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Dubai, 16th 20th November 2014

Course Code: MGI-TA-001

Cisco Networking Bootcamp


for Broadcast Engineers

Slides Book #1

Jim White | jim.white@mgi.tv | www.mgi.tv

Getting on the Wifi

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SSID MGI Training


Password training2014
Connect Phone/Laptop
Put both on silent
Answer work mails during breaks
Take Calls outside

Basic Housekeeping

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Exits / Safety
Parking
Mobile Phones
Attendance
Access to Building
What to bring each day
If unable to attend
Questions / Discussion
Class Shared Area

Bootcamp Daily Routine

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Before 9:00am
9:00am to 11:00am
11:00am
11:30am 12:30pm
12:30pm 1:30pm
1:30pm 4:00pm
4:00pm after

Get organized/Check Mails etc


Concentration Zone / Learning
Short Break
Theory Wrapup / Demo
Lunch Break / Check Mails
Discussions / Practical Exercises
Your Life / Check Mails

Daily Design
Discussions

Broadcast Networking Daily Discussions


Patching Schedule & IP Schema Tips
Creating Configuration Templates
IP Contribution Networking Considerations
Studios/Production Networking
Networking for Post Production, MAM, High End Storage
Networking Transmission/Playout & Headends
Monitoring and Control Networks
Networking Considerations for OTT Services

Daily Product
Discussions

Online walkthrough of Cisco Products


Catalyst 29XX Series
Catalyst 3560/3650/3750-X/3850 Series
Catalyst 4900M/4500-X/4948 Series
Catalyst 4500 Series
Catalyst 6500 Series
Cisco Nexus
Cisco ISR Routers
Cisco ASA Firewalling

Networking Tips for building up your knowledge


Master the basics and the rest is much easier
Hands on practice is best way to learn
Study theory in bite sized chunks (e.g. today CDP)
When your mind starts to bring the technologies together
then you will find enjoyment in the topic.
You dont need books. All you need is a blueprint of what
to learn (available) and an interest.
Routers for a home/work lab are very affordable (consider
shipping in Middle East). ISR 1841 would be a good
purchase for routing.
Lots of free information out there. The biggest expense is
time to learn.

www.mgi.tv

Some general tips when learning about networking


Always ask yourself what is the problem we are trying
to fix when approaching a networking technology..
Dont try to remember everything, but know where to
find it!
Yes we still use the OSI 7 Layer Model to help us
understand things.
Try to group technologies. Sometimes there are
different technologies to solve a similar problem (e.g.
HSRP/VRRP/GLBP all do a similar thing, you would not
implement all 3!).
If you lose interest, stop and go back over the bits that
did interest you. Then go back another day and tackle
the new stuff!
First, learn about something on its own, afterwards in
the context of a real network alongside everything else..
Order kit early on projects for hands on time.
www.mgi.tv

A typical qualified CCNA

Learning about networking

Living in a world of
acronyms! Easy to sink!
Career Path = Sales

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Get your foundations right and you


can build on top of that.
Career Path = Engineer

The good old days when I lived in Cork!

http://cisco.cit.ie/ccna_old2/
This is where I keep all the old CCNA learning resources. There's loads of stuff
here so dont overwhelm yourself, choose a topic you would like to revise.
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Wanna spend money?

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Wanna spend money?

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Know what to study for CCNA!


New in ICND1 Exam

New in ICND2 Exam

Introducing Basic IPv6

Troubleshooting VLAN Connectivity

Understanding IPv6

Understand Spanning Tree Protocol

Configuring IPv6 Routing

Understand and configure Etherchannel

Implementing VLANs and Trunks

Understand Layer 3 Redundancy Protocols

Routing Between VLANs

Troubleshooting IPv4 Network Connectivity

Implementing single area OSPF

Troubleshooting IPv6 Network Connectivity

Managing Traffic Using Access Control Lists (ACLs)

Implementing EIGRP

Implementing Variable-Length Subnet Masks (VLSM)

Troubleshooting EIGRP

Scaling the Network with Network Address Translation


(NAT) and Port Address Translation (PAT)

Implementing EIGRP for IPv6


Multi-area OSPF IPv4 Implementation
Understanding and configuring OSPFv3
Understanding and configuring clients for
SNMP, Syslog, and Netflow

Managing Cisco devices


Understanding and verifying Cisco licensing
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CCNA Exam Blue Print!

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Best books to get

CCNA Routing and Switching Study Guide:


Exams 100-101, 200-101, and 200-120 Paperback October 7, 2013
by Todd Lammle (Author)

ISBN-13: 978-1118749616 ISBN-10: 1118749618 Edition: 1st

CCNA Routing and Switching 200-120 Official Cert Guide Library


Hardcover
June 2, 2013 by Wendell Odom (Author)
ISBN-13: 978-1587143878 ISBN-10: 1587143879 Edition: 1st

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The maze of Cisco Certifications

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Day 1

Networking Fundamentals
OSI Model
IP ARP, MAC Address Flooding & Learning
IP Addressing & Subnetting
TCP/IP Model Recap
Introduction to Cisco IOS & Nexus NXOS

Reference Models

Comparing the OSI and TCP/IP Models

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Protocol Suites

TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication

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Data Encapsulation

Protocol Data Units (PDUs)

Data
Segment
Packet
Frame
Bits

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Moving Data in the Network

Accessing Local Resources

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Purpose of the Physical Layer

The Physical Layer

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Purpose of the Physical Layer

Physical Layer Media

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Purpose of the Physical Layer

Physical Layer Standards


Standard
Organization

ISO 8877: Officially adopted the RJ connectors (e.g., RJ-11, RJ-45)


ISO 11801: Network cabling standard similar to EIA/TIA 568.

