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Out of an Old Toy Chest

Author(s): Marina Warner


Source: Journal of Aesthetic Education, Vol. 43, No. 2, Special Issue on Children's Literature
(Summer, 2009), pp. 3-18
Published by: University of Illinois Press
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40263781 .
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Out ofan Old ToyChest


MARINA WARNER
The Soul oftheToy
in 1853,he remembers
In Baudelaire'sessay"La Moraledu joujou,"written
allwrappedinvelvetandfurs,
ownerMadamePancoucke,
howthetoyshop
fromher"treasure
store
beckonedtheyoungCharlesto choosesomething
in
mind's
the
still
sees
his
down
the
back
forchildren."
years, poet
Looking
withtoysfromfloortoceilingthatthis"Fe
eyethemagicroomoverflowing
a secondthought,
he picked
dujoujou"(ToyFairy)openedtohim.Without
themostexpensive,themostgarish,thefreshest
out "themostbeautiful,
Buthis horrified
motherinsisted
and themostbizarreoftheplaythings."
little
Baudelaire
had to
and
the
lessextravagant
he chooseanother,
present,
and
his
himself
relinquish toy.
resign
Thewordjoujou(notjouet,theusualwordfortoy)is almosta petname
hintsat baby
witha nursery
ringlikea "teddy"or a "dolly";itsrepetition
and
talkand henceat playing,as when a childexchangesendearments
and
elaborate
scenarios.
in
conversations
a
with
toy imaginary
questions
Thetoyin so manychildren's
gamesbecomespartofan ongoingstoryand
inthechild'slife.
narratives
thefirst
invented
inthiswayinitiates
and
frustration
withMme.Pancoucke
Thatsceneofseduction,
pleasure,
and reasonedadcatchesBaudelaire'slastingaffection
andhisownmother
miration
fortoys.He calledthem"cettestatuaire
(thissingular
singulire"
than
a novelist,
an
rather
and
then
art
critic
a
he
was
first
poet
statuary);
he adopteda language
oftheboulevardsand thegalleries,
and as a flneur
He recallsin
of aesthetics,
toysas an unusualformof sculpture.
treating
Victorian
worlds
the
miniature
detail
nursery
conjuredby
pleasurable
ormailcoachesto detailed
gamesand child'splay- fromtiny"diligences"
Butaboveall he musesin wonderat children's
modelfurniture.
abilityto
and
dramas
without
or
narratives,
models,
dialogue,
creating
props
play
herrecentbooksincludePhantasMarinaWarneris a writer,
critic,and historian;
andMedia (2006) and TheLetoBundle,a novel (2000).
magoria:SpiritVisions,Metaphors,

She
on fairy
Shehaswritten
tales,children's
rhymes.
games,andnursery
extensively
ofEssex.
attheUniversity
ofliterature
is a professor
Education,Vol. 43, No. 2, Summer2009
Journal
ofAesthetic

oftheUniversity
ofIllinois
2009BoardofTrustees

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Warner

talktotheirtoys;toysbecomeactorsin
alone:"AUchildren
through
fantasy
thegreatdramaoflife,reducedbythecameraobscuraoftheirsmallbrains.
ofabstractheirgamestotheirgreatfaculty
bearwitnessthrough
Children
tionand theirhighimaginative
playthings."
power.Theyplaywithout
in
to creativity
Baudelairegoes on to maketheconnection
Significantly,
showsthespiritualtheimagination
tosatisfy
general:"[Thechild's]facility
initiation
is thefirst
Theplaything
conceptions.
ityofchildhoodinitsartistic
willeverattainagain,he says,thesamedegreeof
ofa childtoart."Nothing
ofpresenceorbelief.ForBaudethesameintensity
liveliness,
or,crucially,
cannotbe regained:"Isn'tall
ofchildishmake-believe
laire,therealization
andmuchmorevividincolour,cleanerand
oflifefoundthereinminiature,
shinier
thanreallife?"2
thatdimsthesevivid,
YetBaudelaire'sessaylingerson thefrustration
he says,also wantto see thesoul of a toy.He
shinycolors,forchildren,
and shakethem,hurl
describeshow theywillturnabouttheirplaythings
andevenrage
themtotheground,and oftenbreakthemintheirbafflement
hintsthatat
at theirstubborn
refusalto awakenintolife.His meditation
thepointwhenmake-believe
fails,thevitalityof toysvanishesand pro"Butwhereis thesoul?It's here
withmortality:
duces a primalencounter
stories
ofimagining
and sadnessbegin."3Thebeginning
thatbewilderment
- it is not
thatthestoryis notpowerfulenough
bringswithit frustration
therealthing.In a connected
prosepoementitled"Le Joujoudu pauvre,"
as he observes
publishednineyearslater,Baudelairepursuesthisthought,
an exchange
betweena beautiful,
pamperedchildinsidetheexclusiverailed
varnished,
parkofa chateau.He has "a splendidtoy,as freshas itsmaster,
But
gilded,clothedina purpledressandcoveredwithplumesandglitter."4
inhisdoll,foron theothersideoftherailings
therichchildis notinterested
a raggedstreeturchinshowshim,in a littlecagewhichhe shakesabout,a
livingrat- "drawnfromlifeitself."5
at theinertiaoftoyswas echoedwith
Baudelaire'ssenseoffrustration
even sharpermelancholy
by RainerMariaRilkein his "Essayon Dolls,"
written
halfa century
later.Reflecting
on hisownchild'splay,theGerman
He emphawithcompelling
subtlety.
poetexploreshis conflicting
feelings
- ofthedolland through
thedollsizesthatplayis a processofanimation
to the
ofthechildplaying,dreamingthedoll intolife.Buthe too returns
to feed
He broodson hismemories
oftrying
child'sfailurein thisattempt.
and coddleand,yes,animate
it.Itbecame"a confidant,
a confederate,
likea
and forgetful
likea dog,but... a burden."His
dog,nothoweverreceptive
efforts
turnedtofurywhenconfronted
solidity,
bythedoll'smuteobstinate
buthe theninvokestheonrushofcompensatory
fantasy:
so we foundthatwe needed
[A doll]madeno responsewhatsoever,
. . . Theincomprehensible
to splitourpersonality.
thingswhichwere
in thedoll as in a testtubeand
happeningto us we mixedtogether

