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Reach Out and Touch

a Nuclear Weapons
Contractor

The Top 50
luclear Weapons
Contractors
Allied

Signal

AT&T

Boeing

te lep ho n e company wlll soon be


ballot (IC It ha.n't done
so already), askin, you to pick a long-distance
carrier for "dial-I" aervlce.
Be aure to make
tbe rlebt cbolce. N u c l e a r Free America Is en
co u r aging Individuals, organizations and com
mu n i t i e s to Join In boycotting not Just AT& T but
a l l long-distance phone com p a n i e s with ties to

General Dynnics

th e nuclear weapons Industry.

General

Your local

s end l""

you

a special

DuPont
Eaton
EG&:G
Emerson Electric

FMC

Ford Motor
GenCorp
Electric

General Motors

or

the

major

long-distance

comptlnies

telephone

In the United States, only Allnet h a s


no ties to the D e p a r tme n t of D e fe n s e .
All the
others a r e w h o lly or pa r tl y-o w n e d by milltuy
co n t r a c t o r s, a n d , at t h e s e , all but MCI and
Wes tern Union a re profiting d ir e c tl y Cram the
research,
p rod u c ti on
or
testing
of n ucl e ar
weapons. Even It y o u have already selected a
long-distance service, you ca n s till switch to a
non - nu c l e ar alternatlve Cor a nominal charge -
available

us ua l ly leu tha n

$10.

Goodyear

Gould

Gr1.l11ln
lli

GTE

Harris
Hercules
Honeywell

IBM

ITT

Lit ton
Lockheed
LTV
Martin Marietta

For more I n fo r mati o n ,

America's new tlyer

wr ite

entitled

C or

Nuclear

"R each

Touch a Nuclear Weapons Contractor,

fIles

both the n u cl e a r

tives

available

Crom NFA,

Free

Out

and

which pro

a n d no n - n u c l e ar alterna

( A v a il a b l e
B a l t im o r e MD

nationally.

325 East 25th St,

Cor

'1

21218.)

P.S.
to

It you do swi tc h from AT&T, p l e a s e be sure


call or write ATilT C h a i rm a n James Olson (550

Madison

to

l et

Ave,

New York,

him know

yo u r

NY 10022; 212-6404-1000)

r e asons for

do i n g

s.).

McDonnell Douglas
Monsanto

Morton Thiokol
Motorola

Nat'l

Distillers

NL

Industries

N.

American

Philips

Northrop
Penn Central
Raytheon

RCA

Rockwell
Sanders

Int' J.

Associates

The Singer Co.

S p erry

Teledyne
Tenneco
Texas

Ins tr ume nts

Textron

TRW
UNC

Resources

United Technologies
United States Steel
Westinghouse

Compiled by Nuclear
Free

America

data

from the Dept.

on Fiscal Year
of Defense

based
1984

and

Dept. of Energy.

Page 2

March, 1987

2600

the

figllred 0111 holl' 10 muke a IOllg dislance


phone eall (legal(I', Ilral ;1), lI'e'!'e

For lllOH. ' ofyolIlI'lro\'e beell

del'oled.\"011/1' .11111CI' 10 all article on

bell'ildercd amllmffled by ollr mlher

eqllal ace ('n' thatlI'as actllally released

.Ip(cijic arlicle.\" abolll complllers alld Ihe

laslyellr. Ulleor tll'O of Ihe compallies

programs I"at ure rI/II Oil Ihem. like

mentiolled, in.IilCt, IIlII'e.rillce beell

COS.\l()S. lakl' hearl. } '011 are1101

merged. /lllt tlri.\" still ouglrl to be abig

. l lIlolllh, 1'011
alol/e. /Jill, al' 11'1' saiclla\
dOll'l11111'1' 10 11IIr!",.llamll"e spec

helpto anyone II'ho\ Iwd trollble

i.fi c.l 10

dealing with lhil II/ajorproblem of the

( ll'lltiail."
realize1"1' pl
Ollr Co.'i.1I0."

eighties.

arlicle Ilrir mOlllh is

... s, 11'1' lI'elcome YOllr lel/('rs


As alwa

prolmb(1' a\. .I!,ecijic a.\" we call getOil lire

and 1'01"'"1'"/.1'. A ne/, since we\'1' slarled

.llIhj('ct. /llllwe'lI cOl/lilllle10 II n'ole

selldillg 260() 0111 a.\ secolld c!a.u mail,

.Ipace 10 Ih(' many Ihillgs Ihal pOlI'erfll1

were curioll.l a.l 10 holl' IOllg il takes' to

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1'011/1'111'" applicalion\

reach ollr reader.\" alld what killd of

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fealllred ill Ihi.l II/ollllr \ ;HUI'. "."ile Ihal
ill il.\"('(" 1"tJ/llldl' rallra w/lI.walfor ollr

pag('.I are 0111ofore/{'/', II'hich has


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11'111.1" klloll' .m 11'1' call do somethillg


abolll il. l,eIc I'e a 1IIl'.Hage Oil ollr
machille (5167512600). Occasiollalll'
. , a

pllblicalioll. Ihe.mhjt'cl of Ihe1'0 1'11/

IIImu1II may el'/,II pick"I'.

I lullle phrellkillg,
we'\'( nI'rillled. '

.-I11I[ ijYOII hm'e articles to selld liS,

l rlaill(1' ;\11'1. We Ilrillk mallY of Ollr


c'

ph' a.le do. We 11011' pay for articles II'/,

rear/a.l lI'iII recoglli=(' l/r('"m:l.. es ill Ilris

; efor
prilli. so thai miglrlhe illcent"

f('aillre.

som/' of YOII. S /'lId.\lIhmissiOll.\" toPO

.1 lid lor Ihow ( ryoll II'lro slilllrclI'ell 'I

Box 99, MiddleIsland, N}' 11953.

STAFFBOX
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Eric Corley 110

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Cover Art

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Writers: John Drake, Paul Estev, Dan Foley, Mr. French,


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March, l987

Page

The Ballad of
by Mike Agranoff
'The Ballad of Captain Crunch" is a fictitious
story about a real person. Or, rather, a fictitious
story about an imaginary person to whom I have
attributed a real person's name. The real Captain
Crunch is a phone freak and computer hacker,
and the little anecdotal passages about how he
got his name and calling himself around the world
are in essence true. However, the rest of the
actions and motivations conceming the main
character of my story are not to be attributed to
the real person, but are strictly figments of my
overworked imagination. Any reading of this
recitation should be prefaced with this
disclaimer.
You tell of your Robin Hood legend,
The thief with the heart of pure gold,

The Lone Ranger and Tonto and Zorro and all


Of those other brave heroes of old.
You sing of Doc Holliday and old Jesse James
And the infamous wild Dalton bunch,
But alone, at the top of the list of those names
Is the man that they call...CAPTAIN CRUNCH.
Now perhaps you might laugh at this curious
name,
He sounds like no prince among thieves.
And well you may

ask how it is that he came

To be reckoned with such greats as these.


Well, he robbed from the rich, the richest there
was,
Though he took not a penny of plunder.
And were not for him, we'd be bent 'neath a
burden
We never could get out from under.
He never went armed with a pistol or sword.
He carried no longbow or quiver.
It wasn't his style to go buckle his swash,
Stop a coach and cry, "Stand and deliver!"
His weapon-an Apple computer,
His bullet, it was an I.C.
His old trusty gun was a soldering one,
His target-The Phone Company.

"Blue-boxers", they called us, and "phone freaks"

And less polite nicknames as well,


Applying the knowledge we picked up in college
In order to rip off Ma Bell.
We'd bread-board electronic circuits
Out of old Army surplus I.C.'s,
And make beepers and tooters to fool their
computers
And get all our phone calls for free.
For us, it was mostly the challenge,
A game between Ma Bell and us.
They'd close down a loophole, or put up a block,
Or give us a new code to bust.
And we all got P.C.'s and modems
And broke into their intemal system,
And scrambled their data and tied up their trunk
lines
And did all kinds of shit that just pissed 'em!
But 'twas more than a game for the Captain.
He had a real axe to grind.
An old clerical error by Ma Bell had left him
With feelings that were less than kind.
They'd harrassed him with bills for long distance
calls,
For calls that he never had made.
And 'twas only after they shut off his service
He took up the blue-boxers' trade.
He leamed the trade well, and soon made his
nane,

When he found that the switching code locks

Could be broke with a tone from a whistle that


came
In a Captain Crunch cereal box.

He would dial up an 800 number,


And before the phone rang at all,
Give the whistle a blast, dial the number he
wanted,
And never get charged for the call.
You might say that he'd found his true calling,
Discovered where his talent lay.
I remember the time that he pulled off a feat
That still stands as a legend today.
From a pay phone in Grand Central Station,
Dropped a dime, and his signal he hurled
Via satellite, cable, and microwave relay
And talked to himself round the world!

Page 4

March, 1 987

2600

Captain Crunch
I never met him in person.
I never knew his true name.
Don't know what he looked like or where he
called home,
But I counted him friend, just the same.
All I knew was his voice and his renegade soul
And his tireless quest for perfection,
And I met him along with the rest of that crew
At the North Manitoba Connection.
Now, the North Manitoba Connection
Was a central Canadian exchange,
A juncture of trunk lines from provinces north
With a side effect that was most strange:
Through a quirk in the system that Bell never
planned,
(If they even knew of it at all)
Those who knew how could use the exchange
As the ultimate free conference call!

And he told us, "They've made a new


breakthrough
On a miniaturized personal phone.
The bandwidth's been squeezed and the lines
megaplexed
Till we each could have one of our own.
And the unit's so small, it could fit in your ear
Or be surgically placed in your head."
Said I, "I'd remove it to go on vacation!"
"That would be illegal!" he said.
A pregnant moment of silence...
Then he said, with a sputter and cough,
"George Orwell's 1 984 is at hand!
How the hell could you tum the thing off?
You could never hang up, leave the phone off the
hook
Or be out of the reach of Big Brother.
Except that with old Ma Bell at the controls,
It would be more like 'Big Mother'!"