TIA-568-C: Telecommunications cabling standards, used by nearly all voice,


video and data networks.
TIA-569-B: Commercial Building Standards for Telecommunications Pathways
and Spaces
TIA-598-C: Fiber optic color coding
TIA-942: Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Data Centers

ANSI

568-C: RJ-45 pinouts. Co-developed with EIA/TIA

ITU-T

G.992: ADSL

IEEE

802.3: Ethernet
802.11: Wireless LAN (WLAN) & Mesh (Wi-Fi certification)
802.15: Bluetooth

ISO

EIA/TIA

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Networking Standards

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Fundamental Principles of Layer 1

Physical Layer Fundamental Principles


Media

Frame Encoding Technique

Signalling Method

UTP
Coaxial
Connectors
NICs
Ports
Interfaces

Manchester Encoding
Non-Return to Zero (NRZ)
techniques
4B/5B codes are used with
Multi-Level Transition Level 3
(MLT-3) signaling
8B/10B
PAM5

Changes in the
electromagnetic field
Intensity of the
electromagnetic field
Phase of the
electromagnetic wave

Single-mode Fiber
Multimode Fiber
Connectors
NICs
Interfaces
Lasers and LEDs
Photoreceptors

Pulses of light
Wavelength multiplexing using
different colors

A pulse equals 1.
No pulse is 0.

Fiber Optic
Cable

Wireless
Media

Access Points
NICs
Radio
Antennae

DSSS (direct-sequence spreadspectrum)


OFDM (orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing)

Radio waves

Copper Cable

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Physical
Components

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Day 1

Networking Fundamentals
OSI Model
IP ARP, MAC Address Flooding & Learning
IP Addressing & Subnetting
TCP & UDP
Introduction to Cisco IOS & Nexus NXOS

ARP

ARP Role in Remote Communication


If the destination IPv4 host is on the local network, the frame will use the
MAC address of this device as the destination MAC address.
If the destination IPv4 host is not on the local network, the source uses
the ARP process to determine a MAC address for the router interface
serving as the gateway.
In the event that the gateway entry is not in the table, an ARP request is
used to retrieve the MAC address associated with the IP address of the
router interface.

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ARP

ARP Tables on Networking Devices

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ARP

ARP Operation

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ARP

Removing Entries from an ARP Table

The ARP cache


timer removes
ARP entries that
have not been
used for a
specified period of
time.
Commands may
also be used to
manually remove
all or some of the
entries in the ARP
table.

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ARP Issues

How ARP Can Create Problems

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ARP Issues

Mitigating ARP Problems

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Accessing Local Resources

Communicating with Device / Same Network

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Accessing Remote Resources

Default Gateway

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Accessing Remote Resources

Communicating Device / Remote Network

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Frame Forwarding

Dynamically Populating a Switch MAC Address Table


A switch must first learn which devices exist on each port
before it can transmit a frame
It builds a table called a MAC address, or content
addressable memory (CAM) table
The mapping device <-> port is stored in the CAM table
The information in the MAC address table I used to send
frames
When a switch receives an incoming frame with a MAC
address that is not found in the CAM table, it floods it to all
ports but the one that received the frame.
Examines Source MAC to learn who is where.
Uses Destination MAC to switch frame to it target.
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Ethernet Frame Attributes

Introduction to the Ethernet Frame

Preamble and Start


Frame Delimiter Fields
Used for
synchronization
between the sending
and receiving devices.

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Length/Type Field
Defines the exact
length of the frame's
data field; describes
which protocol is
implemented.

Data and Pad


Fields
Contains the
encapsulated
data from a
higher layer, an
IPv4 packet.

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Ethernet Frame Attributes

Introduction to the Ethernet Frame (cont.)

Frame Check Sequence Field


Used to detect errors in a frame with cyclic redundancy check (4
bytes); if calculations match at source and receiver, no error
occurred.

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Ethernet MAC

MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal

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Ethernet MAC

MAC Address Representations

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Ethernet MAC

Unicast MAC Address

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Ethernet MAC

Broadcast MAC Address

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Ethernet MAC

Multicast MAC Address

Multicast MAC address is a special


value that begins with 01-00-5E in
hexadecimal
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Range of IPV4 multicast addresses


is 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

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MAC and IP

MAC and IP
MAC Address

This address does not change


Similar to the name of a person
Known as physical address because physically assigned to the host NIC
IP Address
Similar to the address of a person
Based on where the host is actually located
Known as a logical address because assigned logically
Assigned to each host by a network administrator

Both the physical MAC and logical IP addresses are required for a computer
to communicate just like both the name and address of a person are
required to send a letter.
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Ethernet MAC

End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP

IP Packet Encapsulated in an Ethernet Frame

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Switching

Switch MAC Address Table

1. The switch receives a broadcast frame from PC 1 on Port 1.


2. The switch enters the source MAC address and the switch port that received
the frame into the address table.
3. Because the destination address is a broadcast, the switch floods the frame to
all ports, except the port on which it received the frame.
4. The destination device replies to the broadcast with a unicast frame addressed
to PC 1.
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Switching

Switch MAC Address Table (cont.)

5. The switch enters the source MAC address of PC 2 and the port number of
the switch port that received the frame into the address table. The
destination address of the frame and its associated port is found in the
MAC address table.
6. The switch can now forward frames between source and destination
devices without flooding, because it has entries in the address table that
identify the associated ports.
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Day 1

Networking Fundamentals
OSI Model
IP ARP, MAC Address Flooding & Learning
IP Addressing & Subnetting
TCP & UDP
Introduction to Cisco IOS & Nexus NXOS

IPv4 Address Structure

Converting a Binary Address to Decimal

Practice

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IPv4 Address Structure

Converting a Binary Address to Decimal


Practice

Answer = 176

Answer = 255

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IPv4 Address Structure

Converting a Binary Address to Decimal

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IPv4 Address Structure

Converting from Decimal to Binary

168 = ? binary

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IPv4 Address Structure

Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.)

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address


To define the network and host portions of an address, a devices use a
separate 32-bit pattern called a subnet mask

The subnet mask does not actually contain the network or host portion
of an IPv4 address, it just says where to look for these portions in a
given IPv4 address

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

Examining the Prefix Length

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

Examining the Prefix Length

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

IPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Address

10.1.1.0/24

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

First Host and Last Host Addresses

10.1.1.0/24

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IPv4 Subnet Mask

Bitwise AND Operation


1 AND 1 = 1

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1 AND 0 = 0

0 AND 1 = 0

0 AND 0 = 0

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IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host


LAN Interface Properties

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Configuring a Static IPv4 Address

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IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host

Verification

DHCP The preferred method of assigning IPv4 addresses to hosts on


large networks because it reduces the burden on network support staff
and virtually eliminates entry errors.
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IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Unicast Transmission

In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways:
Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast
#1 Unicast the process
of sending a packet from
one host to an individual
host.

