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Hungary the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water

pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments

Chapter 3: Hungary
(continued)

3.4 Project Opportunities


Major Environmental Problems
Table 3.7 presents the major environmental issues survey respondents currently face or expect to face in the coming
years. Interestingly, only a few interviewees indicated a specific location, and were able to estimate the expected
duration of the problems. The former may have been caused by an unwillingness to reveal potential areas where
respondents were planning to start activities. The latter suggests that the environmental strategy of the government,
(e.g. allocation of financial resources, regulations, action plans, etc.) is not transparent and does not clearly show the
urgency and level of priorities. This comment was especially common among R&D sector respondents - business
interviewees seemed to have a better knowledge of government priorities and the most urgent problems needing to
be solved.
Category
Problem Description and Expected Duration
Geographic Extent
Air
High emissions from obsolete industrial technologies, 10-20
national
years
SO2 emissions from coal power plants, 10 years
industrial areas,
North-East
Hungary, Middle
Transdanubia
Emissions of solid particles from surface-mining
Borsod and Heves
counties
Dust and particulate emissions from cement plants
Dorog, Beremend
Lack of or obsolete technologies for hospital waste
national
incinerators, 30 years
High emissions of SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds industrial areas
in the energy sector and chemical industry, 10-20 years
Air pollution from transportation: soot, lead, aromatic
national, but mainly
hydrocarbons
Budapest and other
major cities
Lack of and/or low quality road system, improper cleaning
national, major

and maintenance, dust pollution, 30 years


Insufficient legal framework, poor enforcement, 5 years
High number of concentrated pollution sources
Lack of treatment processes for agricultural NH3
Surface and
Quality monitoring system only partially available, 5-10 years
Ground Water Eutrophication in shallow lakes
Infiltration of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, as a
consequence of careless, unprofessional treatment
Hazardous waste dumps, 10-20 years

Potable Water

Municipal
Wastewater

Industrial
Wastewater

Waste

cities
national
national
national
national
Transdanubia
national

national, partly
unexplored
Lack of modern abatement technologies to treat organic
national, southeast
solvent pollution
Hungary
Deep-level mines lowering the groundwater level
Borsod country
Oil pipeline system polluting soil and groundwater
national
Unexplored pollution caused by organic toxic materials
industrial areas
High content of Nitrates (sometimes NH4, Fe, Mn, methane) in differs by region
potable water
Unavailable mapping of the vulnerable water reserves, 10
national, northern
years
karst water reserve
High arsenic content of drinking water
south Hungary
Lack of up-to-date water treatment technologies
national
Poor system maintenance; high proportion of water losses in national
the distribution network
Lack of proper sewerage systems and wastewater treatment
national, especially
plants, 20 years, (government program coordinated by the
Budapest and major
Ministry of Transportation, Communication and Water,
cities
KHVM)
Pollution of sink-holes in private households, 20 years
national
Shortage of available land to dispose of wastewater sludge
national
Underutilization of wastewater treatment plants built in the
national
last 5-10 years
Illegal dumping of wastewater
national
Obsolete treatment technologies
national
Pollution of groundwater or other recipient bodies by
national
industrial wastewater discharges
Insufficient treatment of industrial (chemical industry) and
national
municipal wastewater (partial sewage system), pollution of
water resources
High organic content of industrial wastewater discharge
national
(directed to the sewage plant)
Lack of a proper solution for the disposal of organic waste and national
diluted manure in agriculture (potential pollution for water
resources)
Lack of proper solution to dispose of sewage sludge
national
(industrial, municipal)
Lack of waste disposal act, inconsistent practice of
national
inspectorates, 1-5 years
Cleaning up of municipal and hazardous waste dumps, 20-30 national
years (government program to abate the 15 most critical
hazardous waste dumps)
Lack of environmentally acceptable landfills for municipal
national
solid waste, 20-30 years
Lack of hazardous waste incinerators, 5-10 years
national
Illegal or improper dumping of municipal solid waste and
national
hazardous waste
Cleaning up temporary hazardous waste landfills, 10 years
north Hungary,
south Transdanubia
Disposal of tires, car batteries, spent oil, 5-10 years
national
Lack of selective waste collection systems, 5 years
national
Undeveloped waste recycling industry, 1-3 years (large
national
subsidies available from product fees to establish nationwide
recycling system)