You could dial up a code any time, day or night


And converse with whoever was there.
'Twas the permanent floating blue-boxers'
convention
With membership from everywhere.
There was Iggy from Fargo, and "Sparks" from
Detroit,
And the Swenson boys out of St. Paul.
And we'd bullshit for hours, swap jokes, or talk
shop,
Or just listen, say nothing at all.

"Once they convince the American public


To give the contraption a try,
You might as well take what's left of your
privacy,
Smile, and kiss it goodbye!"
They'll put ads on TV, shove it down all our
throats
As only the Phone Company can ,
"My God!" says Lenny, ''What on Earth can we
do?"
Says the Captain, "1 have a plan!"
-;::;--

It was sometimes so crowded, you just couldn't


think.
But one night, at a quarter to three,
There were only the three of us on the exchange:
The Captain, and Lenny, and me.
Now, Lenny, he was our inside man,
An R&D tech at Ma Bell.
He had access to codes and computer net links
And hints of new products as well.

"Have you ever heard of a gremlin?


That creature of legend that lurks
In the bowels of a system as complex as this
.
And makes sure the damn thmg never works?"
"No such luck!" replied Lenny, 'They've got the
bugs out.
They've run all the kinks through the mill
They finished a field trial, did not see a glitch."
But the Captain said, "Oh, but they will!"
2600

March. 1 987

Page

5'

a
c

.;;

Getting the Most Out

by TIll HallbU
The axing of good ole Ma Bel l has rendered

wrong everything you now know about phone


companies. The procedure for placing a long
distance call is now above the understanding
level of a good proportion of the public, and the
vari ous compan i es are doing very l i t t l e to
educate them . Thus this attempt to inform the
reader what new evi l lives at the other end of his
pair.
In areas that are now equal access, it is
poss i ble to place a long distance cal l using any of
the carriers who will complete it for you . You do
not have to have previously set up an account
with the carrier, as in the past . They wi l l
complete the cal l and pass the bill ing back to
your local operating company ( LOC), which in
tum bills you for the cal l . So to place the cal l via
the "altemate" carrier, you pick up and dial:

1_+ 1 +ll1Icode+M!bIr
The nnn is magic: it allows you to select a

different carrier for that call . There are a zill ion


little Mom-n-Pop carriers in different areas, but
here are some of the major ones whose access
codes should be fairly consistent.
220: WIIIIm Unl__ consistently bad audio 90%
of the time
222: Mel- duplexey l ines sometimes
288: AT&T- you know the story
333: U.S.TllIcom- reasonably ok
444: AIIIIII- a major resel ler of others' services
_: m- bad audio, useless for modems
717: GTE Sprint- usually good quality-rivals
AT&T
When you complete a cal l this way, via a
carrier who "doesn't know who you are", you are
referred to as a "casual cal ler". Most of the major
carriers will complete casual calls. The smal ler
ones usually want an access code and a pre
existing account. Note that all this is perfectly
legal and nobody is going to come pound on your
door and demand your firstborn for making your
cal ls this way . The fun part starts when one
considers that this two-stage billing process
involves a lot of red tape and paper shuffling, and
the alternate [i.e. not AT&T] carriers often have
poorly designed software. This can often lead to
as much as a 6-month lag time between when
you make the cal l and when you get the bi II for it.
There is a chance that you won't get bil led for
some calls at al l , especially real short ones. And
Page 6

March.

1987

2600

if you do get bil led , the rates will be reasonable.


Note that if you don't have an account with a
given company, you won't be able to take
advantage of any bulk rates they offer for their
known customers.
It is likely that for this reason, i .e. all the mess
i n v o l ved i n g e t t i n g the b i l l i n g properly
completed , that the local Bel l companies are
attempting to suppress knowledge of this. Notice
that when you get your equal access carrier
bal lots, nowhere do they mention the fact that
you can "tenex" dial , i .e. 1 Onnn, through other
carriers. They want you to pick one and set it up
as your 1+ carrier so you don't have to learn
anything new . Now, it's already highly l ikely that
the little carriers will fold and get sucked up by
AT&T and eventual ly everything will work right
again , but this pol icy is pushing the process
along. The majority of people aren't going to
want to deal with shopping around for carriers,
are going to choose AT&T because it's what
they've come to trust, and their l ines are stil l the
best qual ity anyway. However, the more people
become casual cal lers , the more snarled up the
b i l ling process is going to become, and the.
resulting chaos will have many effects, one of
which may be free cal ls for the customers, and
the carriers and LOCs being forced to either
straighten up their acts, disable casual calls and
lose business , or knuckle under completely.
So where can you get more info about equal
access, if not from your local company? You call
800-332- 1 1 2 4 , w h i c h AT&T w i l l happ i ly
complete for you , and talk to the special
consumer awareness group dedicated to helping
people out with equal access . They will send you,
free of charge , a l ist of all the carriers which serve
your area, with their access codes, customer
service numbers, billing structure, and lots of
other neat info . The LOGs will give out this
number, but only under duress . They will notgive
out any i n fo rma t i o n about other carriers,
including what ones serve your central office, so
you shouldn't even bother trying . I t's apparently
been made a universal company policy, which is
ridiculous, but the case.
Let's get into some of the technical aspects of
this. First off , you might ask, why 1 0nnn? Well,
it could have been 1 1 nnn too , but it wasn't. If you
think about i t , other numbers could be mis
parsed as the beginnings of area codes. 3-digit

oj Equal Access

carrier codes also leave plenty of room for


expansion (haw!) . Some of the carriers won't
complete casual cal ls, and may even give
recordings to the effect of "invalid access code".
Basically when you dial this way, your central
office simply passes the entire packet containing
your number and the number you want to cal l to
the carrier and lets the carrier deal with it. You'll
notice that this process takes longer for some of
the carriers. The carriers have differing database
structures and hardware, so it takes some time to
figure out if it knows who the call ing number is, if
bulk rates apply, and a few other things. While
it's doing this search, you get silence. What's a
lot of fun is that in areas that have recently gone
equal access, the central offices do this exact
same process for public phones. And since the
carrier usually has no idea of what a publ ic phone
is, it happi ly completes the cal l for you as though
you dialed it from home. It is unclear who gets
the resulting bill from this, but it usually doesn't
take them long to fix it . It's conceivable that the
carriers can hold numbers to not complete calls
from in their database, as wel l as regular
customer numbers .
Some carriers also handle 0+ calls . If you dial
1 Onnn 0+ instead of 1+, the office will hand it off
as usual, and you'll be connected to the carrier's
switch, which gives you a tone. You are expected
to enter your authorization code at this point, and
then off the call goes . This is so you can complete
equal-access style cal ls from friends' phones and
use your own billing . It also requires that you
have an account with the carrier already and an
authorization code to use . Some carriers, in
places where the public phone bug has been
fixed, will handle 1+ calls from them this way as

"The procedure for placing


a long distance call is now
above the understanding
level of a good proportion
of the public, and the
various companies are
doing very little to educate
them. "
(continued on page 14)

wel l . This mechanism introduces a security hole,


because it's real easy to determine the length of a
val i d authorizat ion code from t h i s s i nce
something happens right after the last digit is
dialed. Carriers that don't do this will sometimes
tel l you to dial "operator-assisted calls" by
dialing 102880+ the number you want. Already
they're admitting that AT&T is better than they
are.
And as if this wasn't enough, carriers that do
this will also usually connect you straight to the
switch if you diaI10nnn#. The LOCs are finally
getting around to using the # key as sort of an
"end-of-dialing" feature, so you can reach the
switch directly without having to dial a local
number or 950-something. Being able to get to
the carrier's switch is useful, because they often
have special sequences you can dial there to get
their customer service offices, various test tones,
and other things. If you get the switch and then
dial # and the tone breaks, you may have one of
these . Another # should bring the tone back; if
digits have already been dialed then # is a regular
cancel or recall. Some carriers use * for this.
Anyway, if # breaks the tone, an additional digit
may start a call to an office. You can tell if it's
work ing i f # has no further effect; you ' l l
eventually either hear ringing o r nothing i f that
digit hasn't been defined. Many of the carriers
have magic digit sequences that would otherwise
l ook l i ke authorization codes, but go off
i mmed iatel y upon being d i aled and cal l
somewhere .
Call timing and billing is a very hazy issue with
the alternates, as one may see from the consumer
group sheet. AT&T is still the only one that can
return cal led-end supervision, i.e. the signal that
tells your local office that the called party has
picked up. The alternates, although they may be
planning to install this through agreements with
the LOCs and AT&T, have not done so yet, so
they use timeouts to determine if billing should be
started yet. These are usually the time that 8
rings takes; assuming that most people will give
up after 6 or 7. So if you listen to your brother's
phone ring 20 times because he went out drinking
last night and is now dead to the world, you will
get billed for the call whether he wakes up or not .
This is sort of a cheapo compromise, but since
AT&T is so reluctant to hand them supervision
equipment, their hands are sort of tied. But
2600

March,l987

the telecom infortner


Updated Equal Access List

BY DAN FOLEY

used up all possibly allocated three


number combinations (which is a lot,
about 8*8*10 = 640 exchanges handling
6,400,000 numbers (but read on before

Once you pick an equal access long

distance carrier,you aren't stuck with


using just that one to make calls. By
entering IOXXX (where XXX is the

you think I'm exaggerating), as the first

I).

carrier code of your choice) you can

and second digits couldn't be 0 or

are free though. Sometimes calls on

Code fill was nowhere near over 6


million, as often downtown business
areas had old inefficient X-bar switches,

make phone calls on other carriers.