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IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Broadcast Transmission

In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways:
Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast.
#2 Broadcast the
process of sending a
packet from one host to
all hosts in the network.
NOTE: Routers do
not forward a
limited broadcast!
Directed broadcast
Destination
172.16.4.255
Hosts within the
172.16.4.0/24 network
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IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

Multicast Transmission

In an IPv4 network, the hosts can communicate one of three different ways:
Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast.
#3 Multicast The process of sending a packet from one host to a selected
group of hosts, possibly in different networks.
Reduces traffic
Reserved for addressing multicast groups 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255.
Link local 224.0.0.0 to 224.0.0.255 (Example: routing information
exchanged by routing protocols)
Globally scoped addresses 224.0.1.0 to 238.255.255.255 (Example:
224.0.1.1 has been reserved for Network Time Protocol)

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Types of IPv4 Address

Public and Private IPv4 Addresses


Private address blocks are:
Hosts that do not require access to the Internet can use private addresses
10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255 (10.0.0.0/8)
172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255 (172.16.0.0/12)
192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255 (192.168.0.0/16)
Shared address space addresses:
Not globally routable
Intended only for use in service provider networks
Address block is 100.64.0.0/10

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Types of IPv4 Address

Special Use IPv4 Addresses


Network and Broadcast addresses within each network the first and last
addresses cannot be assigned to hosts
Loopback address 127.0.0.1 a special address that hosts use to direct
traffic to themselves (addresses 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 are reserved)
Link-Local address 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 (169.254.0.0/16)
addresses can be automatically assigned to the local host
TEST-NET addresses 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255 (192.0.2.0/24) set aside for
teaching and learning purposes, used in documentation and network
examples
Experimental addresses 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.254 are listed as
reserved

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Types of IPv4 Address

Legacy Classful Addressing

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Network Segmentation

Reasons for Subnetting


Subnetting is the process of segmenting a network into multiple smaller
network spaces called subnetworks or subnets.
Large networks must be segmented into smaller subnetworks, creating
smaller groups of devices and services to:
Control traffic by containing broadcast traffic within each subnetwork.
Reduce overall network traffic and improve network performance.
Communication Between Subnets
A router is necessary for devices on different networks and subnets to
communicate.
Each router interface must have an IPv4 host address that belongs to the
network or subnet that the router interface is connected.
Devices on a network and subnet use the router interface attached to
their LAN as their default gateway.

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Basic Subnetting

Borrowing Bits to Create Subnets


Borrowing 1 bit 21 = 2 subnets

Borrowing 1 Bit from the host portion creates 2 subnets with the same subnet mask

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Subnet 0

Subnet 1

Network 192.168.1.0-127/25

Network 192.168.1.128-255/25

Mask: 255.255.255.128

Mask: 255.255.255.128

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Subnets in Use

Subnets in Use
Subnet 0
Network 192.168.1.0-127/25

Subnet 1
Network 192.168.1.128-255/25

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Subnetting Formulas

Calculate number
of subnets

Calculate number
of hosts

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Creating 4 Subnets

Borrowing 2 bits to create 4 subnets. 22 = 4 subnets

Creating 4 Subnets

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Creating Eight Subnets


Borrowing 3 bits to Create 8 Subnets. 23 = 8 subnets

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Creating Eight Subnets (Cont.)

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Subnetting an IPv4 Network

Creating Eight Subnets (Cont.)

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Classful Addressing

Classful Network Addressing

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Classful Addressing

Classful Subnet Masks


Class A

Class B

Class C

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Classful Addressing

Classful Addressing Waste

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CIDR

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

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CIDR

CIDR and Route Summarization

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VLSM

Fixed Length Subnet Masking

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VLSM

Variable Length Subnet Masking

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Day 1

Networking Fundamentals
OSI Model
IP ARP, MAC Address Flooding & Learning
IP Addressing & Subnetting
TCP & UDP
Introduction to Cisco IOS & Nexus NXOS

Introducing TCP and UDP

TCP and UDP Port Addressing

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Introducing TCP and UDP

TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.)

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Introducing TCP and UDP

TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.)


Netstat is used to examine TCP connections that are open
and running on a networked host.

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Introducing TCP and UDP

TCP and UDP Segmentation


The transport layer divides the data into pieces and adds a
header for delivery over the network

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TCP Communication

TCP Server Processes

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TCP Communication

TCP Server Processes (Cont.)

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TCP Communication

TCP Connection, Establishment and Termination

Three-Way Handshake
Establishes that the destination device is present on the network
Verifies that the destination device has an active service and is
accepting requests on the destination port number that the initiating
client intends to use for the session
Informs the destination device that the source client intends to
establish a communication session on that port number

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TCP Communication

TCP Three-Way Handshake Step 1


Step 1: The initiating client requests a client-to-server communication
session with the server

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TCP Communication

TCP Three-Way Handshake Step 2


Step 2: The server acknowledges the client-to-server communication
session and requests a server-to-client communication session.

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TCP Communication

TCP Three-Way Handshake Step 3


Step 3: The initiating client acknowledges the server-to-client
communication session.

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TCP Communication

TCP Session Termination

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Reliability and Flow Control

TCP Reliability Ordered Delivery


Sequence numbers are used to reassemble segments into their original
order.

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Reliability and Flow Control

Acknowledgement and Window Size


The sequence number and acknowledgement number are used together
to confirm receipt.

The window size is the amount of data that a source can transmit
before an acknowledgement must be received.

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Reliability and Flow Control

Window Size and Acknowledgements

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Reliability and Flow Control

TCP Flow Control Congestion Avoidance

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Reliability and Flow Control

TCP Reliability - Acknowledgements

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UDP Communication

UDP Low Overhead vs. Reliability


UDP
Simple protocol that provides the basic transport layer function
Used by applications that can tolerate small loss of data
Used by applications that cannot tolerate delay

Used by

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DNS
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
IP telephony or VoIP
Online games

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UDP Communication

Datagram Reassembly

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UDP Communication

UDP Server and Client Processes


UDP-based
server
applications are
assigned wellknown or
registered port
numbers.
UDP client
process
randomly
selects port
number from
range of
dynamic port
numbers as the
source port.
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TCP or UDP

Applications That Use UDP

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103

Day 1

Networking Fundamentals
OSI Model
IP ARP, MAC Address Flooding & Learning
IP Addressing & Subnetting
TCP & UDP
Introduction to Cisco IOS & Nexus NXOS

Cisco Network Operating Systems..

