minerals
Famous businessmen from Rajasthan

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- Ghanshyam Das Birla -- Pilani, his hometown in Rajasthan


- Gautam Singhania chairman of raymonf group
- Lakshmi Mittal Marwari born in Churu
- Sunil Bharti Mittal, Rahul Bajaj.
Mohan Lal Sukhadia
served as Chief Minister of Rajasthan for 17 years (19541971).
His record of longest-serving Chief Minister in Indian political history was untouched until Jyoti Basu surpassed it in 1994.
widely revered as Founder of Modern Rajasthan

Demography
Rajasthan covers 10.% of India. Forests cover 10% of Rajasthan.
6.86 crores population (2011) with density 200 per sq. km.
Literacy 67% ((80.51% male and 52.66% female).; 20th ) while in 2001 it was 60%. Now in 2011 -- its female literacy rate is the lowest in the country. Less than national avg of 74%
and male nation literacy of 82%.
-

HDI 0.637 ( 21st ) medium HDI score. As per PCs 2005 HDI data

Geography
- Aravali gives rise to several rivers, including the Banas, Luni, Sakhi, and Sabarmati. The Luni River drains the western slopes of the Aravallis.
- The Great Indian Bustard is also known as "Godavan".

Rajasthan Food and Folk Music and Language


- Rajasthani language survey was done by George Gearson. It has many dialects - Marwari, Mewari, Mewati, Shekhawati, Hadoti, Dhoondhari, Bagri (Ganganagar & Hanumangarh).
- The music is uncomplicated and songs depict day-to-day relationships and chores, more often focused around fetching water from wells or pond.
- cooking was influenced by both the war-like lifestyles of its inhabitants and the availability of ingredients in this arid region. Food that could last for several days and could be eaten
without heating was preferred. Scarcity of water and fresh green vegetables have all had their effect on the cooking. It is known for its snacks like Bikaneri Bhujia, Mirchi Bada and Pyaaj
Kachori. Other famous dishes include bajre k i roti (millet bread) and lashun k i chutney (hot garlic paste), mawa k achori from Jodhpur, alwar ka mawa, malpauas from Pushkar and
rassgollas from Bikaner

- There is a general belief amongst Hindus that no pilgrimage to the four principal pilgrim centres (Char Dham) namely, Badrinth, Jagannth,
Rmeshwaram and Dwarka, would be complete without a blessing that comes from bathing in the holy Pushkar Lake. Adh Din K Jhonpd, a Vaishnava
Hindu temple built in 1153 and converted into a mosque by Qubuddn Aybak in 1193,
- The initial spiritual chain or silsila of the Chishti order in India, comprising Moinuddin Chishti, Bakhtiyar Kaki, Baba Farid and Nizamuddin Auliya

Jaimal - Fateh, Udaipur and Pratap


- In 1562, he gave refuge to Baz Bahadur of Malwa. Using this as a pretext, Akbar attacked Mewar in October,1567.
- In 1568, during the reign of Pratap's father Rana Udai Singh II, Chittaur, the capital of Mewar, was conquered by the Mughal Emperor Akbar.
- Udai Singh had left Chittaur in the care of Jaimal, a Mertiyo Rathore and Jaimal's nephew Fateh. Maharana Pratap wanted to stay back for the defence of Chittaur but Mewar nobles
convinced him to leave. There was a Jauhar and Jaimal and Fateh died in the saka.

- When Chittaur fell, Udai Singh moved the capital to his residence at Udaipur, in a more defensible location in the foothills of the Aravalli Range.
- In 1572 after Udai Singh's death, Pratap became Rana of Mewar with the support of the elder nobles. Udai Singh wanted his son Jagmal to ascend the throne but Mewar nobles
favored Pratap, the eldest son.

- The turning point again came in 1582 when Rana Pratap defeated the Mughal army in Dewair (the northern entry point of Mewar connecting Marwar, Gujarat, Malwa and Ajmer). From
this battle onwards Rana Pratap moved from being defensive to offensive and in a very short time he regained all the lost land of Mewar except Ajmer and Chittor.
- He died in 1597 at the age of 57, due to an injury incurred by him while on a hunting trip.
- On the day of their meeting Maha Rana Pratap invited Man Singh for dinner. Maha Rana Pratap deliberately avoided attending the dinner in person and sent his son "Kunwar" Amar
Singh to dine with "Kunwar" Man Singh (as a custom Rajput men are called "Kunwar" in the lifetime of their father). The attitude of other Rajput nobles was also discouraging. They were
secretly making mockery of Man Singh as his aunt Jodhabaiwas married to Akbar. Man Singh took this as an insult to Akbar and himself. He knew Maha Rana Pratap was making an
excuse to avoid him. He refused to dine with Amar Singh. He remarked, "I will come again and then will have a dinner". Understanding the hidden meaning a noble of Pratap remarked
"well, don't forget to bring your uncle Akbar".
- Rana Pratap, himself, amazingly survived this battle. A nobleman, Jhala Man Singh, who pretended to be Rana Pratap, was killed by the Mughal forces. Jhala Man Singh put the
helmet of Rana Pratap on his head, though he knew he would be killed soon by doing this
- Bhamashah was a remarkable character who gave his whole wealth to Maharana Pratap. After battle of Haldighati Maharana Pratap had no resources at all to carry on the fight. Seth
Bhamashah then offered his whole wealth to Maharana. With this help Maharana could organise Bhil army and carried on the fight to preserve the independence.
Second capital of pratap chavanda ( apart from chottor )

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- Jauhar are the three occurrences at the fort ofChittaur (Chittaurgarh, Chittorgarh), in Rajasthan, in 1303 AD, 1535 AD, and in 1568 AD

Kanhad Dev of Jalore, Alauddin and Somnath Temple


- In 1298, Ala ud din Khilji's Mongol general Ulugh Khan asked permission of Kanhad Dev to march through Jalore to conquer Gujurat and destroy the temple at Somnath. When
Kanhad Dev refused a war ensued.
- In 1299 Ala ud din sacked the temple and broke the Shiva lingam that had been worshipped there. He was carrying the broken pieces back to Delhi when he was attacked and
defeated by Kanhad Dev armies.
- The broken pieces of the Shiva lingam were recovered. Kanhad had them washed in water from the Ganges river, which was regarded as sacred, and then placed within various Shiva
temples in and around Jalore.

Hammir of Ranthambore
- He was a direct descendant of Prithviraj Chauhan.
- In 1290 Jalaludin-Khilji, ruler of Delhi, attacked Hammir but was defeated by Hammir.
- In 1297 Allauddin sent an army to plunder Gujarat, under the generalship of Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan. This army looted the temple of Somnath and its Shivalinga was broken into
pieces and was being carried back to Delhi. Kanhad Dev, ruler of Jalore attacked and defeated Ulugh Khan and captured the broken Shivalinga. Muhammad Shah, a neo-Muslim general
in Khilji's army, helped Kanhad Dev Songara. In this war, Neo Muslims Muhammad Shah and Kamru attampted to assassinate Ulughkhan but failed. Hence they took refuge with
Hammir at Ranthambore.
- Ulugh Khan went and apprised Allauddin who ordered him and Nusrat Khan to conquer Ranthambore. In 1299 they started out with 80,000 cavalry and a large infantry to attack
Hammir. The Muslim governors tried to negotiate with Hammir and demanded for Muhammad shah and Kamrus death, 10,000 gold coins, 300 horses, 4 elephants and the hand of
Hammirs daughter Devaldevi. The terms were rejected. Hammir's army repulsed the attack and killed Nusrat Khan. Ulugh Khan escaped and reached Delhi.
- Khilji was taken aback by this defeat and wanted revenge. He finally came himself in 1301, and there was a long siege. When the fort did not fall after repeated bloody skirmishes,
Khilji resorted to treachery and won his brother Bhoj to his side. Bhoj started giving him secret information about the fort. Ultimately war was declared. Hamir Dev, himself, severed his
head and put it in front of Lord Shiva's idol as an offering.

Prithvi Raj Chauhan


- Char bans, chaubis gaj, angul ashta praman, ta upar sultan hai, chuke mat Chauhan

Bappa Rawal
- The founder of the Mewar Dynasty.
- Bappa Rawal played an important role in the Battle of Rajasthan, a series of wars fought in the 8th century AD between against Arabs of Sindh, in which the regional Indian rulers
inflicted a resounding defeat on the invading Arabs.
In 8th century A.D. Arab Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam, which was basically an extension of invasion of Persia. In order to ward off Muslim
invasions across the western and northern borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to stop the attacks. Bappa Rawal fought and defeated the
Arabs in the country and turned the tide for a while. Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was stopped by Bappa Rawal. Some accounts say that Qasim attacked Chittor,
which was ruled by Mori Rajputs, via Mathura. Bappa, of Guhilot dynasty, was a commander in Mori army and so was Dahir's son. Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim
through Saurashtra and back to Sindh.

Gujjar-meena issue
- Gurjar caste who were demanding a lower scheduled tribe status,instead of their current, higher OBC (Other Backward Class) status
- Kirori Singh Bainsla accepted the state government's offer for immediate 1% reservation in government recruitments. The remaining 4% quota is to be provided within three months of
the high court's clearance to 5% reservation for special backward classes (SBC) in the state
- The OBC commission was constituted under Justice IS Israni to review the social, educational and financial status of those communities listed under the OBC category
- The Rajasthan government accepted the state OBC commission report, paving way for five per cent reservation in government jobs and educational institutes to five communities,
including Gujjars, under Specially Backward Category.The reservation in the state is set to stand at 54 per cent, exceeding the 50 per cent cap of the Constitution,
- The Rajasthan High Court on 29 January 2013 stayed the state government's decision for giving 4 per cent additional reservation to Gurjar,Raika-Rebari,Gadia Luhar and Banjara
communities.

- A separate quota demand for the economically poor would be referred to the Rajasthan State Economically Backward Classes (EBC) Commission, which would be reconstituted
shortly. The previous BJP government had given 14% quota to this category under the reservation Act of 2008 that was stayed by the high court in 2010, as the total job reservation in
the state reached 68% exceeding the legal cap of 50%.

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Amul Brand
- In 1966, Amul hired Sylvester daCunha. daCunha designed an ad campaign as series of hoardings with topical ads, relating to day-to-day issues.

- The White Revolution of India inspired the notable Indian film-maker Shyam Benegal to base his film Manthan. The film itself was financed by over five lakh rural farmers in Gujarat who
contributed Rs 2 each to the film's budget. Upon its release, these same farmers went in truckloads to watch 'their' film, making it a commercial success

- The Amul girl was created as a response to Amul's rival brand Polson's butter-girl. It was executed by Sylvester Da Cunha, on hoardings, painted bus panels and posters in Mumbai.

Milk Constituents
- Milk has got mainly three constituents fat (3 to 6%), snf comprising of proteins, lactose, minerlas etc (8 9%) and water (85%).
- Due to the calving cycle, cow / buffaloe remain in milk for 8-9 months in a year. The high yielding and low yielding period is different in case of cow or buffaloe, but generally winters
are called flush season due to high production of milk whereas summers are called lean season when production is less. On the other hand, the demand is almost constant through out
the year. Hence during flush season, fat part of milk is preserved in form of white butter and snf in form of powder after evaporating water. These two contituents are mixed and
processed during lean season to meet the demand. So powder is nothing but preserved snf / fat of milk.

Jaipur Foot
- The idea of making Jaipur foot was first conceived by Ram Chander Sharma, who was under the guidance of Dr. P.K. Sethi, the HoD of Orthopedics at SMS.
- Jaipur Foot is fitted by Bhagwan Mahavir Viklang Sahyata Samiti.
- the prosthetic leg is inexpensive, quick to fit and manufacture and to be water-resistant. The Jaipur Foot is made of polyurethane which increases the durability and the convenience of
the leg.
- The Jaipur foot is superior to its SACH (Solid Ankle Cushion Heel) counterpart in certain ways, chiefly in terms of the range of movements it offers.

World Heritage Sites and National Parks in Rajasthan


- The six forts Chittorgarh, Kumbhalgarh, Jaisalmer, Ranthambhore (Sawai Madhopur), Gagaron (Jhalawar) and Amber (Jaipur) were recognised as serial World Heritage Sites.
- keoladeo, jantar mantar
- 5 Jantar Mantars are in Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, Varanasi.
- 5 National parks in Raj - Keoladeo, Ranthambore, Sariska, Desert National Park (attractions are great indian bustard and sand dunes), darrah national park (Kota).
- Sariska: In 2004, there were strong and persistent reports that no tigers were being sighted in Sariska Tiger Reserve in Rajasthan. It was not only that tigers were not being seen but
also and more alarmingly, there were no indirect evidence of the tigers' presence (such as pugmarks, scratch marks on trees, etc.) that are being found. The Rajasthan Forest
Department took the stand that "the tigers had temporarily migrated outside the reserve and would be back after the rains". There were some 16 tigers in the last years before. In
January 2005, journalist Jay Mazoomdaar broke the news [4] that there were no tigers left in Sariska. Soon the Rajasthan Forest Department and the Project Tiger Directorate declared
an "emergency tiger census" in Sariska and the Central Bureau of Investigation, India's premier intelligence agency, conducted a probe. After a two month exercise they finally declared
that Sariska indeed did not have any tigers left. Poaching was blamed to be one of the major reasons for the disappearance of tigers. 3 Tigers were re-introduced to Sariska Tiger
Reserve and authorities planned to introduce two more by the end of the next year.

Rao Bika
- He was son of Rao Jodha. Bikas grandfather Raimnal through palace intrigues had been drugged with opium and tied to his bed with his own turban and murdered.[2] Remembering
this Rao Bika had a special short lightweight bed made so his feet hung over the edge. The idea was that if the same thing happened to him he would still be able to stand up and fight
with it on his back.
- This bed is today on display in the Phul Mahal in Junagarh Fort in Bikaner.
- It is one of the few major forts in Rajasthan which is not built on a hilltop.
- Historical records reveal that despite the repeated attacks by enemies to capture the fort, it was not taken, except for a lone one-day occupation by Kamran Mirza.

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Durgadas Rathore
- He is credited with having preserved the rule of the Rathore dynasty over Marwar, India, following the death of Maharaja Jaswant Singh in the 17th century.
- In doing so he had to defy Aurangzeb. Prominent grandees of Marwar, including Durgadas, went to Delhi to plead the recognition of Ajit Singh as heir. Aurangzeb refused their request.

Sawai Jai Singh II


- The death of Aurangzeb (1707) at first only increased Jai Singhs troubles. He was on the losing side in the Mughal war of succession. Sawai Jai Singh formed an alliance with the
Rajput states of Mewar and Marwar, which defeated and expelled the Mughals from Rajputana.
- Jai Singh was appointed to govern the important provinces of Agra and Malwa.
- His strength lay in artillery and munitions with matchlock s instead of the traditional Rajputsword and shield . Sawai Jai Singh's experimental weapon, the Jaivana which he created
prior to the shift of his capital to Jaipur, remains the largest wheeled cannon in the world.
- The fast-spreading Maratha dominion and their raids into the north had caused alarm among the Rajput chiefsJai Singh called a conference of Rajput rulers at Hurda (1734) to deal
with this peril but nothing came of this meeting.
- In 1736 Peshwa Baji Rao imposed tribute on the Kingdom of Mewar. To thwart further Maratha domination Sawai Jai Singh planned a local hegemony, to form under the leadership of
Jaipur, a political union in Rajputana. He first annexed Bundi and Rampura in the Malwa plateau, made a matrimonial alliance with Mewar, and intervened in the affairs of
the Rathors of Bikaner and Jodhpur.
- These half-successful attempts only stiffened the backs of the other Rajput clans who turned to the very same Marathas for aid, and consequently hastened their domination over
Rajasthan
- Sawai Jai Singh was the first Hindu ruler in centuries to perform the ancient Vedic ceremonies like the Ashwamedha (1716)[3] sacrifices and the Vajapeya (1734).
- He initiated reforms in Hindu society like the abolition of Sati and curbing the wasteful expenditures in Rajput weddings. It was at Jai Singhs insistence that the hated jaziya tax,
imposed on the Hindu population by Aurangzeb (1679), was finally abolished by the Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1720.
- Five observatories were built at Delhi, Mathura (in his Agra province), Benares, Ujjain (capital of his Malwa province), and his own capital of Jaipur.[4]

Rana Kumbha
- vijay stambh was constructed by Mewar king Rana Kumbha between 1442 AD and 1449 AD to commemorate his victory over the combined armies of Malwa and Gujarat led by
Mahmud Khilji .

Bharatpur History
- Marharajah Badan Singh (Hindi:
) (17221756) was the formal founder of the princely state of Bharatpur. He was nephew of Churaman.
- Maharaja Suraj Mal (February 1707December 25, 1763) was ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India. he sheltered marathas after the panipat.

Meera
- She was from merta.
- She was married to son of Rana Sanga of Chittor. Her new family did not approve of her piety and devotion when she refused to worship their family deity- Tulaja Bhawani (Durga).
- Her husband's death in battle (in 1521 AD) was only one of a series of losses Meera experienced. Her father-in-law, Rana Sanga respected and protected Meera Bai. However; he also
died after a few years and Meera was then persecuted by the rest of her in-laws.
- Her brother-in-law, the new ruler of Chittorgarh, Vikramaditya, was a cruel youth who strongly objected to Meera's devotion, her mixing with commoners and carelessness of feminine
modesty. Vikramaditya made several attempts to kill Meera.

Gora and Badal


- They were legendary warriors from Chittorgarh Mewar who fought bravely for rescue of Rawal Ratan Singh. In 1298 Alauddin Khilji by deceit had taken Ratan Singh ruler of Chittorgarh
as prisoner. In ransom Khilji wanted nothing else but Padmini. A war council was held in which Padmini herself decided that Ratan Singh had to be rescued. The heroics were left to
Gora and his nephew Badal who devised a plan for Ratan Singhs liberation. Word was sent out to the Khilji camp that Padmini would be delivered to him the day his army pulled out of
their trenches. But there was a catch her entourage of female servants and friends would accompany Padmini in 50 palanquins.
- The palanquin's were armed with the best of the Rajput warriors with two swords each. When Padmini's palanquin, which was occupied by Gora reached Ratan's tent, he asked Rawal
to mount the horse and go back to the fort. Then Gora gave a signal and all the Rajput warriors came out of their palanquins and attacked the Muslim soldiers cutting them to pieces.
Gora reached Khilji's tent and was about to kill the sultan when Khilji moved his concubine in front of himself. Gora, being a Rajput, could not kill an innocent women and these few

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seconds were enough for Khilji's guards to kill Gora from behind.

Regions of Rajasthan
- jaipur was called dhundhar (jaipur dausa madhopur and tonk).
- jhunjhunu and sikar are shekhawati

Indira Gandhi Canal


- It starts from the Harike Barrage at Sultanpur, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Sutlej and Beas rivers in Punjab state.
- It consists of the Rajasthan feeder canal (with the first 167 km in Punjab and Haryana and the remaining 37 km in Rajasthan) and 445 km of the Rajasthan main canal which is
entirely within Rajasthan it enters into Rajasthan near Kharakhera village (Tehsil:Tibbi,district:-Hanumangarh) of Rajasthan.

Pushkar
- According to tradition, a bath in its waters is as essential as pilgrimages to Badrinath, Dwarka and Puri
- Brahma performed a yagna here on the full moon of Kartik (October/November). His consort, Savitri, could not be present on the occasion, so Brahma hastily married a Gurjar girl,
Gayatri. When Savitri appeared she was furious. She cursed all those present, and said that Brahma would be worshiped at Pushkar only.

Rivers in Rajasthan
Banas River | Chambal River | Gambhir River | | Mahi River | Parbati River
Banas River is the only river that has its entire course in Rajasthan. It originates in Khamnor hills of Rajsamand district and flows past Bhilwara, Tonk and Sawaimadhopur districts. It
finally joins Chambal river. main tributaries are Berach, Kothari, and Khari.
Chambal River
From MP, RJ then to UP and meets Yamuna. tributaries of Chambal are Kali Sindh, Banas and Parbati.
Luni River
It originates in the Pushkar valley of the Aravalli Range, near Ajmer and end in Little Rann of Kutch (Gujarat). The Luni flows through the Marwar region to empty into the Rann of Kutch
Mahi River
From MP then to RJ to GJ.

5 lakes of Udaipur
- Pichola lake, Udai Sagar, Jaisamand lake, Fateh sagar, Rajsamand lake.

*****************************************************************
Hyderabad & AP

Seemandhra economy
- agri developed in delta areas, but rayalseema poor.
- mining: iron ore in Anantapur, Urainium in Cudappah and Anantapur, limestone in Anantapur.
- Cement factories in Anantapur, Guntur, Cudappah because of availability of limestone.
- Mica is there in Nellore
- Steel plant in Vizag, power plants in Vijaywada, agro based industries in delta regions.
- KG Basin
- Ports in Vizag, Nizampattnam, Krishnapatnam in Nellore
Telangana economy
- cotton, sugarcane and paddy are main crops.
- iron ore in khammam, Singareni Coilleries coal in khammam to adilabad
- Sugar

1. Why has Hyderabad come up as a centre for services industry?


- Chandrababu Naidu invited many IT industry by giving incentives.
- Hyderabad was always a big city and also developed infrastructure.
- Education institutes are well developed in Hyd.

Let me begin on the topic - Issues facing the state post-bifurcation


Power - This is not an issue for Coastal Andhra but for Rayalaseema and Telangana. In the case of Telangana, Pranahita-Chevella (lift irrigation godavari project) project, polavarma (is on
godavari too) has to be declared as national project. Only then can this power-hungry project be viable. There could be use of power from central pool to meet deficit in Telangana.

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Revenue - With Hyderabad and RR district being important sources for revenue, it will be difficult for Seemandhra to generate adequate revenue. The notion of sharing revenue of
Hyderabad has been shot down by constitutional experts.
Manpower division - This was the main issue. Telangana is saying all those from Seemandhra go back. Way out is create more jobs and not force Seemandhra to go back. The current
plan is to have a committee to look into division of state-cadre employees and another to look at All-India service employees. There are demands from sections in Telangana to allow the
option of choosing between Telangana and AP only on basis of native district. If this is the case, some of the departments don't have adequate number of employees from Telangana.
Separate Captial - There is emerging consensus that, after the lessons learnt from concentration of resources in Hyderabad, there has to be decentralized development in Seemandhra.
But to what extent is this feasible? Cost of developing infrastructure for and connecting all the new "capitals" will be too much to bear for the residual state. Probable places: Vijaywada Guntur twin cities (distance is 30 km and that is developed now) Pros: Centre of seemandhra, coastal, already a city, infra n connectivity is good, no water prob. Cons: Agriculture area,
so agri will suffer. Settled area, so land acquisition will be difficult.
Other prob: Prakasam: north west area: pros: not a well settled area, govt already has 30K acres of land, can be well planned from beginning.
Other prob: Vizag
Displacement of tribals (I'm not too sure about this topics - perhaps somebody else could shed some light on this) - Merger of five mandals of Khammam with Seemandhra to ensure
facilitation of construction of Polavaram will result in displacement of 2 lakh adivasis
Law and Order - Coastal Andhra has insurgency areas but there are no provisions for training of elite forces in Seemandhra
Miscellaneous - Triplicating all government files
the most pressing issues facing Hyderabad, I would say this in no particular order
1. Traffic congestion and ensuing pollution
2. Revenue loss due to reduced transactions
4. Terrorist attacks
5. Communal violence
History of AP
Mauryas --> Satvahnas --> Ikshvaku (capital at Nagarjunkonda) --> Chalukyas of Kalyani --> Kakatiyas (capital at Warangal) -->
The Kakatiya dynasty was later reduced to a vassal of the Khilji dynasty (13101321) after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate. This lasted until 1321, when the
Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khilji's general.[9] During this period, Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have been mined from the
Kollur Mines in Golkonda,[10] to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Alaud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of
Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.[8]
Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518,[8] he rebuilt the mud-fort of Golconda and named the city
as "Muhammad nagar".[11][12] The fifth sultan, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591,[13] to avoid the water shortages experienced
at Golkonda.[14] During his rule, he had the Charminar and Mecca Masjid built in the city.
In 1589, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah,[1] the ruler of Qutb Shahi dynasty, selected the present site of the city and named it "Bhaganagar" or "Bhgnagar" after Bhgmathi, a local nautch
(dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love.[2] She converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour. He also ordered the
construction of the Char Minar in 1591 a tall structure to oversee the urban development and to keep watch

during the 16th and early 17th centuries, Hyderabad became a center of a vibrant diamond trade. All seven Qutb Shahi sultans were patrons of learning and were great builders. They
contributed to the growth and development of Indo-Persian and Indo-Islamic literature and culture in Hyderabad. Some of the sultans were known as patrons of local Telugu culture as
well. During the Qutb Shahi reign Golconda became one of the leading markets in the world for diamonds, pearls, steel, arms, and also printed fabric. In the 16th century the city grew to
accommodate the surplus population of Golconda and eventually became the capital of the Qutb Shahi rulers. Hyderabad became known for its gardens (called baghs) and its
comfortable climate.
Hyderabad was captured by Aurangzeb in 1687 after 9 months of seize. This was his 2nd attempt at conquering Hyderabad.
In 1724,Chin Qulich Khan founded the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The Asaf Jahi was a dynasty of Turkic origin from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan, who came to India
in the late 17th century, and became employees of the Mughal Empire.
Study carnatic war
the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders,
for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British under Asif Jah II
During the reign of the third Nizam, Sikandar Jah, the city of Secunderabad was founded to station French troops and subsequently, British troops.Hyderabad, under the Nizams, was the
largest princely state in India, with an area larger than England, Scotland and Wales combined. It was considered the "senior-most" princely-state, and within the elaborate protocols of
the Raj, its ruler the Nizam was accorded a 21-gun salute.
When India gained independence in 1947, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent, either as a sovereign ruler or by acquiring Dominion status within the British Empire. In
order to keep essential trade and supplies flowing, he signed a Standstill Agreement with the Indian Union which surrounded him on all sides. The law and order situation soon
deteriorated, with escalating violence between the private Razakar army fighting for continuation of the Nizam's rule and the people with the support of the Congress leaders like Swami
Ramanand Tirtha and the communists of Telangana, were fighting for joining in the Indian Union. As the violence spiraled out of control with refugees flowing into the coastal Andhra region
of the Madras state of India, the Indian Government under Home Minister Sardar Patel initiated a police action titled Operation Polo. The Nizam's defiance was backed by Qasim Razvi's
armed militias, known as Razakars and had the moral support of Pakistan
On September 16, 1948, Indian Army moved into Hyderabad State from five fronts. Four days later, the Hyderabad forces surrendered. The number of dead was a little over 800[citation
needed]. The Police Action achieved success within a matter of days. The Nizam finally surrendered and signed the Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union and Hyderabad was
integrated into the Indian Union as a state
Total 565 princely states. Reports of looting, mass murder and rape of Muslims in reprisals by Hyderabadi Hindus and Indian Army soldiers following the invasion reached the Nehru
government.[19] A committee led by Pandit Sunderlal investigated the situation and compiled the facts but the findings of the report was not disclosed until 2013 when they were made
available at the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library in New Delhi.[19] The Committee concluded that while Muslims villagers were disarmed by the Indian Army, Hindus were often left
with their weapons.[19] In some cases, it said, Indian soldiers themselves took an active hand in the butchery: "At a number of places members of the armed forces brought out Muslim
adult males from villages and towns and massacred them in cold blood."[19] The official "very conservative estimate" was that 27,000 to 40,000 died "during and after the police action"
Hyderabad General Info
Occupying 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi), along the banks of the Musi River, it has a population of 6.8 million and a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it the fourth most
populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Hyderabad will be the joint capital of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for 10 years.
Special economic zones dedicated to information technology have encouraged companies from across India and around the world to set up operations and the emergence of
pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the title of Genome Valley. With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall

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gross domestic product. The service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this sector. As of 2006, the largest employers in the city
are the governments of Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and of India (85,155)
As of 2010, the city manufactured total of India's one third of bulk drugs and 16% of biotechnology products,[143][144] contributing to its reputation as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and
the "Genome Valley of India". As of 2013, it contributes 15% of India's and 98% of Adhra Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors[146] and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is
from the city.[126] The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure, prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad
The central universities are the University of Hyderabad,[211] Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the English and Foreign Languages University.[212] Osmania University,
established in 1918, was the first university in Hyderabad and as of 2012, is India's second most popular institution for international students.[213] The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open
University, established in 1982, is the first distance learning open university in India.[214]
Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad include the Indian School of Business, National Institute of Rural Development, and the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts
of India. Institutes of national importance include the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy.
[215] Hyderabad has five major medical schoolsOsmania Medical College, Gandhi Medical College, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and
Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences[216]and many affiliated teaching hospitals.
Hyderabad is also home to a number of centres specialising in particular fields such as biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceuticals;[218] the National Institute of Pharmaceutical
Education and Research is located here.[219] Many of India's leading technical and engineering schools are in Hyderabad, including the International Institute of Information Technology,
Hyderabad (IIITH), Indian Institute of Technology (IIT-H), Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS Hyderabad) as well as agricultural engineering institutes such as the International
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University. Hyderabad also has schools of fashion design including Raffles Millennium
International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College. In 2013, the foundation was laid for The National Institute of Design, Hyderabad (NID-H)
Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and business office of the President of India
Nehru Zoological Park, the city's one large zoo, is the first in India to have a lion and tiger safari park. the Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary is about 50 km (31 mi) from the city. . Hyderabad's
other environmental reserves are: Kotla Vijayabhaskara Reddy Botanical Gardens, Shamirpet Lake, Hussain Sagar Lake, Fox Sagar Lake, Mir Alam Tank and Patancheru Lake,
Manjira wildlife sanctuary is a wildlife sanctuary and a reservoir located in Medak district of Andhra Pradesh, India.[2] Originally a crocodile sanctuary, today more than 70 species of
birds are spotted here and is home for the vulnerable species mugger crocodile. The reservoir, located in the sanctuary, provides drinking water to Hyderabad and Secundarabad
Hindus (55.41%), Muslims (41.17%)
Laad Bazaar (Telugu: , Urdu: ) or Choodi Bazaar (Telugu:
the four main roads that branch out from the historic Charminar.

, Urdu:
) is a very old market popular for bangles located in Hyderabad. It is located on one of

Laad meaning lacquer is used to make bangles, on which artificial diamonds are studded. In this 1-kilometre (0.62 mi)-long shopping strip, most of the shops sell bangles, saris, wedding
related items, and cheap jewelry.
Falaknuma Palace is one of the finest palaces in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. It belonged to Paigah Hyderabad State, and it was later owned by the Nizams.[1] It is on a 32-acre
(13 ha) area in Falaknuma, 5 km from Charminar. It was built by Nawab Vikar-ul-Umra, prime minister of Hyderabad and the uncle and brother-in-law of the Nizam VI, Nawab Mir Mahboob
Ali Khan Bahadur.[2] Falak-numa means "Like the Sky" or "Mirror of the Sky" in Urdu. The palace was built in the shape of a scorpion with two stings spread out as wings in the
north. The Falaknuma palace is a rare blend of Italian and Tudor architecture.
Nizam Museum or H.E.H Nizam's Museum is a museum located in Hyderabad at Purani Haveli, a palace of the erstwhile Nizams.[1] This museum showcases the gifts that the last
Nizam of Hyderabad state, Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII received on his silver jubilee celebrations. A 1930 Rolls Royce, Packard and a Jaguar Mark V are among the vintage cars on
display.
The Salarjung Museum is the third largest museum in India housing the biggest one-man collections of antiques in the world. It is well known throughout India for its prized collections
belonging to different civilizations dating back to the 1st century. Nawab Mir Yusuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III (18891949), former Prime Minister of the seventh Nizam of Hyderabad, spent a
substantial amount of his income over thirty five years to make this priceless collection, his life's passion.
Telangana History
The Gentlemen's agreement of Andhra Pradesh was signed between Telangana and Andhra leaders before the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh in 1956. The agreement provided
safeguards with the purpose of preventing discrimination against Telangana by the government of Andhra Pradesh. The violations of this agreement are cited as one of the reasons for
formation of separate statehood for Telangana.
When the Hyderabad State was freed from the Nizam of Hyderabad by police action, there was a debate in the Telugu speaking districts of the Hyderabad State (194856) (also known
as Telangana), on whether to join the newly formed Andhra State, carved out of Telugu speaking districts of Madras state.
States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) recommended that "the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with provision for
its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residency Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor
of such unification(para 386)".
For the Telangana region there will be a Regional Standing Committee of the state assembly consisting of the members of the State Assembly belonging to that region including the
Ministers from that region but not including the Chief Minister.
4. Legislation relating to specified matters will be referred to the Regional committee. In respect of specified matters proposals may also be made by the Regional Committee to the State
Government for legislation or with regard to the question of general policy not involving any financial commitments other than expenditure of a routine and incidental character.
5. The advice tendered by the Regional Committee will normally be accepted by the Government and the State Legislature. In case of difference of opinion, reference will be made to the
Governor whose decision will be binding.
Telangana is regarded as a unit as far as recruitment to subordinate services is concerned; posts borne on the cadre of these services may be reserved for being filled up by persons who
satisfy the domicile conditions as prescribed under the existing Hyderabad Mulki Rules. ( 12 years of Stay in Telangana area)
The existing educational facilities including Technical Education in Telangana should be secured to the students of Telangana and further improved
The cabinet will consist of members in proportion of 60:40 percent for Andhra and Telangana respectively, out of 40% of Telangana ministers, one will be a Muslim from Telangana. If the
Chief Minister is from one region the other region should be given Dy Chief Ministership.