Energy

Noise and
Vibration,
Occupational
Health and
Safety

Little support from government to the environmental industry


(Central Environmental Protection Fund preferences for
infrastructure and end-of-pipe solutions), 1-5 years
Lack of correct records on waste stream both for businesses
and authorities, 1-3 years
Excessive energy consumption in industry and population, 1020 years
Lack of national concept to incinerate agricultural by-products
for energy production
Low level use of renewable energy sources, 20-50 years
High SO2 emissions from burning coal, lignite, 10-20 years
Bad construction of houses and flats from a heating point of
view, over 50 years
Organizational and financing problems of apartment block
reconstruction
Obsolete vehicles, low technical level, 10-20 years
Waste rock areas polluting soil, groundwater and air
Unelaborated energy plans for transportation, industrial
production
Deficiencies in urban development policy: residential areas
are established in the neighborhood of industrial sites
Excessive noise from transportation, 20-30 years
Lack of local noise protection plans (local governments), 1-3
years
Lack of frequent employee health checks, 5 years
Lack of emergency response plans (modeling of potential
sources of danger, on-going training of employees), 5 years

national
national
national
national
national
national
national
national
national
mining areas
national
major cities
major cities
national
national
national

Significant Environmental Projects in Progress


Respondents from the business sector were not willing to reveal their on-going environmental projects, except for
those coordinated by the government and which are therefore well publicized. Listed below are the most important
projects in progress coordinated by various state bodies acronyms are explained at the beginning of this report).

Water

Sewage water treatment program in Budapest and major cities;


Sewerage and sewage water treatment program to reduce the gap between water supply and access to
sewage network (Government Program 20-21/1994, Resources: KKA, KHVM);
Improving the quality of Lake Balaton and Lake Velence (including dredging) and setting up a water
quality monitoring system.

Air

Harmonization of Hungarian laws on air pollution with EU legislation (monitoring of air quality, setting
emission limits for emissions by power plants, etc.)

Other

Varpalota region industrial sub-program for remediation of past environmental damages;


Asbestos program (a national asbestos register is to be established);
Pollution abatement program (action program to identify and address 10-20 local environmental pollution
problems most detrimental to human health);
Development of Hungarian environmental industry to improve international competitiveness (government
program will be suggested by IKIM, KTM and the Environmental Committee of the Parliament);
Promotion of environmental management systems (informal joint project of IKIM, OMFB, KTM).
For detailed information on current wastewater programs, please contact Mr. Istvan Sindel, Secretary at the Ministry
of Environment, Main Department "Protection of Natural Elements"/"Water Protection" Department, Tel: (36-1)
201-2137.
For more information on air-related projects, contact Mr. Istvan Csoknyai, Head of the Ministry of Environment
Department of Protection of Natural Elements/Air Protection and Noise Control, Tel: (36-1) 201-4019.
For more details on the Varpalota region industrial subprogram, the asbestos program, and the pollution abatement
program, contact Mr. Lajos Csorba Nebb, Secretary at the Ministry of Environment Department of Environmental
Development and Safety/Environmental Development, Tel: (36-1) 201-5180.