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Cisco IOS

Location of the Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS stored in Flash

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Non-volatile storage, not lost when power is lost


Can be changed or overwritten as needed
Can be used to store multiple versions of IOS
IOS copied from flash to volatile RAM
Quantity of flash and RAM memory determines
IOS that can be used

106

Accessing a Cisco IOS Device

Console Access Method

Most common methods to access the CLI:


Console (At the start and when you are beside the box or TS)
Telnet or SSH (SSH is best)
AUX port (Routers Only Normally)

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Accessing a Cisco IOS Device

Terminal Emulation Programs

Software available for


connecting to a networking
device:
PuTTY
Tera Term
SecureCRT
HyperTerminal
OS X Terminal

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Navigating the IOS

Cisco IOS Modes of Operation

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Navigating the IOS

Primary Modes

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Navigating the IOS

Global Configuration Mode and Submodes

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Navigating the IOS

Global Configuration Mode and Submodes

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The Command Structure

Context-Sensitive Help

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The Command Structure

Command Syntax Check

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The Command Structure

Hot Keys and Shortcuts


Tab Completes the remainder of a partially typed command or
keyword.
Ctrl-R Redisplays a line.
Ctrl-A Moves to the beginning of the line.
Ctrl-Z Exits the configuration mode and returns to user EXEC.
Down Arrow Allows the user to scroll forward through former
commands.
Up Arrow Allows the user to scroll backward through former
commands.
Ctrl-shift-6 Allows the user to interrupt an IOS process such as ping
or traceroute.
Ctrl-C Exits the current configuration or aborts the current command.

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The Command Structure

IOS Examination Commands

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The Command Structure

The show version Command

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Class Demo

Some basic tasks on Cisco IOS

Lets focus on:

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Creating a network connected via a switch


Setting a name for the switch
Limiting access to the device configuration
Configuring banner messages
Saving the configuration

118

Configuring a Network Operating System

Summary of Cisco IOS Modes

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What is Nexus?

Quiet possibly the most overused product word ever


Ciscos family of DC switching/unified fabric products..
Came to market in 2008.
Has been very successful to date.
Expensive! Big Nexus = Small Irish House in recession.
Lots of new New products introduced in 2014.
Broadcasters tend to focus just on a handful of models.

Nexus

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Nexus Productline

Nexus 9000 Series (ACI, new, SDN spin-in)


Nexus 7000 Series (v popular), 7700 (new)
Nexus 5000 Series (v popular, often under 7K in design, unified ToR)
Nexus 6000 Series (launched in 2013, niche use cases)
Nexus 4000 Series (niche, IBM bladecentre)
Nexus 3000 Series (ultra low latency HFT, HPC)
Nexus 2000 Series (Linecard to parent 5k, now 7k)
Nexus 1000v (hypervisor, ESX, HyperV)
Lots of new Cloud Products (e.g. CSR, 1000v)
Also look at Cisco UCS / V-Blocks
Nexus is a brother of Cisco MDS Storage Switches
Lots of other products in Cisco DC Catalogue (e.g. ASA-CX)

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Some really nice things on the Nexus..


NXOS is a very nice CLI (nice new nifty things)

The ISSU feature


The power of the line cards!
Stateful process restart
Out of band management (MGMT, Console, CMP)

Automation Capabilities (XML etc)


Virtual Device Contexts (VDC) (Carve up box)
Virtual Port Channel (vPC) (Build Multi-Chassis Bundles)
Data Center Bridging (e.g. FCoE)

Field upgradeable
Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV)
Fabricpath / TRILL
Fabric Extender (FEX) Technology is pretty decent

TwinAx cables can save us lots of money!


The way the products all come together is neat

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Some things to watch out for..

No mixing of
F2/M1 line cards
within VDCs? I
dont believe it!

Interesting adaptation of Cisco Logo

Well you need to purchase this license for that feature $$$
Thats not possibly right now but its on the roadmap alright
You cant mix and match line cards with that technology
You need NXOS version Z for that, and that release only works on
Supervisor 2
but they are great front doors for $1500 in all fairness
Make sure you do your research and know what's possible

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123

Nexus 7000/7700 Series


Models (7)
Cisco Nexus 7700 18-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7700 10-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7700 6-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7000 18-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7000 10-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7000 9-Slot Switch
Cisco Nexus 7000 4-Slot Switch

Are ideal for data center access, aggregation, and core deployments
Provide high 1,10, 40, and 100 GE scalability
First switches were 7010/7018, the 7700 are the latest addition

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124

Cisco Nexus 7010 Chassis

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125

Cisco Nexus 7009 Chassis (6500 Sizing)

Supervisor
slots (1-2)
Optional front
doors

Locking
ejector levers

Summary
LEDs
Side-to-side
airflow

Crossbar
Fabric
Modules

I/O Slots
(3-9)
Integrated Cable
24.5H x 17.3 W x 24D (14RU)
Management

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Power Supplies

Fan Tray

126

Internet Grazing (10mins)

These guys are a bit bizarre The video is good if you can survive them..
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUObH7r8ppo
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127

The Nexus 7000 Supervisor Engine!!

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128

Fabric Modules for Backplane Performance

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129

Nexus 7000 Product Evolution example

M2-XL Series Modules


10G/40G/100G modules
M1 Series XL Modules
8 port 10G-XL (80G/slot)
32 port 10G-XL (80G/slot)
48 port 1G-XL (46G/slot)
48 port 1G RJ45-XL (46G/slot)

M1 Series Modules
32 port 10G (80G/slot)
48 port 1G RJ45 (46G/slot)
48 port 1G (46G/slot)

F1 Series I/O Modules


32 port 10G SFP+ (230G/slot)
F2 Series I/O Modules
48 port 10G SFP+ w/L3 (480G/slot)
40 port 10G 10G-T w/L3 (400G/slot)

2009
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2010

2011

2012
130

Nexus 7000 I/O Module Examples/Families

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131

Nexus 7000 Choosing a Module

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132

Cisco Network Operating Systems..