After the Annexation of Hyderabad State into the Indian Union, the administration was under Military Governor, J. N. Chauhuri. There was a large scale recruitment in the Hyderabad State
Government, but the non-local new recruits occupied positions meant for the locals under the Mulki rules provided by the erstwhile ruler, the Nizam of Hyderabad. There was wide spread
discontentment among the locals which led to the agitation. In 1952, students led an agitation against non Mulkis or non locals (mulki meaning locals).

Economics Issues
Created: 4/24/2014 7:28 PM
Source: http://rbi.org.in/scripts/PublicationsView.aspx?id=15734

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Nayar Committee Report


But, more importantly, as the report itself highlights, public sector banks in India are caught in a triple whammy: deteriorating asset quality, massive capital requirements stemming from
Basel III norms, and a complete lack of strategic manoeuvrability, given their current governance and management structures. While the report addresses issues relating to the governance
of private banks as well, its most significant recommendations could put the entire public sector banking system on to a new, sustainable performance and risk management trajectory.
The committee shares the widespread perception that excessive and misdirected government control is at the heart of the problem. Consequently, it believes that reducing the government
equity stake to minority levels and then empowering boards and managements to function within the performance and accountability frameworks of typical corporate organisations is the
best way for these banks to get themselves out of the three-way trap

Nayak Committee Report


What it would like is for the government to distance itself from several bank regulatory functions it discharges. To do this, it would like the repeal of the Bank Nationalisation Act of 1970 and
1980, SBI Act and that relating to its subsidiaries; all banks should be incorporated under the Companies Act.
The governments holdings should be transferred to a Bank Investment Company (BIC) along with its regulatory functions. The governments holdings in PSBs should come down to less than
50 per cent, but it can and will remain the dominant partner. But its regulatory functions will now pass to the BIC. At this point, one might think that the Nayak Committee is talking about
privatisation. Its concerns, however, seem to lie elsewhere.
The key lies in the appointment of boards and senior officials in banks. Right now the finance ministry plays big brother with most appointments of bank chiefs. Under the new dispensation,
a Bank Boards Bureau would deal with senior level appointments till the BIC is formed. Eventually, at the end of a three year process, however, the responsibilities would rest with the boards
themselves.
It is interesting that among other things, the committee should list the RTI Act as a deterrent. Look across the spectrum of services Indian citizens are offered and you will find a similar
sentiment expressed by bureaucrats and even prestigious higher educational institutions.
. A core recommendation is to unshackle banks from government control and finance ministrys interference, by reducing government holding to under 50% and bringing banks under the sole
regulation of RBI. It suggests that when government shareholding is brought below 50%, the rest should be transferred to a bank investment company (BIC).
The committee recommends the creation of a category of authorised bank investors (ABIs) who can invest in banks without prior approval.
It recommends that these privatised PSU banks be removed from dual regulation of the finance ministry and RBI and brought solely under RBI.

Q. Give me few problems ailing our economy and solutions to address them ?
1. Low growth - manufacturing as well as services.
2. Stalled projects.
1. Multiple clearances, bureaucratic red tape.
2. Indias rank in the World Banks Ease of doing business index fell from 116 out of 189 countries in 2006 to 134 in 2013clear evidence of stalled reforms. The new government
needs to reverse this trend and improve the environment for doing business.
3. Unskilled workers / low human capital development.
1. Rope in private sector, allow for profit.
4. Supply side constraints in infrastructure - roads, power plants.
1. Road sector - fresh bids, independent regulator to oversee performance, CAG audit.
2. Power sector - free up coal mining, pass through mechanism, discom reforms, CAG audit.
3. Ports sector - free up port management and construction.
4. Railways sector - More PPP, independent regulator and auditor.
5. Uncertain policy environment.
1. Increase transparency, reduce discretionary decision making.
in recent years the lack of fiscal discipline has been costly for the Indian economy, as excessive demand arising from large deficits translated into stubbornly high inflation and was partly
responsible for large current-account deficits. Fiscal discipline should be a priority, not an afterthought.
improving the quantity and quality of education and healthcare through partnerships with the private and non-profit sector and researchers is essential to sustain growth beyond the next five
years.
There are currently three ministries in the energy sectorpower, petroleum and natural gas, and renewable energy. It makes sense to fuse them into a single ministry. The recent problem
of power plants being built without proper coal supplies could have been avoided if policy had been handled by one minister. There is no need for a ministry of information and broadcasting,
as the former minister in charge of the portfolio, Manish Tewari, reportedly admitted last week. Is there a need for a separate ministry of urban poverty alleviation? A ministry of culture? A
ministry of heavy industries? And a ministry for at micro, small and medium enterprises? What about a ministry of pensions?
Foodgrain stocks, as on April 1, 2014, were estimated at 38 million tonnes, way above the minimum buffer requirement. To the extent that there is a speculative increase in foodgrain prices,
the government should aggressively sell its stocks in the market.
From all counts, there would be an avalanche of capital inflows in the immediate ensuing period; this would swell domestic liquidity and generate inflation, unless immediate countervailing
measures are taken.
The opportunity should be used to build up the forex reserves. Also, there should be a tilt towards longer-term flows rather than short-term flows and more foreign direct investment rather
than portfolio investment.
The share of manufacturing in GDP declined from 14.8 per cent in 2011-12 to 14.1 per cent in 2012-13 and to 12.7 per cent in 2013-14, implying that this sector is steadily losing its relevance
in the economy, and that the real economy is weakening.
Poor growth of the manufacturing sector has resulted in joblessness. This can be gleaned from the performance of two sub-segments of manufacturing capital goods and consumer
durables. Both segments are highly intensive in the use of components and ancillaries, and thereby encourage growth of large number of small and medium scale industries as they grow.
Any crisis in these two sub-segments affects the supporting SMEs and gives rise to unemployment.
Growth in capital goods and consumer goods sectors suffers due to lack of investment and consumption demand. In the case of basic and intermediate goods, however, growth is hampered
by lack of governance and excessive regulatory hurdles and interventions.
Govt should follow cluster approach and give investment incentives.
Q. What are 2nd generation reforms.

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1. Manufacturing reforms
1. Labor reforms.
2. Land acquisition.
3. Multiple clearances and single window.
2. Governance reforms
1. Transparency and rule of law.
2. Rationalization of subsidies.
3. Restructuring of government schemes.
3. Trade reforms
1. GST and unified market.
4. Financial reforms
1. Financial sector liberalization and more competition.
2. FSLRC recommendations.
Q. Whether subsidies good or bad?
1. In a poor country like India, certain subsidies are essential. Eg. talk about PDS and Himanshu's findings.
2. What we need is to plug leakages in the subsidies.
1. UID was a good initiative, but after SC's decision, its fate is undecided.
2. Still we can reform subsidy regime by use of IT and mobile. eg. PDS.
3. Also we can create NREGA like architecture where demand is generated from the bottom and is backed by legal rights.
4. We also need effective grievance redressal mechanisms.
5. Social audits.
3. The Indian media rails against the governments fiscal irresponsibility in introducing food subsidies, but the government spends far more on subsidies for the rich, including 1% on
electricity and 1% on diesel and petroleum products, which benefit the middle classes.
Q. What should we do to promote manufacturing sector?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cut red tape, reduce number of clearances, single window mechanism. Transparency, reduce discretions.
Reduce compliance costs.
Labor laws.
Develop infrastructure.
Skill development.
Land acquisitions.
Friendly policies.

Amartya Sen
Nobel Prize
1. Sen got the noble prize for his work in - social choice (Impossibility theorem), distribution, poverty (Capabilities based approach).
Sen's Capabilities Based Approach
1. Functionings are states of being and doing which measure an individual's well being such as being well-nourished, having shelter.
2. Capability refers to the set of valuable functionings that a person has effective access to. Capability represents the effective freedom of an individual to choose between different
functioning combinations.
3. Freedoms = capabilities. Unfreedom = deprivation of capabilities.
4. Poverty is a serious deprivation of certain basic capabilities to live a good life, and development is understood as capability expansion.
1. Income approach to poverty is not enough: Defining poverty as simply income below an accepted level is not enough as there can be variations in converting this income into
various capabilities. These variations may arise due to personal, environmental, social factors. Hence the need to go beyond income in poverty measurement.
2. Utility approach to poverty is not enough: People can internalize the harshness of their circumstances so that they do not desire what they can never expect to achieve. This
is the phenomenon of adaptive preferences in which people who are objectively very sick may, for example, still declare, and believe, that their health is fine.
3. Resource based approach to poverty is not enough: Because it only focuses on what goods a person has, not what he can do with those goods.

Q. sen's policies have become irrelevant now.


1. Not irrelevant, but the new government may be less guided by them.
2. In fact rights based approach is in alignment with the new thought in administration that the citizen must be empowered and government held accountable. RTI, NREGA are
examples of success.
3. What we need is to cut down on wasteful expenditure and red tape, opacity. We need to increase transparency and rule of law.

Q. Compare n contrast bhagwati sen model


1. Bhagwati model
1. He talks of 2 track reforms. Track 1 reforms are reforms aimed at boosting GDP growth and industrialization. It involves building infrastructure, increasing transparency,
incentives to industry etc.
2. Track 2 reforms which will follow track 1 are increased state spending on education and health.
3. Track 2 can follow track 1 because: a) Track 1 will help lift people out of poverty via additional jobs and incomes. b) Track 1 will also generate revenues for the state to spend
on track 2.
2. Sen model
1. Public provision of health and education is a must because if labor are not educated and healthy, they cannot have high productivity and growth will not increase. There is not
a single example in the world where development has been possible without investing in education and health.
2. Sen is not against growth, but he says we must also focus on what this growth does to people's lives.
Q Compare n contrast bihar n gujarat model. Which one do we need?
1. Bihar model
1. State actively engaged in promoting education, food and health facilities to citizens.
2. Gujarat model

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1. State creates a business friendly environment. Private investment led model.


3. What we need?
1. We need a synthesis. India is too big a country where conditions in one part are completely different from another part. For example, in a state like Bihar where poverty and
illiteracy are high, government incentives are needed for people to study up to class X. But such a thing is unnecessary in Gujarat where already literacy rates are high. If
people are illiterate, then just focusing on private investment will not work to promote an inclusive growth.
2. We need to focus on what kind of growth we are having. We need a growth which creates jobs.

Q. what happened in recent wto?


1. Trade facilitation: A deal was reached. Red tape and delays have to be cut in allowing international trade.
2. AoA: India got a 4 year peace clause after which the fate of subsidies will be decided.

RBI Monetary Policy Review


Recent Policy Action (April 1)
1. Increased the liquidity provided under 7-day and 14-day term repos from 0.5% of NDTL to 0.75% in line with Urijit Patel committee recommendations, and decrease the liquidity
provided under the overnight repos from 0.5% to 0.25%. The primary objective is to improve the transmission of policy impulses across the interest rate spectrum.
2. Policy stance
1. Kept repo rate under LAF unchanged at 8%.
2. The policy stance is firmly focused on keeping the economy on a disinflationary glide path that is intended to hit 8 per cent CPI inflation by January 2015 and 6 per cent by
January 2016.
3. Furthermore, if inflation continues along the intended glide path, further policy tightening in the near term is not anticipated at this juncture.
Macro Forecast
1. GDP growth
1. Itis expected to pick up from below 5% in 2013-14 to 5 - 6% in 2014-15 though with downside risks to the central estimate of 5.5 per cent.
2. Positive factors
1. Progress on the implementation of stalled projects already cleared.
2. Stronger anticipated export growth as the world economy picks up.
2. CAD
1. CAD is expected to be about 2.0% of GDP for 2013-14.
3. Inflation
1. Forecast of 8 per cent CPI inflation by January 2015.
2. Risk factors
1. Vegetable prices have entered their seasonal trough and further softening is unlikely.
2. El Nino and uncertain rainfall.
3. Uncertainty on the setting of MSPs.
4. Uncertainty in fiscal policy.
5. Geo-political developments and their impact on international commodity prices.
6. There will also be a downward statistical pull on CPI inflation later this year, due to base effects from high inflation during June-November 2013.
Urijit Patel Committee Recommendations
1. Some recommendations of Dr. Urjit R. Patel Committee report have been implemented including
1. Adoption of the new CPI (combined) as key measure of inflation.
2. Explicit recognition of the glide path for disinflation (8% for Jan 1015, 6% for Jan 2016, 4% thereafter).
3. Transition to a bi-monthly monetary policy cycle.
4. Progressive reduction in access to overnight liquidity under the LAF at the repo rate and a corresponding increase in access to liquidity through term repos, and introduction of
longer term repos.
Bimal Jalan Committee Recmmendations
1. RBI will work to give licenses more regularly, that is virtually on-tap.
2. It will also set out categories of differentiated bank licenses that will allow a wider pool of entrants into banking.
Market Development Efforts by RBI
1. Inflation bonds
1. To expand investor demand, design changes improving their attractiveness to the general public are being worked out.
2. Corporate bonds
1. Banks will be allowed to offer partial credit enhancements to them.
3. Re-repo of g-secs
1. The feasibility of limited re-repo/re-hypothecation of repoed government securities is being explored.The idea of rehypothecation typically works not so much with term repos
but reverse repos, with somebody sort of lent money and suddenly feels that they have a squeeze on their reserve they want to relend to somebody else, rehypothecation
allows that. So as you move to term reverse repos this will be a helpful thing, and we are exploring it, we think we can do it without much risk.
4. FIIs
1. FIIs may be allowed to hedge their currency risks through exchange traded currency futures.
2. KYC norms are being simplified for Foreign Portfolio Investors.
3. To encourage longer-term flows and reduce volatility, FPI investments in G-Secs will henceforth be permitted only in dated securities of maturity one year and above, and
existing investments in T-bills will be allowed to taper off on maturity/sale. Any investment limits vacated at the shorter end will however be available at longer maturities, so
overall FPI limits will not be diminished.
Q. Should we have differentiated licenses?
1. Pros
1. This will allow people to develop banking capabilities even with relatively small size of operations, which will then allow them to may be apply for full banking licenses down the
line.

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Q. Does it make sense to augment FX reserves at this stage?


1. If you focus only on reserves there is really no point at which you feel safe, because provided there is enough uncertainty about the economy, uncertainty about conditions,
uncertainty about the treatment of international investors, 400, 500, 600 any level of reserves, until you get to Chinese levels, is probably not enough.
2. So really our focus should be on creating the policy environment which gives investors confidence.
3. Our intervention in exchange markets have historically been to reduce exchange rate volatility. So to the extent that we have to intervene to prevent that kind of volatility, we have
plenty of reserves.
Five Pillars of RBI's Developmental Measures
1. Clarifying and strengthening the monetary policy framework.
2. Strengthening banking structure through
1. new entry, branch expansion, encouraging new varieties of banks,
2. and moving foreign banks into better regulated organisational forms.
3. Broadening and deepening financial markets and increasing their liquidity and resilience.
4. Expanding access to finance to small and medium enterprises, the unorganised sector, the poor, and remote and underserved areas of the country through technology, new business
practices, and new organisational structures; that is, we need financial inclusion.
5. Improving the systems ability to deal with corporate distress and financial institution distress by strengthening real and financial restructuring as well as debt recovery.
Global Economy
1. Since January 2014 statement, global growth outlook remains broadly unchanged though weaker initial data to some extent cloud optimism.
2. Global economic activity had strengthened in H2 of 2013. On the current reckoning, global growth is likely to be in the vicinity of 3 per cent in 2014, about a percentage point
higher than in 2013.
3. Downside risks
1. Tapering of quantitative easing (QE) in the US,
2. Continuing deflation concerns and weak balance sheets in the euro area and,
3. Inflationary pressures in the emerging market and developing economies (EMDEs).
4. Weakening growth and financial fragilities in China.
5. Capital flows to EMDEs could remain volatile, even if they do not retrench.
Indian Economy
1. Economic Buffers
1. These buffers effectively bulwarked the Indian economy against the two recent occasions of spillovers to EMDEs the first, when the US Fed started the withdrawal of its
large scale asset purchase programme and the second, which followed escalation of the Ukraine crisis. On both these occasions, Indian markets were less volatile than most
of its emerging market peers.
2. With the narrowing of the twin deficits both current account and fiscal as well as the replenishment of foreign exchange reserves, adjustment of the rupee exchange rate,
and more importantly, setting in motion disinflationary impulses, the risks of near-term macro instability have diminished.
2. Agriculture sector witnessed record production.
3. Industrial growth stagnating
1. IIP showed -0.1% during April-Mar 2013-14. Mining -0.8%, Manufacturing -0.8%. Capital goods: -4%, Consumer durables: -12.2%. Growth of core industries remained
sluggish at 2.6% during April-Feb 2013-14 compared to a growth of 6.4% in the corresponding period a year ago.
2. Reduction in excise duty is expected to provide some relief to manufacturing.
4. Employment scenario showing signs of gradual recovery.
5. External trade
1. Apr - March: Exports: $312 bio (+3.9%), Imports: $450 bio (-8.1%), Trade deficit: -$138 bio (vs -$190 bio last year). Oil imports: $167 bio (+2.2%), non oil imp: $283 bio
(-13.3%). Agriculture exports: $45 bio.
2. March 2014: Exports: $29.5 bio (-3.2%), Imports: $40 bio (-2.1%), Trade deficit: -$10,5 bio (5 month high).
3. April 2014: Exports: $26 bio (+5%), Imports: $36 bio (-15%). Trade deficit: $10 bio. Oil imports: $13 bio (-0.6%), Non oil: $23 bio (-21.5%).
4. Slowdown in exports in recent months can be attributed to certain sector specific issues and global factors. For instance, decline in exports of gems and jewellery could be
largely reflective of the price effect mainly emanating from an 20.1 per cent y-o-y drop in gold prices.
5. Fall in exports of petroleum products are largely attributed to lower gross refining margins
6. Destination-wise, while export demand from economies like the US and China was broadly intact, a significant decline was evident in exports to EU economies, Switzerland,
the OPEC region, Singapore and Hong Kong SAR.
7. Although the decline in imports bodes well from the perspective of a CAD decline, the lowering of CAD on this account may not sustain with the expected revival of domestic
aggregate demand.
8. Surge in capital inflows led to accretion of reserves; the rupee has moved in a narrow range.
6. Inflation
1. CPI: 8.6% in April, 8.31% in March, 8.1% in Feb, 11.2% in Dec.
2. Decline mainly due to declining vegetable prices. Apart from vegetables, CPI inflation in cereals and products posted a significant decline at 9.9 per cent in February 2014
from 12 per cent in November 2013.
3. Wage price spiral pushed up inflation in the services segment.
4. Headline inflation has moderated in recent months, but upside risks remain in 2014-15.
5. WPI: 5.2% in April (lower due to vegetables), 5.7% in March (higher due to food items), 4.68% in Feb, 6.16% in Dec.
6. Core inflation: 3% (highest since Apr 13).
7. Efforts to address infrastructure bottlenecks have yielded modest revival so far
1. Cabinet Committee on Investment (CCI) and the Project Monitoring Group (PMG) had together undertaken resolution of impediments for 296 projects with an estimated project
cost of `6.6 trillion.
2. However, 15-20 per cent of these projects, mostly in roads, power and petroleum, have reported additional delays, for which the dates of completion have been extended
further.
3. Also, there has been an increase in the number of projects without date of commissioning, mostly in roads reflecting the growing uncertainty about their completion.
8. While fiscal targets were met in 2013-14 (RE), the quality of fiscal adjustment needs improvement.
IV. Differentiated Bank Licensing- Examining Pros and Cons
A. Arguments in Favour of Adopting a Differentiated bank Licensing
4.1 With the broadening and deepening of financial sector, it is observed that banks are slowly migrating from a situation in the past where the number of banking services offered by the
banks was limited and all banks provided all the services to a situation where banks are finding their niche areas and mainly providing services in their chosen areas. Many banks keep the
plain vanilla banking as a small necessary adjunct. It is widely recognized that banks providing services to retail customers have different skill sets and risk profiles as compared to banks
which mainly deal with large corporate clients.
The present situation where every bank can carry out every activity permissible under Section 6 of Banking Regulation Act, 1949 has the following implications, relevant to the subject under
consideration :
For a wholesale bank dealing with corporate clients only, it becomes a costly adjunct to maintain a skeleton retail banking presence. Moreover it becomes difficult for such a bank to meet
priority sector obligations and obligations for doing inclusive banking.
Retail banks may have to create risk management and regulatory compliance structures which are more appropriate to wholesale banks, thus resulting in non-optimal use of resources.
Similar supervisory resources are devoted to banks with different business profiles. This may also result in non-optimal use of supervisory resources.
The priority sector lending regime for foreign banks indicated in paragarph 3.3 has been causing some discomfort for some of the foreign banks. For example, some of the foreign banks find

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it difficult to fulfil even the less rigorous target of 32 per cent in respect of priority sector advances.
Some banks find it difficult to provide ' no frills' facility to economically disadvantaged. For them the more liberal licensing regime causes a different set of problems.
It appears that given an opportunity, some of the banks may like to follow a niche strategy rather than competing as full service all purpose banks.
2. On the other hand, there are some factors which point towards desirability of continuing with the existing system of universal banking:
In India, the penetration of banking services is very low. Less than 59 % of adult population has access to a bank account and less than 14 % of adult population has a loan account with a
with a bank. Under such circumstances, it would be incorrect to create a regime where banks are allowed to choose a path away from carrying banking to masses.
Priority sector lending is important for banks. The revised guidelines on priority sector lending have rationalized the components of priority sector. For the first time, investments by banks in
securitised assets, representing loans to various categories of priority sector, shall be eligible for classification under respective categories of priority sector (direct or indirect) depending on
the underlying assets, provided the securitised assets are originated by banks and financial institutions and fulfil the Reserve Bank of India guidelines on securitisation. This would mean
that the banks' investments in the above categories of securitised assets shall be eligible for classification under the respective categories of priority sector only if the securitised advances
were eligible to be classified as priority sector advances before their securitisation. These measures would make it easier to comply with the priority sector lending requirements by those
banks which had faced some difficulties in this regard.
The business model adopted by such niche banks depends heavily on ample inter-bank liquidity. Any shock leading to liquidity crunch can translate into a run on the bank. This situation
has been clearly illustrated recently in UK in the case of Northern Rock Bank.

Q how to draw private investments to manage problem to storage of perishable commodities?


1. One way is FDI in multi brand retail. But for this we need:
1. Policy certainty.
2. Reduce red tape.
3. Not to frame rules which discourage companies.
2. Another is to boost local entrepreneurship.
1. Create a favorable ecosystem - ESMA, credit, reduce red tape, give more incentives.
2. National Food Processing Mission - Mega Food Parks.
Q. GDP of your town
1. $25 bio.
Q. UPA - 2 is failure ? comment
1. Result has been good in certain areas and not good in certain other areas.
2. Success
1. Social indicators: Poverty, IMR, education.
2. NREGA - empower rural workers.
3. RTI.
3. Failures
1. GDP growth, stalled investments.
2. Corruption, lack of transparency.
3. GST and other critical bills.
4. Foreign policy.
Welfare Indicators
HDI
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth


Education index: Mean years of schooling of adults and Expected years of schooling of 5 year old children
A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$)
Indian rank is 136 out of 187 countries @ 0.554 (slight improvement of 0.007 from last year).
Inequality adjusted HDI is 0.392 and rank is 91 (improvement from 93 last year).

1. HDI 0.800 indicates high human development.


2. 0.799 HDI 0.500 indicates medium human development.
3. HDI < 0.500 indicates low human development.
CPI (corruption perception index )
1. India's rank s 94 out of 177 and is same as last year. Index is maintained by Transparency International.
2. The CPI scores and ranks countries/territories based on how corrupt a countrys public sector is perceived to be. It is a composite index, a combination of surveys and assessments
of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions. 0 means that a country is perceived as highly corrupt and a 100 means that a country is perceived as very clean.
Ginni Coefficient
1. It is computed from the National Sample Survey for 2011-12. In rural areas, the coefficient rose to 0.28 in 2011-12 from 0.26 in 2004-05 and to an all-time high of 0.37 from 0.35 in
urban areas, the figures showed.
2. India's Gini is 34 and ranks in moderately unequal countries.
MDG
1. Eighteen (18) targets were set as quantitative benchmarks for attaining the 8 MDGs.
2. Out of the 18 targets, 12 targets are relevant to India.

Target No.

Target Description

Progress

1.

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of population below


national poverty line

2.

Halve, between 1990 and 2015, proportion of people who suffer from
hunger. Measured by underweight children under 3.

Slow or almost
off track

3.

Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be
able to complete a full course of primary education

On track

4.

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education,


preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

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On track

On track for
primary and
secondary, and
off track for

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higher education

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

5.

Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five


mortality rate

Moderately on
track

6.

Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal


mortality ratio

7.

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

On track

8.

Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria


and other major diseases

Moderately on
track

9.

Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country


policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental
resources. Energy density of GDP, CO2 emissions per capita, forest
cover.

Moderately on
track

10.

Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to


safe drinking water and basic sanitation

On track for
drinking water,
slow for
sanitation

11.

By 2020, to have achieved, a significant improvement in the lives of at


least 100 million slum dwellers

Not statistically
determinate

12.

In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of


new technologies, especially information and communication. Internet,
mobiles, computer penetration per 100 people

On track

Slow or off track

Malnutrition among children (goal 2) is expected to reduce to only 33% as against a target of 26% by 2015.
IMR target is 27 per 1000 live births and India is expected to miss it.
MMR target is 109 per 1 lakh live births and India is likely to achieve only 139.
Target for drinking water was 17% and has already been achieved. India is likely to achieve universal safe drinking water by 2015.
Sanitation target was to reduce non sanitation households to 38%. India currently has 49% non sanitation households and is likely to achieve only 43% by 2015.

UNDP report on India's poverty


1. The estimated number of $1.25 poor in India in 2010 falls from 396 million in 2004-05 to 148 million in 2014. In 2014, the World Bank reported that 11.8%[1]of all people in India fall
below the international poverty line of US$ 1.25 per day (PPP).

Q. Interim budget vs Vote on account


1. Vote-on-account deals only with the expenditure side of the government's budget. The government gives an estimate of funds it requires to meet the expenditure that it incurs during
the first three to four months of an election financial year until a new government is in place.
2. A vote-on-account is different from an interim Budget as the former is a statement of only expendiatures while the latter is a complete set of accounts, including both expenditure and
receipts. However, a vote-on-account is practised every budget. Unlike a full Budget, the vote-on-account does not tweak the prevailing tax rates. Also, it cannot announce any new
schemes.
Eminent Indian Economists
K N Raj
1. He played an important role in India's planned development, drafting sections of India's first Five Year Plan, specifically the introductory chapter when he was only 26 years old. He
was a veteran economist in the Planning Commission.
2. He helped shape the contours of what later came to be called the "Kerala model" of development - the co-existence of low per capita income and very high physical quality of life
indicators.
3. He worked out a plan to raise India's rate of savings in the post-Second World War period when the country was in need of foreign aid.
4. He computed India's Balance of Payments for the first time for the Reserve Bank of India.
5. Raj was an advisor to several prime ministers from Jawaharlal Nehru to P.V. Narasimha Rao.

Q. How have the social indicatiors fared in last decade?


1. Poverty: from 37.2% in 2004-05 to 21.9% in 2011-12. Rural poverty decline 16% is more than urban poverty decline 12%. Odisha (25%), Bihar (24%), Rajasthan (20%), MP (17%)
have shown biggest poverty declines.
2. Employment
3. IMR
4. MMR
5. Education
6. Child malnutrition
7. Sanitation
8. Drinking water
Q. Which ministry announces MSP?
1. Ministry of Agriculture
Q. You have heard of the poverty line, have you heard of something called the empowerment line?
1. Empowerment Line by Mckinsey is an analytical framework that determines the level of consumption required to fulfill eight basic needsfood, energy, housing, drinking water,
sanitation, health care, education, and social securityat a level sufficient to achieve a decent standard of living rather than bare subsistence.
2. India's empowerment line at Rs 1,336 per capita per month. In 2012, some 56% or 68 cr Indians lived below empowerment line - 2.5x the poverty line.
3. The Empowerment Gap, or the additional consumption required to bring these 680 million people to the level of the Empowerment Line, is seven times higher than the cost of
eliminating poverty as defined by the official poverty line.
4. If Indias recent weak economic performance continues and no major reforms are undertaken, we project that in 2022 more than one-third of the population will remain below the
Empowerment Line and that 12 percent will remain trapped in extreme poverty.
5. To lift people above empowerment line, we need
1. Job creation and productivity gains have historically been the most powerful forces for improving living standardsand India is in need of deep reforms that can encourage

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2.
3.
4.
5.

businesses to invest, scale up, and hire.


Raising farm productivity.
Increasing public spending on basic services. Additional resources will be available if India grows fast.
Make this spending and basic service delivery more effective.
This could lift 580 million people above the empowerment line, leaving 100 million (7 per cent of the population) below it in 2022 and 17 million (1 per cent) below the official
poverty line virtually eliminating extreme poverty in just a decade.

Q. Agriculture-- in how much area, amount of food grain production--break up in rice, recent trends in food grain prod.
1. A crop year is from July to June. Total food grain production in 2013-14: 263 MT. 2012-13: 255 MT, 2011-12: 259 MT.
2. Good monsoon in 2013 helped farmers increase area under cultivation in both kharif (summer) and rabi (winter) seasons in the current crop year.
The table below gives estimates of major crops in million
tonnes.
------------------------------------------------------CROP
2013/14
2012/13
------------------------------------------------------Rice
106.19
105.24
Wheat
95.60
93.51
Corn
23.29
21.06
Pulses
Tur
Gram
Total food grains

19.77
3.34
9.79
263.20

18.34
3.02
8.83
257.13

Total Oilseeds
32.98
30.94
Sugarcane
345.92
341.20
Cotton
#35.60
34.22
------------------------------------------------------

Q. What is the growth rate of agriculture? What are the export / import trends?
1. Indian exports were $24 bio whereas imports were $11 bio giving a surplus of $13 bio. Cotton, marine products, oil meals, basmati rice and sugar are main exports. Main imports are
vegetable oils, wood and pulses.
2. Agriculture growth: 2.5% in 2011-12, 7.0% in 2010-11. In 1980s it was 3%, in 8th Plan it was 4.8%, in 9th and 10th Plans it was 2.5%. 11th Plan had a growth of 3.2%.
Q. Laws made by govt are hindrance to economic growth ??
1. Laws are necessary - Rule of law, contract enforcement is absolutely necessary for economic development.
2. Excessive red tape, discretionary decision making, retrospective amendments are hindrance to economic growth.
Q. Which renewable energy source holds most promise for india?
1. Wind
1. The global practice is now to build towers in the range of 80120 m, which significantly increases the power potential. At the same time, the size of wind turbines has increased
while the earlier turbines were typically less than 1 MW, the recent designs go up to over 5 MW.
2. Taking these into consideration, the wind potential in India is now estimated at about 103000 MW for 80 m hub height.
2. Wind potential is unevenly distributed across the country; only Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat have significant potential.
3. Wind power has significant seasonal and even intra-day variations. Wind capacity addition needs to be complemented by other energy sources, which have a quick ramp-up time.