Don't be fooled into thinking that these
other carriers may not catch up with you
for several months. However if you try
this from a hotel phone, it will never get

and the phone company couldn't dare


shut down an area for even a day to do a
switchover to ESS. Also,with the

back to you. Also,third party


payphones handle these calls incorrectly,

proliferation of computer and data lines

so the owner of the phone line gets the


bill,not you. In response these phones

in American business's bureacracy and

are often "fixed" so that you can't make

building.... Well,you see what I'm


leading up to? Yup,the telcos needed

these calls.

End of Non-! + LD Dialing

The last area of the country that did


not require I + dialing for long distance
will disappear on November 1st,1987. A
few CO's in 301, 202,and 703 still allow
the old ESS programming hack which
distinguished between local and long
distance calls by the second digit of the
exchange/ area code. Every number in
202 is dialable either using 202 as the
area code or instead either 703
(Northern VA) or 301 (Maryland). The

calling area is second largest in the US,


about 70 miles in diameter,second only
to Atlanta. Any number can be dialed
from any phone "locally" (i.e. without
an area code or 1+). According to the
North American Numbering Plan

(where the acronym NPA-Numbering


Plan Area,also known as area codes,
came from),the second digit of an.area..

be either a I or a 0 (i.e. 212.


516,201,703). Central office exchange
codes were not allowed to use either the
code

has to

o or I as the second digit (on a tt:tephone


dial neither the 0 nor the I has an
equivalent letter combination,therefore

when they named exchanges for the


town or area which it covered (as in
PENnsylvania-5600) none had a 0 or a

as the second digit. This plan worked


well for years,but as loyal 2600 readers
know,many downtown urban areas
2600
March, 1987
Page 8

in the 70's along with a huge expansion


the growth of the skyscraper office

every damn exchange they could get


their hands on (especially as companies

liked their own Centrex or PBX


exchanges). In the mid-70's (the exact

date is published somewhere in the last

three years of

MOO)

Los Angeles

had the first exchanges with

(213)

I or a 0 as

the second digit (they used Canadian


area codes). As this practice spread,it
became neccessary to get rid of the ESS
hack which allow users to avoid the 1+

for long distance. Now even this


measure is ineffectual,as was

demonstrated when Los Angeles was


broken into 213 and 818,and New York
City into 212 and 718.

Newly Direct DWabie Countries


For those of you trying out your blue

boxes or bogus cellular ROMs,AT&T


announced effective March 13,1987,

that it was aeding routing to 'even more

exotic comers of the globe. Using 298 as


your country code you can reach the
Faeroe Islands. Greenland is now 299,
Malta is 356, Micronesia is 691, and the
Marshall Islands are 692. You used to

able to dial the Faeroe Islands via


Denmark (1+45+42) but no longer. The
Faeroe Islands, like Greenland, are a

self-governing region of Denmark.

Tonga (676) may also become direct


dialable at this time too. Tonga was

(continued on page 22)

When you need a hand


with design, flyers, business
cards, newsletters, printing,
mailing services ...
in short, anything to
communicate your message,
drop us a line.

UPPERHAND
12 Whitfield Lane
Coram, NY 11727

261}O

March, 1987

Page 9

still more on the world of cosmos


We've run articles in the past about COSMOS,
the famous program used by the phone company
to control your phone line. However, we seem to
have created more questions than answers in
attempting to tackle the subject. Now, we
approach it with more of an eye to detail. Just
about everything the COSMOS expert would
need to know should be here, while everything
beginners need to get an idea of the capabilities
of COSMOS should also be included. If, after
reading this, you still have questions, write to us
care of the Letters Editor. You have the right to
know.

by Bill fnIII Rloe


lJIiIII II o.n

COSMOS is a database program used by


various telephone companies to keep track of
central office facilities. COSMOS gives
information such as: how many cables or
telephone numbers are currently available and
what their status is. COSMOS is used by many
departments now. It was originally for use in the
frame room and loop assi!J111t1ell center (LAC),
for keeping track of both wires and. paper
(orders).
When someone orders a new telephone line
from the business office, the request for service is
entered into a billing computer. Once the billing
details are in order a service order is input into
COSMOS. The fact that a service order placed in
COSMOS can theoretically be completed without
billing is most likely what attracts hackers the
most. Keep in mind that COSMOS doesn't
complete the orders, the people who use it do.
oispellllll COSMOS MyIIII
You cannot get from a COSMOS system in
Massachusetts to one in New Jersey. Each BOC
( Bell Operating Company) computer system is
unrelated.
Y o u c a n n n o t get o n t o L M O S ( Lo o p
Maintenance Operation System) from COSMOS.
In earlier versions there were two commands
LMO S and LMO SH which were used in
transferring data tape from COSMOS to LMOS.
This is no longer done.

HisIDIy

Bell Labs set out to design a mechanized


system which would alleviate paperwork-thus
COSMOS was bom in the early 70's. COSMOS is
now supported by Bell Communications Research
( BELLCORE). COSMOS can now run on several
Page 10

MardJ.I987

161JO

types of computers. The DEC POP 11/70 and the


POP 11/45 (no longer used) run COSN IX as the
operating system. On AT&T 3B20, COSMOS is
running under UNIX (5.0.5). Generic 16 is the
latest version. When generic 17 comes out it will
only run on UNIX-based COSMOS systems. It
will run on the following supenninis: AT&T 3B20,
the Sperry CCI, and some Pyramid supermini.
Further ahead COSMOS may be run on big
mainframes, but that idea is just on paper now.
If you find UNIX based COSMOS you will not
be able to tell it from any other UNIX system. It
does not prompt you for a wire center (WC) until
you have entered a valid login and password.
looin: reO 1

oassllord:
t = t = t = f =

Nelcole to

= t

= f

f = f

COSHOS sYstel 31!

COSIOS Ib.0.3

unix

5.0.5

Data line trouble call:

bll

Data base info call: 555-1212


f = t = t

= f

f = f = f = f =

lie? 2b
2bt

{---and you're In

In this first section I (IJ1 dealing with COSNIX


(God rest its soul).
"AIlE: CIIIII

PASSIIORD:
lit? 26

TT7J: IlUI=DJ DELAY=5 UPlOll ecHO LOG).

.......... IlELCIJIIE TO COSI!OS 15.4.B.7 SYSTU 1 ...........


Ilflflfl".""ffll.........lllllllffllfflltlfftltllttfttttf
LAST TDAS

TAPE LOADED 01 04-01-87

AHE.IOI ALL RlMES!!- .SCPA IS UP AND RIIIININ&.


HAIlE A NICE DAY'
t""ft'''I",".tt'I "",,tttt" tfl,.,

26.

What does this all mean?


TIll: is the teletype (TTY) that the user
logged in on. TTY numbers range from TT01
TT96. You can also get your TTY number by using
the TTY command. The system console is TTOO.
The options for a specific TTY are kept in a file
-

(continued on page /5)

The Ballad

"Lenny, help me get into their system.


We'll show those bastards what for!
The entry code's secret, that much I know
So we'll have to go in the back door.
From the trash bin , go get the old print-outs,
The results from the latest field test.
Leave them in the phone booth on 1 2th Street
and Main ,
And I w i l l take care of the rest!"
Then he dropped out of sight for a couple of
months,
We heard nothing from Lenny as well ,
Till the phone rang one night with a cal l from his
wife
With a pretty sad story to tel l .
Seems they found h i m one day after work in the
lab
With his nose where it didn't belong ,
And threatened to send him to jail if he didn't
Spi l l out every thing he'd done wrong .
Now Lenny was never the strongest of men ,
And who knows what they threatened to do?
B u t they wrung o u t of h i m every secret
technique,
Every blue-boxer's trick that he knew.
Then they fired his ass, left him out on the street,
Tumed their energies in our direction.
And their very first act was to be to shut down
The North Manitoba Connection .
That news hit us hard. It's surprising to find
How important these little things are.
Twas as if they had bulldozed the house you
grew up in ,
O r shut down your favorite bar.
And us phone freaks were hermits, for the most
part ,
Except within our own little clan.
And the Exchange was the bridge 'tween our
personal islands,
Our one link with our fellow man .
On the evening the shutdown was scheduled,
The entire contingent was there.
We didn't talk much; there was not much to say,
J ust a feel ing of gloom in the air.
Then one at a time, as the lines each were cut,
One voice, then another went dead .
And more than one throat was constricted with
tears
As our last goodbyes, they were said .

(continued from page 5)


Then abruptly, my phone became silent,
With a si lence can only be known
By the deaf , or survivors of nuclear blast,
O r a man with a dead telephone.
To the si lence, I whispered, "Forever farewell!"
Though I knew that no one could have heard.
And the silence replied in a voice that I knew,
'Wel l , 'forever' is so strong a word!"
"Hey Captain! My God! Where are you? How you
been?
And where've you been gone all this time?
And how did you manage to tap in my circuit
After they pulled out the l ine?"
"Better not ask how I am," he replied,
"And better not ask where I've been
Suffice it to say that I've fixed it so that
When they locked you out, they locked me in!"
.

"You might say that I 'm no longer a part of your


world,
N o longer reside on your plane ,
But the tri l l ion connections twixt bill ions of
phones
Form a system complex as man's brain.
And now I am part of that system:
A meld of computer and mind.
You c o u l d say I 'm the Phone Company'.s
conscience,
And I'll see to it they toe the line!"
"Gotta go now, can't keep this line open much
more."
And his voice faded out to a hiss,
And I sat in the dark , a dead phone in my hand,
Left alone contemplating on this:
In a way it is fitting , the way he would choose,
And things worked out just as they should.
He's gone to blue-boxers' heaven:
Tapped into the system for good!
Wel l , you know the rest of the story.
The facts are no longer in doubt.
Perhaps you subscribed to the perspnal phone
When the newfangled thing first carne out .
And the thing never worked , o r would scream in
your ear
Or hung up in the middle of calls,
But now you all know , that was just Captain
Crunch
Grabbing old Mother Bel l by the balls!
(continued on page 22)
2600

March, 1987

Page

II

PRINTABLE LETTERS
An Envelope Please
Dear 2600:

I don't object to the price increase.