For more information on the Hungarian environmental industry development project, contact Mr. Erno Wittek; for
details on the environmental management system (EMS) promotion contact Mr. Istvan Danyi, at IKIM (Ministry for
Industry, Trade and Tourism), Department of Technological Policy, Tel: (36-1) 118-5180.
Additionally, a number of bilateral and multilateral projects are coordinated by the Ministry of Environment's
European and International Integration Department. The major projects currently in progress are listed in Table 3.8.
More details on the programs listed in Table 3.8 can be obtained from the contact persons listed in Table 3.9.
Country
Topic
Total cost
Switzerland
Wastewater treatment at Pecs Tannery
USD 400,000
Wastewater treatment at Vajna-Rohod
CHF 7 million (USD
4.8 mln)
Wastewater treatment at Jaszfenyszaru-Pusztamonostor
CHF 600 thousand
(USD 410,000)
Sewage system at municipalities connected to rivers
CHF 1.2 million (USD
Tapio-Hajta
820,000)
Environmental development of the city of Kecskemet
CHF 1.2 million (USD
820,000)
Environmental development of the city of Debrecen
CHF 7.7 million (USD
5.3 mln)
Sludge treatment in Debrecen
CHF 1.6 million (USD
1.1 mln)
Water quality protection at Lake Velence
CHF 1 million (USD
670,000)
Japan
JICA Study on modernization of the Borsod Power Plant no data
Varpalota and region rehabilitation program, industrial
YEN 10 billion (USD
subprogram
80 mln)
Varpalota and region rehabilitation program, municipal
YEN 5 billion (USD
subprogram
40 mln)
Improving the environment of Lake Balaton
no data
USA
LEMP, Local Environmental Management Project in
no data
Csepel
Environmental Management Training Center
USD 200,000
EPA - Environmental Strategy Project
USD 50,000
Nitrokemia - wastewater treatment demonstration site
no data
Impact of agrochemicals on water quality
HUF 2.7 million (USD
15,000)
Glicin conjugation on pharmaceutical and environmental HUF 3 million (USD
toxicology
17,000)
Developing trees resistant to environmental damage
HUF 2.4 million (USD
12,000)
Sub-micron emissions from incinerators
HUF 2.5 million (USD
14,000)
Integrated biological dentrification system
HUF 2.4 million (USD
12,000)
Land use and cover changes in Szigetkoz
HUF 1.8 million (USD
10,000)
Aerosol particle characterization
HUF 2.8 million (USD
16,000)
Entomopatogene nematodes
HUF 3 million (USD
17,000)
Soil characteristics and forecasts on plant changes
HUF 3.2 million (USD
18,000)
Genetics of thrichoderms
HUF 3.3 million (USD
19,000)
Nitrogen and ozone cycle in forests
HUF 2.6 million (USD
15,000)
Measurement of CO2 fluctuation in the atmosphere
HUF 2.3 million (USD
13,000)
Hazardous weather forecasting and warning
HUF 2.4 million (USD
12,000)
Effect of sunspot activity on global changes
HUF 3.5 million (USD
20,000)
Active sludge bioreactor configuration
HUF 3.2 million (USD

18,000)
HUF 3.6 million (USD
20,000)
Impact of PCBs on the nervous system
HUF 3.6 million (USD
20,000)
Development of the Hungarian-Slovak-Romanian border USD 6 million (for 3
water monitoring system
countries)
Canada-Hungary National Parks Project
no data
Methods to slow down the eutrophication of Lake Balaton no data
Developing methods for surface mining in an
no data
environmentally sound manner
Environment-oriented know-how and technology transfer no data
in Pest county
Cataster for inherited damages
ECU 250,000 (USD
290,000)
Environmental assessment of industrial plants prior to
no data
privatization
Promotion of the Hungarian environmental industry
no data
Ecotourism
no data
Ecological corridors, wetlands, biodiversity,
DEM 850,000 (USD
biomonitoring
500,000)
Surveying and evaluation of polluted soils
DEM 250,000 (USD
150,000)
Municipal environmental protection - training materials, no data
workshops
Assistance in developing Hungarys air protection law
no data
Impact of Budapests wastewater on water quality in the DEM 90,000 (USD
Danube
50,000)
Assessment of past environmental pollution
no data
Air quality monitoring system
DEM 100,000 (USD
60,000)
Air quality in Budapest

Canada
France
Germany

Donor Country
Switzerland, UK
Japan, USA
Canada, France, Germany
Denmark, Belgium, Holland

Contact Person
Ms. Zsuzsa Arokhazi
Ms. Eszter Szovenyi
Ms. Csillag Deak
Ms. Katalin Schreier, Ms. Marta Galambos