M3: What is insider trading? What was the case of Rajat Gupta and Goldman Sachs?
M3: What are the safeguards in India regarding insider trading?
Q. GST and DTC - what are the problems?
GST
1. Compensation of states.
2. Flexibility on rates.
3. Dispute resolution mechanism.

************************************
FSLRC Recommendations
Nachiket Mor Committee
It was appointed by RBI for financial inclusion for Small Businesses and Low-Income Households.
(a) Every adult (Above 18 years) of our country should have a bank account by January 1, 2016. This account will be known as Universal Electronic Bank Account (UEBA).
(b) Every resident should be issued an account at the time of receiving Aadhaar number (UIDAI) by a bank itself.
(c) It recommends unified Financial Redress Agency under Finance Ministry for customer grievances.
(d) It recommends abolition of interest subsidies and loan waivers. It suggested that government should transfer benefits directly to farmers.
(e) Permission to banks for pricing farm loans below base rate should be withdrawn.
(f) Statutory liquidity ratio has outlived its utility for both Banks and NBFCs. So, it needs to be scrapped.
(g) It recommends raising priority sector lending cap for banks to 50 per cent from the current 40 per cent.
(h) It also proposed for creation of a Payment Bank (PB) to provide payments services including credit, insurance and risk management products.

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(J) Panel also suggested for the creation of State finance regulatory commission (SFRC). All existing regulators at state level should be merged into SFRC.
(k) Each districts should have a total term life insurance sum assured to GDP ratio of at least 30%.
Two New Institutions
1. The Mor Committee favours the creation of a payments bank.
2. Payments bank
1. The rationale is that a large number of households may not need loans but would like to access the formal banking system purely for the purpose of making payments or
withdrawals.
2. Proof of this need, according to the committee, lies in the fact that prepaid issuers (PPIs), such as Airtel Money have found a large market for their services.
3. The committee believes there are two problems with the PPI model. One, it exposes the sponsor bank to the risks of a run on the PPIs, while the PPIs have to take a view on
the quality of the sponsor bank. Two, since PPIs do not pay interest on the cash balances, it inhibits use of such payment services. A payments bank would address both
these problems.
3. Priority sector lending
1. Sector wise weighting
1. The rationale for a sector-wise weighting is that, in the different segments of PSL (agriculture, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), exports and weaker sections),
banks meet their targets for some components but not for others. Wherever there are shortfalls in a given segment, lending to that segment should have a weight of more
than one so that lending is incentivised.
2. The committee argues that not all banks need to have the same mix of lending towards PSL. Banks can focus on segments consistent with their expertise and meet an
adjusted PSL target of 50% in ways that suit them. Urban banks can focus on SMEs; rural banks can focus on agriculture.
Saumitra Chaudhri Committee on IIP
1. It has called for complete overhaul of the index of industrial production (IIP),
2. The panel has recommended that the constituent items in the index, and their weights, be revised annually rather than after five years.
3. To address the issue of large swings and volatility in such heads as producer goods, the committee has proposed estimating capital goods output on the basis of expenditure incurred
towards production each month, rather than focus on physical aggregates. This also seems to make sense, as, for lumpy capital goods items like turbines and boilers, it can take
several months to complete production.
4. Further, put out seasonally-adjusted industrial data on a month-on-month basis, which is as per global practice.
5. Also bring out an index of services output.
*******************************
Bihar vs Gujarat or Kerala vs Gujarat
Pro Gujarat
- The accompanying chart shows that Gujarats economic growth in 2001-2011 at an annual average rate of 10.2% was 2.5 percentage points higher than the national average. A closer look
at the chart shows that Gujarats growth in the prior decadebefore Modi took charge in 2001at 7.5% also beat the national average, albeit by a slightly smaller margin of 1.4%.
- Gujarats agricultural performance was superior to most other states even in the 1990s. There is a remarkable turnaround of the resource-poor and drier regions within Gujarat (such as
Saurashtra) during this period. This is due to watershed management, improved irrigation services and rural infrastructure including electricity supply. The commissioning of the Sardar
Sarovar Project (SSP) also aided farm growth by raising the irrigation cover.
- Between 2004-05 and 2011-12, overall poverty in Gujarat fell by 15.2 percentage points compared with 15.3 percentage points nationally. Given that the poverty ratio in Gujarat in 2004-05
was already 5.4 percentage points below the national average, this progress is nothing to scoff at.
- Gujarat also deserves applause for the large cuts in poverty among the Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Muslims. At 7.7 percent, Gujarat now boasts the lowest poverty ratio for Muslims in
rural areas.

Pro Bihar
- In stark contrast, Bihars economy limped along at an average annual growth rate of 2.7%, 3.4 percentage points slower than the national average, in 1991-2001. Over the next decade
though, Bihars growth rate trebled to 8.2%, beating the national average for the first time in independent Indias history, even though the improvement over the national average was by a
small margin. Between 2005when Kumar took charge of Bihars governmentand 2011, the state grew at an annual pace of 10.9%, beating both the national average and Gujarats growth
rate of 9.6% during this period.
- While Gujarats HDI performance was above the national average in the 1980s and 1990s, it decelerated in the 2000s and came down to the national average. In contrast, Tamil Nadu and
Maharashtra, which started off at a similar level of HDI as Gujarat in the 1980s, have continued to perform better than the national average in the 2000s. Bihar, on the other hand, has
consistently been below the national average, but has made significant improvements over the last decade and shows signs of catching up to the national average.
Balanced View
- There are areas where Bihar government needs to chart different course of action borne out of Bihars complex socio-economic realities. While schemes like Bicycle Yojana, Poshak
Yojana ,Dress yojna,Award for passing Matriculation Examination might not be required for states like Kerala, TN or even Gujarat, still it would make imminent sense for Bihar as State is on
bottom of literacy rate.
- Need to draw the good points from other states as well. Eg. Right to Public Services from Bihar, MP. Fast Track Courts- from Bihar.

Government policies
That said, the challenges posed, directly or indirectly, by government policies are formidable. Consider the following.
Difficult business environment: India ranked 132 out of the 185 countries in the World Banks Doing Business survey in 2013. According to the official data, nearly 70 clearances are
required annually for businesses to operate. The greatest cost falls on SMEs, where the proprietor has to bear the entire burden. Such an environment, combined with retroactive changes in
tax demands, creates much uncertainty, anathema for investment. Another challenge is the lack of adequate protection against extortion and protection rackets.
Labour deployment rigidity: Indian manufacturing has suffered in the past from the twin constraints of militant and competitive trade unionism and a plethora of labour legislation. In recent
years, unionism has ostensibly weakened. Nevertheless, it is still present in major industrial centres, and its infrequent but violent demonstration discourages foreign investors and induces
others to keep employment to a minimum. India has nearly 50 laws at the central or state level that affect labour conditions. Consequently, hardly any enterprise can claim to be in total
compliance.
Infrastructure deficit: The peak power deficit in India is estimated at 7% to 8%, and industry is not insulated from the resultant power cuts that sweep the country. Most large manufacturing

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units have had to create full backup capacity, raising capital costs. Indian companies across the board bear a significantly higher price for infrastructure services and utilities than their
global competitors.
Regulatory delays and lack of transparency: Over time, a rather complex regulatory structure has been established to deal with land acquisition, land use and the environment. The process
has become increasingly time-consuming, opaque and unpredictable, especially during the past 10 years under the rule of the United Progressive Alliance. According to one survey, 1,240
central and state regulations apply to the industrial sector.

Iron ore mining Goa


1. The Supreme Court allowed an annual cap of 20 million tonnes of iron ore to be extracted in Goa which was banned by it in the state for nearly one-and-a-half years.
2. It also said there will be no grant of lease for mining around one km of national parks and wild life sanctuaries. The court directed the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) to
identify eco-sensitive areas around national parks within six months.
3. It said the Goa government will formulate a scheme within six months for utilising the funds generated by e-auction.
4. Workers on rolls of all mining firms will be paid 50 per cent of the wage during the period for which they were out of work because of the apex court stay on the mining activity.

Q. What are the provisions of the Dodd-Frank Bill / Volcker Rule?


1. Proprietary trading is completely banned.
2. Banks investment in hedge funds and private equity should be the lesser of 3% of total fund assets and 3% of its Tier I equity capital and even these exposures are subject to a
number of safeguards.
3. Banks cannot deal in swaps below investment grade.
4. US banks are expected to comply by July 2014.
5. Rules on executive pay - clawback, rejection of golden parachute.
6. financial stability council - at the top of other regulatory bodies to reduce regulatory gaps.
7. many entities were unregulated. they will be brought under net.
8. consumer protection.
Q. What are the recommendations of Vickers Commission?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Creates ring fenced entities.


mandated banking activities: taking deposits from and making loans to individuals and SMEs.
prohibited activities. These would include trading, purchase of loans and securities, transactions outside the European Economic Area and with a non-ring-fenced bank.
permitted activities. taking deposits from customers other than individuals, SMEs and lending to large companies.
This is the location of the fence.
Then, there is the height of the fence. The ring-fenced entity would be a separate legal entity with its own board of directors and making disclosures as though it were an
independent listed entity. The relationship of the ring-fenced retail banking entity with other entities in a wider corporate group should be conducted on a third-party basis and it
should be able to meet its requirements of capital and liquidity on its own.
7. Finally, the ring-fenced entity would have higher capital requirements than required under Basel 3. The commission recommends equity capital of 10% for ring-fenced banks with riskweighted assets of more than 3% of the UK GDP; total capital would be in the range of 17-20%.
Q. What are Basel III requirements?

Economics
1. direct cash transfer... benefits vs limitations
Benefits
1. obvious - cut intermediary chain. less corruption, public money well spent.
2. reduce economic inefficiency. targeted subsidies create distortion between product choices. This gives freedom to hh to spend it as it likes.
3. overhaul systems - like electricity - no need to give coal mines for free. can develop a highly competitive supply chain. this would also increase renewable energy.
Limitations
1.
2.
3.
4.

women and child rights may suffer.


network density of banks, post offices less than FPS. literacy an issue in dealing there. so financial inclusion is a pre condition.
volatility in prices of food - but cash subsidy will be slow to change.
inflation is NOT a limitation.

2. food security bill implementations issues


Implementation issues in food security bill
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

identifying 67% population (75% rural, 50% urban). socio economic caste census not completed so far. 5 kg @ Rs. 2 for wheat and Rs. 3 for rice. identification to be left to states.
large investment needed to create infra first.
contradiction with directs benefits transfer.
states with universal or quasi universal PDS suffer. Poor states also suffer in theory.
last mile management left to local authority and not local government.
govt has agreed to maintain existing state food grain quotas and also antodaya (35 kg pm @ Rs. 2 for wheat and Rs. 3 for rice) - not a limitation.

3. super tax on rich - justified? on related note... justification for a capital gains tax and plugging mauritius tax treaty?
Super tax
1.
2.
3.
4.

fundamentals of taxation - ability to pay - justified.


argument given - reduce incentives to invest. flawed - most of the income is in form of capital gains which won't be taxed anyways. this will only tax the salaries they draw.
argument given - reduce incentives to work harder - why is it any different from any general tax increase..
In india only a small proportion of rich declare their true income. so unfair on them. but proper solution is to get remaining to declare true income.

Capital gains tax

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1. fundamentals of taxation - vertical and horizontal equity. if we exempt capital gains, both equity sacrificed.
2. argument - reduce incentives to invest, capital flight, india is a capital scarce country. But US is a capital rich country, why do they need to exempt capital. its not that all the capital
will fly away. investment decision involves both profit and cost considerations. profits will be reduced to the extent of capital gains tax. so only investment at the margin will not
happen. we can simultaneously bring structural reforms to increase the profitability of the economy.
3. argument - capital at margin goes away - many considerations - for example elasticity of this capital at margin... have to see what that capital was doing in the first place, how many
jobs it was generating - the tax proceeds can be used to create more jobs than lost... considerations of inclusive growth.
4. why should speculation in stock markets be exempted... what significant gains does it bring?
5. argument - double taxation.
6. argument - horizontal inequity.
Mauritius treaty
1. additional argument given - finance CAD... but for short term flows we need to keep fx reserves... those fx reserves can't be used to finance imports. so no use.
2. distortion with domestic investors.
4. gas pricing formula of rangarajan - pros and cons..
Pros
1. market efficiency - also encourage new production.
2. low monitoring and litigation costs for government.
Cons
1. Higher subsidy burden as government subsidises upstream plants. this can be recouped partially if producers are taxed more.
5. coal price pooling - good or bad...
1. it will lower the marginal cost for new plants and thus will encourage new investments. earlier marginal rate was import price, now the pooled price.
2. it will save investments already made. but will increase costs to those who were already getting cheap coal from CIL.
Not long term solution
1. as imported coal goes up, pooled price will increase. so need to increase domestic production.
Should we free up domestic coal prices?
1. yes - efficiency reasons - more production of coal.
2. But will this not increase the cost of electricity? power producers must be allowed to pass on the increased cost. the discoms should buy power at a higher cost and if the government
wishes to subsidise a section, it must pay discoms directly or use direct benefits transfer. the additional money can be obtained through auction of coal mines. this system is more
efficient and transparent at all levels.
3. yes - if we heavily subsidise coal power, how will we ever develop renewable resources?
4. no - players with existing captive mines will have windfall gains.
6. is 5.5 the new secular hindu rate of growth?
1. post crisis GFCF has fallen 4-5% from pre crisis level. pre crisis growth was 15-16%, now only 5-6%. this clearly shows that producers don't have confidence in the recovery and the
growth in 2 years after the crisis was merely a restocking growth.
2. no - do we think that for next 10 years external environment will remain so subdued? external environment has a big role to play in this fall. there was global recovery for 2 years and
then 2012 was again a difficult year globally. even china recorded just 8% growth this year.
3. structural issues had always been there and yet growth was high pre crisis.
4. no - reforms are underway. land acquisition, subsidy reforms, governance reforms, human capital development.
5. no - fiscal consolidation is underway. IMF research shows crowding out effects more pronounced in india.
Importance of exports
1. The consumption is projected to decrease as a proportion of GDP and savings to increase. This savings has to serve exports. So marginal growth export led.
7. reasons behind falling growth rate.
1. shaken investor confidence - post crisis GFCF has fallen 4-5% from pre crisis level. pre crisis growth was 15-16%, now only 5-6%. this clearly shows that producers don't have
confidence in the recovery and the growth in 2 years after the crisis was merely a restocking growth.
2. global factors - importance of global factors because of importance of exports.
3. importance of structural reasons - but they have been there all the time and yet pre crisis growth was high. But obviously structural reforms will be able to pull up growth level.
4. higher fiscal deficit - crowding out.
8. reasons behind high inflation
1. currency depreciation.
2. higher fiscal deficit.
3. higher incomes - so naturally any index which has higher weightage of food will show higher inflation.
So is NREGA bad as it causes food inflation?
1. If we take only a very narrow outlook, then can't deny. But need a proper perspective to evaluate it.
2. food inflation - what is the use of keeping food prices low if you let 40% of the population starve? N Korea example. what gives us this special right? don't they have a right to eat?
3. talk about productivity enhancement potential - small and marginal farmers.
9. reasons behind high CAD
1. slowdown in exports. happening everywhere - decoupling doesn't hold.
2. oil - prices in $ have gone up + car argument.
3. gold - marginal investment demand - bull market in gold + domestic inflation + bad time in financial markets.
10. steps taken to curtail gold import and are these steps really going to curtail the imports?
1. duty hikes + RBI working group proposals (gold banks + gold deposit schemes + bullion corporation of india - refinance gold loans and pooling) + spreading financial literacy and
products.
2. duty hike have the potential of increasing smuggling. utilising domestic idle gold domestically is a good idea. in the long term we need to check inflation and spread financial products.
11. why has rupee depreciation not improved CAD
1. high import content of our exports - petroleum products ($60 bio) + gems and jewelry ($45 bio).
2. sticky INR prices of imports - oil + fertilisers. inelastic demand.
3. investment demand in gold ($60 bio + $30 bio) - fueled as INR prices go up.
12. reasons for falling NREGA performance in rajasthan

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13. Cabinet committee on investments - good or bad idea


1. overall needed - agency based system, outcome oriented. usually system is procedure based with a myopic view about outcomes. and consensus is either not reached or is severely
sub optimal. but care should be taken that environment and tribal concerns are not bulldozed away.
2. better way is governance reforms - reduce discretionary powers, arbitrariness. strengthen outcome based system and not procedure based - give performance based incentives.
14. taking away powers of gram sabhas in linear projects - good or bad idea
1. unfortunate, but necessary - land is not fungible. but rehab shouldn't be neglected - make rehab a mandatory requirement before acquisition.
15. biggest advantages for india in coming decades.
1. human capital development. higher education - elite system to mass system. primary - universal enrollment.
2. demographic dividend + hidden demographic pool.
3. pressures build up for improved governance and incentive structures.
Biggest challenges to development
1. inequality - non inclusive growth - no human capital development.
2. crony capitalism - people will lose faith in governance, government will lose credibility, any reform becomes impossible.
16. should corporate houses be allowed to start banks?
Yes
1. large industrial houses are already involved in the NBFCs, why make a fuss about bank licences?
2. increased competition - PSB privatisation unlikely
3. strong moral hazard, 1969 rationale, but it can be checked through more effective regulation and monitoring. check in house transactions, stricter CDR norms for inhouse
restructuring. mandate a low ceiling on a companys loans outstanding to the banking system to be eligible for a bank licence.
17. should stock exchanges be listed?
1. yes - more transparency, need capital to grow. but should not list on itself, holding should not be concentrated.
2. no - sharp fall in stock exchange's stock's price will adversely impact whole market. but if it is happening because of say a fraud, then it would have anyways impacted the market
trading when people come to know about the fraud + proper way is better regulation. and if happening due to competition, economic reasons, then trading will simply shift to more
efficient exchanges.
18. aadhar card - is it a good idea.
1.
2.
3.
4.

yes - gives identity. through it we can implement direct benefits transfer which can be used to reform food, electricity, fertilisers sector.
can track medical history.
useful for migrants.
wee out ghost beneficiaries.

Concerns
1. privacy. need to protect data from private players as well as unauthorized use by state.
2. parliamentary committee has raised financial issues, duplication issues, technology issues.
19. what are the main problems of industry these days
1. land acquisition and government clearances and control.
2. crony capitalism - brings uncertainties in government policies, benefits some - hurts others, promotes inefficiency.
3. poor infrastructure.
How can we resolve land acquisition issues
1. Biggest issue - people are not paid enuf. we expect to pay them nothing or a pittance and leave peacefully? guiding principle should be that after rehab, people are not worse off +
rehab has to precede acquisition.
won't that increase project costs, reduce investment and hurt economy?
1.
2.
3.
4.

where is investment taking place in the current system? projects are held up for 10 years... proper rehab will only smoothen process, bring certainty and make investments easier.
if we pay proper rate for other resources, why not land? should an steel plant investor say he should get iron ore for free?
human rights.
practical solution - rehabilitation cess on project beneficiaries.

20. what are the main problems of handicrafts industry in jaipur these days?
1. slowdown.
2. marketing issues - inefficient supply chain - leaves little with the artisan to invest.
3. dwindling skilled labor - as profession no longer remunerative, so people migrating to other sectors.
Steps tak en
1. diversification of markets.
2. create efficient supply chains. more bargaining power to producers - SHG model.
3. cluster development for infra and technology.
21. How to build trust among people on rehabilitation and nuclear issues? (also find nuclear power world stats)
1. make people at least not worse off after rehab + rehab should precede acquisition.
2. levy rehab cess on project beneficiaries.
Nuclear issues
1. need more transparency. if govt scientist comes and says its safe, whats his credibility? need eminent and independent experts.
22. NSDC architecture
23. What did 13th FC do to strengthen the PRIs.
1. It also called for a 2.5% share of the divisible pool for local bodies in the form of grants, as the Constitution does not allow the sharing of tax revenues with them. While 1.5% will be
constant, 1% will be on the basis of performance.
2. The commission has recommended that local self-government bodies be given a direct share in Union tax revenues, bypassing the state governments, and that the cut for urban local

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bodies be raised in tune with their population growth vis--vis rural bodies. It is like bypassing the state, and the Centre will be directly dealing with the local self-governments (LSGs).
The LSGs will get their grants on the basis of their performance and their share from the tax revenues and states will not have much powers on them.
3. The commissions recommendations also seek to balance the share of urban bodies in total revenue. While revenue is currently divided between rural and urban bodies in the ratio 4:1,
the commission has suggested raising the latters share to match their share of the population according to the 2001 census.
Fiscal capacity distance criteria
1. We want to measure tax capacity. earlier income distance was used i.e. distance from state with highest per capita income. But this assumes uniform tax / income rate. 13th FC
changed this - said uniform rates not realistic. special category states need to have different rates. (distance from harayana used - goa first).
24. lobbying - good or bad.
1. essential in democracy - freedom of speech. but rules should be there to make it transparent.
2. Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates, often lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decisionmaking bodies
25. Is auction always the best way to allocate resources?
1. a very good way though not optimum in all cases. there is no problem if any action is taken in a non corrupt way. we should have rule based transparent systems.
26. Doesn't the exposure of these scams hurt industrial growth?
1. hurts - litigation, policy uncertainties, governance credibility. but alternative is worse.
2. proper way is to have transparent, rule based systems.
27. should there be a tax on diesel cars?
1. yes - misuse of subsidy, environmental concerns.
2. no - now is not the time because of slow growth.
28. Should STT be abolished? Why? Tobin tax?
Rationale
1. no - tax deduction at source. earlier people used to avoid capital gains tax.
2. yes - reduces overall market liquidity and some impact on employment. creates inefficiencies.
3. no - FIIs at least pay some tax.
Tobin tax
1. originally a transaction tax proposed on currency spot trades when bretton woods was dismantled. to discourage speculation by short term trading.
29. are u suggesting welfare programs like NREGS to be scrapped to bring down inflation?
1. No. that would be taking a very narrow view. NREGS has increased incomes, naturally demand for food higher and any index which has a higher weightage of food will show higher
inflation. But shouldn't they eat? whats the point in keeping prices low when 40% starve?
2. talk about productivity enhancement potential, small and marginal farmers, other benefits.
30. food production is increasing every year. But there is very high food inflation prevalent throughout the country why?
1. not rising enuf - demand going up more. rising incomes.
2. protein items like pulses, horticulture and fisheries - supply not going up much. yields are stagnated. supply chains inefficient and farmers have little incentives and high risks.
31. Why are business ethics important?
1. business ethics act as a first level check in ensuring corrupt things don't happen. not sufficient - but important.
2. people are not taught business ethics. many times they don't realise what they are doing is wrong and thus contribute towards the wrong. give example of convertible bonds.
32. foodgrain procurement pricing policy in india - different aspects
1. can be instrumental in solving many agro issues. for that it needs to be made effective for other crops.
2. guiding principle should be to shape cropping pattern as per the water and geographic conditions as well as changing demand patterns.
3. at the same time basic level of incentives should be maintained.
33. NREGA different aspects.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

generating employment - 1000 cr man days, 10 cr families.


generated a structural break in rural wages.
reduced push migration.
strengthened PRIs.
social justice - SC/ST, women.
gives support when most needed - adverse weather conditions.
productivity - s&m farmers, enterprises.
poor asset creation though - planning, lack of staff.
poor completion rates - reassess fund allocation for works when wages revised, reclassify works.
delayed wage payments - MIS, administrative delays in fund sanction, lack of staff.

34. Should CRR be done away with?


1. convenient tool for policy operation. the real issue is paying interest on it - to which i see no objection. simply will have to conduct extra OMOs to sweep up the interest payment.
2. other tool could be simply using interest rates. but transmission mechanism has to be strong there. So OMO can be used alongside.
35. Should RBI look at CPI or WPI while deciding monetary policy?
1. case for CPI - this is what anchors inflationary expectations since this is price actually paid. captures economy more meaningfully than WPI. CPI gets reflected in wage settings.
2. case for WPI - core inflation argument. but then in a country where half the personal consumption is on food and fuel, tough to ignore this component.
3. in current settings, a mix has to be used. track WPI but with certain limits for CPI.
36. should banks be privatised?
1. present structure of government ownership will soon become a big constraint for their growth.
2. but financial crisis tells us that government ownership is such a big cushion.
3. alternative ways could be explored - like issuing non voting shares + better regulation.
37. Is growth bottoming out?

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1. Not in terms of data. IIP, WPI, trade. even global growth doesn't show turning signs.
2. but policy actions have reversed which is a brighter side.
38. can an undervalued currency help in long term?
1. no - as per economic theory. but give the limitation in the theory - assumption of no sterilisation.
Should one have very large fx reserves?
1. savings - sacrificing present consumption for a claim on future. good for certain basic things like macroeconomic stability. but after a point, it may reduce welfare. if we cut down too
much on our food today we may not be healthy enough to work tomorrow. similarly if we don't burn that drop of oil today, our economy may not grow enough for tomorrow.
39. why has low growth failed to pull down inflation?
1. let us analyse why inflation is going up - 1. food inflation - divergence between CPI and WPI, rising incomes is a cause + supply side reasons. 2. highlight manufacturing and core
inflation already low.
2. global rally in energy and commodity prices - supply side shock.
3. weakening currency - highlight pro cyclical nature of INR - dependence on FII inflows. when growth low, our currency will weaken and thus higher inflation.
4. infrastructure constraints lower production and increase prices.
40. why has low growth failed to pull down CAD
1. conventional theory.
2. But low growth a global phenomenon - so exports also hit.
3. then imports - highlight the case of oil and gold.
41. In low growth won't reducing fiscal deficit hurt even further?
1. crowding out argument - evidence of pre crisis.
2. need to ensure that cuts are not from capital expenditure. cuts are from revenue expenditure.
42. won't a cut in the plan expenditure hurt supply capacity of economy and reduce growth even further?
1. yes. so need cut in revenue expenditure or enhanced tax collections.
43. Should tax base be expanded?
1. top 1.5% pay 63% tax. cost vs collection tradeoff.
2. better results can come if we dedicate energies towards closing loopholes at top.
44. Is the economy turning around?
1. FM insists CSO estimates are wrong because he promised in HK that economy is turning around. So he says CSO fails to see the green shoots in the economy. CSO advance
estimates use linear extrapolation for last 4 months.
2. But IIP indicates green shoots are absent. December and November showed negative on a seasonally adjusted basis. April - December growth is 0.7% only.
3. But in terms of policy actions, it is turning.
44. What are the new RBI CDR norms?
1. From April 1 onwards, fresh CDRs will be provisioned at five per cent. Provisioning will be increased in stages to five per cent on the existing stock of CDRs, which are currently
provisioned at 2.75 per cent.
2. Promoters must now commit to bring in the higher of two per cent of outstanding debt and 15 per cent of what the banks are foregoing.
3. Further, lenders may only convert a maximum 10 per cent of debt into equity a clause that would have blocked deals like Kingfisher Airlines, where lenders collectively converted
over 20 per cent of debt into equity.
4. The RBI has also plugged loopholes in the reclassification of CDRs to standard, or non-NPA, describing this as the end of regulatory forbearance. The existing guidelines allow a
restructured NPA to be reclassified standard if the borrower pays some part of outstanding interest. Under the new guidelines, the entire restructured interest due will have to be paid
for a year before reclassification.
5. The tightened definition implies that a large percentage of restructured loans will remain NPAs, which are provisioned at 15 per cent. Around 10 per cent of all PSB assets are in
CDRs. Private sector banks are better off, with lower CDR exposure at 1.5 per cent of assets.
Q8: What is a stock exchange? How does it work?
Current Macroeconomic Issues
Targets of 12th Plan
Taking account of all these factors, the Twelfth Plan should work towards bringing GDP growth back to an inclusive 9 per cent in the last two years of the Plan, which will yield an average
about 8.2 per cent in the Plan period. These are a growth rate of 4 per cent for the agricultural sector over the Twelfth Plan period and around 10 per cent in the last two years of the Plan.
Growth: 8.2%, mining and quarrying @ 7.2% up from 3% in 11 plan. manufacturing avg of 8% up from 6.9% in 11th
poverty: 2% p.a. mean schooling years from 5 to 7. eliminate gender and social gap in school enrollment.
increase gross irrigated area from 90 mha to 103 mha.
reduce AT&C losses to 20%
16. Connect all villages with all-weather roads by the
18. Complete Eastern and Western Dedicated Freight Corridors by the end of Twelfth Five
19. Increase rural tele-density to 70 per cent by the
50 per cent of gram panchayats achieve the Nirmal
2. Clean 80 per cent of critically polluted stretches in rivers by 2017 and 100 per cent by 2020.
green cover by 1 mha.
IMR 28, MMR 100
Skill development - 50 mm. special efforts are needed to ensure that employers and enterprises play an integral role
88 GW capacity, 30 GW renewable
reduce emission density by 20% 2020 vs 2005.
provide banking to 90% of households.
direct benefits transfer.
But it is reasonable to plan for merchandise exports growing at an average annual rate of 17 per cent in 12th Plan compared to 20 of 11th Plan

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CAD 2.9%. Investment in valuables has increased from 1-1.4% pre crisis to 2.5% now. This needs to be brought back to 1.5% level.
Plan size: 7% of GDP, Plan size of states: 5.5% of GDP
GFCF: 35% up from 32% Most of increase in GFCF has to come from private sector. This is possible if fiscal deficit is kept under check to prevent crowding out.
To move from GFCF to gross capital forma- tion we need to add increase in inventory and invest- ment in valuables
Investment in Infra: 9%, 11th Plan raised it from 6% to 7%.
Savings and Investment Scenario

One was the big improvement in government finances and the other was the improvement in the level of retained earnings of the private cor- porate sector. Between 200102 and 200708,
the savings of government administration improved from minus 6.0 per cent of GDP to plus 0.5 per cent of GDPan improvement of 6.5 percentage points. This was equal to almost half of
the 13.4 percent- age point improvement in the overall savings rate. The retained earnings of the private corporate sec- tor improved from 3.49.4 per cent of GDPan increase of about 6.0
percentage points.
Gross financial savings by house- holds improved by 2.3 percentage points, but then so did the sectors liabilities
The decline in domestic savings rates after the crisis of 2008 reflects deterioration in precisely the two elements, which had accounted for the increase earlier. this reduced the savings of the
public sector by as much as 4.3 percent- age points of GDP accounting for nearly two-thirds of the fall of 6.5 percentage points in the domestic.
private sector savings declined by 1.5%.

