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Computer Organization

Midterm 1

Fall 2009

October 22

Solution

Name _____________________________________________________

REFERENCES:

n

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

30

2**n

1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

256

512

1024

2048

4096

8192

16384

32768

65536

131072

262288

544288

1048576

1073741824

Abbreviation

1K

2K

4K

8K

16K

32K

64K

128K

256K

512K

1M

1G

85 = 1 x 26 + 0 x 25 + 1 x 24 + 0 x 23 + 1 x 22 + 0 X 21 + 1 x 20 = 1010101

b) Convert -85 base 10 to 2s complement Binary.

-85 = comp (01010101) + 1 = 10101011

c) Convert AA.8 Hex to base 10

AA.8 = A x 161 + A x 160 + 8 x 16-1 = 10 x 161 + 10 + 8/16 = 160 + 10 + .5 = 170.5

d) How many signed integers can be represented in an n bit word and what is the range?

Number = 2n

8A FF8A Since the first bit of 8A is a one, the leading bits are 1s

f) Add the 8 bit 2s complement representations of 7.5 and 4.75.

7.5 + 4.75 = 000111.10 + 000100.11 = 001100.01

g&h) What conditions indicate an overflow has occurred when two 2s complement numbers

have been added?

Let AS, BS, & CS represent the sign bits of two numbers to be added and the sum.

If and only if AS and BS have the same sign and CS has the opposite sign there is

an overflow.

OVERFLOW = (AS AND BS AND (NOT CS)) OR ((NOT A1) AND (NOT BS) AND CS)

i&j) Show the IEEE Floating point representation of 3.25. Show your work!

{seeeeeeeefffffffffffffffffffffff}

3.25 = 11.01 = 1.101 x 21 exponent -127 = 1 exponent = 128 = 10000000

3.25 = 0 10000000 101000000000000000000000 in floating point (1. is understood)

Show how the string A1a2 is stored in a 32 bit word memory location.

41316132 (Hex)

NOT A

NOT A

^

+

NOT B

NOT B

= NOT ( A + B ) or

= NOT ( A ^ B )

A

0

0

1

1

B | NOT A

0 |

1

1 |

1

0 |

0

1 |

0

NOT B

1

0

1

0

NOT A ^ NOT B

1

0

0

0

Columns

*

A + B

0

1

1

1

and

NOT ( A + B )

1

0

0

0

* are identical , QED

c) What are a minimum set of logic elements that can be used to realize any combinational logic

circuit?

One - Either a Nand gate or a Nor gate

A B | C D

----------------------0 0 | 0 0

0 1 | 0 1

1 0 | 0 1

1 1 | 1 0

f) What is the logic function of the following circuit? Show the condition of the MOS

devices when A = 1 and B = 0 , and show the values of C and D.

OR Gate

3 a) Define an Algorithm

1) Definiteness - precise

2) Effective Computability each step can be done on a computer

3) Finiteness can be done in a finite number of steps

b) What is the von Neumann Model ?

1) Program made up of Instructions (the smallest unit)

2) Computer is composed of CPU, Memory, Input/Output, & Control

3) Program and data share memory and they are indistinguishable

1) Data bits

2) Address bits

3) Control lines

1) FETCH Instruction

2) DECODE Instruction

3) EVALUATE Operand Addresses

4) READ Operands

5) EXECUTE Operation

6) STORE Results

4 bits

b) What is the range of the address space?

A0 : A9 210 = 1024

d) How many of these chips would it take to build a 2K by 8 memory?

(2 to obtain 8 bit words) X (2 to obtain 2K of memory space) = 4 chips

e) Given addresses A[0:1], data D[0:3], and control line WE, show the decoders and MUXs to

construct the following memory (make certain your diagram is clearly readable):

1) A Sequential circuit with a finite number of states

2) A finite number of inputs

3) A finite number of outputs

4) An explicit specification of state transitions function of the states and inputs

5) An explicit specification of the outputs function of the states and inputs

b) Show the State Diagram for a traffic light that sequences Green to Red and repeats ( based

upon a clock).

Q | Qn

0 | 1

1 | 0

Q |

0 |

1 |

R

0

1

G

1

0

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