Telephone
(36-1) 201-2243
(36-1) 201-3764
(36-1) 201-4782
(36-1) 201-2891

Major Sources of Information on Business Opportunities


Almost all the interviewed respondents indicated personal and professional contacts as the main source of
information concerning environmental project opportunities. Business and environment-related publications, as well
as participation in environmental trade fairs and conferences were other important sources.
The most frequently read environment-related magazines are Krnyezetvdelmi Fzetek (Environmental Protection
Booklets) (OMIKK), Krnyezet s Fejlds (Environment and Development) and the Krnyezetvdelmi s Vzugyi
rtest (Environment and Water Protection Bulletin). Most local authorities in Hungary receive the magazine
Krnyezetvdelem (Environmental Protection).
A much higher percentage of interviewed professionals read economic and business newspapers like Heti
Vilggazdasg (Weekly World Economy) and Napi Vilggazdasg (Daily World Economy). However,
environmental project opportunities are rarely mentioned in these publications.
Fairs and exhibitions of environmental technologies are attended by 90 percent of the interviewed respondents from
the business and government sectors, and by 50 percent of respondents from the R&D sector. Respondents from the
latter group participate more often in non-commercial events, such as conferences and symposia. Half of the
interviewed businesspeople attend one or two events each year, and one third visit at least three fairs.
For comparison, Table 3.10 ranks information sources for business opportunities, based on a 1995 survey of 150
environmental businesses in Hungary carried out by the Regional Environmental Center.
Source of Information
Respondents
Professional contacts
92%
Personal contacts
91%
Professional associations
84%
Conference attendance
69%
Environmental publications
66%

Daily newspapers
62%
Business publications
59%
Trade shows and fairs
53%
Environmental ministry
42%
Mailing lists
34%
Chambers of commerce
32%
Other ministries
32%
Academic associations
27%
Ministry of industry/trade
27%
Fax
23%
Other
19%
Local and regional government
14%
Email
7%
The findings of the current survey correspond well with the picture given from Table 3.10, where personal and/or
professional contacts (including conference and trade show attendance) are the major source of information,
followed by professional associations, trade shows and fairs, and business and environmental publications.
Based on the same 1995 survey, Table 3.11 presents the main business and environmental publications read by
Hungarian environmental professionals.
Publication
Respondents
HVG
35%
Kornyezetvedelmifuzetek
34%
Napi Vilaggazdasag
28%
Cegvezetes
15%
Kornyezet es Fejlodes
13%
Figyelo
10%
Kornyezetvedelmi es Vizugyiertesito
6%
Budapest Business Journal
8%
Piac
6%
The role of environmental and trade associations in Hungary is quite limited, as shown in Table 3.12.
Association
Respondents Enlisted
Hydrology Society
23%
METESZ
12%
Chamber of Engineers
10%
Association of Chemists
7%
Environmental Protection Association
6%
Economic Chamber
3%
Interestingly, 61 percent of respondents stated they did not belong to any professional association. It is therefore
surprising that at the same time 84 percent of respondents indicated professional associations as a source of
information for environmental business project opportunities (see Table 3.10). One can only assume that, through
personal contacts, information published by professional associations reaches a wide non-membership audience.
From the limited information received concerning the focus and approximate date of major environmental fairs in
Hungary, it appears that participation in environmental fairs and exhibitions is an important, albeit not the major,
source of information. Many respondents noted that they are not aware of any central register or publication listing
environmental events, even though such a register would be extremely useful for planning one's attendance of the
most important events.
Table 3.13 presents the major environment-related fairs in Hungary. In addition, Table 3.14 lists a number of other
fairs, mainly those with a regional focus and which have an environmental component.
Approximat
Name of Fair
City
e Date
Focus
MACH-TECH
Budapest
March,
machine manufacturing
annually
technologies
AGRO+MASHEXPO
Budapest
March,
agricultural equipment
annually
AQUA-THERM BUDAPEST
Budapest
April,
heating, ventilation, air
annually
conditioning, bathroom fittings,
env. technologies
CONSTRUMA
Budapest
April,
construction
annually
Fair and Forum of 'Koztisztasagi
Szombathely Aprilmunicipal solid waste handling
Egyesulet' (Communal Association)
(location not March,
set)
annually
INDUSTRIA OKO-TECH
Budapest
May,
different environmental fields

KOMMUNALEXPO

Budapest

NATUREXPO

Budapest

BNV (Budapest International Fair)

Budapest

International Conference and Fair on


Energy Conservation and
Environmental Technologies
BUDATRANSPACK

Budapest
Budapest

annually
June,
annually
August
1996 (onetime event)
September,
annually
October,
annually
October,
annually

sewage, wastewater treatment,


municipal solid waste handling
environment protection, nature
conservation
general
energy efficiency and saving
material handling, packaging