In the 12th plan bulk of the savings gain coming from public sector. from 0.7 to 4.3.
second largest is from domestic financial savings.
Household Savings
2.49. The gross financial savings of the household sector is expected to average 15.1 per cent in the Twelfth Plan going up from 13.6 per cent in 201011 (and an estimated 12.4 per cent in
201112), to 16.0 per cent at the end of the Twelfth Plan (201617). The borrowings of the household sector from the financial system are expected to increase from 3.6 per cent in 201011,
and estimated 3.1 per cent in 2011 12 to 4.5 per cent in 201617. Thus, the net finan- cial savings of the household sector is expected to go up from 10.0 per cent in 201011, and an
estimated 9.3 per cent in 201112 to 11.5 per cent in 201617, while the average for the Plan period is likely to be 11 per cent. Investment by households in physical assets is expected to
average 12.3 per cent of GDP in the Twelfth Plan. Thus, the total household sav- ings including both net financial and physical assets are projected to average 23.3 per cent for the
Twelfth Plan period, nearly the same as in the Eleventh Plan period.
2.52. The overall domestic savings rate is projected to increase from an estimated 30.5 per cent in 2011 12 to 36.3 per cent in 201617, and average 34.2 per cent for the Twelfth Plan
period. This would be slightly higher than the 33.1 per cent recorded in the Eleventh Plan period. Since the projected aver- age investment rate (GDCF, including errors and omissions) in the
Twelfth Plan (at current prices) is 37.0 per cent and the projected gross domestic sav- ings is 34.1 per cent, the net external financing needed for macroeconomic balance should average 2.9
per cent.

BoP Flows
as the stock of foreign investment builds up in India, the net investment income is increasingly becoming a larger negative number, going from ()0.6 per cent of GDP in 200405 to ()0.9 per
cent in 201112.
Merchandise exports would be over $600 billion. The average of the Twelfth Plan would be 18 per cent. Merchandise imports are also expected to increase as a proportion of GDP to average
about 27 per cent of GDP dur- ing the Plan period. The merchandise trade deficit would therefore average 9 per cent of GDP.
2.57. The net positive balance on trade in services is expected to increase only slightly to 3.4 per cent of GDP from 3.2 per cent in the Eleventh Plan. Private remittances averaged 3.1 per
cent of GDP in the Tenth Plan, which increased to 3.5 per cent in the
The net FDI inflow was thus 1.1 per cent of GDP for the Eleventh Plan as a whole. Portfolio equity inflows fluctuated to a greater extent, from 1.12.4 per cent of GDP in the Eleventh Plan
period, and averaged 1.3 per cent of GDP
Debt inflows together are 1.5%
Total capital inflows thus are 4%.
12th plan assumes FII inflows would slow to 0..5% from 1.3%.

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global perceptions about our macroeco- nomic stability are critical for maintaining access to capital flows and, as pointed out above, the fiscal deficit is a performance parameter of critical
impor- tance.
Scenarios of 12th Plan
the second scenario Insufficient Action describes the consequences of half hearted action in which the direction of policy is endorsed, but sufficient action is not taken. The growth in this
scenario declines to around 6 per cent to 6.5 per cent. The third scenario Policy Logjam, projects the consequences of Policy Inaction persisting too long. The growth rate in this scenario
can drift down to 5 per cent to 5.5 per cent.
Achievements of 11th Plan
Agricultural GDP growth accelerated in the Eleventh Plan, to an average rate of 3.3 per cent, compared with 2.4 per cent in the Tenth Plan, and 2.5 per cent in the Ninth Plan.
55 GW capacity
GDP growth in the Eleventh Plan 200708 to 201112 was 7.9 per cent compared with 7.6 per cent in the Tenth Plan
poverty line population
unemployment
Eleventh Plan, yielding an annual average net capital inflow of 4.1 per cent of GDP during the Eleventh Plan. Since the average current account deficit was 2.7 per cent of GDP, the net
capital inflows exceeded what was required to finance the current account deficit and contributed to a build up of forex reserves.
teledensity 80
minor ports did well in 11th plan than major ports because there were some issues regarding incentives for PPP
The rate of growth of real consumption per capita in rural areas in the period 200405 to 201112 was 3.4 per cent per year which was four times the rate in the previous period 199394 to
200405.

Rural real wages increased 6.8 per cent per year in the Eleventh Plan (200708 to 201112) compared to an average 1.1 per cent per year in the previous decade, led largely by the
governments rural policies and initiatives.

achievements in IMR, MMR, TFR, institutional deliveries, immunization.


Environment
Planning Commission has commissioned an Expert Group under Professor Partha Dasgupta to prepare a template for estimat- ing green national accounts which would measure national
production while allowing for negative effects on national resources.
Eco-efficiency is achieved by the delivery of competi- tively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and
resource intensity throughout the life-cycle, to a level at least in line with the earths carrying capacity.
socio-efficiency, that is, the relation between a firms value added and its social impact.
National Clean Energy Fund (NCEF) in 2010 by imposing a cess on coal at an effective rate of !50 per tonne. The Government expects to collect !10000 crore under the Clean Energy Fund
by 2015.
4.13. Compensatory Afforestation Fund is an inno- vative mechanism for attracting additional resources to the forestry sector. Money is collected for com- pensatory afforestation from user
agencies in lieu of the land granted for non-forestry purpose, presently at the rate of !0.8 million per hectare.
National Gene Fund, has been established, which will be used to build capacity at Panchayat level for in situ conservation of genetic diversity of indigenous crop varieties.
n 2031, Indias per capita GHG emissions will be under 4 tonnes of Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2eq.) which is lower than the global per capita emission of 4.22 tonnes of COeq. in 2005.
current emissions is 1.18 tonnes.
eco-industrial park (EIP) - hub or cluster of industries to improve economic performance while minimizing environmental impacts. DMIC and SEZs will be converted into EIP.
(SC) power plants, which operate at steam condi- tions 560o C/250 bars, can achieve a heat rate of 2235 kCal/kWh as against a heat rate of 2450 kCal/ kWh for sub-critical power plants.
The specific CO2 emission for super-critical plants is 0.83 kgagainst 0.93 kg/kWh for sub-critical plants. Ultra super critical plants operate at USC steam conditions (620 C/300 bars) and
can achieve a much lower heat rate of 1986 kCal/kWh, while the specific CO2 emissions are only 0.74 kg/kWh. An Ultra Super Critical (USC) coal-based power plant has an efficiency of 46
per cent compared with 34 per cent for a sub critical plant and 40 per cent for a Super Critical (SC) plant.
wind: the global practice is now to build towers in the range of 80120 m, which significantly increases the power potential. At the same time, the size of wind turbines has increased while
the earlier turbines were typically less than 1 MW, the recent designs go up to over 5 MW. Taking these into consideration, the wind potential in India is now estimated at about 103000 MW
for 80 m hub height. carbon capture.
we could safely target a wind capacity addition of 30000 MW by 2020. However, as noted in Chapter 12, wind potential is unevenly distributed across the country; only Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat have significant potential.
Wind power has significant seasonal and even intra-day variations.Wind capacity addition needs to be complemented by other energy sources, which have a quick ramp-up time. 12th plan
talks about national wind energy mission.
Environmental Performance Index (EPI) 7.70. The Planning Commission is in the process of developing an EPI to incentivise states for environ- mental performance through budgetary
allocationsso on. (
Solar
Solar photovoltaic technologies have several advantages: they can provide distributed power, enable quick capacity addition and work with diffused solar radiation.
Solar thermal technologies are conducive for utility-scale power generation, and have the advantage of energy storage. However, solar thermal technologies only work on direct beam radiation
and utility-scale plants require large amount of land and water

The NSM has targeted 2000 MW of off-grid solar power by 2022. Current guidelines limit a solar micro-grid to 100 kW per site and provide a capital subsidy of 30 per cent. The concept of
micro-grid, even though attractive, has so far not been effective in augmenting rural power generation. This is mainly because the developers have found it difficult to get reasonable returns on
their investments as they are unable to collect adequate revenues to cover operating expenses despite the initial capital subsidy.
4.46. Since the capital subsidy mechanism is not sufficient to incentivise developers to take the risk of setting up micro-grids, there is a need to examine other options given that rural
electricity supply causes loss to the power utilities and it could take several years before reliable grid power reaches all the villages.

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First, there is a need for relaxing the cap on total and site-based project capacity.

Second, there is merit in providing a generation-based incentive, similar to that provided for grid-connected systems
enabling local panchayats with a stake in ownership could ensure local maintenance and operation, as also community-ownership leading to improved payment collection.
The government should immediately classify solar power projects as priority lending so that banks start giving it due importance in their credit plans.
Our customs duty structure should not be inverted. Export subsidies (explicit and implicit) available to foreign manufacturers must be matched by tariff

Cap and trade design leaves out many small and medium organizations (who together may release significant portion of the emissions). Carbon tax covers the entire economy, including
automobiles, households and other units impossible to reach in a cap-and- trade.
cap and trade: Political pressures could lead to different allocations of allowances, which affect distribution, but not environmental effectiveness and cost-effectiveness Political pressures
could lead to exemptions of sectors and firms, which reduces environmental effectiveness and drives up costs.

Iron and Steel, Cement, Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Pulp and Paper and Aluminium are the five most energy-intensive industrial sectors in India
The PAT scheme is an energy intensity type of cap-and-trade scheme as it does not place an abso- lute cap on the total energy consumption

15 Given the relatively smaller size of the average Indian vehicle, the Indian vehicle fleet is among the most fuel-efficient in the world.
There has been a tendency for vehicles to get heavier without a corresponding increase in capa- city, as seen in the 2 per cent per annum increase in average kerb weight of cars sold in
India. This is not a desirable trend as it leads to increased fuel consumption without additional benefits. There- fore, standards must contain an explicit disincen- tive against up-weighting of
vehicles. This can be achieved by making the standards not linear, but a sub-linear function of the vehicle weight. In the
the energy intensity of rail freight being 0.18 MJ/ tonne-km, while the intensity for road freight being 1.6 MJ / tonne-km , that is a nine-fold difference. but share of railways in frieght has
declined. hence the need to increase passenger fares.
current road freight is inefficient because of reasons such as sub-optimal utilization of trucks, inefficient border crossing, toll regimes,
center can use the JNNURM funding to meet its objectives.

4.100. Most urban bus utilities in the country are financially unviable, and a significant part of their financial burden is due to capital expenditure (to buy buses) and taxes. Some
studies23 suggest that these expensesincluding various taxes on fuel form about 20 per cent of the total expenditure of a bus utility, and that these are comparable to or higher than taxes
on private vehicles. Such taxation policy is clearly contrary to the objective of promoting
Lamp Yojana (BLY) provided an innovative business model to sell CFLs to households at the same price as incandescent bulbs, the balance being recovered as carbon credits. However, a
sharp decline in the price of carbon credits has effectively made this business
Light Emitting Diode (LED), sents an opportunity for another quantum jump in lighting energy efficiency.
ECBC is to become mandatory from 12th plan. Green Building Codes across the country, implementation of these codes should be made one of the important conditionalties under the
revamped JnNURM in the 12th Five Year Plan. The next Finance Commission should also be given the task of linking financial devolution to urban local bodies to the implementation of Green
Building Codes
National Water Commission is proposed to monitor implementation.
New legal framework for groundwater
- based on public trust doctrine and not absolute dominion. Add to it local bodies principles.
- certain safeguards needed in public trust doctrine.
- social injustice: certain minimum amount guaranteed.
- can panchayats sell the ground water to an industry? farmers may be denied irrigation water in such a case.
Education

About 43 per cent of the public expenditure on education was incurred for elemen- tary education, 25 per cent for secondary education and the balance 32 per cent for higher education.
mean schooling years is 5.12 < developing countries 7.1 and other BRICS countries.
Primary education
- most important problem in primary - improve learning outcomes.
- another issue is access to disabled children.
- In improving learning outcomes, a major challenge is teachers without required qualifications are appointed. Most such cases are in Bihar, UP, Jharkhand and W Bengal.
- The capacity, motivation and accountability of teachers to deliver quality education is missing.
- improving school infrastructure inputs as just the starting point in improving educational quality
challenges
- teacher absence, delayed fund flows to schools and administrative capabilities are main challenges. Studies have also found that improved measurement and management of teacher
performance has a significant posi- tive impact on student learning outcomes.
- 21.38. Clear articulation of learning goals is the criti- cal first step in this process. National learning stand- ards must be developed on the basis of which States. 1.39. Once basic goals
are clearly articulated, all aspects of the elementary education system (such as methods of teachinglearning, use of materi- als, grouping for effective instruction, optimal use of time, daily
instructional time and number of days of teaching, measurement of progress, capac- ity building and ongoing support for teachers and administrators) will need to be strongly aligned to the
achievement of the learning goals.
- textbooks should be aligned to the overall learning goals
- Moving From Grade-Level to Ability-Level TeachingLearning 21.50. Recent research in the country and abroad underlines the need for teaching children from the level that they are and
taking them to the level that they need to be.
- is strong evidence that for children whose home lan- guage is different from the textbook language with no supplemental parental guidance at home, problems of coping eliminate them
from the system. need to develop primers for bridging the home language to the school language

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21.165. Performance-based innovative practices like social audits, linkages with panchayats and munici- palities, energising and empowering village educa- tion committees, public reporting
of expenditures linked to outcomes and results, and multi-stake- holder dialogues would be used to improve gover- nance in the school system. Most important would be to empower local
communities so that they have better oversight over schools and teachers.
- Parents have to be more actively engaged. Good schools rewarded.
Secondary Education
- 21.90. GERs at the secondary (Class IXX) and senior secondary (Class XI XII) levels are 62.7 per cent and 35.9 per cent, respectively, leading to a combined GER for Class IXXII at a
considerably low 49.3 per
- The Central Government has approved setting up of 2500 Model Schools in PPP mode and a proposal for setting up 3000 ITIs. Recurring tuition support would be provided for up to 1000
students from under privileged categories at par with the amount that the Central Government spends on a student in Kendriya Vidyalaya. There would be no capital support and land would
have to be procured by the private entity. Infrastructure support shall be made available by the government for the underprivileged students at the rate of 25 per cent of the recurring tuition
support. The concession would be for a period of 10 years. There will be no financial bidding.
- some States like Rajasthan and MP, the gender gap in GER is as wide as 20 per cent.
- the retention of girls in school remains difficult given that over 63 per cent of rural schools have no usable toilet facilities for them.10 If the envisaged convergence of the Mahatma
Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS), Total Sanitation Programme Provision of transport, especially in rural areas, will be made for schools to avoid school
dropout, especially among girls and economically weaker sections due to non-availability of schools within walking distance.
1.104. Enrolment in more than one-third of the secondary schools in the country is less than 80 students per school. Secondary and higher secondary schools must be viable and large
enough to benefit from investment on quality. So focus should be on creating composite schools and upgrading existing schools. This will also solve the access issue.
- Focus should be on running schools in multiple shifts, utilising unused land in existing schools.
- It is critical for the country to make second- ary education much more job-relevant through skills training within the schools. Vocational courses need to be a part of curriculum.

- Private sector - The current licensing and regulatory restrictions in the sector could be eased and a single window approach should be adopted so that the process of opening new schools
by private providers is streamlined.
- Integration of Sports and Physical Education
- all secondary and higher secondary schools would be made to conform to minimum standards in facilities and quality
- Examination Reforms problem solving, analytical skills.
- RMSA should gradually move towards funding States on per child cost basis/norms which would incentivise enrolment, retention and completion,
- USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION
- rajasthan has large number of teacher vacancies. National professional standards for teachers should be evolved.

Secondary Education: Twelfth Plan Goals


1. Achieve near-universal enrolment in secondary education, with the GER exceeding 90 per cent by 2017;
2. Raise the GER at the higher secondary level to 65 per
cent by 2017;
3. Reduce Dropout rate to less than 25 per cent by 2017;
Higher EDUCATION
GER is 18%. Central institutions, which account for 2.6 per cent of the total enrolment; State institutions which account for 38.5 per cent of enrolment; and private institu- tions that cater to
the remaining students. Total 2.5 cr students enrolled. target is 3.5 cr in 12th plan taking GER to 25%.
- Indian higher education to cross the thresh- old of 15 per cent GER, moving the country from an elite to a mass higher education system. 50% is universal access.
21.213. Central funding for State higher education is small; its reach is limited, and its impact insignificant. It is poorly coordinated and plagued by excessive bureaucracy, inefficiencies, low
levels of monitoring and poor quality of outcomes. It therefore, provides little value for money. 12th plan will increase this funding. Central funding for higher education will be done on a Statespecific basis and allocated for the States higher education system as a whole. The UGC would play an important and more strategic role in allocation and disbursal of Central funds, and
thus reform the state education system.
- Currently, for-profit entities are not permitted in higher education and the non-profit or philanthropy- driven institutions are unable to scale-up enough. Therefore, the not-for-profit status in
higher education should, perhaps, be re-examined for pragmatic. This should, however, be subjected to the necessary oversight and accreditation arrangements to ensure quality and
equity. allowing private institutions to raise funds through public offerings of bonds or shares
- giving priority recognition to the sector, like providing it infrastructure status
Expansion - scaling up capacity in existing institutions. First, large and reputed colleges with necessary capabilities and diverse learning streams will be converted into full-fledged
universities.
Equity - increased budgetary support
Governance - Reduce the role of government in administrative matters. Focus on regulation only. Increase transparency. affiliating universities will be required to revamp their college
development councils and give greater autonomy to their colleges. some of the large and unwieldy affiliating universities will be bifurcated or trifurcated into manageable units.ate
programmes. some of the large and unwieldy affiliating universities will be bifurcated or trifurcated into manageable units.
The National Accreditation Regulatory Authority for Higher Educational Institutions Bill that seeks to make accreditation by independent accredita- tion agencies mandatory for all higher
educational. the Education Tribunals Bill to create a Central tribunal and State-level tribunals for expeditious resolution of disputes relating to insti- tutions, faculty, students and regulatory
authorities; (iv) For eign Educational Institutions (Regulation of Entry and Operations) Bill to enable quality foreign education institutions to enter and operate in India and regulate operations
of foreign education provid- ers; (v) National Commission for Higher Education and Research (NCHER) Bill to create an umbrella regulatory authority

Recently the Central Government has taken several measures to loosen its grip over institutions funded by it, as in the case of the Indian Institutes of Management, where the government
no longer has any role in the selection of Board members.
Plan targets increase public funding from 1.22% of GDP to 1.5% (states and center combined). Also to increase fee in public institutions.

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PPP
Resort to PPPs in the social sector often raises concerns about the commercialisation of services that are normally expected to be provided free or highly subsidised. These are important
concerns but they can be addressed by well-drafted concession agreements and strict monitoring
While extending the concept of PPP to social and urban sector projects, the need for peoples participation in the design and monitoring of PPP schemes becomes crucial. Local citizens
are direct stakeholders in such projects and therefore their support becomes crucial. Therefore, some cities and States have begun to shape PPPs in the social and urban sectors as
PeoplePublicPrivate Partnerships (PPPPs).
Finance
Q. What are the critical issues in the expansion of banking and insurance?
1. High transaction costs at the bottom of the pyramid. SHGs, microfinance, kisan credit cards, aadhar for KYC.
2. Universal banking vs narrow banking: it is not clear whether the Indian banking sector has acquired the requisite risk assessment and project appraisal skills for term loans, without
which financing long-duration projects can be hazardous.
3. assetliability imbalance as deposits are ST and lending become LT. Hence the need of increasing long term savings an infra debt funds and corporate bonds.
4. Third, since there has been no change in the sources from which banks can raise their resources, all increases in term lend- ing are at the cost of funds available for working capital
purposes. This leads to smaller and weaker clients being crowded out from the credit space whenever norms stiffen or investment increases. This makes our banking system less
inclusive than it would otherwise have been.
Q. How to tackle the issue of gold?
1. closely related to the larger issue of instruments of long-term savingslife insurance, pensions, provident funds and so on.
2. Inflation indexed bonds
3.

R&D

Instead of all government research funds being allocated to the budget of different scientific departments, there is a case for creating a new National Research Fund which can receive
competing research proposals
PSUs should spend 23 per cent of their sales turnover on R&D contract- ing out research to institutions and universities.
- The transition rate from X to XI Science is very small as indicated by less than 12 per cent share of students in UG Science stream. This low enrolment in science stream at higher
secondary level and poor-quality education is a constraint in development of scientific manpower in the country.
- Low levels of funding and segregation of the countrys R&D institutions from universities and colleges have been responsible for the weak research capacity of Indian universities.
Agriculture
Soil Balance - The way forward is to rejuve- nate the soil and restore soil health through addition of organic matter in large quantities. Use of organic manures will gradually bring down the
dependence on chemical fertilisers. However, the use of organic manures is discouraged because they receive no sub- sidy while urea is heavily subsidised.
Land acquisition and food security - Concern is often raised in this context about the impact on food security. This problem is greatly exaggerated because the produc- tivity of land in
agriculture at present is very low
New focus has to be on livestock, horticulture, fisheries and rainfed areas.
Key challenges - 1. Increase rice productivity in eastern india and to relieve NW India from this crop because of water issues. 2. nutrient balance of soil. 3. extend procurement operations to
other crops.
Land Reforms
6.8. Legally, land leasing laws in most states either prevent marginal and small farmers from increasing the area they cultivate by leasing in land,
At the same time, absentee landlordism is high in some regions (especially the hill states and rainfed areas), causing huge tracts of cultivable fallows to lie idle.
6.9. There is, therefore, a strong case for legalising tenancy and allowing leasing-in and leasing-out land with adequate safeguards to protect the interests of small and marginal farmers.
states like Punjab and Haryana, large and medium farmers who lease in land from small and marginal farmers invest in modern inputs, reap economies of scale and raise farm
productivity. The small and marginal farmers who lease out their higher incomes. In other states like Bihar and Orissa, with low wages and fewer employment opportuni- ties, small and
marginal farmers lease in land, enlarge their holding size and thus afford a reasonable level of living with all attendant benefits of tenancy like borrowing from financial institutions. The
medium and large farmers in these states migrate to urban areas to take non-farm employment opportunities without any risk of losing their land.
feminisation of agriculture.
Government of Andhra Pradesh, under which poor dalit women formed small groups to buy land collectively for joint farming, The land was equally divided and registered in the names of
individual women. But they are culti- vating jointly by pooling it. However, experience has shown that government should not purchase land for leasing to D&W farmers, as attempted in
Andhra Pradesh. Government entry in the land market tends to hike up prices, making the scheme unsustainable.
In 2009 Andhra Pradesh introduced a bill in the Assembly (Self-Help Group Tenancy Bill 2009), which would legally permit leasing by womens Self- help Groups. Landowners are assured
that their titles will not be in jeopardy. However, a flaw in AP 2009 Bill is that the land will be leased collectively by the group, but can be sub-leased to group members, with the group
bearing liability for the lease. This is retrogressive since default by one member would make the entire group indebted. Also subleasing will fragment the holdings and undermine potential
economies of scale. Also reports indicate that even the news of this potential legalisation has frozen the land lease market.

6.22. Public Land Banks: Even legal guarantee may be insufficient to mitigate the landowners fear. Enacting a law to recognise tenancies could freeze the informal land lease market in the
short run.

Public Land Bank (PLB) at alise land demand and supply. The PLB would take deposits of land from landowners wanting to lease out their land, with the surety that they could with- draw
their deposit when they wanted. The deposit could be for one season, one year, or three years and more. On deposit the farmers would get a small pay-ment as incentive, the amount varying
by the period. The landowner would receive an additional fee when the land is leased out. The PLB would lease out the land under its command to specially designated categories of
disad- vantaged farmers, such as marginal farmers, women, dalits, and tribals, There can be several incentives for farmers to deposit their land in the PLB: (i) a minimum rent from the PLB
even for fallow land; (ii) an addi- tional topping up rent for land that gets leased out; (iii) development of the land in terms of soil conser- vation and so on, via MGNREGA or other means. with
owners being free to withdraw their land from the Bank with due notice. For the lessees, it would provide D&W farmers access to land for which they cannot always compete in the open
market. The PLB should provide a guaranteed lease and, where possi- ble, a consolidated plot of reasonable size

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current land acquisition under the doctrine of eminent domain and treats people like subjects.
Land Readjustment (LR) is gaining acceptance as an alternative to land acquisition. Under this process, a compact area is selected in consultation with the land owners for urban
expansion/renewal. The municipal authorities provide infrastructure which is funded by exploiting a part of land. The remaining land, whose value has increased due to provision of
infrastruc- ture, is reallocated back to participating private land- owners. In essence a participatory tool, LR avoids public discontent and protests to a great extent. It
Land Records
6.58. Once land revenue began to decline in signifi- cance as an element in state income, especially in the 1970s, land record administration underwent great neglect. even mutation doesnt
happen now. multiple departments are involved. we need a single window system, updated records, land title conclusively proving ownership. National Land Record Modernisation Programme
is on. Torrens Programme may be implemented by the next plan. Critical bottleneck is human resources.
Nutrition
Poor learning outcomes in our schools are partly because of poor quality of teaching but they are also partly due to high incidence of child malnutrition, which reduces learning ability.
Food Security Bill
Power
unwillingness on the part of banks to finance power generation projects that are being set up because of doubts that they will be paid by the dis- coms. A debt restructuring plan, in which
State Governments take over a large part of the burden of pay
Health
At present, less than 30 per cent of outpatient and less than half of inpatient health care capacity of the country is in the public sector,
Plan will therefore see the transformation of the NRHM into a National Health Mission, covering both rural and urban areas.
0.45. In order to achieve health goals UHC must build on universal access to services that are deter- minants of health, such as safe drinking water and sanitation, wholesome nutrition, basic
education, safe housing and hygienic environment. To aim at achieving UHC without ensuring access to the deter- minants of health would be a strategic mistake, and
There is a massive shortage of healthcare professionals

to focus much more on a provision of clean drinking water and sanitation. The incidence of slipped back habitations appears to be accelerating. Excessive withdrawal of groundwater for
irrigation
IT / Mobile based solutions: The parents of babies born in municipal hospitals in Bengaluru get an SMS alert, when the next vaccination is due.
UHC is a process which will unfold over 2-3 plan periods. expenditure of 2.5% by end of 12th pla,. but it includes 1.5% of water and sanitation. PPP would be used. RSBY would cover all
BPL. Some drugs will be made available universally free of cost.

NREGA Criticism
Hurting farm profits - If rising wages squeeze farm profitability, the solution lies in raising farm productivity to accommodate higher wages. We should not be looking to perpetuate a
situation where low-cost labour provides the necessary profit margins for farmers, removing incentives to invest in efficiency improvement.
Bottomless Pit - What is less appreciated is that this has been achieved with a rather modest increase in the share spent on rural employment schemes out of total Central Plan
expenditures. It has increased from an average of 11.8 per cent in the three years before MGNREGA (200203 to 200405) to 13.3 per cent in the last three (200910 to 201112). This
means that although MGNREGA is not free of leakages, these have declined considerably. Thus, far from opening a bottomless pit as some critics still claim, the provision of employment as
a legal right, has greatly improved the share of intended beneficiaries\

Q. Why has inflation gone up in India after the crisis?


1. higher fiscal deficit - caused by both revenue fall and higher subsidies.
2. global inflation - qe imported since our currency depreciated. and currency depreciated because of bear market + structural issues dampening foreign investor confidence and higher
CAD.
3. RBI failed to check inflation expectations early and needs to work on credibility side.
4. But food subsidy in india was 0.8% of GDP in 2004-05 and has remained in the range of 0.75% to 0.9% since then.
Capital gains on assets where STT was charged was as follows: Long term (> 1 year): 0%, Short term 15%.
Now it will be: Long term: 0%, Short term: 50% deduction and then tax @ marginal tax rate.
5. Capital gain on assets where STT was not charged was as follows: Long term (>3 years): 20% with indexation
benefits, Short term: marginal tax rate. Now it will be: marginal tax rate (with indexation benefits) for both short
and long term.
Q. Why has CAD gone up in India after the crisis?
Q. Why is INR one of the weakest currencies in Asia?
1. High CAD, FDI doesn't cover it and so reliance on FII inflows which are volatile.
2. Exports depend on global demand. Imports are inelastic.
III. Problems with Existing Official Poverty Lines
The existing all-India rural and urban official poverty lines were originally defined in
terms of per capita total consumer expenditure (PCTE) at 1973-74 market prices and
adjusted over time and across states for changes in prices keeping unchanged the original
1973-74 rural and urban underlying all-India reference poverty line baskets (PLB) of
goods and services. These all-India rural and urban PLBs were derived for rural and
urban areas separately, anchored in the per capita calorie norms of 2400 (rural) and 2100
(urban) per day. However, they covered the consumption of all the goods and services
incorporated in the rural and urban reference poverty line baskets. Three major criticisms
of these poverty lines have been commonly aired. One, the consumption patterns
underlying the rural and urban PLBs remained tied down to those observed more than
three decades ago in 1973-74 and hence had become outdated. Given the rise in the
living standards resulting from accelerated economic growth since the nineteen-eighties,
the consumption pattern of the poor has also been changing but is not reflected in the
poverty lines. Two, crude price adjustment for prices was leading to implausible results
such as proportion of total urban population below poverty line being higher than its rural
counterpart in certain major states. In particular, it was shown by Deaton that Consumer
Price Index for Agricultural Labourers that was used for the rural population understated
the price rise for the rural population and hence understated the extent of rural poverty.
Three, the earlier poverty lines assumed that basic social services of health and education

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would be supplied by the state and hence, although private expenditure on education and
health was covered in the base year 1973-74, no account was taken of either the increase
in the proportion of these in total expenditure over time or of their proper representation
in available price indices.
Q. Benefits of NREGA.
1. Social justice - 51% SC/ST, 47% women. bringing about parity in male - female wages. females participation in nrega is > female participation in casual labor market in all states.
2. Benefits poor - benefits female headed households more in terms of income support. eg. in raj, share of nrega earnings in female headed household income was 15% while male
households was 7.5%.
3. Small and marginal farmers land improved. can tie up with public land bank scheme.
4. agricultural wages - were growing 0.6% before that. now 6.5% ... a real structural break.
5. empowerment of panchayats - resources, planning by GS, 50% works executed by GP.
6. nutrition security + education. people also using the money to start own business. expenditure on transport has fallen.
7. provides income to poor when they most need it i.e. averse weather conditions. females are more affected by it and hence a bigger relief.
8. 50% of the S&M farmers whose lands have been worked upon have not returned to nrega.
9. concept of multiplier and accelerator applied.
10. people feel the ownership of assets.
11. climate change and nrega - carbon sequestration potential.
Q. Criticisms of NREGA
1. reducing availability of labor - minimum wage argument, NSSO data result - in raj, only 14% hh report availability of alternative work during NREGA days. nrega has increased rural
workforce participation rates by drawing many into work force who were earlier out of job markets. reduction of agricultural work force was a phenomenon which started before nrega.
most of nrega works are generated in lean seasons.
2. inflation - rights of poor + enhance productivity - infra development, land development = enhanced agricultural productivity.
3. asset quality.
4. completion rates low (national avg is 60%) - lack of planning (construction of ponds started before monsoon) + irregular flow of funds + delays in wage payments + a multi year work
is treated as incomplete in the first year. instead it should be split into annual components + sometimes wages are revised up or material costs rise and new funds not allocated. such
a revision of estimates should be carried out. + No new work should be started if previous works not completed beyond a threshold.
5. reduced migration - but nrega has only reduced push migration. pull migration is not affected at all.
Q. inter state variation in female participation - reasons
1.
2.
3.
4.

rajasthan has 70%. southern states have higher. UP bihar, J&K NE states have lower.
limited alternate work opportunities and hence rationing in poorer states.
women facilities.
SHGs, NGOs, govt commitment, cultural acceptance.

Q. The schemes like NREGA is also not functioning? Why?


1. not right to say not functioning. yes there are problems.
2. lack of engineers and staff - asset quality. no use of machines - so how can roads be durable? hence the need of more engineering and planning. ponds are constructed without
conceptualization of catchment area. catchment area treatment is not carried out leading to silting.
3. lack of staff - work evaluation. in rajasthan, only 10% of participants get paid in 15 days (NSSO)
4. social audit.
5. irregular flow of funds and administrative delays.
6. women participation low in some states.
7. poor bank coverage, illiteracy.
8. IT system flaws - not real time.
9. infrequent meetings and low participation in GS. low awareness.
Q. NREGA 2.0
1. strengthening social audit.
2. performance audit by cag. auditors employed at district level.
Q. What about the FDI in the retail sector and organized retail? Do you think it should be there?
1. yes.
2. efficiency.
3. investment - logistics.
Q. Do you think because of recession the capitalism as a system has failed?
1. no, but emphasized importance of regulations. modern capitalism was anyways far from lassiez fierre.