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133

Where NXOS has come from..

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134

Cisco NXOS Highlights

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135

NXOS Architecture

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136

NXOS Kickstart & System Image

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137

Cisco Nexus Licensing Example

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138

NXOS CLI Intro

Exec mode
Read access for show, clear, etc. commands
Configuration mode
i.e. global config
Write access for making configuration changes
Sub-configuration modes
E.g. interface configuration mode
No user mode
No need to enable like in IOS
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139

NX-OS CLI Tab Completion & Help

Similar to IOS, NX-OS has both tab command completion context sensitive
help
Tab completion with tab key or Ctrl-i
Non-ambiguous commands are completed
Ambiguous commands list partial matches
Context sensitive help with ?
Like IOS, Ctrl-V to escape ? to use as a literal character
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140

NX-OS Keyboard Shortcuts


Ctrl-A go to beginning of line
Ctrl-E go to end of line
Ctrl-U delete all characters before cursor
Ctrl-K delete all characters after cursor
Ctrl-W delete previous word
Ctrl-X H display recent command history
Ctrl-O clear terminal screen
Full list in NX-OS Fundamentals Configuration Guide

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141

PWC and Push/POP

Present Working Context (PWC) is your current place in the CLI hierarchy.
(e.g. interface e1/12 mode)
PWC can be verified with where & where detail commands
where helps to prevent misconfigurations
e.g. I meant to make a change on E3/2 but I accidentally made it on
E2/3
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142

PWC and Push/POP

push and pop commands save and recall your PWC


Useful when you need to change to another config mode and then back
e.g. Im under interface port-channel27, I need to go to router ospf 1,
and then back to po27

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143

Configuration Files

Like IOS, NX-OS has two configuration files


Running-configuration
Startup-configuration
Like ASA, all config can be verified as show run all
Useful for showing defaults of QoS, CoPP, etc.
Admin of the default VDC can verify or save all configs at the same time
as
show run vdc-all
copy run start vdc-all
Unlike IOS, NX-OS has no write memory command
cli alias name wr copy running-config startup-config
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144

NXOS Checkpoints & Rollbacks


NX-OS allows creation of config snapshots called checkpoints that can be
re-applied at a later time
e.g. save my well known working config before my maintenance
window starts
Two types of checkpoints in NX-OS System and User
System checkpoints
Created automatically when features or protocols are disabled
e.g. no feature vpc or no router bgp 1
User checkpoints
Created manually with checkpoint name description

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NXOS Checkpoints & Rollbacks

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146

NXOS Checkpoints & Rollbacks

Verifying checkpoints
show checkpoint [summary]
Comparing checkpoints and current running config
show diff rollback-patch running-config checkpoint name
Deleting checkpoints
clear checkpoint database

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147

NXOS Checkpoints & Rollbacks

Rollback is the re-application of a checkpoint


rollback running-config checkpoint name type
Type of rollback determines what to do if there is an error
Atomic rollback only if there are no errors
Best-effort rollback ignoring errors
Stop-at-first-failure abort if an error occurs

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NXOS CLI Intro

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149

NXOS CLI Intro

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150

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

Copper Cabling

UTP Cable

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UTP Cabling

Types of UTP Cable

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153

Fiber Optic Cabling

Fiber Media Cable Design

http://www.thefoa.org/tech/ref/termination/fusion.html

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154

Fiber Optic Cabling

Types of Fiber Media

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155

Fiber Optic Cabling

Network Fiber Connectors

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156

Fiber Optic Cabling

Testing Fiber Cables

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157

Fiber Optic Cabling

Fiber versus Copper

www.mgi.tv

Implementation Issues

Copper Media

Fibre Optic

Bandwidth Supported

10 Mbps 10 Gbps

10 Mbps 100 Gbps

Distance

Relatively short
(1 100 meters)

Relatively High
(1 100,000 meters)

Immunity To EMI And RFI

Low

High
(Completely immune)

Immunity To Electrical Hazards

Low

High
(Completely immune)

Media And Connector Costs

Lowest

Highest

Installation Skills Required

Lowest

Highest

Safety Precautions

Lowest

Highest

158

Data Link Frame

Layer 2 Address

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159

Data Link Frame

Ethernet Frame

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160

Ethernet Operation

LLC and MAC Sublayers


Ethernet
One of the most widely used LAN technologies
Operates in the data link layer and the physical layer
Family of networking technologies that are defined in the IEEE 802.2
and 802.3 standards
Supports data bandwidths of 10, 100, 1000, 10,000, 40,000, and
100,000 Mbps (100 Gbps)
Ethernet Standards
Define Layer 2 protocols and Layer 1 technologies
Two separate sub layers of the data link layer to operate Logical link
control (LLC) and the MAC sublayers

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161

Ethernet Operation

LLC and MAC Sublayers (cont.)

LLC
Handles communication between upper and lower layers.
Takes the network protocol data and adds control information to help deliver the packet to
the destination.
MAC
Constitutes the lower sublayer of the data link layer.
Implemented by hardware, typically in the computer NIC.
Two primary responsibilities:
Data encapsulation
Media access control

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Ethernet Operation

MAC Sublayer

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163

Ethernet Operation

MAC Sublayer (cont.)


Data encapsulation
Frame assembly before transmission and frame disassembly upon
reception of a frame.
MAC layer adds a header and trailer to the network layer PDU.
Provides three primary functions:

Frame delimiting Identifies a group of bits that make up a frame,


synchronization between the transmitting and receiving nodes.
Addressing Each Ethernet header added in the frame contains the
physical address (MAC address) that enables a frame to be delivered to a
destination node.
Error detection Each Ethernet frame contains a trailer with a cyclic
redundancy check (CRC) of the frame contents.

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164

Ethernet Operation

MAC Sublayer (cont.)