Name of Fair
City
Approximate Date
CHEMEXPO
Budapest
March, annually
HUNGAROKORR
Budapest
April, biannually
VERTESEXPO
Tatabanya
Spring, annually
GYONGYOSEXPO
Gyongyos
annually
EXPO EAST
Nyiregyhaza
November, annually
Table 3.15 presents the major environment-related conferences in Hungary.
Approxima
Name of Conference
City
te Date
Focus
National Environmental Days for
Budapest February, municipal solid waste, water,
Local Governments
annually
wastewater, air
National Conference on Transportation Budapest May
transportation, fuels and lubricants,
and Environment
vehicle manufacturing
National Environmental Information
Budapest September, environment in general
Conference
annually
DAT '9x (International Conference of Budapest October,
Special section on recycling
Database Distributors)
annually
National Conference on Agriculture
Budapest November, environmental issues in agriculture
and Environment
annually
Conference of the Hungarian Biomass Godollo annually
biomass, energetics
Association

Public Procurement Act


The public procurement procedure currently in force in Hungary is a potentially important way to identify
environmental business opportunities. Local authorities and governmental agencies are obliged to announce a tender
for most investments involving the use of public money. As the system develops, tender procedures are likely to play
an increasing role as a source of information concerning upcoming projects.
The area is regulated by Act XI. 1995 on Public Procurement. Partial regulations in the field in Hungary have been
in force since November 1, 1995, with comprehensive regulations made effective from January 1, 1996. According
to the Act, public investments above a specified value made by the national government and local authorities are
subject to a tender procedure. The provisions apply to governmental bodies and local authorities, to associations
created by these bodies, as well as to public institutions, public foundations and public utilities. Subject to the public
procurement process are acquisitions of products and services, and construction investments.
The specific investment values above which public procurement procedure and tendering become mandatory are
determined annually. In 1996, the following limits were applicable:
HUF 10 million (approx. USD 60,000) for product purchases
HUF 20 million (approx. USD 120,000) for construction investments
HUF 5 million (approx. USD 30,000) for construction planning (blueprint)
Both tender announcements and the results of the bidding have to be published in the Kzbeszerzsi rtest (Public
Procurement Bulletin). Regular media receive and can publish information concerning tenders only after they have
been advertised in the Bulletin.
The tender procedure can be open, closed, or negotiable. Generally, open tenders are the preferred method - the
latter two can only be used in cases specified by the Act. Announcement of the project in the Public Procurement
Bulletin is the first step in the open tender procedure. The content of the announcement is regulated by law, and
should include: documentation required for application, detailed terms of reference, a technical description of the
project, and bidding deadlines. After the contract has been awarded, the decision is published in the Public
Procurement Bulletin.

The Hungarian Parliament has enacted two additional pieces of legislation related to public procurement:
1/1996. (II.7.) KTM rendelet: detailed technical requirements for announcements of construction
investments subject to public procurement;
125/1996. (VII.24.) KORM. rendelet: detailed rules of public procurement applicable to public
institutions financed from the national budget.