After all, it costs money to publish
2600 and your group isn't operating as
a charity to phone phreaks. However, I
do object to the new policy of mailing
issues without envelopes. You may not
consider 2600 to be an underground or
illegal publication, and perhaps it isn't.
But 2600 isn't exactly Ne ws week
either! I haven't seen 2600 on the
magazine rack next to the Irrational
Inquirer and TV Guide while I was
waiting in the express line with my
twelve items or less!
In this country we are supposed to
have "Freedom of the Press," and I'm
all for it. However, with the Reagan
Administration era of decreased
personal privacy and freedom, a 2600
subscriber can't be too careful. The
postal clones have been known to
report recipients of "subversive"
material to the authorities for possible
surveillance and harassment. I for one
cannot afford to add any fodder to my
FBI file. Hoover's Henchmen probably
have enough material on my activities
to write a short novel already! Let's
minimize the amount of paperwork
some pencil-pushing bureaucrat has to
do by mailing 2600 in envelopes where
it will be away from the prying eyes of
Big Brother. I want future issues of
2600 to come to my mail drop in
envelopes.
About the new format of 2600: it
looks great! Unfortunately, it doesn't fit
well into a 3-ring notebook like the old
format did. How about changing back
to the original style? I bet it would be
cheaper, too.
The article "TAP: The Legend is
Dead" by Cheshire Catalyst in the
January 1 987 issue confirms what
most of us already knew: that Cheshire
is a jerk! He was literally stealing from
his fellow phone phreaks for three
years. It just goes to show that you
Page 12

March, 1 987

26f)()

can't find an honest criminal these


days. What ever happened to honor
among thieves?
By the way, where did you ever come
up with the name Richard Cheshire?
His real name is Robert "Ozzie"
Osband and the "Large Manhattan
Bank" that he worked for is Republic
National Bank, located at 452 Fifth
Avenue and 40th Street. His phone
number is 2 1 2-569-5459.
Discreetly,

Bob Gamma
First of all, we never would support
the notion of minimizing paperwork for
b u r e a u c r a t s. Th i n k ab o u t i t . If
everybody who receives 2600 had a file
opened on them for that reason alone,
the bureaucratic machinery would
become so bogged down that it would
never be able to function efficiently.
And that would be in everybody's best
interests as far as we're concerned.
Seriously, reading 2600 is nothing to
worry about. You would be amazed if
you saw the kinds of people and
organizations that subscribe. The only
people who read 2600 that should
worry about being "watched" are
those that are already being
"watched". In other words, 2600 does
not enter into it.
Assuming "Big Brother" knows
about 2600, we really don't see what
difference getting it in an envelope that
has our return address on it will make.
Either way, "they" know you 're getting
it. What we're more concerned about is
whether or not it 's being manhandled
or delayed in the post offices. Domestic
customers should receive 2600 no
later than the 20th of the month. If this
is not the case, call us so we can do
something about it.
We will continue sending your
magazine in an envelope even though
this costs us extra. We consider it an
obligation to our subscribers for getting
us this far.
And about that phone number you
gave us-that's simply an answering

machine that Cheshire set up in a


friend's apartment to send and receive
messages. More often than not, it
seem s, the outgoing message has
been changed rem otely by outside
influences. Retributive hacker justice,
perhaps.

Comments...
Dear 2600:

New format is very readable. But


incompatible with old-style "3-ring
binder" format. How do I add to my
complete collection of back copies?
"Continued on page XX" is perhaps
necessary for cheap tabloids. We all
read all the mag, so you don't have to
"bribe" us by putting all article
beginnings up front.
Am I really the only life subscriber?
AH
W e a r e q u it e a wa r e o f t h e
incom p a t ib il ity. But s e c o n d - c l a s s
postage requirements are such that
our magazine must be 24 pages or
more in order to qualify for reduced
rates. We sim ply cannot afford 39
cents a piece, which is the first-class
rate. At the same time, a 24 page issue
w i t h o u r o l d s iz e is c u r r e n t l y
impossible. We could drill holes i n the
new format but then we'd have to print
less on a page to accomodate the holes.
Since the new format is easier to carry
around, it shouldn't be hard to devise a
method of fil ing. We'd appreciate
suggestions from readers on this.
W e a v o id " j um p s " w h e n e v e r
possible. But the realities of laying out
a magazine sometimes make them
inevitable. And, no, you 're not the only
lifetime subscriber. We have a few and
they are all quite happy knowing that
their $260 has earned them the right
never to be bothered with having to
renew again.

And More Comments ..


.

Dear 2600:

I have a few comments on your new


format. First. I miss the large format. Its

large pages were easier to read, and


the page-numbering made referencing
simple. I also miss the loose-leaf holes.
As stated in your first issue (I have
them all), 2600 should be filed for
reference purposes. The new format
makes this very difficult.
I think I see your intentions: you want
2600 to become a widely distributed
and accepted magazine, maybe even
sold at newstands or bookstores
(where a flashy cover is important for
impulse sales). I myself, as a subscriber
and supporter of 2600, would not like
this method of distribution to be
undertaken. For one, it's expensive. A
fancy three-color cover does nothing
for me except use up my subscription
dollars which could be better spent
printing more information. I just don't
feel 2600 has mass-market appeal.
To sum up my opinions, bring back
the old format! Just add new pages and
columns as necessary, and keep the
halftones.
P.S. You wasted four valuable pages
by printing cellular telephone
frequencies that can be derived from
this simple formtlla:
FREQUENCY=B69. 97+
(CHANNEL*. 03) where: CHANNEL=1
TO 666
CHANNEL=(FREQUENCY-869.97)/.03
Frequency=870 to 889. 95 Mhz
Bernie S.
Correction: we only wasted three
valuable p a ges. And, while some
considered that a waste, others were
happy with it because, for the first time,
they could actually see what the
frequencies were instead of having to
calculate them. After a/l. what would
they do with the calculation? Probably,
print out a list. Seems like we've saved
them a couple of steps, doesn't it?
As far as distribution at newstands is
concerned. 2600 does have a future
here. We have experimented with a
few and had positive results. We find
this to be a great way to attract new

(continued on page 1
2600

March, 1987

Pace 13

Equalling the Access


notice that it's likely that you won't get bil led for
a real short cal l that is answered quickly, either.
With the advent of 9600 baud voice-grade
modems, t h i s cou l d have some i n terest i n g
a p p l i c a t i ons a s f a r a s message pass i n g is
concemed, and avoids pissing off operators by
trying to yel l through non-accepted col lect cal ls
or long l ists of what person-to-person name
meant what . But in general, you should keep your
own records of what call and what carrier and if it
completed or not, so you won't get erroneously
billed by a si l ly timeout.
Carri ers often use their own sw i tc h i n g
equipment: they also often lease lines from AT&T
Long Lines for their own use. Al lnet, for example,
leases equipment and time from other carriers at
bulk rates and resells the service to the customer.
So if you use Allnet, you can never tel l whose
equ ipment you're really talking on, because i t's
sort of l i ke rou l ette between sate l l i te,
microwave, or landline and who owns it. Some of
this latter-generation switching equipment is
wanned-over AT&T stuff from a few years ago,
and therefore may be employing good old single
frequency trunks, i .e. 2600 Hz will disconnect
them . In the early days of carriers before equal
access, 2600 would often reset the local switch
and return its dialtone. This is less coovnon these
days but there's a lot of equipment still out there
that responds to it.
When you select your defaul t carrier, there is
another valid option that isn't on the ballot. I t is
cal led "no-pick", and is not exactly what it
sounds l ike. If you simply don't pick one or return
the bal lot, you get tossed into a lottery and you
will wind up with any random carrier as your
defaul t on 1 + dialing . You sti l l won't get bulk
rates from this carrier unless you cal l them up and
create an account [or you may get a packet of
i nfo from them in the mai l anyway, because if
they got selected for you they will probably want
you to sign up]. However, no-pick is the
condition where you do not have a default carrier,
so if you pick up and dial 1 + area + number the
cal l w i l l not complete. This is great for confusing
people who attempt to make long distance cal ls
on your phone and don't know about tenex
dial ing . Probably your best bet as far as saving
money goes is to sign up with aI/the carriers, and
examine their billing structures carefully. You can
then choose the one that's cheapest for a given
Page 14

March, 1 987

2600

(continuedfrompage7)

cal l at a given time. You may need a computer to


do th is, however. It is surprising that nobody has
yet tried to market a program that will do this for
you .
Post-parse, or 10nnnO+ dialing, is not the
only security hole that carriers have to deal with .
There are often magic sequences that, when
dialed after a trial authorization code, will inform
the cal ler if the code was val id or not without
having to dial an entire number. These usually
take the form of invalid cal led area codes, l ike
1 1 1 or Onn or *nn . Most of the carriers have fixed
the problem in which an inval id code plus some
sequence would return silence and allow recall,
and a val id one would error out . This al lowed
valid codes to be picked out very quickly. Longer
authorization codes and improvements in the
software have largely eliminated this as a major
problem, but it took a few years for them to get
the idea . Note that abuse of other peoples'
authorization codes is i l legal and they will
probably come after people who do it. However,
it is often interesting to play around with a carrier
you are interested in purchasing service from,
and see if you can break their security easily. If
you can, then it's clear that someone else can,
and this carrier is going to have a lot of problems
with fraud . Someone may even find your code
and then you'll have to deal with bogus billing . So
if you find some algorithm which allows you to
come up with a 6 to 8 digit val id code, one thing
you might do is cal l the carrier and tel l them
about it. They'll thank you in the long run and
might even offer you a job, a side benefit of which
may be unlimited free cal l ing via their equipment.

cosmos : the u n iverse u nfolds


called / ETC / L i N ES.
MUX= : PDP 1 1 /70's can have different types
of multiplexers. OJ is a OJ 1 1 mux. These are
asynchronous, 1 6 line multiplexers. DZ is a
DZ1 1 ; these are less expensive than the O J 1 1 . A
DZ1 1 is an asynchronous 8 or 1 6 line mux .
M U X= D K indicates DATA K I T V C S { Virtual
Circuit System) . A OK allows users to select
' h t0 enter. A n 1 1 /70
WhICh system they WIS
hooked up to a DATAKIT usually has 60 nY's
(as opposed to 96) .
DELAY=: This word specifies the number of
nulls (control-@ ) to be sent before each line. The
nulls sent are equal to the DELAY number. Many
users log on to COSMOS with printing tenninals.