MAC
Responsible for the placement of frames on the media and the removal of
frames from the media
Communicates directly with the physical layer
If multiple devices on a single medium attempt to forward data
simultaneously, the data will collide resulting in corrupted, unusable data
Ethernet provides a method for controlling how the nodes share access
through the use a Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) technology

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165

Ethernet Operation

MAC Address: Ethernet Identity


Layer 2 Ethernet MAC address
is a 48-bit binary value
expressed as 12 hexadecimal
digits.
IEEE requires a vendor to
follow these rules:
Must use that vendor's
assigned OUI as the first
3 bytes.
All MAC addresses with
the same OUI must be
assigned a unique value
in the last 3 bytes.

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166

Ethernet Operation

Frame Processing
MAC addresses assigned to workstations, servers, printers, switches, and
routers.
Example MACs:

00-05-9A-3C-78-00
00:05:9A:3C:78:00
0005.9A3C.7800.

When a device is forwarding a message to an Ethernet network, attaches


header information to the packet, contains the source and destination MAC
address.
Each NIC views information to see if the destination MAC address in the
frame matches the devices physical MAC address stored in RAM.
No match, the device discards the frame.
Matches the destination MAC of the frame, the NIC passes the frame up
the OSI layers, where the de-encapsulation process takes place.
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167

Ethernet Frame Attributes

Ethernet Encapsulation

Early versions of Ethernet


were slow at 10 Mb/s.

Comparison of 802.3 and Ethernet II Frame Structures and Field Size

Now operate at 10 Gb/s


per second and faster.
Ethernet frame structure
adds headers and trailers
around the Layer 3 PDU to
encapsulate the message
being sent.
Ethernet II is the Ethernet
frame format used in
TCP/IP networks.

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168

Ethernet Frame Attributes

Ethernet Frame Size


Ethernet II and IEEE 802.3 standards define the minimum frame size as
64 bytes and the maximum as 1518 bytes
Less than 64 bytes in length is considered a "collision fragment" or "runt
frame

If size of a transmitted frame is less than the minimum or greater than


the maximum, the receiving device drops the frame
At the physical layer, different versions of Ethernet vary in their method
for detecting and placing data on the media

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169

Ethernet Frame Attributes

802.1q Ethernet Frame

The figure displays the fields contained in the 802.1Q VLAN tag
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170

Ethernet Frame Attributes

Ethernet Encapsulation

Early versions of Ethernet


were slow at 10 Mb/s.

Comparison of 802.3 and Ethernet II Frame Structures and Field Size

Now operate at 10 Gb/s


per second and faster.
Ethernet frame structure
adds headers and trailers
around the Layer 3 PDU to
encapsulate the message
being sent.
Ethernet II is the Ethernet
frame format used in
TCP/IP networks.

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171

Ethernet Frame Attributes

Ethernet Frame Size

Ethernet II and IEEE 802.3 standards define the minimum frame size as
64 bytes and the maximum as 1518 bytes
Less than 64 bytes in length is considered a "collision fragment" or "runt
frame
If size of a transmitted frame is less than the minimum or greater than
the maximum, the receiving device drops the frame
At the physical layer, different versions of Ethernet vary in their method
for detecting and placing data on the media

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172

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

Switching

Switch MAC Address Table

1. The switch receives a broadcast frame from PC 1 on Port 1.

2. The switch enters the source MAC address and the switch port that received the frame into the
address table.
3. Because the destination address is a broadcast, the switch floods the frame to all ports, except
the port on which it received the frame.

4. The destination device replies to the broadcast with a unicast frame addressed to PC 1.

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174

Switching

Switch MAC Address Table (cont.)

5. The switch enters the source MAC address of PC 2 and the port number of the switch port
that received the frame into the address table. The destination address of the frame and its
associated port is found in the MAC address table.
6. The switch can now forward frames between source and destination devices without
flooding, because it has entries in the address table that identify the associated ports.

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175

Layer 3 Switching

Layer 2 versus Layer 3 Switching

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176

Layer 3 Switching

Cisco Express Forwarding


Cisco devices which support Layer 3 switching utilize Cisco Express
Forwarding (CEF). Two main components of CEF operation are the:
Forwarding Information Base (FIB)
Conceptually it is similar to a routing table.
A networking device uses this lookup table to make destinationbased switching decisions during Cisco Express Forwarding
operation.
Updated when changes occur in the network and contains all routes
known at the time.
Adjacency Tables
Maintain layer 2 next-hop addresses for all FIB entries.

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177

Layer 3 Switching

Types of Layer 3 Interfaces

The major types of Layer 3 interfaces are:


Switch Virtual Interface (SVI) Logical interface on a switch associated
with a virtual local-area network (VLAN).
Routed Port Physical port on a Layer 3 switch configured to act as a
router port. Configure routed ports by putting the interface into Layer 3
mode with the no switchport interface configuration command.
Layer 3 EtherChannel Logical interface on a Cisco device associated
with a bundle of routed ports.

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Layer 3 Switching

Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch

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179

Considerations when selecting a switch


Cost - The cost of a switch will depend on the number and speed of the interfaces,
supported features, and expansion capability.
Port Density - Network switches must support the appropriate number of devices on
the network.
Power - It is now common to power access points, IP phones, and even compact
switches using Power over Ethernet (PoE). In addition to PoE considerations, some
chassis-based switches support redundant power supplies.
Reliability - The switch should provide continuous access to the network

Port Speed - The speed of the network connection is of primary concern to end users.
Frame Buffers - The ability of the switch to store frames is important in a network where
there may be congested ports to servers or other areas of the network.
Scalability - The number of users on a network typically grows over time; therefore, the
switch should provide the opportunity for growth.

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180

Layer 3 Switching

Types of Layer 3 Interfaces

The major types of Layer 3 interfaces are:


Switch Virtual Interface (SVI) Logical interface on a switch associated
with a virtual local-area network (VLAN).
Routed Port Physical port on a Layer 3 switch configured to act as a
router port. Configure routed ports by putting the interface into Layer 3
mode with the no switchport interface configuration command.
Layer 3 EtherChannel Logical interface on a Cisco device associated
with a bundle of routed ports.

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181

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

CDP and Router Boot Up

When a Cisco device boots up, CDP starts up automatically and


allows the device to detect neighbor devices that use CDP.
CDP allows two systems to learn about each other, even if they
use different network layer protocols.