Q. In the context of the Japanese disaster, do you think we should continue our expansion plans for nuclear energy or should we stop it?
1. critical analysis - both safety as well as desirability.
2. need to make credible plans.
3. need to have credible institutions - make independent regulator, credible disaster management plans. very often its not reactors which fail, its human systems which fail. eg.
Fukishama. CAG report.
4. larger question of R&R.
Q. How safe is nuclear energy? Very recently the former chairman of the AEC said that India should not import foreign reactors. Even he is not so sure about the safety of the rectors.
1. 100% safety can never be there. Science can take us to a reasonable level of safety. But I think more than the safety of reactors, its the human systems around it which fail. eg.
Fukishama. CAG report.
2. AERB is not independent. In the NSRA, The AEC chairman will also be one of the key members of the Council of Nuclear Safety that will set the policies with respect to radiation and
nuclear safety that will fall under the purview of the NSRA.
the functions of monitoring of radiological exposure as well as the responsibility of radiological surveillance is now with NPC the operator of the reactors.
there is no overall nuclear and radiation safety policy.
Nor does the AERB have the mandate to take follow-up action with district or state authorities when it detects deficiencies in emergency preparedness.
The AERB has also not paid any attention to planning for decommissioning nuclear reactors.
Q. How are some of these concerns addressed in nuclear safety bill?
Q. Details of nuclear liability bill

1. The modifications also cap the liability of the operator at $300 mm for unlimited period.
2. The operator can claim the min (damages paid by him, value of the supplier's contract) from the supplier.
3. The recourse period is max (period specified in the contract, period of initial license which is 5 years).
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4. The operator can claim only what is directly paid by him as compensation to the victims whereas the cost of nuclear damage is much more.

Q. Discom reforms

3. Under the new package, discoms will have to mandatorily revise their tariffs every 9 months. They will have to issue bonds for half of the accumulated losses
and government will guarantee the other half.
4. A National Electricity Fund has been setup to give interest subsidies (currently $1.6 bio) to discoms.
5. Discoms can be improved by including modern technology and management systems or by privatization or hiring a management company (system called
franchising).
6. Open Access Policy (where consumers are free to chose from competing discoms) should be followed.
Q. Direct Cash Transfer.. Pros and Cons. Your view?
1. big step - corruption.
2. cons - no banking infrastructure, girls and children neglected, price fluctuations.
Q. How will u improve agriculture? short term solutions
1. inefficient supply chain - encourage direct marketing and e-marketing solutions, build additional storages.
2. more farm credit - kisan credit cards, gender imbalance.
3. easier availability of inputs.
Q. What are the main problems with indian economy these days?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

growth - structural reforms, human resource development


inflation - CAD control, structural supply side reforms, RBI credibility
CAD - oil, gold
inequality - inclusive growth
crony capitalism

Q. Labour laws do you favor them? should hire and fire be the policy?
1. 90% economy already working on hire and fire. but labor rights should be safeguarded.
2. advantages of hire and fire - contract, capital intensive, economic efficiency.
3. unique PF account to each labor and direct credit in PF account instead of giving to contractor.
Q. why schemes are failing at grassroot level?
1. monitoring - social audit, IT systems.
2. local people involvement.
Q. What is Knowledge Economy ?Are only Services covered under Knowledge Economy?
Q. Having high Share of Service Sector in GDP is good or Bad for India ?
1.

Limited domestic demand argument vs export demand argument: ToT worsen... but not in India. Plus trade in services is currently very low and is only
bound to increase.

2. Self feeding growth argument: Banga and Goldar (2004) find a positive relationship between use of services input and industrial productivity.
3. Law of diminishing returns argument: As economies become more service oriented, their growth slows. but Indian productivity is high and growing at much higher rate - comparable to
China. potential for new innovations is still great in India.
4. outlook of sustainability of growth in modern, hybrid and traditional services - modern has grown so far.. still a lot of scope left in hybrid and traditional.
Q. machines creates unemployment. So how u will tackle this problem.
1. encourage labor intensive sector.
2. improve supply chain of handicrafts.
Q. If you were to tell the 1 biggest challenge that the country faces today, where we should focus, what would it be?
1. governance - we need to cut down red tape, start taking decisions, rule of law, increase transparency.
Q. Do you know about Gandhian economics? Do you think Gandhian economics is relevant today?
1. rural urban migration.
2. empowerment, inequality.
3. Labor intensive - employment.
Q. What in your opinion are the three big problems of India? How can they be tackled?
1. poverty, unemployment, education, governance.
Q. What are the main problems of agriculture today?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Marketing.
Storage.
Rain fed areas - 60% of area, pulses, horticulture.
Lack of investment.
Unorganized nature / small OHLs.

Q. On one hand we want people to move out from agriculture into services and industry. On the other hand we want to increase agriculture productivity. Isn't there an inherent contradiction
here?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Talk
Talk
Talk
Talk

about
about
about
about

wage goods gap - inflation.


agriculture providing market to industry and services.
push migration.
improving lives of agriculture dependent households.

Q. What can be done to increase growth of agriculture?


1. Growth to come from livestock, horticulture and fisheries (give stats) because of shift in demand patterns. We must shift our efforts accordingly. Need better post harvest
management. Livestock growth is more inclusive. If markets are better i.e. supply chain efficient, then the farmers will get better remuneration and hence incentives to invest more.
Food processing industry covers only 2-3% of fruit and vegetable production in India (as against 30% in Thailand and 70% in Brazil). So farmers are reluctant to follow price signals.

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Total storage capacity: 110 MT.


2. Focus on rain fed areas - 60% of area + pulses + horticulture. Climate change will affect them more. Need to make agriculture drought proof. Investment in R&D. ICAR spends only
13% of its funds in rainfed area research.
3. Increased investment - both public and private.
Q. What were the problems of APMCs?
1. In most states APMCs don't function - state govts supersede them and managed by bureaucrats.
2. The commissions collected never ploughed back to develop infrastructure and insteed became a revenue source for govt. Hence markets remained poor.
3. Traders formed strong unions and prevented competition and exploited peasants.
Q. Provisions of model act?
1. Direct marketing, contract farming, private markets, farmers' markets allowed.
2. single point of levy, abolition of commission agents, use of funds for market development only.
Q. What are the needs in irrigation?
1. Irrigation reforms to increase PPP in irrigation. example of water user associations. Viability gap funding in agro markets, fertilizers, storage, soil testing labs. Gap between potential
created and utilized exists in all states. One reason for this is that irrigation potential is calculated on the basis of the volume of water expected in the reservoir divided by a presumed
depth of irrigation required for a presumed cropping pattern. However, the total water available is often less than assumed due to faulty project designs, faster siltation etc. There is
also a widespread tendency for those near the headworks to appropriate much larger amount of water shifting to water-intensive crops leaving less water for tail-enders. All these
developments are encouraged by lack of co-ordination across agencies and departments, and the inadequate or complete absence of involvement of water users through Water User
Associations (WUAs). Irrigation efficiency is currently 35% for large projects.
Q. Water - a paradigm shift - 12th plan approach.
1. Irrigation - state irrigation departments - farmer linkage broken. restore it by way of matching grant. Strengthen WUAs. Command area development should be an integral part of the
project itself and not left for later.
2. Ground water - from absolute dominion to public trust doctrine. But concerns should be kept in mind. separation of feeders.
3. water pricing - differential pricing.
4. water supply - reduce pipeline distance. focus on local water bodies. sewage should be incorporated in water projects itself. (Tropical enteropathy is the link between sanitation and
malnutrition.)
5. watershed management - MGNREGS can be turned into the biggest watershed management scheme.
6. water footprints and audit for industry.
7. national water framework law - a set of general principles according to which legislative and executive powers can be exercised.
Q. What is India's seed patent system?
1. Sui generis system - farmers develop seeds to adapt to local conditions. Their contribution recognized - they can develop and sell their own seeds (but not branded). Also if MNCs
develop new seeds using local varieties and knowledge, the local communities will be acknowledged as contributors and benefits need to be shared.
Q. What are the features of Seeds Bill, 2004?
1. Any seed sold will have to be registered and required to meet certain minimum prescribed standards. Farmers can claim compensation on non performance. Farmers' seeds
exempted.
Q. What is seed replacement rate?
1. % area sown by certified seeds to total area sown under the crop.
Q. What are the issues in fertilizers?
1. Domestic production needs to be more - Urea regime should be changed.
2. Vast regional inequalities in consumption - Punjab vs NE, Rajasthan.
3. Soil nutrient balance - nutrient based subsidy regime + organic fertilizers. In 1992, government freed up P& K fertilizers. This led to a sharp increase in their price and a deterioration in
the nutrient balance (from 4:2:1 recommended to 10:3:1 in 1996- 97). Subsequently ad hoc subsidies were given on P&K as well to restore nutrient balance. Then in 2011, nutrient
based subsidy scheme was started which is applicable to P & K fertilizers.
Q. How can cash transfer help us in agriculture?
1.

We need 'smart' subsidies - subsidies which are better targeted, differential to keep local variations in mind (rain fed vs irrigation, small farms vs large
farms), better delivery vehicles (like debit input cards where the farmer is allotted a total amount and he can chose the composition of subsidies himself
which will also stop overuse of vital resources like water).

Q. What are the modern land reforms which are needed?


1. Amendment to tenancy reforms - protect ownership of land while building adequate safeguards for S&M farmers. Need innovative solutions - public land banks example. We also need
it to promote investment in farms and investments are becoming more and more critical now. If there is an investment to be made, the tenant will not invest because of the informal
nature of his tenancy. To overcome this we need long term tenancies which are only possible if we formalize tenancies.
2. Women empowerment - female headed households. need to give them titles and credit.
Q. What can we do to reduce farm suicides?
1. Need to derisk the farmer. make MSPs more effective. making sure appropriate seeds are available and crop varieties suit local conditions. better post harvest management and loans
against storage. insurance products.
Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
1. Increase investment in agriculture - 4 bio scheme. BGREI, NFSM, Saffron mission are all part of it. soil testing laboratories.
2. incentivises states to increase public investment. projects satisfying criteria are approved.
BGREI - cluster approach, block demonstrations, mechanisation, input availability.
NFSM - 10 MT rice, 8 MT wheat, 2 MT pulses. focus on district where yield below state average (rice and wheat). for pulses focus was where area and productivity enhancement potential
was there. problems - in some state, SRRs were targeted without corresponding seed production increase plans.
NFSM - 2 : Now includes coarse crops as well and target for increase is 25 MT.
Q. What do you know about international trade in agriculture?
1.

Indian exports were $24 bio whereas imports were $11 bio giving a surplus of $13 bio. Cotton, marine products, oil meals, basmati rice and sugar are
main exports. Main imports are vegetable oils, wood and pulses.

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Police Issues
Created: 1/10/2013 10:32 AM
Source: http://www.orkut.co.in/Main#CommMsgs?cmm=23492063&tid=5851357036921223062&na=3&npn=19&nid=23492063-5851357036921223062-5852564231994321510
Q. What are the problems of Law and Order in Rajasthan and what are their solutions?
4. Why there are issues in Police Administration in India and how will you solve them??

Kerala Community Policing


Police constabulary of Kerala are highly qualified. Highest paid and highest qualified policemen of India are from Kerala

Janamaithri Suraksha Project the background.


Justice K.T. Thomas Commission, recommended that the Government should implement Community Policing on an experimental
basis.
It is not a project aimed at bettering the image of the Police.
It is also not a project wherein police duties are performed by the citizens.
Rather it is a project to increase police's accessibility to the needy public through close interaction with public. Through the Beat
Officers, citizen living in the area will be known to the Police and every citizen will be acquainted e Beat Officers.
The project centres around Beat Officers who are Police Constables/Head constables/Asst. Sub Inspectors, specially selected and
trained.

Beat Officer & his Duties


For each residential area forming one "Jana Souhrida consisting of around 1000 houses within an area of 3 km there will be a Beat
Officer. All the duties of the Police relating to patrolling, process service, petition enquiry, verification, collection of public complaints,
servicing of complaint boxes, etc. will be done, subject to proper supervision HO, through such Beat Officer.
Within two or three months of becoming the beat officer, atOfficer should personally know atleast one member of family living in his
beat, all the roads and by-lanes in his area, working habits of local people and their special on a house to house basis.
At least three days a week, the beat officer should be available for an hour or so at a pre-announced place in the beat anybody who
wants to communicate anything to him going to the police station may meet him there.
The Beat Officer is provided with a 'Janamaithri Bike' specially painted, depicting Janamaithri Emblem.
The Beat Officer shall also maintain a Beat Register showing the daily activities and daily transactions with respect to the beat and
such Beat Register shall be examined SHO everyday.
Woman Police Constable is detailed as Assistant Beat Officer, so that problems of women could be addressed properly. The Women
Police Constable is provided with a two wheeler..
The Beat Officers shall also attend the Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi Meeting every month. It is expected that the Beat Officer
shall spend atleast 20 hours a week actually moving about and meeting residents in his beat.
It is essential that the Beat Officer conducts himself in an exemplary manner. Special Training Courses and periodical evaluations
are done for making Beat Officers fully competent for the task.

Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi


Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi is a Samithi formed to assist the project function Samithi member should have time to spare for its
activities and he/she shall not be involved in any criminal cases. the Samithi does not have any statutory powers.
The Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi shall consist of Corporation / Municipal Councilors, representatives of each active Residents
Association, NGOs, local representatives, nominees of every High School Head Master / College Principal, reputed persons of the
locality, retired police personnel and ex-service personnel.
The Samithi should have 10 % senior citizens 30 % ladies and 20 % SC/ST members. Political party members in that capacity are
not included in the Samiti. The number of members is 10-25.
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Meetings of the Samithi


The Samithi shall meet atleast once in a month and any member of the public, may also attend the meeting to give suggestions /
air complaints.
No Criminal cases under investigation or trial should be discussed in the Samithi. No discussion is made of arrest or any other
statutory functions of the Police.
Activities under the Janamaithri Suraksha Samithi
Formulation of joint Police - Community patrols to prevent thefts and street crimes in residential areas.
To identify strangers and migrants to the area and to help the police ascertain their identity and antecedents.
To formulate plans for security measures and installation of security devices in houses, flats, shopping complexes etc.
To identify the needs of the disabled and aged population and of weaker sections living in the limits and to devise plans for ensuring
their security.
To develop and implement plans for improved traffic regulation in the area, including co-ordination and management of traffic
wardens.

Training for the Officers was arranged at the Kerala Police Academy. It was not an easy task to train table/Head Constable to work as
a responsible Beat Officer. A Beat Officer's personality has to be moulded. He has to have interpersonal skills, communication skills,
behavioural skills and what not ! How can you mould a super character or model character out of an ordinary Head Constable! It was
a big dilemma! Selection of Beat Officer was made a personal responsibility Superintendent of Police/ Commissioner of Police. The
training syllabus was discussed time and again. Committed Senior Police Officers, Psychologists, Management experts etc were selected
and discussions were held with them about the modalities of the classes.

Problems of Police
Issues with Constabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.

The equipment and facilities are poor.


The promotion prospects are meagre.
Their average working hours are from ten to sixteen per day, seven days of the week.
They are ill treated by senior officers and also serve for household duties for the senior officers. However, the manner in which police personnel at lower levels behave towards public
is largely conditioned by the manner in which they are themselves treated by their own higher officers within the force. There is a simultaneous need for reform in behaviour and
conduct of police officers towards one another.

Way Forward
1.

Enrich job profile by delegating more duties.


1. Example is Beat Officer in Kerala.

2. At the same time, have higher educational requirements for recruitment.


1. We reject the argument that a better educated person will resent having to perform routine duties and become frustrated because of lack of promotion opportunities, while less
educated persons have a natural readiness to obey and are more polite and disciplined.
2. We also do not agree that keeping the educational standard low will provide a larger field for recruitment.
3. A person with higher educational qualifications can assimilate instructions and put them into practice better than a less educated person.
3. More promotion opportunities.
1. Indian literacy rates are rising. So we can also empower constabulary.
4. Better treatment of constables by senior officers.
Gore Committee Recommendations on Constables
1. Needs behavioral training. Example, Kerala Model.
2. The physical fitness programme should be conducted in the morning. All other outdoor training could be conducted in the afternoon. In view of the importance of night work for the
police the entire training programme for a particular day may be conducted at night once a month.
3. During the first few years of their service, Constables of the civil police should not be posted to the reserve lines.
4. In order to give them an incentive to learn their work intelligently and to perform it efficiently, they should be allowed to take the examination for promotion to the rank of Head
Constable during first 3 years of service. Career planning should make it possible for a deserving Constable to earn promotion by he has put in about five years service
5. In all States, the investigation of simple cases should be entrusted to head Constables and they should also be authorised to take up investigation of other cases in the absence
from they police station of an officer of higher rank.
Padmanabhiah Committee on Constabulary
1. Recruitment

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1. There should be a greater recruitment of Sub-Inspectors instead of Constables. Recruitment to constabulary should be restricted. 50% of vacancies of Sub- Inspectors should
be filled by direct recruitment and 50% reserved for promotions.
2. Constables should be recruited young. Boys/girls, who have passed 10th Standard examination and are below 19 years in age should be eligible to appear in a competitive
qualifying examination.
3. The successful candidates should be put through a rigorous 2-year training programme and qualify for appointment as constables only after passing a final examination.
4. A constable should be classified as a skilled worker in view of the skills required and risks involved in the job.
2. Training
1. The existing constabulary should be retrained to enable them to imbibe right attitudes to work. Those who do not successfully complete training should be compulsorily
retired.
3. Work Load
1. Since police work can not be organised on an 8-hour shift basis, police personnel should be given a weekly off and compulsorily required to go on earned leave every
year. Holiday homes may be constructed for police personnel.
Model Police Act on Constabulary
1. Civil police as against the armed police needs better-educated personnel to exercise discretionary powers in dealing with people and investigating cases, the Act stipulates that
the rank of constabulary be done away within the Civil Police. Now the primary rank in the civil police is the Civil Police Officer, Grade II.
2. Those recruited to this rank shall be trained for three years as stipendiary cadets, and only upon passing prescribed bachelors degree examination in Police Studies would they be
appointed as Civil Police Officers.

Gore Committee on Police Training


Recommendations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

While the problems of police training must be tackled and solved by the State level, the Central Government will have to provide financial as well as technical assistance
There should be a phased in-service training programme. For the higher level officers, there should be a greater input of managerial and conceptual skills in the training programmes.
Persons who have undergone particular courses must be assigned to jobs where they can make use of the training imparted to them.
Forensic Science and ICT should be a part of the police training.
The I.P.S. probationers should continue to undergo FC at LBSNAA.
The physical fitness programme must not only build up physical toughness and stamina but should also ensure that officers maintain their interest in keeping fit throughout their
service.
7. Concurrent field exposure is an essential part. For this purpose, the trainees should be taken in convenient batches to the field to observe real five to observe real life situations.
8. The N.P.A. should be located, therefore, at a place where facilities for field exposure are readily available.
9. The present system of three periods of outdoor work, like PT and Drill, in the morning militates against the probationers' ability to be fully attentive in the long session of indoor
classes in the forenoon and the afternoon. The daily schedule of training at the N.P.A. should be revised as follows:0630-0700-Physical fitness programme.
0900-1300-Class-room work.
1500-1540-Language studies.
1600-1830-Parade and games
2030-2200-Self-study.
National Police Commission 1979
First Report:
Complaints against the police:
1. A Police Complaints Board must be setup.
2. Mechanism should exist to dispose off large number of complaints by the supervisory ranks in the police hierarchy.
3. A judicial inquiry should be made mandatory in the following categories of complaints against the police:
1. Alleged rape of a woman in police custody;
2. death or grievous hurt caused while in police custody; and
3. death of two or more persons resulting from police firing in the dispersal of unlawful assemblies.
4. It will be mandatory on the part of the government to publish the report of the judicial inquiry and decisions taken thereon within two months of receipt of the report.
Second Report:
Appointment of the Criminal Justice Commission:
1. According to the NPC, the police cannot achieve complete success in their work unless all wings of the criminal justice system operate with simultaneous efficiency. It is
therefore necessary to set up a body, which would comprehensively monitor the performance of all agencies and apply corrective measures from time to time. The existing Law
Commission may be enlarged to function as a Criminal Justice Commission on a statutory basis.
Political Interference in Police Work :
1. A State Security Commission should be setup in each state. The State Security Commission should:
1. Lay down broad policy guidelines and lay down performance standards.
2. Evaluate the performance of the State Police every year and present a report to the State Legislature.
3. Function as a forum of appeal to dispose of representations from officers regarding their being subjected to illegal orders and regarding their promotions; and
Statutory Tenure of Service:
1. The chief of police should be assured of a fixed tenure of office of 4 years or retirement whichever is earlier. The removal of the chief of police from his post before the expiry of the
tenure should require approval of the State Security Commission.
Selection of Chief of Police:
1. The head of the police force should be selected from a panel of three IPS officers of that state cadre. The panel should be prepared by a committee headed by the Chairman of
the UPSC.
Transfer/Suspension Orders:
1. To protect officers from arbitrary transfers and suspensions, there should be a provision in the Police Act, specifying the authorities competent to issue such orders regarding
different ranks. Any such orders passed by any authority other than those specified in the Act will be rendered null and void.
Third Report:

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Police and the Weak er Sections:


1. Special investigation cell at State level to monitor the progress of investigation of such cases should be setup.
2. An important cause for dissatisfaction of weaker sections of society is that the police sometimes do not take cognizance of their complaints of ill treatment at the hands of
upper castes on the ground that complaints are non cognizable and therefore can not be investigated by them without orders from a magistrate. The NPC has recommended
that section 155 of the Code of Criminal Procedure should be suitably amended to facilitate appropriate and effective police response to non-cognisable complaints in two categories
of cases: (i) to protect a member of the weaker sections from exploitation and injustice, or (ii) to prevent a possible breach of public peace that might result from absence of
effective action on complaint of a non-cognisable offence.
Postings of Officers:
1. The postings of officers in charge of police stations should be the exclusive responsibility of the district Superintendent of Police.
2. The Chief of Police should be exclusively responsible for selecting and posting Superintendents of Police in charge of districts.

Handcuffs
1. Under trial prisoners and other accused persons should not be handcuffed and chained unless there is reasonable expectation that such persons will use violence or attempt to
escape.
2. Whenever any accused is handcuffed, the fact and reasons should be stated in the Sentry Relief Book.
3. In no case should prisoners or accused persons, who are aged and bed-ridden in hospitals, or women or juvenile or civil prisoners, be handcuffed or fettered.
Provision of Imprest Money to Police Station:
1. Non-availability of any imprest money in a police station leads to corruption. An adequate imprest amount should be given to PS to meet the contingent expenditure in day-to-day
work.
Fourth Report:
Jurisdictional Issues in Registration of FIR:
1. Victims of crimes are sometimes turned away from a police station on the mere ground that the reported crime has occurred in the jurisdiction of some other police station. The NPC
has recommended an important amendment to Section 154 Cr.P.C. which would make it incumbent on a police station to register an FIR whether or not the crime has taken place in
its jurisdiction and then transfer the FIR to the concerned police station.
Examination of Witnesses.
1. The examination of witnesses should be conducted as far as practicable near the scene of offence or at the residence of witnesses concerned at some convenient place nearby
Statement of Witnesses:
1. According to existing law, a police officer is precluded from obtaining the signature of the person whose statement has been recorded by him. The Commission has recommended
that he existing practice of recording in detail the statement by a witness during investigation should be done away with. In its place, the Commission has suggested an arrangement
in which the investigating officer can record the facts as ascertained by him on examination of a witness. This statement of facts can be in third person in the language of the
investigating officer himself and a copy of the statement should be handed over to the witness under acknowledgement.
Restoration of Stolen Property to Victims of Crimes:
1. Presently, properties recovered by the police during investigation or otherwise are first transferred to court custody. Their return to the rightful owner is ordered at a much later stage
of the criminal proceedings. Successful detection of case does not provide any psychological satisfaction to the victims of crime when the lost property is kept away from them for a
long period without proper attention and care. NPC has recommended a change in the existing provisions in law to facilitate early return of the recovered property to the victims
concerned even at the stage of investigation, protected by appropriate bonds for their safe retention and later production in court.
Compounding Offences:
1. The NPC has recommended that the police may be empowered in law to compound offences in simple cases even at the stage of police investigation, when both parties to a dispute
may themselves like to settle the matter amicably. Due safeguards must of course be provided against a forced or contrived compromise. Presently this facility is available only
at the stage of trial. This amendment in law would also reduce the workload in courts.
Intimation about Arrest:
1. The NPC has recommended a new section 50-A in Chapter V of Cr.P.C. requiring the police to give intimation about the arrest of a person to anyone who may reasonably be named
by him to avoid agonising suspense to the members of his family about his whereabouts.
Use of Third Degree Methods:
1. To reduce the use of third degree methods, the NPC has recommended:
1. Surprised visits by senior officers to police stations to detect persons held in illegal custody and subjected to ill treatment.
2. The magistrate should be required by rules to question the arrested person if he has any complaint of ill treatment by the police and in case of complaint should get
him medically examined.
3. There should be a mandatory judicial inquiry in cases of death or grievous hurt caused while in police custody.
4. Police performance should not be evaluated on the basis of crime statistics or number of cases solved.
5. Training institutions should develop scientific interrogation techniques and impart effective instructions to trainees in this regard.
Firth Report:
Recruitment to the Police:
1. Recruitment to the Police must be at two levels only- Constables and Indian Police Service. The recruitment at other levels should be eliminated in a phased manner.
Psychological Tests:
1. Properly developed psychological tests should form an important part of the selection procedure.
Control of the District Magistrate:
1. Presently, under section 4 of the Police Act of 1861, the District Police is subject to the "general control and direction" of the District Magistrate. The NPC felt that this can not
be construed as warranting any interference in the internal management of the police force. Any rule or regulation which unnecessarily or without purpose subordinates the police to
the DM should be removed.
2. However, there are a number of areas, which would require active cooperation of different departments and in such matters coordination by the District Magistrate will be necessary.
The role of the District Magistrate as a chief coordinating authority should be recognised and respected by the police. The NPC has prescribed the areas where the
District Magistrate can play his role as the coordinating authority.
Vertical Communication in Police:
1. Every policeman must develop an attitude of utmost courtesy and consideration towards members of the public who come to him for help. However, the manner in which

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police personnel at lower levels behave towards public is largely conditioned by the manner in which they are themselves treated by their own higher officers within the force. There is
a simultaneous need for reform in behaviour and conduct of police officers towards one another.

Victims of Crime:
1. Victims should be compensated.
Need for Transparency:
1. All police activities, to the extent possible, should be open, except in four specific areas, which are (i) operations, (ii) intelligence (iii) privacy of the individual citizen and (iv) judicial
requirements.
Women Police:
1. They should be recruited in much larger numbers than at resent, particularly in the ranks of Assistant Sub-inspectors and Sub-inspectors of Police.
Sixth Report:
Examinations for Promotion of Officers:
1. Before promotion to the ranks of Superintendent of Police, DIG and IG, all IPS officers should be required to undergo special courses followed by an examination.
2. Those who are not able to qualify for the post of DIG and IG even after being given two more chances should be retired from service.
Creation of Central IPS Cadres:
1. Two Central IPS Cadres should be constituted - one for the paramilitary organisations and the other for such organisations as IB, CBI, RAW etc.
Police Commissionerate System for Major Cities:
1. In cities with a population of 5 lakhs and above and even in places where there may be special reasons like speedy urbanisation, industrialisation etc., the system of police
commissionerate should be introduced.
Communal Riots:
1. During communal riots, adequate interest is not taken in investigation of heinous and serious crimes. For investigation of such cases, special investigating squads should be set up.
2. Withdrawal from trial of cases occurring during communal riots by the State Governments with a view to promoting communal harmony has to be discouraged.
Reservation in the Force:
1. The Commission has expressed its view against reservation of vacancies in the police for minorities and other weaker sections on the basis of their share in population.
The Commission felt that it would fragment the force along caste and communal lines and it goes against the fundamental police philosophy that it must rise above caste and creed
and act impartially as the agent of law and order.
Separation of investigating staff from law and order staff:
1. The NPC has made conflicting recommendations on this subject. While in the Sixth Report, it has suggested the separation of staff at the police station level (Para 48.15), in the
Seventh Report, the Commission has expressed an opinion against the bifurcation of staff on the ground that the police work can not be put in water-tight compartments. (Para
50.22)
Seventh Report:
Norms for Police Stations:
1. A police station in a rural area should not have jurisdiction of more than 150 kms. In urban areas, population density should be one of the main considerations. A police station
should not be required to police more than 60,000 population. If it registers more than 700 crimes annually, another police station may be created.
2. An investigating officer should not be required to investigate more than 50 - 60 IPC cases in India.
Restructuring of Civil Police Hierarchy:
1. There should be an increase in the strength at middle levels of ASI/SI/Inspector. Increase in the strength of these ranks should be offset by reducing numbers at the lower levels
of constabulary. This will provide large number of investigating officers and improve promotional opportunities for the lower ranks.
Eighth Report:
Police Accountability:
1. The State Security Commission should have an independent cell to evaluate police performance which continuously monitors police performance. Its report should be placed in state
legislature.
Withdrawal of Protection:
1. Sections 132 and 197 of the Cr. P.C. 1973 provide protection to various categories of public servants against any prosecution brought against them relating to performance of
official duties. The protection available to the police officers under these sections should be withdrawn so that the private complainant is free to press his complaint without needing
sanction.

The Ribeiro Committee on Police Reforms


First Report (October 1998)
1. Security Commission
1. Consisting of the Minister in charge of Police as the Chairman, the Leader of the Opposition, the Chief Secretary of the State, a sitting or retired judge nominated by the Chief
Justice of the State's High Court and three other non-political citizens of proven merit and integrity as members.
2. These three citizens should be chosen by a committee to be set-up by the Chairman of the NHRC.
3. The Commission will oversee the performance of the Police and ensure that it is accountable to the law of the land.
4. In addition, it will ensure that no premature transfers of officers of the rank of SP and above are made without prior clearance from the Commission.
2. District Police Complaints Authority
1. To examine complaints from the public and to make appropriate recommendations to the Security Commission, as well as to the Government and to Human Rights
Commission.
2. The Principal District and Sessions Judge, the Collector of the district and the SSP should constitute this authority.