These printers cannot always print as fast as


they can receive. Nulls will give the printers more
time to print without slowing down C RTs. Too
many nulls slow down 300 baud so they are kept
at a moderate level.
UPLDW: C O S N I X uses only upper case.

U PLOW converts lower case and echos it in


U PPERCASE. This is achieved by running a
program called / B I N / LCASE when a user logs
on.

ECHO: Indicates that the computer will echo


back (full duplex).
L06IN: Indicates that you just logged on.
COSN IX, like U N I X , has an / ETC / PASSWD
(password) file. This is similar to the U N I X
PASSWD file but has some differences. Here i s a
sample / ETC / PASSWORD file :
ROOT: 1I2I DORF : 0: : : I : I : IUSR/COS"OS

Y: I 8 I N : IUSR/COS"OS
CO"2: EPOHA3DU: 3 : : Y: 2: IUSRlm: IUSR/COS"OS: IUSR/PREOP: IUSRISO: IUSRIMC
8 1 N : NEl I DORF: I : :

I:

CO"I : EPOHA3DU: 2 : : Y: I : IUSRmp: IUSR/COS"OS : IUSR/PREOP: IUSRISO: IUSR/"nC

PAO I : 0062DAER: 4 : : Y: 3: IUSR/m: IUSR/COS"OS: IUSRISO


PA01: KSlHINPA: 5: : Y: J: IUSRmp: IUSR/COS"OS: /USRISO
NAO I : 4DI m21 : 6 : : Y : 3: /USRmp: IUSR/COS"OS: /USR/SO
INOI : DROLOOHS: 7 : : Y : 3 : /USRmp: IUSRICOS"OS: /USR/SO
RCO I : DAED7IPF: B: : Y: 3: /USRITI!P: /USR/COSnOs: IUSR/SO
F"OI : lOD I HNJ 7 : 9 : : Y: 3: /USRIT"P: /USR/COS"OS: IUSR/SO
SSOI : PSOSDEF9: 1 0 : : Y: 3 : IUSR/'"P : IUSR/COSIUlS: IUSR/SO

The fields of a COSNIX / ETC / PASSWD are as


follows. The fields are separated by colons ' :' in
the password file. The fields are as follows:
1 ) usemame, 2) encrypted password. 3) user
mmber, 4) description fields (unused ) , 5) dialup
user (Y for yes, nothing for no) , 6) user group
(1 =full access, 2=shell user, restricted access) .
7) home directory. 8 ) path, 9) path....
The COM accounts are used by the mini

computer maintenance center ( MMC ) or the


COSMOS database manager ( DBM ) . 0: 1 is the
only user who can execute the change of

(continuedfrom page 10)

password

c o m m a n d . As in U N I X ,
/ ETC / PASSWD can be left unprotected but is

almost never left that way.


COSN I X has another file called / ETC / L i N ES .
This file lists the nY numbers and which users
can access them. It also specifies duplex, baud
rate, and privileges (in some cases).
1 -2 . USERS:ROO H B I N ; CO" I . ECHO. UPLOUELAY:5,mSAGE
H, USERS:PAI, NA I ; R C I ' CO"2 . ECHO, UPLON, DElAY:S
' O-22. USERS:PA"; NA",F"" ; RC I ; SSI , I N" ; CO"', UPLON, DELAY:IO

23-bO, USERS=F"'; SSII IN', ECHO,UPlON,DELAY=S

Th e first field is the nY number. U SERS=


indicates which users access which nYs. If a
user has an asterisk after the group name then it
allows all users. If a line doesn't have the word

ECH O there, then it's for half duplex users only.


M ESSAGE will write a message to noo (the
system console ) stating that someone just
logged on with privs. If you login with privs on a

M ESSAGE tty your prompt will be an asterisk. If


the / ETC / L i N ES file is changed, a security
feature of COS N I X will pick it up.

COSNJI prDlph

WC1 ' Ivmg. mr

Net

NCI

supor USIr , USIr grDup I in IETC/PASSND


,upor um
SS
in IETC/ l I NES

ASE TTY

The / ETC / MATRIX.S file says which users


can access which C O S M O S commands.
C O S M O S commands a r e kept in the

/USR/COSMOS directory.
I

04-01 -84

PERm mRl l

ON 1 1 -25-85
USER-CATESORY-TRANSACTION PER"ISSIOM FILE
" L I ST OF FMILY HAnES AHD CATEBORY ASSOCIATED NlTH EACH
NAm :
I SYSTE" AD"IMISTRATOR
( CO">I 0 1 . ;
I LOOP ASSI 6NllE NT CEMlER ILAC)
(PA)I 02. 1
I FRME ROO"
(Fnl, 03 . 1
I RECENT CHANSE "E"ORY AD". CENTER IRC nAC)
(RC); 04. 1
I I NFOR"A T l ONAI. USERS
( I N ) I 05. 1
I SPECIAL SERVICES
I

UPDATED FOR 1 5 . 4 . 8 .

/ , COSIUlS

(SS); 06. 1

NA"ESEND:

ALlTRAN:

TO DETER"INE TRANS. PER"ISSI


"EANS ALL TRANSACTIONS ARE PERmTED.

I -0 "EANS USE "ATR l l


1 '1

CATEGORY :

"

TRANSACT I ON

TRANI:
I.

VERSUS CATESORY PERm "ATRII

1 2 J 4 5 6 )

( ACE 1 I 0 0 0 0 )

(ADT 0 0 0 0 0 )

(All I 0 0 0 0 0 )

( ALF I 0 0 0 0 0 )
(All I 0 0 0 0 0 )

26()(J

March, 1 987

Page 15

what cosmos ca n do to you


( ALK I 0 0 0 0 0 )
( ALP I 0 0 0

ESC
I E S= E SC

0 )
( ARS I I I I I I )
( AUD I 0 0 0 0 0 )

ESL
I ES=ESL

(CAY I I I 0 0 0 )

ESF
I ES=ESF
D"C=SC2

mc I I I I I I )

The / ETC / MATR I X . S file gives the different


user group numbers , then makes a table cross
referencing them with command names. A 1
means that family can use the command and a 0
means they can't.
Prefix! and brief deacriptions:
AD: Associated order: When creating a service

order ( O R O ) , the option AO can be used . This


indicates that there is another ORO pertinent to
the one being worked with . The two orders should
be completed together.
B L : B r i dge L i f t e r : These are used w i t h
telephone answering services (TAS ) . The TAS
has an extension of the customer'S l ine. A BL
allows one location , the customer'S house , to
have priority. I f the TAS is on the customer's line,
and the customer picks up, he will have priority
and the TAS will be disconnected .
BTN: B i l ling Telephone N umber: This indicates
that one l i ne's cal ls get placed on the b i l l of
another line.
CCF: Custom Cal ling Features. COSMOS has
an option which can define the features (three
way, cal l waiting , etc . ) on a l ine. These features
would be, for the most part , listed by three
characters. This option can only be used with
electronic or digital offices .
CUSTD" CAL L I NS FEATURES TABLE :
I N D I Y I DUAl CCF ' S
I l ftll,n.flf"l
SAmE FEATURE

3ES=lESS

EF2=21 2BESS

SES=5ESS

[ S A M is the feature iden t i f i e r code i n


COSMOS . The codes fol lowing the switch names
( 1 ES, DMC , 5ES, etc . ) would be th feat re
identifier code on the different electronic/digital
switches . ]
m

l E NS "

CALL FORNARD POTS


3ES=ES"

EF2=ES"

5ES=/CFY

D"C=CFN
ESI
I ES=ESI

CALL NA I T I NS POTS
3ES=E51

m=ESI

SEN CIT

D"C=CNT

Page 1 6

March, 1 987

2600

EAN
I ES=EAN, E2K

D"C=CNF

3ES=ESC
5ES=/mNC

SPEED CAL L I NS B
EF2=ESL

3ES= E SL
5ES= / I O SC I C

D"C=SCI

(CLA I 1 I I 0 0 )

I E S = I I I AESS
D"C=D"S 100

EF2=ESC

D"C=3NC

<AlC I I I 0 I 0 )
(BAI I I I 0 I 0 )

SA"

3 m CAL L I NS POTS

SPEED CAL L I NS 30
EF2'ESF

lES=ESF
SES' / l DSC2C

CONFERENCE CALL I NS CENTREX


EF2-EAN

3ES=
5EN"NoNC

CP: Cable Pair: A CP is the wire which goes

from the central office (CO) to the customer's


premises.

CS: Class of Service : RES, B U S , PBX, DTF


( Dial Tone First coin line ) . The CS is a general
service category. It varies from place to place.
00: Due Date : A DO is simply the date a
specific ORO should be completed by.
FOO: Frame Due Date : This is the date when all
work on the Main D istributing Frame ( M D F )
should b e completed . I t is usually a day o r two
before the D O . This will ensure that the l ine is
working , before a lineman goes to the customer's
premises.
FEA: Features: These are l ine features common
to all types of swi tching equipment. [ 1 ] Touch
tone/Rotary. [2] Sleeve lead/No sleeve. A sleeve
is part of a subscriber trunk . A grounded sleeve
indicates the l i ne is busy. Customers who own
fancy equipment such as a PBX will have sleeve
lead . This means the sleeve will be run into their
location . [3] Essen t ial service/Non-essen t ial .
Essential service means that the customer is on a
priority service l ist , in case of emergency. If the
switch were to break (electro-mechanical) or
crash (electronic) , the customer's line would be
one of the first restored . Essen t ial service also
indicates a good chance to get a tol l cal l through
when lines are tied up ( i .e. flood , hurricane,
bombing of smal l M iddle Eastem country) .
Usually doctors, coin phones, and govemment
officials have essential service. [4] Ground
start/Loop start . A normal line is loop start
meaning when you pick up the phone you get a
dial tone . If a l ine is ground start you must touch
the tip ( lead ) to ground to get a dial tone. Ground
start lines are mostly used by PBX customers.
HF: Hunt From : This indicates that when the
l ine specified after the HF is busy calls will hunt
to the TN in question .