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183

CDP Messages
CDP Messages contain:
Device Identifiers - e.g. the
routers configured host
name and domain name (if
any)
Port Identifier - e.g. Ethernet
0, Ethernet 1, and Serial 0
Capabilities List - e.g. if the
device acts as a source route
bridge as well as a router
Version - information such
as that provided by the local
command show version
Platform - the devices
hardware platform, e.g.
Cisco 1700

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184

Show cdp neighbors

Default values for timers set the frequency for CDP updates and for aging
CDP entries.

These timers are set automatically at 60 seconds and 180 seconds,


respectively.
If the device receives a more recent update or if this hold-time value
expires, the device must discard the CDP entry.
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185

Disabling CDP
In global configuration mode, use the no cdp run
command to disable CDP.
Router(config)# no cdp run

For a specific interface, use the no cdp enable command.


Router(config-if)# no cdp enable

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186

show cdp

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187

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

Overview of VLANs

VLAN Definitions
A VLAN is a logical partition of a Layer 2 network.
Multiple partitions can be created, allowing for multiple VLANs to coexist.
Each VLAN is a broadcast domain, usually with its own IP network.
VLANs are mutually isolated and packets can only pass between them
via a router.
The partitioning of the Layer 2 network takes place inside a Layer 2
device, usually via a switch.
The hosts grouped within a VLAN are unaware of the VLANs
existence.

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Overview of VLANs

VLAN Definitions (cont.)

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190

Overview of VLANs

Benefits of VLANs

www.mgi.tv

Security
Cost reduction
Better performance
Shrink broadcast domains
Improved IT staff efficiency
Simpler project and application management

191

Overview of VLANs

Types of VLANs

www.mgi.tv

Data VLAN
Default VLAN
Native VLAN
Management VLAN

192

Overview of VLANs

Types of VLANs (cont.)

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193

VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

VLAN Trunks

A VLAN trunk carries more than one VLAN.


A VLAN trunk is usually established between switches so same-VLAN
devices can communicate, even if physically connected to different
switches.
A VLAN trunk is not associated to any VLANs; neither is the trunk ports
used to establish the trunk link.
Cisco IOS supports IEEE802.1q, a popular VLAN trunk protocol.

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VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

VLAN Trunks (cont.)

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195

VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

Controlling Broadcast Domains with VLANs


VLANs can be used to limit the reach of broadcast frames.
A VLAN is a broadcast domain of its own.
A broadcast frame sent by a device in a specific VLAN is forwarded
within that VLAN only.
VLANs help control the reach of broadcast frames and their impact in
the network.
Unicast and multicast frames are forwarded within the originating VLAN.

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196

VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification


Frame tagging is the process of adding a VLAN identification header to
the frame.
It is used to properly transmit multiple VLAN frames through a trunk
link.
Switches tag frames to identify the VLAN to that they belong. Different
tagging protocols exist; IEEE 802.1Q is a vey popular example.
The protocol defines the structure of the tagging header added to the
frame.
Switches add VLAN tags to the frames before placing them into trunk
links and remove the tags before forwarding frames through nontrunk
ports.
When properly tagged, the frames can transverse any number of
switches via trunk links and still be forwarded within the correct VLAN at
the destination.
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VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

Tagging Ethernet Frames for VLAN Identification

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198

VLANs in a Multi-Switched Environment

Native VLANs and 802.1Q Tagging


Frames that belong to the native VLAN are not tagged.
Frames received untagged remain untagged and are placed in the
native VLAN when forwarded.
If there are no ports associated to the native VLAN and no other trunk
links, an untagged frame is dropped.
In Cisco switches, the native VLAN is VLAN 1, by default.

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VLAN Assignment

Assigning Ports to VLANs (cont.)

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200

VLAN Assignment

Changing VLAN Port Membership (cont.)

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201

VLAN Assignment

Deleting VLANs

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202

VLAN Assignment

Verifying VLAN Information

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203

VLAN Assignment

Configuring IEEE 802.1q Trunk Links

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204

VLAN Assignment

Verifying Trunk Configuration

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205

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

STP Operation

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Introduction

STP ensures that there is only one logical path between all destinations
on the network by intentionally blocking redundant paths that could
cause a loop.
A port is considered blocked when user data is prevented from
entering or leaving that port. This does not include bridge protocol
data unit (BPDU) frames that are used by STP to prevent loops.
The physical paths still exist to provide redundancy, but these paths
are disabled to prevent the loops from occurring.
If the path is ever needed to compensate for a network cable or switch
failure, STP recalculates the paths and unblocks the necessary ports to
allow the redundant path to become active.

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STP Operation

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Port Roles

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208

STP Operation

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Root Bridge

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209

STP Operation

Spanning Tree Algorithm: Path Cost

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210

STP Operation

802.1D BPDU Frame Format

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211

STP Operation

BPDU Propagation and Process

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212

STP Operation

BPDU Propagation and Process

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STP Operation

Extended System ID

STP was enhanced to include support for VLANs, requiring the VLAN
ID to be included in the BPDU frame through the use of the extended
system ID
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STP Operation

Extended System ID

In the example, the priority of all the switches is 32769. The value is
based on the 32768 default priority and the VLAN 1 assignment
associated with each switch (32768+1).
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Overview

List of Spanning Tree Protocols

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STP or IEEE 802.1D-1998


PVST+
IEEE 802.1D-2004
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) or IEEE 802.1w
Rapid PVST+
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) or IEEE 802.1s

216

PVST+

Overview of PVST+

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PVST+

Port States and PVST+ Operation


STP introduces the five port states:

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218

PVST+

Extended System ID and PVST+ Operation


In a PVST+ environment, the extended switch ID ensures each switch
has a unique BID for each VLAN.
For example, the VLAN 2 default BID would be 32770; priority 32768,
plus the extended system ID of 2.

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Rapid PVST+

Overview of Rapid PVST+


RSTP is the preferred protocol for preventing Layer 2 loops in a
switched network environment.
With Rapid PVST+, an independent instance of RSTP runs for each
VLAN.
RSTP supports a new port type: an alternate port in discarding state.
There are no blocking ports. RSTP defines port states as discarding,
learning, or forwarding.
RSTP (802.1w) supersedes STP (802.1D) while retaining backward
compatibility
RSTP keeps the same BPDU format as IEEE 802.1D, except that the
version field is set to 2 to indicate RSTP, and the flags field uses all 8
bits.