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3. Police Establishment Board


1. The DGP and his four senior-most officers as members to monitor all transfers, promotions, rewards and punishments as well as other service related issues.
4. Rules should be framed by the Government on transfers, tenures, promotions, rewards and punishments and the police authorities designated to administer these rules.
1. Any departure from these norms and rules will be brought to the notice of the Security Commission.
5. Selection of DGP
1. The DG of Police will be selected by the Chief Minister of the State from a panel of three names prepared by a Committee headed by the Chairman of the UPSC and
consisting of the Union Home Secretary, the Director of Intelligence Bureau, the State's Chief Secretary and the State's incumbent DGP.
2. The DGP will have fixed tenure of three years. He can be removed within the period of tenure only on the recommendations of the Security Commission and for specified
reasons, made in writing to the Government.
6. Separation of Investigation
1. All investigating officers should be specially trained in scientific methods of investigation and not utilised for law & order duties except in small rural police stations where it
may not be possible to strictly demarcate the two important police functions. The investigating officers should not be shifted to law and order or other duties for five years at
least.
Second Report (March 1999)
1. Security Commission at Centre
1. The NPC had recommended that there should be a State Security Commisssion at the Centre.
2. There is no need for such an institution at the central level.
3. In case of CBI, the Supreme Court has already given directions.
4. The IB is an intelligence organisation and the BSF and the CRPF are para-military outfits which do not involve themselves with local politics and politicians.
2. New Police Act
1. The old Police Act of 1861 needs to be replaced by a new Police Act.
3. Constabulary
1. The recommendations of the NPC about recruitment, training and welfare of the constabulary should be implemented.
2. The minimum educational qualifications for recruitment to the level of Constable should be Higher Secondary.
3. The NPC had recommended the reorganisation of the hierarchy of the police , with an increase in the strength at middle levels of ASI/SI/Inspector to be offset by reducing
numbers at the lower levels of constabulary. This would improve promotion opportunities of lower ranks. We endorse the recommendations of the NPC.
4. Police Recruitment Board
1. Every State should establish an independent Police Recruitment Board and entrust to it the task of recruitment of all non-gazetted ranks.
The Padmanabhaiah Committee on Police Reforms
1. Constabulary
1. Recruitment
1. There should be a greater recruitment of Sub-Inspectors instead of Constables. Recruitment to constabulary should be restricted. 50% of vacancies of Sub- Inspectors
should be filled by direct recruitment and 50% reserved for promotions.
2. Constables should be recruited young. Boys/girls, who have passed 10th Standard examination and are below 19 years in age should be eligible to appear in a
competitive qualifying examination.
3. The successful candidates should be put through a rigorous 2-year training programme and qualify for appointment as constables only after passing a final
examination.
4. A constable should be classified as a skilled worker in view of the skills required and risks involved in the job.
2. Training
1. The existing constabulary should be retrained to enable them to imbibe right attitudes to work. Those who do not successfully complete training should be compulsorily
retired.
3. Work Load
1. Since police work can not be organised on an 8-hour shift basis, police personnel should be given a weekly off and compulsorily required to go on earned leave every
year. Holiday homes may be constructed for police personnel.
2. Training
1. A Police Training Advisory Council should be set up at the centre and in each state to advise the Home Ministers on police training matters.
3. SIs
1. Recruitment
1. The eligibility criteria for recruitment to the level of Sub-Inspectors should be 12th class pass and an upper age limit of 21 years. They should be recruited on the basis
of a common written qualifying examination.
2. The successful candidates must pass a final examination after undergoing a 3-year training programme.
3. 50% of vacancies of Sub- Inspectors should be filled by direct recruitment and 50% reserved for promotions.
4. Promotions
1. All promotions should be subject to completing the mandatory training programmes and passing of promotional examinations.
5. Community Policing
1. The Indian Police should adopt the philosophy of community policing.
6. Police Corruption
1. Simpler but more effective procedures for removing corrupt officers.
7. Investigation
1. Investigation should be separated from law and order work. In the first phase, this separation should take place at police station level in all urban areas. An
Additional Superintendent of Police should be exclusively responsible for crime and investigation work.
2. Every police station should be equipped with investigation kits and every sub-division should have a mobile forensic science laboratory.
3. There is an urgent need to encourage specialisation in various aspects of policing.
4. Indian Evidence Act should be amended and confessions made to police officers of the rank of Superintendent of Police and above should be made admissible in evidence.
8. Cyber Crimes
1. Capabilities of some police institutions, like the National Police Academy in the field of training, CBI in investigation, Intelligence Bureau in cyber surveillance and the National
Crime Records Bureau in cyber technology/forensics should be enhanced.
9. VIP Security
1. The concept of VIP security has been grossly, blatantly and brazenly misused. The entire concept of personal security needs a careful review and dismantling.
10. Federalism Issue
1. Certain offences having inter-state, national and inter-national repercussions should be declared federal offences to be investigated by CBI.
11. Terrorism
1. There have to be different norms regarding the burden of proof, degree of proof and the legal procedures in regard to trial of terrorist cases. There is a need for a special and a
comprehensive law to fight terrorism.
2. There should be a national counter terrorism coordinator to prepare a comprehensive counter-terrorism plan and budget.
12. Police Accountability
1. District Police Complaints Authority (DPCA) should be set up with the DM as the Chairman and a senior Additional Sessions Judge, the SP and an eminent citizen

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nominated by the DM as members. Investigations into public complaints against the police should in the first instance be done by the police department itself. Those who are
not satisfied can approach the DPCA.
2. There should be a mandatory judicial inquiry into all cases of alleged rape of a woman or death of any person in police custody.
13. Implementation Issues
1. The release of central grants for modernisation or upgradation funds should be dependent upon compliance by state governments with certain basic issues, like each state
having a manpower and career planning system, a transparent recruitment, promotion and transfer policy and meeting certain minimum standards for training.
2. The State Government must give high priority to the allocation of resources to the police.
3. There should be a permanent National Commission for Police Standards and (NCPs) to set standards and to see that State Governments set up mechanisms to enforce
such standards.
4. The Police Act of 1861 should be replaced by a new Act.
14. Political Interference
1. Tenor Security
1. The minimum tenure of all officers should be 2 years.
2. Another Committee under the Chief Secretary, with Home Secretary and the DGP as members, should be constituted to hear representations from police officers of the
rank of Superintendent of Police and above alleging violation of rules in the matter of postings and transfers.
2. DGP Selection
1. A body headed by the Chief Justice of the State High court as Chairman, State Chief Secretary and an eminent public person as members should be constituted to
recommend a panel of two names for appointment to the post of the Director General of Police.
3. Police Establishment Board
1. A police Establishment Board, consisting of DGP and three other members of the police force selected by him, should be constituted to decide transfers of all officers
of the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police and above.
Model Police Act, 2006
1. State Police Board
1. It would have State Home Minister and comprising the Leader of Opposition in the State Assembly, the Chief Secretary, the Home Secretary and the Director General of Police
besides a few independent non-government members.
2. It shall lay down the policy guidelines for efficient policing and identify performance indicators to evaluate the functioning of the police service.
2. DGP
1. From among three senior-most officers of the state police by the state government.
3. Security of tenure
1. Minimum tenure of two years for the Director General of Police and other key functionaries such as the SP and SHO.
4. Establishment Committee
1. Comprising the Head of the Police and other senior officers to consider transfers and postings of police officers and to look into complaints of police officers against any illegal
orders.
5. Investigation
1. To streamline criminal investigations, the Act mandates earmarking of staff in each police station specifically for investigating heinous and other specified offences, who shall
be trained in scientific and other methods of investigation.
6. Civil Police Officer
1. Civil police as against the armed police needs better-educated personnel to exercise discretionary powers in dealing with people and investigating cases, the Act
stipulates that the rank of constabulary be done away within the Civil Police. Now the primary rank in the civil police is the Civil Police Officer, Grade II.
2. Those recruited to this rank shall be trained for three years as stipendiary cadets, and only upon passing prescribed bachelors degree examination in Police Studies would
they be appointed as Civil Police Officers.
7. Performance Evaluation of Police
1. The police shall be evaluated against identified performance indicators (including operational efficiency, public and victim satisfaction, accountability, optimum utilisation of
resources, and observance of human rights standards).
8. Complaints Against Police
1. Police to be known as service, not a force.
2. Accountability Commission and District Authorities
1. The Act creates independent civilian oversight agencies chaired by retired judges to inquire into public complaints against the police for serious misconduct and to
generally monitor internal departmental inquiries in other cases of misconduct .
3. Offences by the police
1. The Act introduces criminal penalties for the common defaults committed by the police including non-registration of FIRs, unlawful arrest, detention, search, or
seizure.
9. Improved service conditions
1. Rationalising their working hours, one day off in each week.
2. Police Welfare Bureau to take care, inter alia, of health care, housing, and legal facilities for police personnel as well as financial security for the next of kin of those dying in
service.
3. It further mandates the government to provide insurance cover to all officers, and special allowances to officers posted in special wings commensurate with the risk involved.
10. Internal Security
1. The Act provides for systematic preparation and meticulous compliance of Internal Security and Standard Operation Procedures.
2. Creation of Special Security Zones within a State and where need arises, in contiguous areas of neighbouring states, that facilitate different police structure and command,
control and response system, and cooperation between different agencies of the state(s).
Prakash Singh Case Judgement
Directive One : Constitute a State Security Commission (SSC) to
i) Ensure that the state government does not exercise unwarranted influence or pressure on the police
ii) Lay down broad policy guideline and
iii) Evaluate the performance of the state police
Directive two :Ensure that the DGP is appointed through merit based transparent process and secure a minimum tenure of two years
Directive Three : Ensure that other police officers on operational duties (including Superintendents of Police in-charge of a district and Station House Officers incharge of a police station) are
also provided a minimum tenure of two years
Directive Four : Separate the investigation and law and order functions of the police
Directive Five : Set up a Police Establishment Board (PEB) to decide transfers, postings, promotions and other service related matters of police officers of and below the rank of Deputy
Superintendent of Police and make recommendations on postings and transfers above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police.
Directive Six : Set up a Police Complaints Authority (PCA) at state level to inquire into public complaints against police officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police in
cases of serious misconduct, including custodial death, grievous hurt, or rape in police custody and at district levels to inquire into public complaints against the police personnel below the
rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police in cases of serious misconduct
Directive Seven: Set up a National Security Commission (NSC) at the union level to prepare a panel for selection and placement of Chiefs of the Central Police Organizations (CPO) with a
minimum tenure of two years.

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DK Basu Case
Q. How will you evaluate police performance

1. Public perception via surveys.


2. Performance management systems.

Q. How to improve policing ethics?

1. Communicate the desired behavior to the subordinates clearly.


2. Hold the subordinates accountable.
Q. How to lift the morale of the force?
1. Address their grievances (leave, promotions when due etc.)
2. Take care of families, accommodation, education and health etc.

Q. Large number of MiGs are retiring. What should India do?


Vohra Committee
What are federal crimes
AFSPA
NCTC
Police research institutes, police academies
Prakash Singh are only external reforms. We need internal reforms as well. The sequence of reforms should have been:

1. Improving public service delivery.


2. Then internal reforms.
3. Then Prakash Singh reforms.
Q. What are the problems of police?
1. Govt. treats police department as non revenue generating.
Q. Greyhounds - key success factors.
1. Only intel based striking force. They didn't occupy the area.
2. Local people only were recruited.
3. Good training, better service conditions and compensation.
Maharashtra force is called C60, W Bengal is called STF.
Q. Can policing be outsourced?
Q. Should police be brought under concurrent list?
Q. Should we legalise betting?
Q. Should we legalize marijuana?
CCTNS
Why is the image of police so daunting?
Key components of internal and external security threats - military, nuclear, cyber, financial, energy
(IPS) Officers dont police like policemen elaborate ?
7. What is national level police research organisation ?
6. What needs to be done to improving policing at ground level ?
1. Contentious issues revolving AFSPA, committees reco and way forward ?
role of economics in police

accountability of cbi
state of criminal justice syste

Q. What do u mean by police working at cutting edge level? Do u really think a person who owns a car and a house can be given a lecture on good citizenry by a 10th pass level constable. Y
should people listen to him/her?

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Q. How to improve policing / people's satisfaction?


1. Monitoring and feedback mechanism. Toll / helpline umbers no one picks up. So have a mechanism to regularly monitor that.
2. Concept of zero FIR.
What are the policing issues in Rajasthan?
What will you do as SP to control Naxalism? Drug use? Human trafficking?
what will you do to improve the image of police? why is it so bad?
-

develop police stores


lease out police land, use rent for police welfare
do videoconferencing
do business process restructuring
we need process integrity, not product integrity alone. ref. investigation (SP karimnagar)

IT Issues
Created: 4/24/2014 7:28 PM
Internet of Things
1. IDC also forecasts that by 2020 Internet of Things (IoT) will represent almost 10 per cent of the data generated in India.
2. IoT refers to everyday objects equipped with sensors, anything from shoes to mobile phones to surveillance cameras, that can record, report and receive data.
3. The data from these connected devices represents 4 per cent of the total data in India today.

Q. How much is the total software exports and what percentage is exported?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Nasscom on Tuesday said software exports in 2014-15 would rise to as much as $99 billion, from about $86 billion estimated for this fiscal year ending March.
Including the domestic market, the Indian IT industry is currently pegged at $118 billion.
I dont expect Infosys and Wipro to see the same kind of growth as Cognizant and TCS (Tata Consultancy Services Ltd), he added. TCS is the countrys largest software exporter.
The higher forecast for exports comes amid a recovery in macroeconomic conditions in North America, which is the largest market for Indian software services exporters. Demand
from Europe, where companies have increased outsourcing to save costs amid a tough economic environment, is also expected to boost the fortunes of Indian IT firms.
5. The industrys share of total Indian exports (merchandise plus services) increased from less than 4% in FY1998 to about 25% in FY2012.
Q. should porn sites be blocked?
1. No. Crimes against women have taken place in times when there was no internet.
2. There are other factors which are primarily responsible for crime against women. they are - patriarchal mindset, lack of policing, poor criminal justice system. We can't blame
pornography for it.
3. The safest country for Woman New Zealand did not provide safety for woman by blocking Pornographic content. They did it through education , job safety and awareness to general
laws.

Cyber Security
What is Cyber Security
1. Cyber threats can be disaggregated, based on the perpetrators and their motives, into four baskets: cyber espionage, cyber warfare, cyberterrorism, and cyber crime.
2. Cyber Warfare
1. States or state sponsored actors may be attacking the information systems of other countries for espionage and for disrupting their critical infrastructure.
2. The attacks on the websites of Estonia in 2007 and of Georgia in 2008 have been widely reported.
3. The US has moved swiftly and set up a cyber command within the Strategic Forces Command and revised its military doctrine. In the latest official military doctrine, the US
has declared cyberspace to be the fifth dimension of warfare after land, air, oceans and space, and reserved the right to take all actions in response, including military strikes,
to respond to cyber attacks against it.
3. Cyber Crimes
4. Cyber terrorism
1. Terrorists have been known to have used cyberspace for communication, command and control, propaganda, recruitment, training, and funding purposes. The shadowy world
of the terrorist takes on even murkier dimensions in cyberspace where anonymity and lack of attribution are a given.
5. Cyber Espionage
1. Cyber espionage has all but made the Official Secrets Act, 1923 redundant, with even the computers in the Prime Ministers Office being accessed.
2. PRISM.
Challenges in Cyber Security
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Attacks in cyberspace cannot be attributed to an identifiable person.


The attacks traverse several computer systems located in multiple countries.
There is lot of anonymity over internet.
Often, cyber attacks are silent and go unnoticed for long periods.
The concept of cyber deterrence is also being debated but it is not clear whether cyber deterrence can hold in cyberspace, given the easy involvement of non-state actors and lack of
attribution.
6. The number of countries that are setting up cyber commands is steadily growing . There is, therefore, a pressing need to think about norms for cyber warfare, whether the laws of
armed conflict (LOAC) can be adapted to cyber warfare.
7. Cyber attacks can be easily launched, no sophisticated hardware needed.
Vulnerability of India to Cyber Attacks
1. Submarine cables. India has landing points for major submarine cable systems which are minimally protected. A preview of what could happen by way of these cables being disabled
took place in 2008 when a series of outages and cable cuts in undersea cables running through the Suez Canal, in the Persian Gulf and Malaysia caused massive communications
disruptions to India and West Asia.

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2. Financial sector, stock markets, civil aviation, electricity grid, pipelines and refineries, defense forces.
3. Reporting of cyber crimes
1. While other countries are reporting enormous losses to cyber crime, as well as threats to enterprises and critical information infrastructure (CII), there are hardly any such
reports coming out of India. The overall number of crimes reported is low reflecting ignorance of law and lack of established procedures.
4. Private Sector
1. While government websites in India have been breached, the private sector claims that it has not been similarly affected.
2. It may also be that theft of intellectual property from private enterprises is not an issue here because R&D expenditure in India is only 0.7% of GDP, with government
expenditure accounting for 70% of that figure.
3. Companies are also reluctant to disclose any attacks and exfiltration of data due to legal and public confidence issues.
5. Indias approach to cyber security has so far been ad hoc and piecemeal. A number of organisations have been created but their precise roles have not been defined nor synergy has
been created among them.
6. Sections 69, 69A and 69B contain provisions for intercepting, monitoring or blocking traffic where, amongst other reasons, there is a threat to national security. Section 70A covers
protection of critical infrastructure.
Recommendations
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

India must raise a Cyber Command. This will comprise not only the three services but personnel from the DRDO and scientific and technological community.
Army, Navy and Air Force CERTs Intelligence and information operations. Sectoral certins.
India must invest in capacity building, HR and set up universities for this purpose.
Protecting critical information infrastructure in private sector is essential. eg. banks, stock exchanges, power production, refineries, airlines. CERTIn like agencies in private sector
are needed.
Make it a mandatory requirement for all government organisations and private enterprises to have a designated Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) who would be responsible for
cyber security.
Establish an online mechanism for cyber crime-related complaints to be recorded.
Have a clear procedure on investigating cyber crimes.Training on investigating cyber crimes.
Procedural laws need to be in place to achieve cooperation and coordination of international organisations.
Government should focus on creating a workforce of security professionals.
Government should promote R&D in private industry.

Q. What can be done so that benefits of the globalization(technology, egovernance) reaches to those who are underprivileged..bridging inequality??
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Technological innovations - Google balloons.


USO type fund.
spread eliteracy.
eChoupal types models.
Broadband connectivity to each panchayat. Kiosks at village level.
regional languages.

Q. How to ensure that digitally illiterate people are empowered?


1. rural entrepreneurship model at kiosk level.
2. regional languages.
3. teach them.
********************************************************************************************************************
Computers / IT

Q. What are problems with Indian cyber laws?


1. If the mail of someone is hacked in one place by accused sitting far in another state, determination of concerned P.S., who will take cognizance is difficult. It is seen that the
investigators generally try to avoid accepting such complaints on the grounds of jurisdiction.
2. IT (Amendment) Act, 2008, made almost all cyber crimes, barring a couple, bailable offences.
3. The IT (Amendment) Act, 2008, reduced the quantum of punishment for a majority of cyber crimes. This needs to be rectified.
4. The IT Act does not cover a majority of crimes committed through mobiles. This needs to be rectified.
5. Cyber war as an offence needs to be covered under the IT Act.
6. Parts of Section 66A of the IT Act are beyond the reasonable restrictions on freedom of speech and expression under the Constitution of India. These need to be removed to make the
provisions legally sustainable.
Q. What about this IT vs. ITeS and IT vs. ICT?
1. IT refers to an entire industry that uses computers, networking, software and other equipment to manage information, whereas ICT can be seen as an integration of IT with media
broadcasting technologies, audio/ video processing and transmission and telephony.
2. ITES services are the services which do require the aid of IT but not the hardcore IT. It includes soft skills like communication wherein we do make use of computer to feed in the
reponses. These services are mainly used in BPOs and KPOs, banks, insurance etc.
Q. What do you think about the deal of FB-Whapp? was it overvalued?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Many reports and conventional valuation methods say that it is overvalued. But I feel strategically it was necessary for fb's own survival.
watsapp would have 1 bio users. It may become a threat to fb itself.
Google was going to acquire it.
Users are spending more and more time on watsapp and not fb.
Gives fb more data.
gives fb strong presence in mobile.

Q. Prism vs tempora
1. PRISM gets data directly from companies' servers whereas tempora has intercepts on the optical fiber lines.
Q. Big data
1. Big data is the term for a collection of data sets so large and complex that it becomes difficult to process using on-hand database management tools or traditional data processing
applications. The challenges include capture, curation, storage, search, sharing, transfer, analysis and visualization.
2. The trend to larger data sets is due to the additional information derivable from analysis of a single large set of related data, as compared to separate smaller sets with the same total
amount of data, allowing correlations to be found to "spot business trends, determine quality of research, prevent diseases, link legal citations, combat crime, and determine real-time
roadway traffic conditions.

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Q. Sec 66A of IT Act


1. Section 66A(a) refers to the sending of any information through a communication service that is grossly offensive or has menacing character.
2. Section 66A(b) is even more problematic than Section 66A(a) because it makes an offence of sending through a computer resource or communication device any information which
he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred or ill will, persistently by
making use of such computer resource or a communication device.
Q. Why not a website like orkut and facebook originates from India. What do we miss in India?
1. Market is not there. It exists in US.
2. Venture capital ecosystem is not developed.
Q. Now we are seeing that India is losing its hold in this sector to countries such as Phillipines etc.
1. Move up the value chain.
2. Create infrastructure in other lower cost cities.
6. What is fuzzy logic ?
1. Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic; it deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than fixed and exact. Compared to traditional binary sets (where variables may take on
true or false values), fuzzy logic variables may have a truth value that ranges in degree between 0 and 1. Fuzzy logic has been extended to handle the concept of partial truth, where
the truth value may range between completely true and completely false

Personal Issues
Created: 4/26/2014 12:18 PM
Q. Many engineers have come for interview in this board. I am sure that it must be happening in other boards also. Why so many engineers are coming to the civil services, especially from
top institutions? Is it not creating shortage on the other side?
1. Its a matter of personal choice. They may come here due to a combination of factors: they may think civil services has more scope and offer multiple challenges. Its a different kind of
job compared to corporate jobs. It lets a person serve the society in multiple ways. They may not be that interested in engineering.
2. There can be no denying the fact that one engineer coming here is one less there. But we should take a broader view.
3. Decisions to go in engineering take place in India at a young age of 15-16 when many children don't have a clear idea of what they want to do. They and parents just go by social
trend.
4. At a later stage if they decide this is not what they want to do, we should respect that. Because societies gain maximum when they respect individual freedoms.
5. Moreover, in civil services, I can apply much of the engineering knowledge I have learnt.
Q. Why do you want to become an IAS?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Combination of many factors.


Public service.
Wide scope. At such a young age, it gives us so much of scope to serve the people.
Very challenging and dynamic with wide decision making.
Come back to India.
Respect in society, aspirations of parents.

Q. IITK that too computer science, so difficult to get in, and yet now here you are . Can you justify this?
1. Combination of many factors.
2. I am here because the job of an IAS offers a wide scope for public service and that too at such a young age. It is a very challenging and dynamic job - so different from corporate jobs.
3. Then also, this job has a lot of respect in the society and my parents also want me to become one. I anyways wanted to come back to India and this is one of the best jobs I could
have aspired for.
Q. I know this will be a very personal question to ask. I don't know whether to ask but anyway I will ask. You have earlier worked in corporate field. You are in IPS now and again want to
move to IAS. And what after IAS? Could you let us know why?
1. After getting selected, I would want to use my skills and energy to serve the people. We keep on hearing about misgovernance, why not get into the system and try to do our best.
Q. What do you bring from your previous job which will help you in administration?
1. team building, motivating, clear articulation of goals, taking care of welfare of team members.
2. Importance of training.
Q. Why want to go from ips to ias?
1. IAS offers more diversity and scope in terms of opportunities. One can touch so many fields - education, health, rural development, finance, nutrition etc.
2. My goal when I left the job was to become IAS. Since I had opportunities left, I am making the attempt.
3. Having said that, IPS too is a very good job. If I get through IAS, fine. If I don't get through, then also I ll be fine.
Q. Why IPS again?
1. At the time of filling the form, I didn't know what cadre I would get and what were the various opportunities in different cadres.
2. Now I understand its not the cadre which matters, but how we apply ourselves in the cadre which matters in the long run. So I won't take IPS again if allotted.
Q. Why haven't you applied for the foreign service?
1. 2 reasons - I want to work with the general public at the grassroot level - see how they live, learn from them, do something for them, and secondly, I want to work in India.
Q. Are you trying to imply that IPS is inferior to IAS?
1. No. Both are great jobs. Its just that IAS offers more scope and career opportunities.
2. But both are good. So if i get through, I will be happy. If I don't get through, I will be happy too.

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Q. If you leave the other job after getting selected, won't it be denying someone else an opportunity and a wastage of public money?
1. Sure there will be a loss in short term. But in the long term the society gains the most when the most meritorious get the job.
Q. Why have you come for IAS?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Combination of many reasons.


Public service is a reason - IAS offers a wide scope at such a young age for that.
IAS is a very challenging and dynamic job which gives wide decision making powers.
Its a field based job, so different from corporate jobs. One has to meet people, learn from them, resolve their problems.
Respect in society, parental aspirations, wanted to come back to India, and this is one of the best jobs I could aspire for.

Q. But you can do this in an NGO as well?


1. NGOs are dependent upon govt only.
2. Govt can be the biggest NGO.
3. Respect in society, parental aspirations.
Q. Even private companies / technology jobs do so much for people. Why don't you go there?
1. I am coming from there. They operate in particular spheres. Here I get to work on so many aspects which affect people. So why should I limit myself.
2. Plus at my age the wide decision making powers are not there and it would really take me years to reach the stage where I would be the one making decisions.
Q. You can join some micro finance company or a manager in a company which provides pure water?
1. Why should I limit myself to only one aspect of public service when in civil services I can address wider problems.
2. Plus at my age the wide decision making powers are not there and it would really take me years to reach the stage where I would be the one making decisions.
Q. You can found your own company / NGO / join politics ... then you won't have to wait for years?
1. For entrepreneurship, I don't have any idea which would sell.
2. Politics: Fighting elections is not my expertise. My expertise is academics which would get me this job.
Q. But there are many people like you who are doing this - kejriwal.
1. We are all different. He was in the service and then felt he had to get into politics to change. I still think there is a lot of good a person can do from within the service.
Q. You have done IIT, you have done IIM, you have worked as an investment banker, and now you are here. Why?
1.
2.
3.
4.

To become an IAS. And that is because of a combination of reasons.


public service - this job gives a wide scope for public service in many ways.
Challenging and dynamic job and gives lot of decision making so early in career.
Respect in society, aspirations of parents, wanted to come back to India and this is one of the best jobs I could aspire for.

Q. You have done IIT, you have done IIM, you have worked as an investment banker, and now you are here. You take pride in wasting resources? Don't you have any idea of what you want to
do in life?
1. Sir there are so many skills I would be using in this job which I have acquired in engineering and MBA.
2. Eg. I have already seen during training, when it comes to application of IT in policing, how many non engineering background students are turned off. I pick those things easily and can
appreciate how and where to apply IT.
3. From MBA, I have learnt team building, communication skills, motivating people. I have also learnt about economics and finance which has multiple applications.
Q. How can we be sure that after changing so much, you won't change your career again after 3-4 years?
1. If you are asking me for a guarantee, I cannot give it. No one can give a guarantee about future. But I can assure you that I am coming here for the right reasons. The things which give
me pleasure are not instantaneous or short term ones, but they will be present in this job throughout.
Q. You take so much pride in wasting resources, huh?
1.
2.
3.
4.

I don't think thats wasting resources at the balance. I will be using so many of my skills learnt earlier in this job.
eg. IT
eg. economics, finance, management.
And these are very essential in coming times.

Q. You ve done this, that... looks like IAS is the only thing left on your CV.. huh?
1. hehe, its definitely one of the things missing, but I am not here to score a cv point. I am here because...
Q. Why do we need people with your background?
1. IT
2. Economics, finance, management.
Q. Why did you opt for MBA after doing engineering?
1. 2 reasons - a) I always loved problem solving. My job after IIT had it but in a limited way. Management promised more - more diverse as well as higher level. So it was a natural choice.
2. b) I was clear I had to study further - this is one of my core values. Simply IIT was not enough. This feeling was accentuated by my bad academic performance in IIT.. I had to make
amends. story of rickshaw...
Q. Why did you go to IIT?
1. I was good in science and maths at that time. My parents saw it and guided me there.
Q. Why did you opt for comp sc?
1. Based on general public opinion and advice of my parents - since I hadn't developed any particular likings, so went by public wisdom.
Q. Why did you opt for finance?
1. Finance is analytical. We had to specialize only in the 2nd year and the 1st year had common courses from all streams. I quite liked the finance courses.
2. Actually I liked economics more but there was no programme for economics major. Still I took all economics courses I could as optional.
Q. If you were interested in finance, why are you coming for ias?
Q. Why did you leave your job and come here?
Q. Why have you come for IAS?

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Q. No, we mean why didn't you come earlier. Why now?


Q. Why have you chosen civil services after coming from an engineering background like this?
Q. Why have you chosen civil services after coming from an management background like this?
Q. You were having good opportunities to earn money. Then why are you coming to civil services?
Q. IAS - leader or manager?
Q. What have you learnt from this leadership experience?
1. building teams - identify crucial people, understand anxieties and motivation. example - sales.
2. communication. example - product control.
3. be clear about priorities. scan for various opportunities and the dangers.
Q. How would you apply these learnings in the government sector?
1. building team - same process.
2. Communication - clear articulation. Use modern means to communicate with public.
3. analytical and open mind and staying updated are helpful in evaluating opportunities and dangers.
Q. And how would you keep your team motivated?
1. personal conduct - set an example.
2. understand the grievances. Informal communication also helps.
Q. What has been the impact of IIT on ur personality?
1. Importance of hard work.
2. Humility.
Q. What has been the impact of IIM on your personality?
1. My only competitor is myself. All I should focus on is to better myself and not worry about the rest.
2. Put into practice the many lessons I learnt into IIT and reaffirmed my faith in them.
3. Made me more confident and a better communicator.
Q. What has been the impact of ur previous job on your personality?
1.
2.
3.
4.

Made me more confident and a better communicator.


Brought out the leader inside me.
Taught me the importance of people and relationships.
Professional.

Q. What has been the impact of IAS preparation on your personality?


1. Made me more balanced. Taught me the other perspective.
2. I will go back as a better trader.
Q. What is the relation between efficiency, inefficiency and honesty and dishonesty, and Who is better - an efficient but dishonest or a inefficient but honest?
1. These are two very different qualities and no direct relation.
2. I think honest but inefficient. At least you can rely on him / her.
Q. Whats the difference between a manager and an entrepreneur?
1. An entrepreneur has to take more risks.
2. Manager may be working for someone else, entrepreneur has more ownership.
Q. What is difference between leader and manager ?
1. A leader is a higher level manager where goals, strategies are less clear. He has to make his own way.
Q. Do you think the civil servants these days are near to manager or entrepreneur?
1. I think a shift is going on from being managers to entrepreneurs. These days you see a lot of civil servants taking the ownership of projects.
2. Need to encourage risk taking though in order to carry it forward.
Q. What do you think is keeping civil servants from assuming more risks?
1.
2.
3.
4.

I think its the incentive structure. One doesn't get rewarded for taking risk, but is penalized if things don't work out. give example.
There are multiple hierarchies leading to dilution of accountability.
Then promotions and postings are not linked to outcomes / performance.
In my previous job, there was full transparency. This didn't prevent me from taking risks.

Q. But if officers stop taking risk in the long run then how can it be good?
1. Without transparency and with so many discretionary powers, there is also a possibility of misuse. And knowing human nature, misuse becomes more rampant. So the system has
to have checks in place.
Q. How should we address this tradeoff between transparency and risk taking?
1. By changing incentive structure. In my previous job, there was full transparency. This didn't prevent me from taking risks.
Q. How would you cope up in the current situation? Will you stop taking risks?
1. If there is a certain cause I am committed to, I would not hesitate. Under no conditions will I violate the law.
2. But if there is any grey area, then I would clearly communicate my interpretation and lay down the reasons behind it.
Q. So you think if one is honest and upright, nothing bad will happen?
1. I don't think so. In life bad things can happen.
Q. Won't this keep yourself from walking on the path of honesty?

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1. No, I will never compromise on my core principles.


Q. You are emotional person ??? An emotional person cannot be practical person.
1. I maintain a certain degree of maturity in professional life. Emotions do creep in but I always try to stay professional.
Q. Suppose you are SDM of a district, and are traveling. You see an accident on the road. How will you respond?
1. Assuming it is bad, I would carry the injured to the nearest hospital. Would also inform the police.
Q. there is a sincere and erudite CEO who is very hard working but is unable to avoid the failure of the company. There is a cunning CEO who is corrupt and practical and brings success for
the company and himself. The first is fired and second is rewarded - Do you agree with the management's decision? What would you do?
1.
2.
3.
4.

short sighted decision.


company's reputation will suffer.
when in difficulty corrupt ceo may fudge the books. eg. satyam.
bad example for employees.