-and what you can d o to

.
HT : H unt to : ThIS IndIcates that wh en the Ime
i s busy calls will hunt to the given TN .
LOC: This is the location of either the CP or OE
on the M D F .
DC: Order Class: An OC represents special
treatment for.an ORO . I am not fully fami liar with
the different types. OC HOT indicates that the
ORO is on a priority completion list and should be
done right away. This is normally used when a
customer has a service fai lure.
DE: Office Equipment: A n OE i s the physical
piece of equipment that a l ine takes up in the
switch . In electronic offices there is a line card
with memory which holds the attributes of the
line. In electro-mechanical offices an OE is a
sma l l network of electronic components :
.
Changes are hard wlred and no t kept m memory.
ORO: Order Nl.Il1ber: An ORO is the service
order's name. It is indefinitive but follows a
cert a i n standard . It can be any g roup of
characters (up to 25) . but is usually the OT
fol lowed by 6 numbers (ORO 0T123456) .
IT: Order Type: An OT signifies what a
specific ORO does. whether it's a new line or just
a change made to an old one.
PIC: Primary Independent Carrier: This option.
while hardly used. will display the custonier's
equal access choice by its 3 digit code. Some
systems u se the alpha code. while most u se the
numeric.
NOTE: This is not a complete l ist of carriers
but covers most of the big ones. This list serves a
double purpose as the PIC codes are the same as
equal access10XXX codes.
PIC

001
007
009
011
040
, 05J
066
080
084
2ll
220
221
222
223
224
224
228
234
245
258
272
286
288

Al pha

Coopan! N...

RTT

Republic Ttl"

TlIC

MeR
m
1??

MIl
???
???

LOS
RTC

Hit

????77???

IItlr OliU. Lon,


Altr l "

T.ltdltl
Altr l "n Nlhork
I/LlJil.1

Bllhnc.

Aehl

??777777?

IIIlT

Rtl
IItsltrn

TSR
Me l

IIC I IA"U/hlr.

ACT
ME

1m???7???
??777?77777

Union Lin' Dishon


Ttlu....
Lon, Dilhnc.
TDI TDl Inc.

All
ACC
TDT

mT
ACC

Tocooi c T.I .phon.

??7

".Irontl

BPA
???
AfT

B.l I of PA
CI

Irk LDno DI slinc.


AnT

322 ASH

it

Auricift Shortcol
m UST US Ttltcol l nOli US SPRINT n.hork
7????7????
m MCF
2 ELC EI.clronic Offin C.nhr
'2 1 CLK Co.1 i nk
li ghhl IDonn'l ..nl nil. bting gim ou\ . )
m LST
442 FHE ?7?7?m?
A l l ntl / ALC
m ALN
452 YMS Yirtull Mthor k Smim
45' ACC Argo COilunic.tionl
DlshnCt SIr,ic.
:: i! i!n:
539 LDl LDl
555 T P T.ItSphtrt
,52 HLJ I Nt. J"lty It II
654 CBD Cincinnati B.l l Long Dlshnct
69B NYT H York Ttl.phon.
n
:;; ;';II s l ;:;7:t 2 )
800 RCA RCAI S,hl co
: : i:S TtitcOi
835 TLC T.ltConntct
850 TKC Tol l Kil l
B52-- TS! -. Tt!ltoo Sy!tm 888 ses S8S Skylin. Ino. Ne l l
963 THl ?777m????
999 SNe Shrntt Corpor.tion
II

PL: Private Line: A PL is a special circuit set


u p between two COs. It can be a foreign
exchange (FX). or WATS. or just any type of long
distance connection. A PL name can be up to 25
characters and has l ittle other infoonation about
it kept in COSMOS. PL information is usually
kept in TI RKS (Trunk Integrated Record Keeping
System) .
1: Special Equipment : SE is used when a
circuit. usually a PL. requires something which
cannot be achieved with an OE. When you look
up a l ine owned by TELCO (Telephone Company)
instead of a cable pair. it will have house cable. It
will look like this:
SE HiE . CJl ST ':
DATE 04-1 0-87

11: Telephone NlJT1ber: This is a telephone


number. plain and simple.
TT: Telephone number Type: This is not rifjid.
When a COSMOS database is set UP. diflerent
TN' are asssigned ITs. They do nOt have to be
stuck to. but they are a good idea (organization.
how novel) .
III: USOC (Universal Serv ice Order Code):
This is the COSMOS equivalent of an LCC. For
example: 1 FR. 2FR. 4fR are 1 . 2. and 4 party
line flat rate. 1 MR and 1 MB are measured
residence and measured busi ness . DTF and OFA
are dialtone first coin. 10F is an official TElCO
line.
Essentially. a phone line is comprised of a
CP--the wire which runs to the customer
(continued on page 20)
261J()

March, 1981

Page 11

I
I
I

LEITERS

(continuedfrom page 13)

readers who would otherwise never


know of our existence. We in turn will
provide them with knowledge that they
never thought was obtainable. This
does not mean we 're "selling out" or
trying to get mass-market appeal. If you
go to a halfway decent newstand. you'll
see quite a few other magazines
reaching out in the same way.

An Experience to Share
Dear 2600:
One bright day last March, a week
after my 1 6th b i rt hday, I came home to
d iscover that the cops had ra ided my
room a n d t a k e n everyt h i ng
c o m p u t e r , p r i n t e r , m o d e m , m o n i to r ,
3 5 0 disks, b u t left the App le I Ic power
pack. Among those 300 disks were
a b o u t 20 p h re a k / h a ck d i sks, 300
p i rated programs, and a number of
personal disks. MCI had ca ught me
hacking out codes and put a D i a led
N u mber Recorder on my l i ne. They had
followed all my ca l ls for 1 Y2 months.
My fi rst meeti ngs with probation and
lawyers scared me to deat h . I was
i nforma lly threatened with going to
j uve, h aving to pay i mmense fi nes,
never getting a ny of my stuff back, etc.
The next 2 months of wa iting for my
tria l were hel l . I was orig i n a lly charged
w i t h 9 c o u n t s of v a r i o u s c r i m e s
including phone fra ud, accessi ng of
M C rs computer, and a n noyi ng phone
ca l ls (excha nge hack i ng).
As it turned out I used a cou nty
lawyer and ended up payi ng noth i ng
for h i s services. I got off on most of the
co u n ts a n d h a d to pay a f i n e of
$479 . 3 2, $ 29 of which were phone
b i l l s a n d t h e rest were "serv i ce
charges " of having to switch the 22
codes I used. I a lso had to serve 80
h o u r s of co m m u n i t y s e rv i ce a n d
rem a i n o n probation u n t i l these items
were done.
I got a l l of my computer stuff back
m i nus 1 1 d i sks of ph reak/hack stuff
(they m issed q u ite a few). I did pay the
Page 1 8

March, 1 987

26()()

f i ne which was a h e l l of a lot less than


what it should h ave been. I act ua l ly
com p l eted a bo u t 1 5 h o u r s of
com m u n ity service but my probat ion
officer was easi ly dece ived.
I j u st got off probation last week a nd
a l l and a l l I 've got to say it was we l l
worth it. I wrote t o g ive you m y account
of be ing ca ught and what the end
resol ut ion was ( not very harsh). I do
hope that none of you have to go
through what I d i d i n those fi rst 2
months.

The Sultan

Getting caught at something illegal


i s never "worth it " unless it 's
something y o u really believe in o r
something you can erase later. And if
you brag about this to lots of people,
you'll probably find yourself reliving
history. Keep us posted We care.

Words of Agreement
Dear 2600:
Just a q u ick note to tel l you I agree
with you r new format (except it's too
bad it does n 't come t h ree- h o l e
pu nched). Keep u p the good work
g e t t i n g m y f i r s t i s s u e of 2 600
(December 1 986) was l i ke a breath of
fresh, ionized a i r.

DE

Words of Caution
Dear 2600:
T h e m a i l m a n b ro u g h t m e yo u r
"surprise" and I fou nd, after q u ickly
read ing cover-to-cover, that I felt as
t h o u g h yo u r exc i t e m e n t / p r i d e w a s
somet h i ng t h a t I a lso fe lt a pa rt of.
Th a n ks for be i n g t h e re . . . t h a n ks f o r
m o v i n g a h e a d . . . t h a n ks for a l l yo u r
efforts to a l low u s a l l to enjoy the r ide.
One worry did creep i nto my m i nd :
w i l l 2600 s o m e h ow m ove i n t o a
m a i nstream approach to its product/
subject/readers. It is my hope that you
rema i n true to you r present d i rection.
Te l l it l ike it rea l ly is . . . l ike it ca n be
(g iven the very creative people out
there). "Rub the lamp . . . ca l l out the

(continued on page 23)

,' I
I
,

Z600 marketplace
I ' D L I K E TO T R A D E PC softw a r e w i t h
ANYO N E having a n I B M P C o r compat ible.
At present my PC l i brary approx i mates 1 1 0
p r od u ct s i n c l u d i n g t h e l a t est g a m e s ,
diagnost ic prog rams, business softwa re,
u t i l i t i es, and various word process ing and
other appl ication software. Readers can
contact m e by writing : Software, PO Box 73,
U n ionda le, NY 1 1 553.
I N STRUCTIO N S FOR TH E CONSTRUCTIO N
A N D O P E R AT I O N O F T H E B L U E B O X
WA N T E D ! I a m a b e g i n n i n g p h o n e
enth u s i ast and wou ld g reatly appreciate it if
someone cou ld help m e i n des i g n i n g a b l u e
box. Of cou rse, as y o u m ight h ave g uessed
it, t h i s i s for " i nformat ive" pu rposes only!
S e n d you r repl ies t o M r . O s c a r Statuto,
224A Was h i ngton St. #9, Lyn n , MA 0 1 902 .