Important Contact Points for Environmental Project Opportunities


Almost all the institutions listed in Table 3.16 are active in a range of environmental sectors, and therefore specific
sectors are not indicated.
Organization Name and Address
Contact Information
Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy (KTM)
Mr. Arpad Kovacs, Tel: (36-1) 2011011 Budapest, Fo u. 40-50
2043, Fax: 201-3971
see also Table 3.9 for more contact details
Mr. Tibor Farago, Tel/fax: (36-1) 2014091
Mr. Gyorgy Erdey, Tel: (36-1) 2011407, Fax: 201-2819
Secretariat of the Central Environmental Fund (KKA)
Mr. Istvan Sindell
1011 Budapest, Fo u. 44-50
Tel: (36-1) 457-3300, Fax: 457-3413
PHARE Office (KTM)
Mr. Bela Donath
1011 Budapest, Fo u. 44-50
Tel: (36-1) 201-1691, Fax: 201-5780
Environmental Inspectorate, Budapest
Mr. Pal Varga
1011 Budapest, Fo u. 44-50
Tel: (36-1) 201-4619, Fax: 201-4284
Environmental Service Providers Association (KSS)
Ms. Anna Szekely
1149 Budapest, Angol u. 42
Tel/fax: (36-1) 220-2367, tel. 220-2369
Environmental Information Club (KVIK)
Mr. Zoltan Szarvas
1148 Budapest, Limanova ter 25
Tel/fax: (36-1) 252-8452, Tel: (36-30)
514-520
Hungary-EU Energy Center
Ms. Doris Keszthelyi
Tel: (36-1) 269-9067, Fax: 269-9065
BAU DATA Project Information and Consulting Bureau Tel: (36-1) 252-5454, Fax: 252-6518
1142 Budapest, Dorozsmai u. 110
Environmental Management Institute
Dr. Attila Kovacs
1369 Budapest, 5 Pf.352, Budapest, V Alkotmany u. 29
Tel: (36-1) 332-9940, Fax: (36-1) 1115826
National Association of Waste Recyclers
Mr. Henrik Balatoni
1066 Budapest, Dessewffy u. 3
Tel: (36-1) 111-1477; Fax: (36-1) 1311516
National Committee for Technological Development
Ms. Ilona Szabo
(OMFB)
tel. (36-1) 117-5900, Fax: (36-1) 1181052 Budapest, Szervita ter 8
7998
Public Hygiene Society
Mr. Gyorgy Nagy
2483 Gardony, Pf. 15, Gardony Bone K. u. 44
Tel: (36-22) 355-065, Fax: (36-22) 355253
Environmental Management and Law Association
Dr. Csaba Kiss
(EMLA)
Tel/fax: (36-1) 333-2931
1082 Budapest, Ulloi ut 66/b-I, VI-4
Independent Ecology Center
Ms. Judit Vasarhelyi
1035 Budapest, Miklos ter 1
Tel: (36-1) 180-3420, Fax: (36-1) 2501546
Environmental Training Program
Ms. Vilma Eri
1112 Budapest, Budaorsi t 45
Tel: (36-1) 185-0777
Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Mr. Pawel Kazmierczyk
Europe (REC)
Tel: (36-26) 504-000, fax: (36-26) 3112000 Szentendre, Ady Endre ut 9-11
294
Hungarian Association for Environmentally Aware
Mr. Gergely Toth
Management (KOVET-INEM Hungaria)
Tel: (36-1) 131-7578, Fax: (36-1) 3321063 Budapest, Munkacsy M. u. 16
0787
Foundation for Industry
Dr. Tamas Kemeny
1063 Budapest, Munkacsy M. u. 16
Tel: (36-1) 312-2213, Fax: (36-1) 3320787
Danube Circle
Mr. Janos Varga

1026 Budapest, Gabor Aron u. 33


Tel: (20) 419-096
WWF Hungary
Mr. Ferenc Markus
1124 Budapest, Nemethvolgyi u. 78/b
Tel/fax: (36-1) 175-4790
There is no "formal" institution or clearinghouse in Hungary collecting and disseminating information concerning
environmental business opportunities. As indicated earlier, personal and professional contacts seem to be the most
important and effective source of information for project opportunities. Two thirds of respondents indicated that
information gathering via official/governmental channels (KTM, OMFB, MTA, OMIKK, EU Energy Center) is
"very incidental."

Sources of Information on Available Environmental Technologies


In general, aside from the ever-present financial constraints, purchasing environmental technologies does not pose
any significant problems in Hungary because of the wide range of products available on the market. Representatives
of domestic and foreign companies often visit potential clients in person, or contact them by mail, offering products
and services. Survey respondents generally believe the market to be saturated.
Based on the survey interviews, the most common means of gathering information prior to purchase of
environmental technologies include, in order of significance:
personal and professional relations
industry associations
fairs and exhibitions
journals and catalogues
via the foreign owner or parent company
company contact
professional meetings, discussions, and conferences
references
through chambers of commerce
assistance from environmental inspectorates
As with the situation with information about project opportunities, when purchasing environmental technologies,
most domestic Hungarian firms strongly rely on personal contacts, which are the primary source of information. In
contrast, foreign firms and joint-ventures mostly depend on information provided by the parent company or the
foreign partner.