Q. So do you have any role models from the political leaders of our long history.
1.
2.
3.
4.

gandhiji
united whole country - left swaraj vague.
non violence, faith in dumb millions.
firmly rooted in indian spirituality, and yet progressive.

Q. The entrepreneurs and businessmen are responsible for creating a lot of jobs but they don't seem to get the respect as the civil servants and politicians do. Why is that?
1. these are the characteristics of an undeveloped economy. earlier opportunities were not there. so public services were the only most lucrative career options.
2. times are changing. economy throwing more opportunities.
3. earlier license raj meant it was not possible to earn money legitimately.
Q. But crony capitalism has increased only after the reforms.
1. I think overall set of opportunities has expanded.
2. earlier it was just not possible to conduct business without approvals and bribes. Now that is possible and such opportunities have expanded greatly.
3. but due to relics from the past like a weak rule of law, opportunities for crony capitalism have also increased.
Q. Suppose you are the District Magistrate of a district. Two politicians, an MLA and a MP, are tossing you around for political gains. What will you do?
1. I will not do anything to compromise the dignity of the office or anything illegal. if demands are legitimate i would consider them on their merit.

Kashmir Issue
One of the biggest myths is the belief that the autonomy as envisaged in the Constituent Assembly is intact. A series of Presidential Orders has eroded Article 370 substantially. While
the 1950 Presidential Order and the Delhi Agreement of 1952 defined the scope and substance of the relationship between the Centre and the State with the support of the Sheikh, the
subsequent series of Presidential Orders have made most Union laws applicable to the State. In fact today the autonomy enjoyed by the State is a shadow of its former self, and there is
virtually no institution of the Republic of India that does not include J&K within its scope and jurisdiction. The only substantial differences from many other States relate to permanent
residents and their rights; the non-applicability of Emergency provisions on the grounds of internal disturbance without the concurrence of the State; and the name and boundaries of the
State, which cannot be altered without the consent of its legislature. Remember J&K is not unique; there are special provisions for several States which are listed in Article 371 and Articles
371-A to 371-I.
Fourth, can Article 370 be revoked unilaterally? Clause 3 of Article 370 is clear. The President may, by public notification, declare that this Article shall cease to be operative but only on the
recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State. In other words, Article 370 can be revoked only if a new Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir is convened and is willing
to recommend its revocation. Of course, Parliament has the power to amend the Constitution to change this provision. But this could be subject to a judicial review which may find that this
clause is a basic feature of the relationship between the State and the Centre and cannot, therefore, be amended.

And if a woman married someone who wasnt a Kashmiri PR, she automatically lost her own PR status. In 2004, the state high court, in the case of State of J&K vs Sheela Sawhney,
declared that there was no provision in the existing law dealing with the status of a female PR who married a non-resident. The provision of women losing their PR status after marrying
outside the state, therefore, did not have any legal basis. This decision was historic because it corrected an administrative anomaly and brought relief to women who married outside the
state. A People's Democratic Party government, led by Mehbooba Mufti, passed a law to overturn the court judgment by introducing a Bill styled Permanent Residents (Disqualification) Bill,
2004. This was not Muftis solo effort. Omar Abdullahs party, the National Conference, backed this Bill and got it passed in the assembly. But it did not ultimately see the light of day for
various reasons.[

Governance and Social Issues


Created: 4/24/2014 7:27 PM
Source: https://www.dropbox.com/s/rcnouy8jkdmforj/Interview%20questions.txt

1. Build confidence in bureaucracy


2. Welcome innovative ideas & babus to be given freedom to work
3. Education, Health, Water. Energy & roads will be priority
4. Transparency in the government. E-auction to be promoted
5. System will be placed for inter ministerial issues
6. People oriented system to be in placed in government machinery
7. Addressing concerns relating to economy
8. Infrastructure and investment reforms

Q. Recommendation in civil service reforms chapter of 2nd ARC?

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Domain Competence
Decentralization & Accountability
Performance Management & Appraisal
Lateral Entry
Civil Services Bill

Q. Challenges of present bureaucratic system


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Too many departments and working in silos.


Too many hierarchies leading to delays and loss of accountability.
Focus on procedure and not outcomes.
Political interference.
Lack of risk taking.
Attitudinal issues.
Lack of performance incentives.

Q. What are the reasons of corruption? What are the measures to stop corruption in society?
1. Lack of deterrance.
1. Need strong lokpal.
2. Easy opportunities.
1. Need e-governance.
3. Lack of accountability.
1. Need social audits, grievance redressal mechanism, citizen charters.
4. Lack of transparency.
1. Need above only.
Q. What is Paid news? What are the reasons of that? What are the solutions
1. Separation of media management and editorial. Editor should have autonomy.
2. PCI can't penalise the wrongdoing media house. It is also limited to print media only. It should be given more powers. Its directions should be made binding on both print and
electronic media.
3. RPA should be amended to make paid news explicitly an offence.
4. Within PCI, a body of media professionals only should decide on paid news cases.
Q. Difference between manager and administrator.
1. Key difference: Administration frames the objectives and policies of an organization. Management implements these policies and objectives. The administration is the top level of the
organization with the decisive functions. They are responsible for determining the policies and objectives of the organization or the firm. Management, on the other hand is the middle
level executive function. They implement the policies and objectives as decided by the administration
Q. Difference between manager and leader.
1. Leaders manage people, managers manage work, systems.
2. Leaders think of innovative solutions, risk takers, have vision. Managers want set goals, trusted paths, risk averse.
Q. Difference between administrator and leader.
1. Administrators are appointed. They have a legitimate power base and can reward and punish. Their ability to influence is founded upon the formal authority inherent in their positions.
In contrast, leaders may either be appointed or emerge from within a group. Leaders can influence other to perform beyond the actions dictated by formal authority. In this sense,
managers/administrators get other people to do, but leaders get other people to want to do.
2. Leadership is higher level than administration. Leaders have visions and can inspire people.
Q. What are the measures to save the society from communalism?
1. Inclusion.
2. Promote communal harmony via school education.
3. Strictly check communal actions.
Q. What is good governance?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Citizen empowered. Govt Accountable & Transparent.


Rule of Law.
Effective and Efficient. Responsive.
Equitable and Inclusive
No excessive red tape.

Q. What impact does ICT and digital technology has had on the social and cultural front?
1. Social
1. upliftment of poor and marginalized. tele - education, medicine, echoupal, nrega.
2. ecommerce - useful for marginalized entrepreneurs.
3. egovt helping poor.
2. cultural
1. marketing, more awareness about cultural diversity.
Q. Why bureaucrats are not taking policy decision? What is the reason behind policy paralysis?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

work culture is that risk taking is punished and not rewarded.


no accountability, no one is held responsible for an outcome.
focus more on procedure and not on outcome.
Multiple departments working in silos, multiple hierarchies.
policy making and implementation not separated.
performance is not the criteria for promotions and postings.

Q. Is audit given too much importance? Is is not hampering governmental functioning? What should be the approach?
1. Audit is essential to maintain accountability.
2. But auditors also have benefit of hindsight and don't appreciate the difficulties faced in decision making. So audit should refrain from commenting on policy decisions.
Q. What are the main weaknesses in the present governance system?
1. Too many departments / ministries, each working in silos. Each has veto over the proposal. Leads to delays, fragmentation, policy paralysis.

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2. Procedure focus, not outcome oriented. Risk avoidance.


3. Too many hierarchies leading to lack of accountability, delays.
4. Policy making, implementation and monitoring not separated.
Q. Major reforms in the present system.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Outcome orientation / agency based system.


Decentralization via subsidiarity principle and flatter organization.
Integration of functions and ministries.
Single window.

Q. What will you do with technology in administration?


1.
2.
3.
4.

e-governance.
One big problem is lack of monitoring. technology can help.
PDS, MNREGA - end to end tracking systems can reduce corruption.
Connect to people.

Q. What is the use of IT in policing?


1.
2.
3.
4.

reporting of wrongdoings / grievances.


databases of criminals, fingerprints.
automation of ps functioning. eg. filing of FIRs.
social media tracking.

Q. What are the socio economic problems India is facing?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Poverty.
Unemployment.
Education.
Health.
Sanitation and drinking water.

Q. Suppose you are posted as the DM of your district, what would be your key priorities?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

handicrafts.
industrialization.
education hub.
use of ICT - monitoring of govt schemes, grievances, social media.
Encroachments over water bodies.

Q. Why do you think we have less integrity in administration now?


1. After independence, high moral values. Then degradation. political influences.
2. PPP.
3. No deterrence. Performance not rewarded.
Q. How can you use technology to solve this?
1. Increase transparency.
2. Grievances can be filed directly to higher levels instead of going from office to office.
3. Education.
Q. Women security. How will you address them?
1. Deterrence - policing, forensics, fast track courts.
2. Education, awareness.
Q. Why bureaucracies still carry the culture of British raj? How will you change it?
1. Why carry 1. Power asymmetry.
2. Illiteracy, poverty.
3. Lack of electoral pressure for change.
4. Propagation of culture.
2. Change 1. More awareness of rights. education and development.
2. transparency and accountability.
3. Training.
Q. Maximum governance and minimum governmentexplain with example
1. Too many hierarchies, no accountability. eg. MDMS in bihar incident. So need flatter organization, agency system.
2. Too much red tape, in principle approvals. Need true single windows. why can't we get clearances before awarding projects?
Governance Issues
1. incentives and procedure driven system - The government simply does not function with the efficiency that is required in the twenty-first century. This is partly because of the lack of
motivation at various levels, but it is primarily because governmental systems and procedures are largely process-driven. They are not outcome-oriented. Accountability is often viewed
as adhering to procedures with no incentive to depart from procedures to secure better results. Unless this weakness is overcome, mere provision of more funds for programmes
implemented in the same old way will not help.
2. lack of monitoring / feedback and coordination between different departments: Where implementation rests within one Ministry, there are problems of (i) insufficient attention to
evidence-based analysis in the design of policies and programmes, (ii) insufficient concurrent evaluation that would give feedback on outcomes achieved and (iii) lack of willingness or
ability to bring about systemic changes needed to improve outcomes. Even when it is known that a change in procedures will help, it takes very long to bring about that change. The
problem is greatly multiplied when the effectiveness of a programme depends, as it often does, on actions that have to be taken by several different Ministries. The effort is to seek a
consensus if possible, with little ability to over rule positions taken by individual Ministries in the interest of a holistic problem solving approach. Resolving conflicting stands by
consensus is of course desirable if possible, but beyond a point, it may not be possible, and some systems for conflict resolution are needed. The first step in reforming public
service delivery is to devise mechanisms for measuring the extent of public satisfaction
3. generalists at top - Thus, although public hospitals may have trained doctors and nurses, and public schools may have trained teachers, neither of these institutions will
have administrators who are trained in the operation of health care or educational institutions. Too much of the knowledge needed to manage public service delivery is learnt on the
job. The effectiveness of regulatory organisations depends critically upon the qual- ity of the personnel running the institutions and the degree of independence established. Too many
of the regulatory agencies are staffed by former bureaucrats and there is not enough induction of specialists with domain knowledge.
4. Local Bodies - Capabilities for planning locally are woe- fully inadequate, which is leading to projects not aligned with local priorities and poor coordination amongst separate initiatives.
5. Lack of trust in institutions can cause increasing impatience in the country, especially amongst younger people, and leads to protests, sometimes turning violent. (The increasing

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impatience and protest is fuelled by the ubiquity of media and the explosion of infor- mation.) The lack of trust can create a political log- jam, which makes reforms that the system
needs that much more difficult. This reduces performance which in turn increases impatience and further reduces the credibility oand trust in them.
Q. tell me about india's nuclear programme??
1. The 1st generation nuclear reactors have a capacity of 250 mw each. They are PHWR (2nd Generation internationally) that make use of U-238 as the fuel and the heavy water as the
coolant. They generate power and at the same time convert part of U-238 into Pu.
2. The 2nd generation nuclear reactors are fast breeder reactors of 500 MW each. They use plutonium derived from 1st generation reactors and convert thorium into U-233. The first of
such reactors will be established at Tarapore (international 3rd Generation).
3. The 3rd generation nuclear reactors (international 4th Generation) will be of 1000 mw each. They will use U-233. They will be called light water reactors (LWR) as they use light water
for coolant. They will generate power and convert thorium into more uranium-233.
Q. Who was the whistleblower in Ranbaxy.
1. Dinesh Thakur.
Q. You are sanctioned 100 crores for flood relief. What would be your priorities?
1. Food, medicines, boats, relief camps.
Q. What are the qualities required of a government servant?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Integrity
Neutrality
Objectivity
Leadership
Empathy
Openness

Q. What are the qualities of a good leader?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Has a vision.
Risk taker.
Inspires people.
Innovative.

Q. UPSC const. provision, who appoints chairman?


1. The Royal Commission on the Superior Civil Services in India under the Chairmanship of Lord Lee, which submitted its Report in 1924,recommended the setting up of the Public
Service Commission. This led to the establishment of the first Public Service Commission on October 1, 1926 under the Chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker.
2. The limited advisory function accorded to the Public Service Commission and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of
a Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935.
3. The Federal Public Service Commission became the Union Public Service Commission after Independence under Art 315.
4. Members are appointed by President, including the chairman.
5. He may be removed from his office by the President of India on the ground of misbehavior (only if an inquiry of such misbehavior is made and upheld by Supreme Court) or if he is
adjudged insolvent, or engages during his term of office in any paid employment outside the duties of his office, or in the opinion of the President unfit to continue in office by reason of
infirmity of mind or body.
Q. question hour, zero hour.
1. During the parliamentary session, the day's business normally begins with the question hour. The Ministers reply to the questions raised by the members of the Parliament.
2. Zero Hour: The period follows the question hour and it starts at the noon and its duration is one hour (from 12 noon to 1 P.M.). During the zero hour, various issues of public
importance are raised without prior notice

Q. Vote on Account:
1. There is usually a gap between the presentation of the budget and its approval. Sometimes, particularly in an election year, the budget may not be passed before the end of the
current financial year.
2. To meet this contingency, the vote on account is taken normally for two months for a sum equivalent to one sixth of the estimated expenditure for the entire year under demand
grants. This enables the government to draw this amount from the Consolidated Fund of India to meet the expenses in the intervening period.
Q. tell three problems of India.
1. Governance.
2. Poverty.
3. Corruption.
Q. What will be your priorities as a district magistrate?
1. Each district has own problems. Go without prejudice. Then analyze pressing problems. Then classify into what I can solve, what need help from above. Short term, long term.
2. Build a team.
3. Institute web and mobile mechanisms to take direct feedback from panchayats and municipalities.
Q. What will be your priorities for your home district?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

water scarcity in agriculture - implement government schemes like RKVY, encourage water user associations.
industries and handicrafts - implement government schemes for MSMEs, encourage clusters.
check encroachments and prevent misuse.
build shelters for migrants, resolve their problems in getting documentation and govt. aid.
education and nutrition - feedback mechanism and government schemes.

Q. What are the problems in jaipur?


1.
2.
3.
4.

Encroachments and misuse of land.


Water scarcity.
Handicrafts and lack of industries.
Migrant population.

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Q. How will u keep yourself motivated in bad postings/insignificant postings?


1. Reinvent the job.
2. Professionalism.
Q. How will you cope with frequent transfers? they will make ur initiatives ineffective besides u suffer personally.
1. Institutionalize changes.
2. Make arrangements for the family.
Q. What will you do to improve efficiency of your office?
1. Set an example.
2. Better communication (eg. make the goals clear, understand their anxieties and motivations) and grievance redressal.
3. Institute mechanisms to keep a vigil.
Q: What is your view about the bureaucracy is it honest or dishonest?
1. Clearly not as honest as one would ideally want it to be.
2. Larger system - work culture, rule of law. Bureaucrats have too many discretionary powers. Can twist the system to protect themselves.
3. Incentives not linked to performance.
Q: Do you think a office at the helm can make great changes in the working of system?
1. Yes and no. India is a democracy. The leadership has to bend to the public opinion. So the public opinion has to be strong enough otherwise other political compulsions may arise.
Give the example of freedom of speech.
2. But the leader can also shape public opinion. He can look out for opportunities actively.
Q. If you become DM of J&K what will be your three piorities.. one two and three
1. Protection of lives of people, specially panchas and sarpanchas.
2. Development of industry - specially handicrafts and tourism.
3. Development of education.
Q. Let us say that your subordinates are local assamese and they say that you are not from Assam what would be your response?
1. eat assamese food, celebrate assamese festivals, display assamese customs, speak their language.
2. delegate more responsibilities to assamese officers.
3. show inclination to take action if things go out of hand.
Q. There are two terms which are correlated i.e accountability and autonomy. Do you think civil servants are given full autonomy? do you think they should be accountable if they are not
given autonomy?
1. Not given full autonomy - political interference routine.
2. What we need is state security commission or civil services board as directed by supreme court. Also need a civil services law which clearly articulates relationship between political
executive and civil servants.
3. talk about other needed reforms.
Q. What steps will you take for women empowerment if you become collector.
1. regularly check the functioning of schemes, focus on women education and employment, awareness.
Q. What do you think of the RTI Act? Dont you think that the RTI Act is being misused?
1. Its a very welcome Act. In line with the changing governance.
2. Yes misused. Privacy issues. Administrative costs. Sensationalization. Beneficial in the long run.
Q. Scams exposed due to RTI
1. Adarsh Society Scam: The applications filed by RTI activists like Yogacharya Anandji and Simpreet Singh in 2008 were instrumental in bringing to light links between politicians and
military officials, among others. The 31-storey building, which had permission for six floors only, was originally meant to house war widows and veterans. Instead, the flats went to
several politicians, bureaucrats and their relatives. The scandal has already led to the resignation of Ashok Chavan, the former chief minister of Maharashtra. Other state officials are
also under the scanner.
2. Public Distribution Scam in Assam: In 2007, members of an anti-corruption non-governmental organization based in Assam, the Krishak Mukti Sangram Samiti, filed an RTI request
that revealed irregularities in the distribution of food meant for people below the poverty line. The allegations of corruption were probed and several government officials arrested.
3. Appropriation of Relief Funds: Information obtained through an RTI application by an NGO based in Punjab, in 2008 revealed that bureaucrats heading local branches of the Indian Red
Cross Society used money intended for victims of the Kargil war and natural disasters to buy cars, air-conditioners and pay for hotel bills among other things. Local courts charged
the officials found responsible with fraud and the funds were transferred to the Prime Ministers Relief Fund.
4. NREGA scams.
Whistleblower Bill

Highlights of the Bill


Any public serv ant or any other person including a non-gov ernm ental organization m ay m ake such a disclosure to the Central or State Vigilance Com m ission.
Ev ery com plaint has to include the identity of the com plainant.
The Vigilance Com m ission shall not disclose the identity of the com plainant except to the head of the departm ent if he deem s it necessary . The Bill penalises any person who has
disclosed the identity of the com plainant.
The Bill prescribes penalties for knowingly m aking false com plaints.

Key Issues and Analysis


Howev er, it does not prov ide any penalty for v ictim ising a com plainant.
The CVC was designated to receiv e public interest disclosures since 2 004 through a gov ernm ent resolution. There hav e been only a few hundred com plaints ev ery y ear. The
prov isions of the Bill are sim ilar to that of the resolution. Therefore, it is unlikely that the num ber of com plaints will differ significantly .
The power of the CVC is lim ited to m aking recom m endations. Also it does not hav e any power to im pose penalties. This is in contrast to the powers of the Karnataka Lokay ukta and
the Delhi Lokay ukta.
The Bill has a lim ited definition of disclosure and does not define v ictim isation. Other countries such as US, UK, and Canada define disclosure m ore widely and define v ictim isation.

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The Bill differs on m any issues with the proposed Bill of the Law Com m ission and the 2 nd Adm inistrativ e Reform Com m issions report. These include non-adm ission of anony m ous
com plaints and lack of penalties for officials who v ictim ise whistleblowers.

Q. How is the RTI a boon for civil servants? Or is it not a boon?


1. better storage of data.
2. more information in public domain now.
Q. Is telephone a boon or bane?
1. big boon. efficiency in economy, long distance stay in touch, information access.
2. disadvantages - radiation effects, mobiles while driving, neglect people around.
Q. Should children be given mobile phones?
1. yes but children should also be taught responsible use.
2. good for safety - can keep parents informed when go out.
3. care be taken that do not loose night sleep, do not sacrifice play and study hours.
Q. Suppose you are writing a letter to CM asking him to take action on adverse effects of mobile phones. What will you write?
1. frame guidelines against radiation - towers, emission intensity.
2. take action against driving with mobile phones.
3. awareness campaigns targeted towards younger ones and parents on responsible use of mobile phones.
Q. What is at the root of major problems affecting North east?
1. dominated with tribes - very poor, marginalized. stronger tribal and cultural affiliations.
2. proper sensitivity has to be shown. development with the consent of locals. example of british.
3. poverty - pressure on land, migrations.
Q. What will you do to fix corruption ? Do you think that by fixing corruption can we remove poverty in india?
1.
2.
3.
4.

three steps - right incentives and structures. eg. e-delivery, cash transfers, reducing discretions.
better oversight - independent regulators, increased role for parliament, lokpal, CBI + IT dept. reforms.
education - citizens aware of rights.
yes, we can make much headway - nutrition, health, education.

Q. But educated people also indulge in corruption. So how can education help?
1. Those educated who indulge in corruption are ones who think they can bend the system, twist rules. This is because rule of law is weak in India. They would have indulged in
corruption even if they were uneducated.
2. But when people are aware of their rights, they will demand for them. It won't be so easy for government to deny them. eg. bank (NREGA payment vs me), pds (awareness of
entitlement).
Q. What police / CBI / IT dept. reforms do you propose to reduce corruption?
1. Direct feedback from public / grievance redressal.
2. Welfare activities and promotional opportunities for constables.
3. Community policing.
Q. Why do you think we have trust deficit in governance?
1.
2.
3.
4.

weak rule of law.


administrative insensitivity.
Corruption.
Failure to implement government schemes and policies.

Q. How can we bring about administrative sensitivity?


1.
2.
3.
4.

training.
creating such work culture - performance management, clearly articulating goals for civil servants.
Educated public.
Increasing accountability and transparency.

Q. How can we bring about rule of law?


1. education. people aware of rights --> aware of real issues --> public opinion on important issues and not just caste and religion --> less corruption, more transparency, less feudal
privileges.
Q. Why are Panchayats failing?
1. clear case of principle - agent problem. explain motivation of state govts, explain motivation of central govt (additional funds transfer). both govts would want more taxes with
themselves.
2. vicious cycle - once they are weak, they are bypassed. central schemes, state schemes.
Q. So what can be done about panchayats?
1. long term - build public opinion.
2. short term - increase finance commission transfers, build capabilities.
Q. What are the schemes which bypass panchayats and what are those which use them?
1. bypass - PDS, aadhar, education system.
2. use them - NREGS,
Q. So what problem woman in facing in rural areas? Why in-spite of so many schemes and programmes we dont have woman empowerment?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

women in agriculture - paid less, don't have land titles, hence no credit. emigration of men leading to poverty.
deprivation in nutrition, health and education.
education and employability are key. these are slow in coming.
outlook of society is slow to change.
laxity in implementation of schemes.

Q. Tourism is affecting our culture. Should we stop tourism due to that?

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1. No. I think it would be going against the order of nature if we try to stop the change. Any society evolves with time as it comes into contact with others. We may think these changes
are harmful but these are the order of nature. example, what we know today as hinduism didn't exist in the beginning. earlier there was brahmanical religion focussing on sacrifices. Its
only when the Aryan society spread, that it came into contact with other peoples and tribes, incorporated their gods and customs and modern Hinduism began to emerge. Now I am
sure many people in those times would have ridiculed these changes. But we cannot stop a society.
Q. Do you think india is a banana republic?
1. Not in strict sense but rule of law needs to be strengthened.
2. we have good institutions, not that governance is totally hijacked by vested powerful interests.
Q. Problems of Tribals in India. Government steps to solve their problems. Provisions of forest rights act
1. indian state is imposing itself - displacing people.
2. poverty, malnutrition, education.
3. forest rights act, rehabilitation bill, minor forest policy, 5th 6th schedules.
Q. Do we indians love cricket or cricketers?
1. love both.
Q. Do u support GM crops?
1. yes but safety issues must be addressed.
2. see if really useful in long term. not that 2 good crops and then land becomes infertile.
Q. Tell me about the problems of Indian defence system, why we import every and do not make in country?
1. manufacturing capacity less.. private sector increase.
2. need technical knowhow. encourage R&D.
Q. The criminalization of politics is such a big problem. Why do criminals win elections? So, what is the solution?
1. rule of law is weak - awareness is less.
2. education.
Q. We are a big nation and got only few medals at Olympics. Is not it a shameful thing?
1. not shameful but a problem.
2. need to make sports attractive as a career so that more and more people take it - professional sports era not amateur. but how? only when sportspersons achieve glory.
3. sometimes an exceptional player may emerge. but on a systematic level, we need to build infrastructure - some exceptional players will emerge - will win glory - create virtuous loop.
Q. Why you think china has witnessed spectacular turnaround in sports?
1. They have invested in sports.
2. They see it as a medium to achieve national glory.
Q. Do you think cricket is overshadowing other sports?
1. more popular yes. but not harming any other sport. recently badminton, tennis picking up.
2. only when sportspersons achieve glory.
3. infrastructure - some exceptional players will emerge - will win glory - create virtuous loop.
Q. But in our country so many people are malnourished. How can sports keep us fit when we don't have food?
1. our society has malnourished as well as well nourished people. malnourished don't play.
Q. The US presidential system was more suited for India.
1. too much power - democracy undermined.
2. regional aspirations.
3. our system is already sort of presidential.
Q. In which south asian country maximum reservation for women in parliament is?
1. Nepal (33%)
Q. India is known as country of diseases? What is your view?
1. unfair. many countries worse off.
2. medical facilities improved - medical tourism.
Q. What could be done in the field of disaster management in our country?
1. awareness.
2. rule of law.
3. monitoring.
Q. Okay, so what is the difference in leadership at the time of disaster and normal time?
1. priority becomes time, not preciseness.
2. less discussions, more action oriented.
Q. Shouldn't we do something about the sensationalising of news... What is PCI doing about it?
1. why sensationalism - trp ratings, no accountability, personal motives.
2. losses because of sensationalism - privacy issues, personal loss.
3. self regulation not possible. committee - decide guidelines and oversee them. govt cant be entrusted this job.
Q. media affecting govt policymaking?difference between media activism and overreach?
1. good if done in public interest. bad if done in personal interest. committee - draft guidelines and oversee.
2. privacy violation is overreach. personal interest work too overreach.
Q. Shouldn't India also abolish the civil services?
1. many specialized posts which need specialists but civil servants made head. he works like a general administrator.
2. reforms needed, not abolition.

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Q. What problems do civil servants have to face?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Lack of resources.
Too much work.
Lack of autonomy and political and superior interference.
performance management not good.
focus on procedures, not outcomes.

Q. reasons for loss of sensitivity.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

division in bureaucracy. - clear guidelines... performance based postings, promotions. autonomy and accountability. example of new zealand.
overburdened - monitoring suffers. solution: IT solutions needed. e-gram.
if u don't get desired posting.
performance based incentives not there.
someone else takes the credit.

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The nata is a practice of establishing a second alliance, when a male partner dies in marriage or deserts a woman or when a couple separate due to conflict. A woman enters into nata with
another man, but a man who enters into nata has to pay a jhagda (stipulated sum of money) to the womans father/ fatherin
law or to the womans husband. It is common to come across cases where women have been sent into nata forcibly for jhagda. This practice has
become increasingly exploitative due to the financial gains involved, thus weakening a
womans position, the custom that once provided sexual freedom and choice to women has today become a means of extreme exploitation of women. The nata tradition is practised among
SC, ST, other backward castes (OBCs).

Misc
Created: 11/12/2012 8:47 AM
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marathon
International Affairs
Q. Do you think India is a soft state?
1. No. I don't agree with the concept of a soft state. Every state today defends its national interests and if it doesn't defend one, its because a larger priority is at stake. For example, we
may not have destroyed terrorist camps in Pakistan, why? Because we perhaps don't have the capability of doing it without risking a war with Pakistan and preventing that war would
be a bigger national interest priority for us because the results of any war with Pakistan would be terrible for us. The concept of a soft state is coined by hardliners. In cool headed
diplomacy, it has no place.
Q. So you are saying that we should accept terrorism and any such misadventure on part of Pakistan?
1. No, we should focus on strategies for which we have capabilities to execute. For instance, terrorist violence in Kashmir is on decline because Army has now teamed up with J&K
police and carries out intel based operations. This has proven to be very effective.
Q. Pakistan is falling apart what should we be doing? In the economic context our neighbors are benefiting from our growth why not pakistan benefiting ?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

great danger.
Direct intervention will only make things more difficult. So indirect help - through US, S Arabia.
Must also keep Afghanistan strong.
Keep border defense strong.
give a serious thought about nuclear weapons - contingency plan.

Q. Taliban Talks... Is it good or Bad for India.. India future Role in Afghanistan.
1. we should be realistic
2. lay down arms, come in mainstream democratic activity. india should encourage this.
3. Persuade US - taliban doesn't turn against India.
Q. How will you solve Kashmir issue with Pakistan?
1. win heart of people - restore peace, check infiltration, strengthen local institutions, checks on military.
Q. dialogue with pakistan - but nothing has been achieved dialogue thing since last 60 years?
1. Nothing has been achieved from wars either.
Q. Status of Iran's nuclear problem and current talks issue.
1. Interim arrangement reached few months back where Iran agreed to halt its nuclear facilities and centrifuges in return for partial lifting of sanctions. It also agreed for a 5% limit on
nuclear enrichment.
2. Next round of talks going on and the main issue would be how far away to keep Iran from developing the nuclear weapons. America wants more than one year but how much more is
not specified. For this to happen, Iran should have no more than 5000 centrifuges and that too 1st generation. Then there is a question of delivery mechanism.
Q. What is your opinion about Iran's stand in future?
1. Iran as of now is promising full transparency but there is no official word on how many centrifuges to keep.
Q. Situation in Iraq.
1. Sunni minority has lost the power after Saddam Hussein. Prez is Shia, VP was Sunni - fled to Kurd areas. Now elections held on 30 April, result not announced.
Q. arabless spring
Q. egypt
1. Mursi was ousted, El Sisi is new dictator. He is running for president.
2. Violence, thousands of brotherhood supporters killed, brotherhood banned. Recently a court ordered hanging of over 600 supporters.
Q. Why India-Us relations was very good during Bush Administration, but has cooled down during Obama administration?
M2: What are your views about current state of foreign affairs of India?

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1.
2.
3.
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Sri Lanka - UNHRC voting.


Bangladesh - Land pact, Teesta sharing, exchange of persons. not allow land to be used for attacks in india.
Pakistan - LoC violations, limbo, internal terrorism and talks.
China - Despang violation, border pact. We will have to take a larger view.
Maldives - Gayoom's brother won, toured India. Rebuilding.
Afghanistan - status of talks, 2014 withdrawal.
Japan - good, making overtures.

Protests in Bahrain
Q. Major Shia and Sunni countries in the middle east
1. Sunni: Egypt, UAE, Qatar, S Arabia, Oman, Turkey, Jordan, Bahrain (Sunni govt, shia majority), Yemen.
2. Shia: Iran, Iraq, Syria (govt)
3. Lebanon has mixed (23% sunni, 33% shia), 45% Christians. Head of govt and military and central bank is Christian, Vice president is Muslim.
- Any international effort towards taping fusion energy?
- what is cold fusion?
ITER (originally an acronym of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Latin for "the way" or "the road") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering project,
which is currently building the world's largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor adjacent to the Cadarache facility in the south of France. A tokamak is a device using a magnetic
field to confine a plasma in the shape of a torus.