MAN UALS OR I N STRUCTIO N S N E E D E D for


two modems l a be led Dataphone C h a n n e l
I nterface . One has l a be l on the outside that
says : 44A2 Series 1 , Data M o u n t i ng , S D -

WANTED : A decent m odem program for use

1 D 247-0 1 -J23 and the other says: 44A2

o n a Z e n i t h Z - 1 00 r u n n i n g M S - D O S .

DATA MTG , SD - 1 D 247-0 1 -J23, S E R I E S 1


83 M G 1 2 . The boa rds on the i n s ide are
l a beled: DAS 829B - L 1 A, S E R I E S 4, 8 1 MG3
and DAS 829B L l A, S E R I E S 5, 84 MG 04.
Send i nfo to : P . O . Box 50346, R a leigh, N C

Contact M a n ny @ 26oo, ( 5 1 6) 7 5 1 - 26oo or


PO Box 752, M iddle I s l a nd, NY 1 1 953.
DOCU M E N TATION on electronic & d i g ita l
PBX's a n d switch ing systems. Wi l l i ng to
t r a d e / p u r c h a s e . A l so l o o k i n g f o r B e l l

27650.

Syst e m Pract ices a n d other such

PRIVATE I NVESTIGATO R wants to hear

paraphern a l i a . Write to B i l l , c/o 2600, PO

from 2600 readers who have electro n i c

B o x 7 5 2 B , M iddle I s l a n d NY 1 1 953.

eq u ipment he can buy cheap I Gaslamp

C E L L U LA R T E L E P H O N E I N F O R M AT I O N
WANT E D . I w i l l pay a modest fee for info
wh ich has not yet been publ ished i n 2600.
P lease desc r i be the type of i nfo that you
h ave a n d n a m e you r price. M r . B . , P . O . Box
2895, Brooklvn, NY 1 1 202.

P r i v a t e E y e i s i n t o E l e c t ro n i c C o u n t e r measu res/TSCM in the trade parla nce. 425


" F " Street, San D i ego, CA 92 1 0 1 . ( 6 1 9)
239-699 1 .
TAP BACK I S S U ES-complete col lection,
vo l . 1 -83 p l u s suppleme nta l reports and
schematics. Approx. 400 pages of q u a l ity
cop ies sent via U PS or US M a i l . $ 1 00
i n c l u des del ivery. Send cash, check o r M O
(payable t o P E l ) . Cash sent same day, others
a l low 4 weeks, to: Pete G . , Post Office Box
46::S Mt. Laurel NJ 08054
HEY YOU ! This is the chance you 've been
wa it i ng for i A rather new service of 2600
M agaz i n e . G ot someth i n g to sel l ? Looking
for somet h i ng to buy? O r trade? T h is is the
p l acel And it's free to su bscribers I J u st
send us whatever you want to say (without
making it too long) and we' l l p r i nt itl O n ly
people please, no bus i n esses l
Dead l i ne for Apr i l issue: 4/5/87.

2600

arch. 1 987

Page 19


Q.,
o

everyth ing you a lways wanted


premises. The TN is the network address dialable
from anywhere, and the OE is the equipment
which makes it all work .
Modifiers

C P : BL . LDC
TN: BTN, HF ! HT . TT
DE : CCF , CS, FEA, P I C . US
DRD: AD. DD. FDD . C . OT

<;:l

.
CP 111l1li:
WK: Working pair, in use.

SF: Spare, unused.


HS: Reserved for future assignment.

UK: U nknown . This is rarely used, and shows


sloppy work on the part of TELCO.
0 1 -9: Defective cable:
0 1 : short circuit
02: ground ring side
03: ground tip side
04: cross battery
05: open ring side (ring side not connected )
06: open tip side
07: open both sides
08: ground both sides
09: unbalanced voltage
PC: Pending connect . The CP is being added to
a circuit.
PO: Pending disconnect. The C P is being
removed from a circuit.
TN 1II1u1:

WK: Working, in use.

OF: Official TELCO l ine.


TS: Test l ine. Used on loop , terminations ,

recordings . . . .
UNO: Unique. Used for special numbers, such
as

N NX-OOOO.

SF: Spare, willing, and ready (for assignment ) .

N P : Nonpubl ished number, used when


customer changes old number due to a problem
suc as crank calls. The NP informs people
looking up the l ine to not disclose information .
AV: Same as SF. Seems rather silly to me.
UK: Unknown, someone spi lled coffee on the
paper work .
D O : D i sconnected number. I n stead of a
recording there will be an operator to announce a
change in service.
O M : D i scon nected mac h i n e ( recorded )
.
. 'The number you have reached has
Intercept
been disconnected . . . "
CO: Changed number, operator intercept.
CM: Changed number, machine intercept.

Page 20

March. 1 987

2600

pc: Pending connect, the TN is being added to


a circuit.
PO: Pending disconnect, the TN is being
removed from a circuit.
( I n all cases if a facility (TN , OE, CP) is either
PC or PO , it will have a regular status (WK, SF,
OM , etc . ) also. )
An OE status is the same as both a CP or a TN
status code.
OT-tnIIr "".:
NC: New Connect. A new circuit is being built.
CD: Complete Disconnect. An existing circuit

is being removed.
CN: Change. An existing circuit is being
changed (new TN , different FEA, etc . ) .
F IlIII T : From and To. These are AO . I'm not
too fami liar with them.
SS 1l1li HS: Suspension/ Restoral of Service.
These are used when bills are leh oopaid!

IT-,."""",. ,..""" ",.

B: Business line. Usually thousand, or hundred


group numbers (i .e. NNX-2000 , NNX-2600 ,
etc . ) .
C: Coin l ine, usually in the 9XXX range .
0: Official TELCO line. Usually NNX-99XX or

N NX-OOXX mmbers .

T: Test line. Usually NNX-99XX or NNX-OOXX


runbers .
G: Good . This as far as I can tell is assigned to
numbers which can be both residence or business

l i nes . The numbers are usually catchy


NNX-1 222, NNX-1 212, NNX-1 234, etc.
X: Other, basically your run of the mill ntmber
(i .e. NNX-9089 or N NX-7689, etc. ).
0: Centrex numbers. Usually a hundred group
range ( i .e. N NX-l 000 to NNX-l 099 ) .
To get a listing o f o rders in COSMOS you can
use the SOL conmand. On the Hoot line of the
SOL it says OT NC. This will only print out an
ORO if its type is a new connect . You can specify
OT, DC , DO, FDD, and ORO in an SOl.
... .
. " ..

" ". I"

12:D:. PI

IIK CEI1II : .

- .-

1260111-1
."'1 12
'"*'''
....,...
.."""
IIIIW II2H

'"

II _._n: M)I
IE "-f,..... '11-
. ........ 'u....
1 " ..... .... 'IHtU

1'&1."1"

.... 'II-1t12
1IC N-Il-M SII-5t4S
IE .... n ... ' ''t ll1mIfJ
IE .H

If It

1IH5IJ ft
lIl-lO'tl C
IIHIIt It
I Is-JIIJ ac
IU-fJJI K

.,.. II

to know a bout cosmos


The column called CKT- I D has the telephone
numbers. The column headed AI has the ORD
writer's initials. I 'm not that familiar with ORD
status codes , but there is an easier way to find
out what's happening . You can use the I N a or the
SOl command to list out an order.

lit 501

ftPR 01, 19.4

OTlIC)

Qll:D NUt.6 l 1 2
001 04-06-&11

12:24:56

flD101-05-111

PM

5T1AC- )

2b4 ARB ( c r )
AC AARRRGGHH ! ! PROCESS K I LLED
2b.

FACSIYESJ

5110l-30 : 1 1 1

IIDF VORK REOmS) IUlF tMIND) LAC CDIPlUln 01101

17 1 1 3-0214
51 Sf PC
lOt P ' I I 0 1 1
0( 005-ml
IT SF Pi:
LOC PF l I O I l
T I 5 1 1 -1462

ST Sf PC

FS .

0llT! OHI-Il

n .

lATE 01-12-14

Fl .

"1

Ol-tl-ll

CS JUS

UI I.

FU TIEl.

nPE 1 IF II S11-7I00

II. 5 1 1 -7100

It

An example of the three W's of COSM O S .


WHO tel ls you which users are logged into which
TTY and which WC . WHAT gives you the
COSMOS version and W H E R E gives you the
location of the computer. TTY tells you what TTY
you are on.
Bell Labs humor: This is a little joke (very
little) in COSMOS .