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Rapid PVST+

Overview of Rapid PVST+

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221

Rapid PVST+

RSTP BPDU

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222

Rapid PVST+

Edge Ports

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223

Rapid PVST+

Link Types

The link type can determine whether the port can immediately
transition to forwarding state. Edge port connections and point-topoint connections are candidates for rapid transition to forwarding
state.
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224

PVST+ Configuration

Catalyst 2960 Default Configuration

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225

PVST+ Configuration

Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID

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226

PVST+ Configuration

Configuring and Verifying the Bridge ID

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227

PVST+ Configuration

PortFast and BPDU Guard


When a switch port is
configured with PortFast
that port transitions from
blocking to forwarding
state immediately.

BPDU guard puts the port


in an error-disabled state
on receipt of a BPDU.

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PVST+ Configuration

PVST+ Load Balancing

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229

PVST+ Configuration

PVST+ Load Balancing


Another method to specify the root bridge is to set the spanning tree
priority on each switch to the lowest value so that the switch is
selected as the primary bridge for its associated VLAN.

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230

Rapid PVST+ Configuration

Spanning Tree Mode


Rapid PVST+ is the Cisco
implementation of RSTP. It
supports RSTP on a per-VLAN
basis.

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231

STP Configuration Issues

Analyzing the STP Topology

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232

Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

Spanning-tree operation

With two redundant links spanning-tree will block on one port


to prevent loops

EtherChannel allows spanning-tree to treat the two physical


links as one logical port and thus both ports can operate in full
forwarding mode

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234

Etherchannel Operation

If a physical link in the group goes down the EtherChannel only


loses the bandwidth that link supplied. If the physical link comes
back up it is dynamically added back into the EtherChannel.
Spanning-tree treats the EtherChannel bundle as a single
logical switchport and adjusts the spanning-tree cost to reflect
the increased bandwidth.
The EtherChannel may or may not be configured to trunk
depending on the needed design

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EtherChannel Technology

We aggregate multiple physical Ethernet ports together using a


channel-group command. A single logical interface is created
called a port-channel.
On the Cisco Catalyst switches we can aggregate up to eight
10/100 ports together creating a port-channel with 800 Mbps
bandwidth (literature may indicate 1600 Mbps as the bundle
has full-duplex operation).
If available we can aggregate up to eight gigabit ports
All ports in a bundle must have identical operational status and
configuration.
An important concept is that Ethernet frames are not
fragmented or split apart on EtherChannel an Ethernet frame
is sent out one selected port and traverses the link intact.
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EtherChannel Load Balancing

EtherChannel loads shares (load balances) across all the


physical ports in the EtherChannel group.
The default method of load sharing uses the source MAC in
frames. Frames from different sources are sent out different
ports but all frames from one source will be sent out the same
port.
We can change the default load-balancing via a global command
port-channel load-balance [dst-ip | dst-mac | src-dst-ip | src-dstmac | src-ip | src-mac]

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Channeling Protocols
Catalyst switches can leverage a protocol to dynamically
establish and maintain the EtherChannel bundle.
The channel-group mode command allows you to decide if the
EtherChannel group uses Port aggregation Protocol (PAgP),
Link Aggregation Protocol (LACP), or to simply force the
interface to channel without PAgP or LACP.
Forcing interfaces to channel may create problems if any
interfaces have dissimilar configurations.
Other local link protocols such as DTP, VTP, CDP, and STP still
transmit and receive frames over a port-channel.
STP only sends frames out the first interface in the port-channel
and views the port-channel as a single physical port
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Port Aggregation Protocol (PAgP)


PAgP allows the switches to learn the capabilities of each
interface assigned to an EtherChannel bundle and reliably
activates interfaces of similar configuration to form a portchannel.
PAgP transmits and receives messages on all interfaces in the
EtherChannel bundle and restricts the PAgP traffic to the native
VLAN if the ports are in trunking mode.
LACP is similar in operation to PAgP and standards based while
PAgP is Cisco proprietary.

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Spanning-Tree Costs
Spanning-tree reflects the increased bandwidth provided by
EtherChannel.
The default cost for a 100 Mbps link is 19 and if a port-channel
is created that has only two 100 Mbps links the spanning-tree
cost will be 9.
A port-channel with six or more 100 Mbps physical ports will
have an STP cost of 5.
STP costs for port-channels vary according to how many ports
are assigned to the bundle, not how many are active within the
bundle.

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EtherChannel Configuration

Switch(config)# interface range fa0/1 4 {we can use the range or single interface}
Switch(config-if)# channel-group [1 6] mode [auto | desirable | on | active | passive]
The number of channel groups is platform dependent.
Auto and desirable modes activate PAgP.
Active and passive activate LACP.
Mode on forces the interface to channel without PAgP or LACP.
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EtherChannel Verification

If we wish to view the operation we use the term etherchannel.


Switch# show interface etherchannel

Switch# show etherchannel [summary | load balance | port-channel]

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Day 2

LAN Switching Essentials


Ethernet Basics Recap
Switching Basics Recap
Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP)
VLANs, VLAN Trunking & VTP
Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)
Working with Etherchannels
First Hop Redundancy Protocols

Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

Default Gateway Limitations


If the default gateway
cannot be reached, the
local device is unable to
send packets off the
local network segment.
Even if a redundant
router exists that could
serve as a default
gateway for that
segment, there is no
dynamic method by
which these devices can
determine the address
of a new default
gateway.
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Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

Router Redundancy

Multiple routers are


configured to work
together to present
the illusion of a
single router to the
hosts on the LAN.
The ability of a
network to
dynamically recover
from the failure of a
device acting as a
default gateway is
known as first-hop
redundancy.

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Concept of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

Steps for Router Failover

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Varieties of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

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Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)


HSRP for IPv6
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol version 2 (VRRPv2)
VRRPv3
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP)
GLBP for IPv6
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP)

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Varieties of First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

First-Hop Redundancy Protocols

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FHRP Verification

HSRP Verification

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FHRP Verification

GLBP Verification
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol (GLBP) is a Cisco proprietary solution
to allow automatic selection and simultaneous use of multiple available
gateways in addition to automatic failover between those gateways.

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