30 May
- Indian arrival day celebrated in Trinidad and Tobago as the 1st ship Fatah - al - Razzak arrived there carrying Indians.
- Treaty of Paris in 1814 was signed after Battle of Leipzig and exiling Napoleon to Elba.
- Tiananmen square protests began.

Football and Sports


history of football in india
The period from 1951 to 1962 is considered the golden era in Indian football. Under the tutelage of legendary Syed Abdul Rahim[3] India became the best team in Asia. The Indian team
started the 1950s with their triumph in the 1951 Asian Games which they hosted[4] Later next year they went on to participate in the 1952 Olympics, but lost 101 to Yugoslavia. Like
before four years earlier, many of the team played without boots.[5] After the result the AIFF immediately made it mandatory to wear boots.[6] India then went on to finish second in the
1954 Asian Games held in Manila.[7] At the 1956 Olympic Games they finished fourth, which is regarded as one of finest achievements in Indian football. India first met hosts Australia,
winning 42 with Neville D'Souza becoming the first Asian to score a hat trick in the Olympics and also making India the first Asian team to reach the Olympic semi-finals. They lost 41 to
Yugoslavia, and lost the third place play-off match 30 to Bulgaria.[8]
Then in 1962 India went on to win the 1962 Asian Games where they beat South Korea 21 in the final.[9]
Then in 1964 India played in its most memorable tournament yet. The 1964 AFC Asian Cup where they finished as runners-up thanks to then-current manager Harry Wright. India won their
first match against South Korea 20, then lost 20 to the hosts Israel then won 31 against Hong Kong which gave India second in the tournament.[10]

dismal condition of football in india


ndia's current top domestic league, I-League, was formed in 2007 in an attempt to professionalize domestic football.[4] Also contested is Santosh Trophy, a knock-out competition between
states (provinces) and government institutions. The current captain of the Indian national team is Sunil Chhetri and the team is coached by Wim Koevermans. India is currently ranked 154th
in the FIFA World Rankings
The origin of football in India can be traced back to mid-nineteenth century when the game was introduced by British soldiers. Initially, games were played between army teams. However,
clubs were soon set up around the country. Several football clubs like Calcutta FC, Sovabazar, Mohun Bagan and Aryan Club were established in Calcutta around the 1890s. Calcutta, then
capital of British India, soon became the hub of Indian football.
Subrata pal is the current goalkeeper.
steps for betterment of game
football world cup and prediction of strong contenders
origin of football
Football (as well as rugby and soccer) are believed to have descended from the ancient Greek game of harpaston. Harpaston is mentioned frequently in classical literature, where it is
often referred to as a very rough and brutal game. The rules of this ancient sport were quite simple: Points were awarded when a player would cross a goal line by either kicking the ball,
running with it across the goal line, or throwing it across the line to another player. The other teams objective was simply to stop them by any means possible. There was no specific field
length, no side line boundaries, no specified number of players per team, only a glaring lack of rules. Most modern versions of football are believed to have originated from England in the
twelfth century. The game became so popular in England that the kings of that time (Henry II and Henry IV) actually banned football. They believed that football was taking away interest
from the traditional sports of England, such as fencing and archery. Football didnt really begin to take on any consistency of rules and boundaries until it was picked up as a sport in the
seven major public schools of England in the early 1800s. Six of the seven schools were largely playing the same game (including Eton, Harrow and Winchester) - while the seventh,
Rugby School (founded in 1567) was playing a markedly different version of football.
The other schools moved ahead refining their rules and eventually their game became known as "association football" or soccer, which was played back then much as it is today.
Law 2 of the game specifies that the ball is an air-filled sphere with a circumference of 6870 cm (2728 in), a weight of 410450 g (1416 oz), inflated to a pressure of 0.6 to 1.1
atmospheres (60111 kPa or 8.716.1 psi) "at sea level", and covered in leather or "other suitable material"
there is a ban imposed on barcelona in transfer market due to Neymar's transfer saga
Barcelona has openly reported the transfer fee to be 57.1 million. Of that amount, 17.1 million went to Santos and the other 40 million was paid to the Neymar & Neymar company,
jointly owned by the player and his father.

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2. Whether genetics, lifestyle and food habits contribute to the dire strait of football in SE Asia. Compare that to warn torn countries like Iraq and Afghanistan who are still better than us,
even with minimal infra.
4. Sportspersons as administrators - feasibility, pros and cons.
Still FIFA is very reluctant to use technology in football....reason for their resistance??
What you can do to improve India's image in football on the world map given that you have budget constraint??
What do you think a T-20 type innovation will work in other games also?
FIFA World Cup 2014
12 June - 13 July.
1st game: Brazil vs Croatia.
Most difficult group: Group D (England, Italy, Uruguay)
Favorite team: Brazil (Brazil, Croatia, Mexico, Cameroon)
Brazil have lifted the coveted Trophy on a record five occasions (1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002)
Striker Neymar is already being hailed as a man capable of playing a key role for the five-time world champions come Brazil 2014. Currently among the supporting cast in attack is the
youngsters former Santos team-mate Robinho, while Barcelonas Dani Alves is a lung-bursting presence on the flank. Between the sticks, veteran goalkeeper Julio Cesar exudes
confidence and security to the rest of the backline.
Coach: Luiz Felipe Scolari
Spain > Germany > Portugal > Brazil in FIFA rankings.
The overall dimensions of a regulation soccer field is 100 yards long and 60 yards wide
The adult soccer goal is 24 feet wide by 8 feet high.
Since the advent of the World Cup in 1930, two trophies have represented victory: the Jules Rimet Trophy from 1930 to 1970, and the FIFA World Cup Trophy from 1974 to the present
day. In 1970, Brazil's third victory in the tournament entitled them to keep the trophy permanently. However, the trophy was stolen in 1983, and has never been recovered, apparently melted
down by the thieves. This new trophy is not awarded to the winning nation permanently. World Cup winners retain the trophy until the next tournament and are awarded a gold-plated replica
rather than the solid gold original.

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Crimean Crises and India

1. The Crimean crisis has clearly presented India with a dilemma. On the one hand, Indian commentators are mindful of New Delhi's longstanding ties with Moscow, which manifest
themselves primarily in defence sales and cooperation in international organisations. While the defence ties have come under strain, positive sentiments based on Russia's willingness
to support India in less promising times still find resonance.
2. There is also an implicit understanding about realms of influence among great powers, which India finds relevant in its own neighbourhood, given its concerns about Chinese
involvement in Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.
3. The Indian leadership is also wary of China being the prime beneficiary of the deteriorating relationship between Russia, on the one hand, and Europe and the US, on the other.
********************************

History of Agrawals in Rajasthan


legendary Kshatriya king Agrasena of the Sun Dynasty who adopted Vanika dharma for the benefit of his people.[1][2] Literally, Agrawal means the people of Agroha, near Hisar in Haryana
region said to be founded by Agrasena
Many Agrawals migrated to Rajasthan. They form large fraction of the merchant population of Shekhawati region. Along with Maheshwari, Khandelwal and Oswals, they form the Marwari
bania community.
n 15th century, many Agrawals migrated to Amber kingdom (now Jaipur).
During modern times, many Agrawals were involved in the Indian Independence struggle like Lala Lajpat Rai. T
17.5 gotras..
Important Events of 1984
2 April - Squadron Leader Rakesh Sharma is launched into space, aboard the Soyuz T-11.
13 April - India launches Operation Meghdoot, as most of the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir comes under Indian control.
5 June - The Indian government begins Operation Blue Star.
3 December - Bhopal disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from a Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, kills more than 2,000 people outright and injures anywhere
from 15,000 to 22,000 others (some 6,000 of whom later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
Overview of Saint Anselm's
It is run by the Gyan Deep Education Society. The school was founded by Rev. Fr. Raymond Coelho.
St. Anselm came from a noble Lombard family and was born in Aosta in the Italian Alps.
he was made Archbishop of Canterbury in the hope that he would be able to cope with the encroachments of King William
In 1987 the Diocese of Ajmer-Jaipur wanted to start a similar school in the capital city Jaipur. For this they appointed Fr. Raymond Coelho, an educationist who had experience of running
educational institutions. He founded St. Anselm's Pink City School with some teachers and employees he had recruited. The founder principal toiled for 13 years to make St. Anselm's Pink

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City School what it is today.


Dumb Charades
On the nose' (ie someone has made Point at your nose with one hand, while pointing at the person with your other hand.
a correct guess):
'Sounds like':

Cup one hand behind an ear.

'Longer version of':

Pretend to stretch a piece of elastic.

'Shorter version of':

Do a 'karate chop' with your hand.

'Plural':

Link your little fingers.

'Past tense':

Wave your hand over your shoulder towards your back.

A letter of the alphabet:

Move your hand in a chopping motion towards your arm (near the top of your forearm if the letter is near the beginning of the alphabet, and near the
bottom of your arm if the letter is near the end of the alphabet).

Charades Signals
STANDARD SIGNALS
PERSON: Stand with hands on hips.
BOOK TITLE: Unfold your hands as if they were a book.
MOVIE TITLE: Pretend to crank an old-fashioned movie camera.
SONG TITLE: Pretend to sing.
TV SHOW: Draw a rectangle to outline a TV screen.
QUOTE OR PHRASE: Make quotation marks in the air with your fingers.
PLAY TITLE: Place both hands out, palms facing the audience and touching at the thumbs, and draw them apart like a theater curtain.
POEM: The player pretends to hold a paper and pretends to read the poem.
LOCATION: Make a circle with one hand, then point to it, as if pointing to a dot on a map.
EVENT: Point to your wrist as if you were wearing a watch.
COMPUTER GAME: Using both hands move your thumbs like you are using a game pad.
WEBSITE: Hold one hand out, palm down, horizontal to the ground, as if holding a computer mouse. Make a sweeping motion side to side, then stop and tap index finger as if clicking.
TO INDICATE OTHER CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORD OR PHRASE:
NUMBER OF WORDS IN THE CHARADE: Hold up the corresponding number of fingers.
WHICH WORD YOU ARE WORKING ON: Hold up the number of fingers again.
NUMBER OF SYLLABLES IN THE WORD: Lay the number of fingers on your arm.
WHICH SYLLABLE YOU ARE ON: Lay the number of fingers on your arm again.
LENGTH OF WORD: Make a little or big sign as if you were measuring a fish.
SOMEONE HAS GUESSED PART OF THE CHARADE CORRECTLY: Point at your nose with one hand, while pointing at the person with your other hand.
SOUNDS LIKE OR RHYMES WITH: Cup one hand behind an ear, or pull on your earlobe.
LONGER VERSION OF: Pretend to stretch a piece of elastic.
SHORTER VERSION OF: Do a karate chop with your hand.
PLURAL: Link your little fingers.
PAST TENSE: Wave your hand over your shoulder toward your back.
OPPOSITE: Form each hand into a hitchhikers thumb signal and point them in opposite directions.
THE ENTIRE CONCEPT: Sweep your arms through the air making big brackets.

A LETTER OF THE ALPHABET: Move your hand in a chopping motion toward your arm (near the top of your forearm if the letter is near the beginning of the alphabet, and near the bottom of your arm i
A COLOR: Point to your tongue, then point to an object of the color youre trying to convey. If no objects are available, then pantomime an object that typically possesses the color in question.
CLOSE, KEEP GUESSING! Frantically wave your hands about to keep the guesses coming, or pretend to fan yourself, as if to say getting hotter.
STOP! WORK ON SOMETHING ELSE: Hold both arms out in front of you, palms of your hands waving, facing your teammates, while simultaneously shaking your head, eyes closed.
COMMON SMALLER WORDS:
A steeple index fingers together.
I point at your eye, or your chest.
THE make a T sign with your index fingers.
THAT make a T with your index fingers, followed by one flattened hand tapping your head for hat. Following this with the opposite sign indicates the word This.
OR pretend to paddle a canoe.
ON make your index finger leap on to the palm of your other hand. Reverse this gesture to
indicate Off.

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Movie Editing
What is the difference between a feature film and a commercial film?
What is the difference between commercial cinema and art cinema?
- Edwin Stanton Porter started movie editing. Life of an American Fireman in 1903 was the first edited film. The film was a breakthrough having a plot, action, and even a closeup of a hand
pulling a fire alarm. The film comprises a continuous narrative over seven scenes, rendered in a total of nine shots.
- Porter continued to experiment with cinematic techniques in other films. The The Great Train Robbery was ground-breaking and is still shown in film schools today as an example of early
editing form.
- Porter discovered important aspects of motion picture language: that the screen image does not need to show a complete person from head to toe and that splicing together two shots
creates in the viewer's mind a contextual relationship. These were the key discoveries that made all non-live or non live-on-videotape narrative motion pictures and television possiblethat
shots (in this case whole scenes since each shot is a complete scene) can be photographed at widely different locations over a period of time (hours, days or even months) and combined
into a narrative whole.[3]
- Sometime around 1918, Russian director Lev Kuleshov did an experiment that proves this point. (See Kuleshov Experiment) He took an old film clip of a head shot of a noted Russian actor
and intercut the shot with a shot of a bowl of soup, then with a child playing with a teddy bear, then with a shot an elderly woman in a casket. When he showed the film to people they
praised the actor's actingthe hunger in his face when he saw the soup, the delight in the child, and the grief when looking at the dead woman.[4] Of course, the shot of the actor was years
before the other shots and he never "saw" any of the items. The implication is that viewers brought their own emotional reactions to this sequence of images, and then moreover attributed
those reactions to the actor, investing his impassive face with their own feelings.
- editor's cut, then director's cut and then final cut.
- A montage editing consists of a series of short shots that are edited into a sequence to condense narrative. It is usually used to advance the story as a whole (often to suggest the
passage of time), rather than to create symbolic meaning. I
- An ellipsis is an apparent break in natural time continuity as it is implied in the film's story.
- Diegetic sound is that which is to have actually occurred within the story during the action being viewed.
- Match on action technique can preserve temporal continuity where there is a uniform, unrepeated physical motion or change within a passage. For example, a shot of someone tossing a
ball can be edited to show two different views, while maintaining temporal continuity by being sure that the second shot shows the arm of the subject in the same stage of its motion as it
was left when cutting from the first shot.

The establishing shot is one that provides a view of all the space in which the action is occurring. Its theory is that it is difficult for a viewer to become disoriented when all the story space is
presented before him. The establishing shot can be used at any time as a reestablishing shot. This might be necessary when a complex sequence of cuts may have served to disorient the
viewer.
- One way of preventing viewer disorientation in editing is to adhere to the 180 degree rule. The rule prevents the camera from crossing the imaginary line connecting the subjects of the
shot. Another method is the eyeline match. When shooting a human subject, he or she can look towards the next subject to be cut to, thereby using the former's self as a reference for the
viewer to use while locating the new subject within the set.
Overview of Jogging
Jogging is defined as going at a pace of less than 6 mph, while running is defined as anything faster than 6 mph.
When you run at a faster pace, your feet spend less time touching the ground as you move forward. This slight difference means that your muscles are activated differently. According to a
study published in the October 2005 issue of the "Journal of Sports Sciences," your pace affects the activation of the muscles in your glutes, hamstrings, quadriceps, shins and calves. The
study notes that the faster you move, the more your muscles are activated. The difference in muscle activation is obvious when you compare the physiques of long-distance runners with that
of sprinters. Long-distance runners tend to look thin and underdeveloped, whereas sprinters have more muscular physiques.
high-intensity exercises such as sprinting burn a much more significant amount of total body mass and fat mass than slower, steady-state exercise such as jogging.
Another benefit to more intensive exercise is that it produces an exercise after-burn or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. The more your body works beyond its comfort zone, as it
does during intense exercise such as fast running, the more it depletes its oxygen reserves. Your body then has to work hard, even after you stop exercising, to restore your oxygen levels.
This effort requires energy and leads to continued calorie burn up to 48-hours after youve stopped exercising.
Aqua jogging is an excellent alternative exercise for runners who are injured or who want to reduce the amount of pounding that accompanies running on dry land.
Brisk walking can be defined as walking at a pace of about 4 mph while moving your arms energetically,
slow walking takes place at 3 mph with relaxed arms; race walking takes place at 5 mph with quick steps and arms bent to 90 degrees
It's a myth that jogging burns more calories than running. Some people attribute a higher caloric burn to jogging because it's often easier to spend more time jogging than running.
Running on a treadmill is easier on the body than jogging outside. This is mainly due to the treadmills constant running surface and environment. When jogging outside, external factors like
terrain and wind resistance increase the effort required to run the same distance on a treadmill.
Increase the incline on the treadmill by 1 degree to adjust for the lack of wind resistance. The moving belt on a treadmill promotes faster foot movement, which allows you to run faster than
you normally would outdoors. Also, running on a treadmill has less impact on the joints because you land with flatter foot placement on a treadmill than when jogging outdoors.
Though jogging and running are not inherently harmful, running on hard surfaces such as concrete can cause joint pain and soreness. Prevention recommends running on softer surfaces
such as gravel or dirt, noting that running on the asphalt on the road is more forgiving than the concrete of the sidewalk. If you feel sore when running downhill, where gravity makes the
impact especially strong, run uphill and then walk downhill or avoid hills altogether.
A 150-pound person running 1 mile in 10 minutes on a flat surface will burn approximately 111 calories. By comparison, the same person walking 1 mile in 15 minutes on a flat surface will
burn 93 calories. However, adding a 5 percent incline to this walking exercise bumps the calories burned to 128. The same walk performed at a 15 percent incline will burn 219 calories.
Interestingly, running speed only slightly affects calories burned, so if you are running and trying to burn more calories, running a longer distance is more important than running faster.

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One of the main differences between walking and jogging is that the calories burned while walking depend upon speed as well as distance. By comparison, the calories burned while running
aren't as affected by speed.
Chafing is caused when your skin is constantly rubbing against material during a run. Common areas that are susceptible to chafing are the inner things, sports bra lines, and nipples (men).
But its easy to avoid if you don't wear cotton during runs and use a lubricant like BodyGlide on sensitive areas.

cholars believe the story of Pheidippides may be a myth (if the Athenians wanted to send an urgent message to Athens, there was no reason why they could not have sent a messenger on
horseback), yet the myth had legs (no pun intended) and was the genesis of the modern marathon. It was the first running of the marathon (26 miles 385 yard) in the modern Olympic Games
of 1896 in Athens that commemorated Pheidippides' historic run.
in the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany, shattered Hitler's dream of proving the superiority of the Aryan race by winning gold medals in the 100-meter dash, 200-meter dash, and the 400meter relay.
According to the laws of physics, you should burn the same number of calories whether you walk or run the same distance.
But there is a slight difference in energy expenditure (calories burned) between the two; outdoor running burns slightly more calories than treadmill running at the same speed due to lack of
air resistance on the treadmill. Researchers studying this phenomenon found that setting the treadmill at 1% elevation equals things out.
Jogging is also distinguished from running by having a wider lateral spacing of foot strikes, creating side-to-side movement that likely adds stability at slower speeds or when coordination is
lacking
In 1593 William Shakespeare wrote in Taming of the Shrew, "you may be jogging whiles your boots are green". At that point, it usually meant to leave
Richard Jefferies, an English naturalist, wrote of "joggers", describing them as quickly moving people who brushed others aside as they passed.[4] The term jog originated in England in the
mid-16th century.[5] This usage became common throughout the British Empire, and in his 1884 novel My Run Home the Australian author Rolf Boldrewood wrote "your bedroom curtains
were still drawn as I passed on my morning jog".
In the United States jogging was called "roadwork" when athletes in training, such as boxers, customarily ran several miles each day as part of their conditioning.[citation needed] In New
Zealand during the 1960s or 1970s the word "roadwork" was mostly supplanted by the word "jogging", promoted by coach Arthur Lydiard, who is credited with popularizing jogging.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process
What is generally called aerobic exercise might be better termed "solely aerobic", because it is designed to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that
all carbohydrate is aerobically turned into energy.
Initially during increased exertion, muscle glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, which undergoes glycolysis producing pyruvate which then reacts with oxygen (Krebs cycle,
Chemiosmosis) to produce carbon dioxide and water and releases energy. If there is a shortage of oxygen (anaerobic exercise, explosive movements), carbohydrate is consumed more
rapidly because the pyruvate ferments into lactate. If the intensity of the exercise exceeds the rate with which the cardiovascular system can supply muscles with oxygen, it results in
buildup of lactate and quickly makes it impossible to continue the exercise. Unpleasant effects of lactate buildup initially include the burning sensation in the muscles, and may eventually
include nausea and even vomiting if the exercise is continued without allowing lactate to clear from the bloodstream.
Major muscles in a rested, untrained human typically contain enough energy for about 2 hours of vigorous exercise. Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call
"hitting the wall"
Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise.

Due to high impact nature, running can be more injurious than jogging. Common injuries include "runner's knee" (pain in the knee), shin splints, pulled muscles (especially the hamstring),
"jogger's nipple" (irritation of the nipple due to friction), twisted ankles. Most of the injuries can be prevented if proper form of running or jogging can be practiced. These injuries mainly occur
due to lack of concentration while running and wrong movement of feet.
Treadmills and elliptical trainers are both used for cardiovascular exercise and to burn calories. Elliptical machines are lower impact, meaning that they are less damaging to your joints and
a workout on an elliptical feels less exerting than a similar one on a treadmill. However, ellipticals are not weight bearing so they aren't as effective as treadmills for strengthening bones and
muscles. Treadmills are the preferable choice for those training for distance running, while elliptical trainers are preferred for a full-body workout for cross training.
Elliptical machines offer three advantages over treadmills:
No impact on joints: Treadmills are low impact machines for joints in the lower body -- knees, ankles and hips. The degree of impact depends upon the style of the person exercising.
Walking, for example, has minimal impact while running has a larger impact on the joints. An elliptical machine, on the other hand, has no impact on joints. So it is preferable for people with
joint problems.
Full body workout: Some elliptical trainers are equipped with movable handles or poles. These allow you to exercise both your arms and your legs (lower and upper body).
Elliptical machines can be pedaled in reverse, which allows you to work your calf and hamstring muscles a bit more than during a forward motion.
Ellipticals provide a good workout, but the perceived exertion is lower. This means they can burn more calories with less (perceived) effort.

Why india doesnt win medals in athletics in olympics? 1.2 billion ppl n 1 bhi world class runner nahi apne pass..nainsafi hai ye..
- But, in 1976, the Olympics switched from natural turf to synthetic, which is far more expensive. All the Indian players who practiced on fields and grass patches were learning skills no
longer suited to international competition, and only the communities with the money and will to build a synthetic field could train viable contenders.
The marathon is a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometres. he marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not
become standardized until 1921. The winner of the first Olympic Marathon, on 10 April 1896 (a male-only race), was Spyridon "Spyros" Louis, a Greek water-carrier, in 2 hours 58 minutes
and 50 seconds. The length of an Olympic marathon was not precisely fixed at first, but the marathon races in the first few Olympic Games were about 40 kilometres (25 mi),[28] roughly the
distance from Marathon to Athens by the longer, flatter route
The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya[13] (average speed about 20.01 km/hr). The Olympic women's record is
2:23:07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana of Ethiopia
The modern 42.195 km standard distance for the marathon was set by the International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) in May 1921[31][32][33][34] directly from the length used at the
1908 Summer Olympics in London.

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1 2:03:23 Wilson Kipsang Kenya 29 September 2013 Berlin


1 2:15:25 Paula Radcliffe United Kingdom 13 April 2003 London
Youngest marathoner[edit]
Budhia Singh, a boy from Orissa, India, completed his first marathon at age three. He trained under the coach Biranchi Das, who saw potential in him. In May 2006, Budhia was temporarily
banned from running by the ministers of child welfare, as his life could be at risk. His coach was also arrested for exploiting and being cruel to the child. Budhia is now at a state-run sports
academy.
Oldest marathoner[edit]
Fauja Singh, 100, finished the Toronto Waterfront Marathon, becoming the first centenarian ever to officially complete that distance. Singh, a British citizen, finished the race on 16 October
2011 with a time of 8:11:5.9, making him the oldest marathoner.[63] Because Singh could not produce a birth certificate from rural 1911 Colonial India, the place of his birth, his age could
not be verified and his record was not accepted by the official governing body World Masters Athletics.
Carbohydrates that a person eats are converted by the liver and muscles into glycogen for storage. Glycogen burns rapidly to provide quick energy. Runners can store about 8 MJ or 2,000
kcal worth of glycogen in their bodies, enough for about 30 km/1820 miles of running. Many runners report that running becomes noticeably more difficult at that point.[114] When glycogen
runs low, the body must then obtain energy by burning stored fat, which does not burn as readily. When this happens, the runner will experience dramatic fatigue and is said to "hit the wall".
The aim of training for the marathon, according to many coaches,[115] is to maximize the limited glycogen available so that the fatigue of the "wall" is not as dramatic. This is accomplished
in part by utilizing a higher percentage of energy from burned fat even during the early phase of the race, thus conserving glycogen. Carbohydrate-based "energy gels" are used by runners to
avoid or reduce the effect of "hitting the wall", as they provide easy to digest energy during the run.

Distance for marathon? Kenyan aake jitke jata hai..aisa kyu?


- running is a part of their everyday life. run to schools.
- running offers a great career compared to alternatives. mountain on iten.
Citigroup
- Salomon Brothers --> Salomon Smith Barney --> Travellers Group + Citicorp = Citigroup ($140 bio merger in 1998). Travelers Group, whose businesses covered credit services, consumer
finance, brokerage, and insurance. Salomon was focused on fixed-income and institutional clients whereas Smith Barney was strong in equities and retail.
- Its largest shareholders include funds from the Middle East and Singapore.[10]According to the New York Times, on February 23, 2009, Citigroup announced that the United States
government would take a 36% equity stake in the company by converting US$25 billion in emergency aid into common shares with a US Treasury credit line of $45 billion to prevent the
bankruptcy of the largest bank in the world at the time. The government would also guarantee losses on more than $300 billion troubled assets and inject $20 billion immediately into the
company.
- Michael Corbat is present CEO of Citigroup.
- The Federal Reserve on Wednesday rejected Citigroup Inc's plans to buy back $6.4 billion of shares and boost dividends, saying the bank is not sufficiently prepared to handle a potential
financial crisis. The decision marks the second time in three years that Citigroup has failed to win the Fed's approval for its plan to return money to shareholders, known as the "capital plan.
Salomon Brothers
John Gutfreund became the managing partner in 1978, taking the company public, staying on as CEO. During the 1980s, Salomon was noted for its innovation in the bond market, selling the
first mortgage-backed security, a hitherto obscure species of financial instrument created by Ginnie Mae. Shortly thereafter, Salomon purchased home mortgages from thrifts throughout the
United States and packaged them into mortgage-backed securities, which it sold to local and international investors. Later, it moved away from traditional investment banking (helping
companies raise funds in the capital market and negotiating mergers and acquisitions) to almost exclusively proprietary trading (the buying and selling of stocks, bonds, options, etc. for the
profit of the company). Salomon had expertise in fixed income securities and trading based on daily swings in the bond market.

In 1991, U.S. Treasury Deputy Assistant Secretary Mike Basham learned that Salomon trader Paul Mozer had been submitting false bids in an attempt to purchase more Treasury bonds
than permitted by one buyer during the period between December 1990 and May 1991. Salomon was fined $290 million for this infraction, the largest fine ever levied on an investment bank at
the time. The firm was weakened by the scandal, which led to its acquisition by Travelers Group. CEO Gutfreund left the company in August 1991 and a U.S. Securities and Exchange
Commission (SEC) settlement resulted in a fine of $100,000 and his being barred from serving as a chief executive of a brokerage firm.
In 1991, Salomon was caught in a Treasury securities trading scandal perpetrated by a Meriwether subordinate, Paul Mozer. According to Roger Lowenstein's biography of Warren Buffett (at
page 378), Mozer reportedly told Meriwether he had submitted a "single false bid" and described his effort to cover it up. Meriwether was "stunned" and inquired, "Is there anything else?"
Mozer "lied" and "begged for another chance" according to Lowenstein. Meriwether then "huddled" with Salomon CEO John Gutfreund and Salomon's general counsel. They all agreed the
firm should report it to the Treasury Department but nothing happened for four months as the partners, including Gutfreund, "belabored" issues of who should call whom, what to say, and
when. Mozer was left at his desk and submitted another false bid, this time resulting in an SEC investigation, Gutfreund's resignation, Buffett's intervention, and (although Lowenstein does
not discuss it in this book) Meriwether's $50,000 civil penalty. Meriwether decided to leave Salomon. Three years later he started LTCM, leading to Wall Street's next crisis and Roger
Lowenstein's next book.

History of Hauz Khas


Hauz Khas Complex. In Urdu language, 'Hauz means water tank (or lake) and Khas means royal, giving it the meaning - the Royal tank. The large water tank or reservoir was first built
by Allauddin Khilji (r. 12961316) (the plaque displayed at the site records this fact) to supply water to the inhabitants of Siri Fort.[1]

What is the difference between engineering and technology?


Engineering is both a field of study as well as application of knowledge (scientific) to create or produce something such as products and something structural. If some principles and methods
of a science subject such as Nuclear Physics are used to make a structure such as a Nuclear reactor, the reactor would be called an example of engineering.
While engineering is a field of study, technology is application based upon science and technology.

Use of prime number in coding


A user of RSA creates and then publishes the product of two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary value, as their public key. The prime factors must be kept secret. Anyone can use
the public key to encrypt a message, but with currently published methods, if the public key is large enough, only someone with knowledge of the prime factors can feasibly decode the
message.[1] Whether breaking RSA encryption is as hard as factoring is an open question known as the RSA problem.

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What is phishing?
Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and sometimes, indirectly, money) by masquerading as a trustworthy entity
in an electronic communication. Communications purporting to be from popular social web sites, auction sites, online payment processors or IT administrators are commonly used to lure the
unsuspecting public
In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) or distributed denial-of-service attack (DDoS attack) is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended
users.
he man-in-the-middle attack (often abbreviated MITM, MitM, MIM, MiM, MITMA, also known as a bucket brigade attack, or sometimes Janus attack[citation needed])
incryptography and computer security is a form of active eavesdropping in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making
them believe that they are talking directly to each other over a private connection, when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker. The attacker must be able to intercept all
messages going between the two victims and inject new ones, which is straightforward in many circumstances (for example, an attacker within reception range of an unencrypted WiFi wireless access point, can insert himself as a man-in-the-middle)

The basic protocol for sending data over the Internet network and many other computer networks is the Internet Protocol ("IP"). The header of each IP packet contains, among other things,
the numerical source and destination address of the packet. The source address is normally the address that the packet was sent from. By forging the header so it contains a different
address, an attacker can make it appear that the packet was sent by a different machine. The machine that receives spoofed packets will send a response back to the forged source
address, which means that this technique is mainly used when the attacker does not care about the response or the attacker has some way of guessing the response.
IP spoofing is most frequently used in denial-of-service attacks. In such attacks, the goal is to flood the victim with overwhelming amounts of traffic, and the attacker does not care about
receiving responses to the attack packets. Packets with spoofed addresses are thus suitable for such attacks. They have additional advantages for this purposethey are more difficult to
filter since each spoofed packet appears to come from a different address, and they hide the true source of the attack.

Do you support the open source movement? If yes, what will be the incetive for a person to develop software?
- personal need
- career development
- selling complimentary products
Community Sharing and Improvement: The online community is an environment that promotes continual improvements, modifications, and contributions to each other's work. A programmer
can easily benefit from open source software because by making it public, other testers and subprograms can remove bugs, tailor code to other purposes, and find problems. This kind of
peer editing feature of open source software promotes better programs and a higher standard of code
Recognition: Though a project may not be associated with a specific individual, the contributors are often recognized and marked on a project's server. This allows for programmers to receive
public recognition for their skills, promoting career opportunities and exposure. In fact, the founders of Sun and Netscape began as open source programmers
What is a router? Is a router a must to share internet connections between two computers?
A router is a device that forwards data packets between computer networks, creating an overlay internetwork. A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When
a data packet comes in one of the lines, the router reads the address information in the packet to determine its ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing
policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet.

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