Using the LTN ( List Telephone N umber)


command you can scan for test lines . On the hunt
l i ne the N N X or 51 1 is specif ied and a status of
test is specified . This makes it easy to 'scan' for
test lines.
261 LT. (cr)
" .1 11I /iT1

SOl totI'LETED

1/1 01, 1911

211

FACS(YES) states that the order was


implemented in conjunction with FACS ( Facility
Assignment and Control System) . FACS is a
network of computers including COSMOS, WM
(work manager) , LFACS, and others.
MOF WORK REO(YES)-this means that frame
work is necessary.
M O F C O M P L ( N O )-the frame has not
completed the appropriate work .
LAC COMPL(NO)-the loop assignment center
has not completed its work_
RCP(NO) has to do with forms being sent to the
proper places . I'm not quite sure how that works .
ESTI03-30: 1 6) is the time the order was input
to COSMOS: March 30th at 4pm .
LOC is the location at the M D F (frame) where
the CP and OE meet .
201 MHO ( c r )
ROOT

HOO CN

I NO I
CO"I

T T 2 0 E"

RCOI

TT51 CD

NAOI

Tm 26

CIIIII Funl

26t HAT ( c r >


COSN I I 1 5 . 4 . 8 . 2 Ilf'ERAT I N6 sysm

SUPPLmNTAL RELEASE YERSION


NOYE"8ER 21. 1 985
"ARCH 1 6 . 1 986

12:21: 11

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m - lIS1 IF IUPIIDII IlllllERS I. ITAIUI II

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mEl'HOIIE PRJ" PENI /0551l1li AI
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111 -0557
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I I H l19
11 I-1ll0
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S11-2100
S 1 1 -2101
1 1 1 -2302
1 1 1 - 66 1 1
Ill-IISO
1 1 1 -1151
11l-1IS2
1 1 1 -1151
S I I -II54

1
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05-1 0-81
05-1I-1l
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261 .HERE ( c r )

2600 ENTERPRISES

The REMARKS column holds information


which can be helpful when 'scanning'.
To get a l ist of WC's , you can type WC FLDS
(W. C . Fields ) .

PO SOl 752

mDLE IS . . NY 1 1 953-0752

Co"PUTER NO. 2
261 TTY (cO

TT2l

2600

March, 1 987

Page 2 1

cosm os
2 6 1 IICFL D S ( c r )

AC1 I VE WC ' S ARE :


26
eN
DB
EM
PS
26.

The last command is one which you shou ld


never execute , unless you have access to the
tape drives. Nevertheless , i t makes a good f i n i sh
to the article.

M ike Agranoff is a folk s inger from Boonton ,


N J . He also p lays concertina, banj o , recorder, as
we l l as many other instruments. H is Ballad of
Jake and 1 0- Ton Molly has ach ieved nat ionw i de
acclaim through the performances of B i l l Staines .
He's a board member and past president of the '
Folk Project , and manager for that organ izati on's
coffeehouse , The M instrel Show .
H i s collec t i on , Jake, the Captain, and Other
Heroes, is ava i l able for $6 . 00 postage pai d .
Write to M i ke Agranoff , R D 4 B o x 45 O a k H i l l s ,
Boonton , NJ 07005 .
* * * * * *

As many of you know by now , the real Captain

261 LOS ( c r )
0 , I , 2 D r E ENTER? E < c O
.. LDS TAPE ERRDR--- END PRESENT AND START NEW TAPE

Crunch , John D raper, was arrested i n late


December for something that had absolutely
nothing to do with phones .
Accord ing to po l i ce , Draper was helping to

; L06 I N :

m a n u f a c t u re f a k e B a y A rea R a p i d Tra n s i t

Telecom I nformer (mill illllecl frol l l paKe X )


ass igned 6 7 6 l a s t yea r . but
implementation was d e layed .
T ra nslations fo r loca l cen t ra l o ffices
a round the c o u n t ry to acce pt 676 as
Tonga have n 't been rescinded even yet .

Captain Crunch
(("(JIIt illlledfrolll paKe I I )

I t's been a few years s i nce they c losed the


Exchange ,
When the Captain set off on h i s own .
We've since seen divest iture, Sprint , MC I .
And the ten dol lar Japanese phone.
When I ring up his phone , a recorded voice says ,
"Th is number's no longer in service . "
But I know h e keeps vig i l , and I know h e keeps
watch ,
And I know he sti l l makes Ma Bel l nervous .
And now sometimes when l i sten ing to answering
mach i nes ,
Or somet imes when I 'm on hold ,
A voice w i l l come through to me , fai n t , but
distinct ,
A voice I remember of old.
other line,
But I know that he's talk i ng to me.
I t 's old Captain Crunch keep ing watch on Ma
Be l l ,
The sou l o f the Phone Company.
March. 1987

magnetic strip and either demand money , let you


pass , or g ive back money . Washi ngton DC also
has this kind of a system .
Draper, who was arrested with two others , has
p l e aded n o t g u i l t y t o c h a rg e s o f fo rgery ,
conspi racy , and computer fraud . He's free on
$11 , 500 bai l .
According t o the San Francisco Bay Guardian,
i t 's become a sort of sport to try and outw i t the
BA RT system .

I n fact , several colleges in

Califomia had contests, the resu lts of which were


widely c i rculated among crackers. This caused
BA RT to change the system once and now i t
appears they' l l have t o d o i t aga i n .
We're happy that Captai n C runch cracked
another system , if that's in fact what he did. We
hope , however, that he wasn't sel ling forgeries to
the general pub l i c , as he's being accused . There's
nothing clever or ingen ious about the latter and ,
if convicted of this, it would relegate the Captain
to the status of a common thief , not to ment ion
t he probable prison term i nvolved .
We don't want to see hackers and phone
phreaks going to jail for being stupid and /or

And you'd think i t was leak -through from some

Page 22

( BA RT) cards i n San Francisco . These are the


cards you i n sert i n to mach i nes that read a

26()()

greedy . That's a waste of a real talent .


By the way , we're told that Pacific Bell has
entered the case because Draper al leged ly used
"sophisticated electron ic equ i pment" to gain free
access to the long d istance telephone netwo rk .
That's a pretty fancy way to describe a touch
tone phone , isn't i t ?

lETIERS

(continued/rom page 18)

m a g i c forces . . . let Uncle Sam f i g u re out


how to control what comes forth . . . let
2600 r e a d e r s e n j oy t h e t h r i l l a n d
exc itement of fresh ideas a n d t h e raw
powe r t h a t c o m e s f r o m n ew
i n fo r m a t i o n i n t h e h a n d s of yo u n g
m i nds without restrict ions . "
Ben Harroll
San Diego
Now why didn 't we say that?

A Response
Dear 2600 :
Y o u r n ew fo r m a t f o r 2600 l o o k s
good . Tha n ks for the extra effort to
i m prove it, a nd keep up the good work.
Also, thanks for the f i n e TAP a rticle by
Chesh i re Cat.
We m u st r e s p o n d to A r a b 1 49 ' s
com p l a i nt that w e charg e too m uch ( $ 2
each) for cop ies of back issues o f TAP,
a n d that we a re r ipp i ng -off the work of
others by doing so.
Consider:
(1 ) No issue of TAP was copyrighted.
When you don 't copyr ight you r work, it
fa l ls i nto the public doma i n and a nyone
c a n c o p y a n d d i st r i b u t e i t . And it
i m p l ies that you e ither don 't care or
act u a l ly want this to happe n .
( 2 ) W e a d v e r t i s e d i n TA P a n d
contributed a rticles to it.
(3) We h ig h ly recommended TAP in
severa l of our publ ications. We, as wel l
as d o z e n s of C o n s u m e rt r o n i c ' s
c u stomers were r i pped-off of
s u bscription fees to TAP. And we lost
s u bsta n t i a l c r ed i b i l ity a n d b u s i n ess
beca use of t h i s . A few people even
fa lsely accused us of be i ng in cahoots
with TAP.
(4) Before sel l i ng copies of TAP, we
wrote TAP as to our i ntentions, and we
notified mutual acquai ntances of TAP
staffers. And we openly advert ised the
resa le of TAP back issues. At no time
d i d we ever receive any objection from
any former TAP staffer for doing this.
And n o staffe r , to o u r k n ow l ed g e ,
competed with u s t o sel l TAP back
issues.
(5) Arab 1 49 does not u nderstand the
econom ies of n u m bers. O rders for TAP

back issues average a bout two issues


per order . There 's a lot more work
i nvolved per issue i n m a k i n g one copy
compa red to m a k i n g 1 00 cop ies. More
work means more money ! Also, we
charge $ 1 60 for copies of a l l 9 1 back
issues. Also, TAP issues a re d i fficu lt to
copy. C o n st a n t c h a n g e s i n c o p i e r
contrast a n d reduction m u st be made
as TAP issues have many d ifferent
fo r m a t s a n d p r i n t d e n s i t i e s . I t ' s a
ted ious j ob ! $2 per issue is reasonable !
( 6 ) C o n s u m e rt r o n i c s i s a p r of i t
m a k i n g b u s i n e s s . We s u p p o r t
ou rselves and c h i ldren with it. Please
rea l ize that but for Consumertro n i cs,
2600, and a few others, where wou ld
you acq u i re t h i s i nva l u able a n d u n ique
i nformation d u r i ng a time of i ncrea s i ng
government and big busi ness r i p-offs
and oppress ion? The personal freedom
situation is m u c h worse today t h a n it
was in the s ixt ies when a lot more
people had the ba l ls to protest a nd fight
wrongdoi n g . We need you r support to
cont i n u e ! Th i n k about that the next
time you feel that you are paying too
much for i nformation that was difficu lt,
costly a nd risky to acq u i re, and risky to
publ ish !
John J . Wil liams
Consumertronics
201 1 Crescent Dr.
Alamogordo, NM 883 1 0

More on /eN
Dear 2600:

Here is somet h i n g a bout ICN that I


fou nd in the Febr u a ry '87 issue of
Consumer Reports:
" I n Wiscons i n , the attorney genera l
rece n t l y obta i n ed a t e m p o r a ry
i nj unction ag ai nst a second flat- rate
com p a n y , I n d e p e n d e n t C om m u n i
cations Network. Among other t h i ngs,
ICN m u st now d i sclose that fewer than
5 percent of its customers' ca l ls go
through . "
I a l so h a ve o n e q u es t i o n-does
anyone know AN I for Monta na?
J im A .
M ontana
2600

March,

1987

Page 23

CONTENTS
THE BALLAD OF CAPTAIN CRUNCH

A GU IDE TO EQUAL ACCESS

TELECOM IN FORM ER

TH E WONDERRJ L WORLD OF COSMOS . . . . . . . 1 0


.

12

2600 MARKETPLACE

19

LETTE RS

2600 Magazine
PO Box 752
M iddle Island, NY 1 1 953 U SA.

WARN ING:
MISSING lABEL