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the minor diameter of a screw thread is an imaginary circle of the radius at

the root of a screw thread.

Minor diameter is measured by comparative methods on a floating carriage
micrometer. It is held between 2 supports which allow for wires and Vee
pieces to pass through in order to be able to measure the diameter of the
screw thread.
Pitch measurement
the thread to be measured is held between the supports and the correct
stylus is mounted. the stylus makes contact with the thread. It is important
that pitch measurement is taken on or close to the effective diameter of the
thread. By means of a micrometer, the stylus is moved to the adjacent flank
where a reading for the distance is taken. Once the reading is zeroed another
one can be taken on the next flank.
Pitch error
Pitch error is defined as the difference between different pitches in the same
thread. If the pitch is larger than it is supposed to be the pitch error is 'plus'
and converesely, if it is smaller than the pitch diameter it is 'minus'.
Pitch error includes:
Simple Pitch error
the error in one pitch of the thread
Cumulative pitch error
the total simple pitch errors throughout the thread
Progressive pitch error
Pitch error which adds up throughout the thread
Periodic pitch error
Pitch error which is periodic and varies throughout the thread.
Causes of Progressive errors
Saddle error

Incorrect gear train and lead screw

Non uniform velocity of the tool
Difference in dimensions due to hardening

Causes of Periodic errors

Lead screw error
Error in velocity tool work ratio - Non Uniform.
Eccentric gears
Error in teeth of gears
Measuring the Pitch Diameter
The pitch diameter is defined as being the diameter of an imaginary circle coaxial with the thread where the distance between any two intercepts lieying
between the edges of the flank are half the pitch.
Methods for measuring this diameter include:
Two-Wire Method
Three-Wire Method
Screw-Thread Micrometer
Three-Wire Method
One of the most versatile and accurate methods of measuring threads. This
makes use of three polished and lapped wires placed on the flank of the
The wires placed on the thread are the Best Size Wires. Such wires are used
because the measurement of pitch diameter are least affected by errors that
may be present in the agle of the thread.
Linear Dimension Measurement
Although rather slower and more difficult to read, the Vernier calipers have 3

main advantages over the Micrometer:

*Measurements can be taken directly from a specimen by setting the vernier
calipers at a set length
*Both external and internal measurements can be taken.
*Both measurements in metric and imperial systems can be taken at once.
The vernier calipers tend to be less accurate than the micrometer for the
following reasons:
*The instrument is a bit heavy to handle and so it is difficult to obtain a good
feel while measuring.
*The scale may be difficult to read even when a magnifying glass is used.
The Vernier Scale
The vernier scale provides an accurate system for interpolation. The vernier
scale is marked such that 10 divisions on the vernier scale are fit into the
space of 9 divisions on the main scale. This, therefore, makes each division
on the vernier scale shorter than one on the main scale by 1/10th of a unit.
Digital Electronic Caliper
*Gives a direct reading
*Can have a resolution up to 0.01mm
*Can be easily connected to SPC Statistical Process Control for recording
*No rack, pinion or glass involved.
the micrometer is a measuring instrument used in engineering science and
machining applications.
It basically consists of a rotating barrel, sleeve and spindle.

The precision screw of known thread and pitch rotates to give a linear reading
which can be read from the thimble.
Metric Micrometer
The thimble has a scale that is divided into 50 parts. One revolution of the
thimble corresponds to 0.5mm. the micrometer can therefore read up to
1/50th of 0.5mm.
Vernier Micrometer
Some micrometers have a Vernier scale along with the usual scales. These
provide the ability to measure up to 0.001mm.
Dial Indicator
Measuring spindle is in mesh with the pinion which is The rack is connected
with a gear train which rotates and gives readings on the pointer. Any
movement of the spindle is magnified and transmitted to pointer over
graudated dial.
Operates on the principle that slight changes in pressure are multipled and
magnified in order to be read from the dial indicator.
The dial consists of uniformly graduated and a contact point connected with a
spiral in order to take readings of displacement
Calibration is the operation by which measuring instruments are adjusted to
conform with standards.
Calibration provides accuracy and traceability to the measured data.
Reasons for Calibration
establish accuracy of the instrument

Reading comrresponds to other measurements

Increase traceability of the reading
establish reliability
Validation is the documented proof that the instrument gives the same
accurate result each time it is used. any procedure, proces, equipment,
activity or system actually leads to the expected results.
3 Processes phases for validation:
Installation Qualification
Prodecure Qualification
Performance Qualification
Hierarchy of Traceability
*Primary Standard BIPM
*Secondary Standard
*National Standard
*Working Standard
*Instruments used in the Laboratory
Frequency of Calibration
frequency of use
Manufacturer's recommendation
Cost of calibration
Skill level of personnel using the instrument
Difficulty of calibration Degree of accuracy expected
Conditions of use

Maintaining proper records of calibration is useful in determining in providing
feedback as to whether calibration frequency chosen has been chosen
correctly or not.
Vernier Caliper Calibration
Verniers should be checked for:
*jaws parallelism
*External Measurement
*Instenal Measurement
*Depth Measurement
Jaws Parallelism
Gauge blocks are used. These are put between the jaws of the vernier
calipers at the top, at the middle and at the bottom of the jaws in order to
ensure parallelism of the jaws.
A round reference gauge is also recommended for complete calibration
External Measurement Calibration
Gauge blocks are selected to fit the entire length of the vernier scale.
The gauge blocks are individually cleaned with a cloth.
The Caliper is zeroed with the jaws closed.
Measurements of each block are taken 3 times to ensure repeatability.
Say, a 50mm gauge block is chosen to be measured, take readings at 3
points like for jaws parallelism. Make sure the gauge block is squarely to the
calipers. Each reading is repeated 5 times in order to ensure repeatability.
Internal measurement calibration

Ring gauges of the desired diameter are selected. Preferably, these

correspond or are close to the dimensions of the gauge blocks used.
Each ring gauge is cleaned and the caliper is zeroed after the jaws are closed.
2 measurements are taken, one at the diameter and one out of the diameter.
2 results are noted for the same ring gauge.
The procedure is repeated for all ring gauges.
Depth Measurement Calibration
A gauge block is chosen.
The gauge block as well as the calibration surface are cleaned and the caliper
is zeroed after pushing the jaws together.
The depth of the gauge block is measured by the depth part rod of the
vernier making sure that it is at right angles to the surface.
Calibration of Micrometers
*Zero Setting
*Anvil Flatness and Parallelism
*Correction Error of Measurement
Calibration of Micrometers
For 0-25mm micrometers the spindle is screwed closed so that the anvils
touch. The ratchet can be used to obtain a fine pressure. If the reading on the
micrometer is not zero, it can be easily adjusted from the barrel.
For micrometers which are bigger than 25 mm, the same procedure applies,
however, a gauge block is fitted between the anvils. A special wrench is
usually provided for this procedure.
Anvil Flatness and Parallelism
By using an optical and parallel testing methods, the anvil flatness and

parallelism can be checked.

Error of measurement
Gauge blocks are used for this procedure. They are mounted between the
anvils of the micrometer and are so selected to test the micrometer t various
positions in its thread. This procedure also checks for drunken threads.
Three readings are taken and an average worked out
Micrometer Adjustments
Removing Play:
*Back of spindle.
*Insert C-spanner into slot or hole of adjusting nut.
*Turn adjusting nut until play between threads is eliminated.
Dial Indicator Calibration
Checked using Micrometer fixture or block gauges.
Checking for: Repeatability, Hystereses and ReliabilityAccuracy