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

we invented
thedoll:
saw them. . . changecolourandboilup. Really,
a dollwas so abysmally
devoidofphantasythatourimagination
beindealingwithit.6
cameinexhaustible
evenrhapsodicnostalgia,
on Dolls" end in tenderness,
These"Reflections
a prose-poem.
Rilkehymns:"O doll-soul,
notmadebyGod,
witha prayer,
from
some
for
soul
asked
thoughtless
fairy,
thing-soul
capriciously
you
effort/'
He thenturnsto a doll that
breathedforth
by an idol withmighty
ofhismemohe,likeGod,infusedwithsoul.He takesitoutofthetoytrunk
mortal."7
Rilke
thenpasses
find
it
and
to
moth-eaten
"indescribably
ryonly
withhopesand dreamsand
on to otherthingsthathavebecomesaturated
humanhandlingand loveacquireda soul.
havethrough
ofplayandthrough
Thisquestionoftherealhauntsthepsychology
play,
is thestateof animationthatthepowerof thought
thetheoryoffantasy:
to make realitypresent?This questionat firstincan conjuresufficient
and to the
vitesa quickdismissal.Butwhenit comesto artand literature
in
works
words
and
in
(sometimes
pictures
activity making
imagination's
ofmake-believe
becomes
as in children's
bothtogether,
books),theefficacy
and answer.Manywriters
a questionfarharderto analyze,understand,
in thewake ofmanyfundamental
have atforchildren,
myths,
following
a
and
invented
ficwith
"Yes!"
answer
this
to
resounding
question
tempted
tionsthatdo bringtoystolifeina parallelworldwhereplayingforrealcan
indeedreallywork.
In CarloCollodi'schildren'sclassicPinocchio,
Geppettois a craftsman
theskillofhis handsand his
who bringstheboy puppetto lifethrough
intimate
knowledgeofand contactwiththewood fromwhichhe is makhim.8
In thisrole,Geppettocarrieson thelegacyofthecraftsman
god
ing
handmaidens
ofbronzeinhisunderground
whoforged
smithy.
Hephaistos,
In everyrespecthiscreations
lived,exceptthattheywerenotbiologicalbeofOvid's
automata.
but
machines
Geppettoalso actsin thetradition
ings
and
warm
to
the
ofthe
of
his
statue
the
flesh
who
found
touch,
Pygmalion,
him
and
who
forms
the
Golem
Rabbi
as
such
esoteric
Loew,
brings to
magi,
lifewithmagicformulae.9
of children'sstories,TheVelveteen
In thatmosttenderand thoughtful
Rabbit(1922),MargeryWilliamsdramatizesin a memorable
exchangethe
with
with
touch
of
of
connection
art,
makingup
play
deep psychological
She does so
stories,and of bothwithemotionsand hencewithreality.
whoarestuffed
characters
toys:
through
"Whatis REAL?"askedtheRabbitoneday.. . .
"Realisn'thowyouaremade,"saidtheSkinHorse."It'sa thing
thathappenstoyou.Whena childlovesyoufora long,longtime,not
justtoplaywith,butREALLYlovesyou,thenyoubecomereal."
"Does ithurt?"askedtheRabbit.

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Warner

said theSkinHorse,forhe was alwaystruthful.


"Sometimes/'
"WhenyouareRealyoudon'tmindbeinghurt.". . .
"I supposeyouareReal?"said theRabbit.. . .
"The Boy'sUnclemade me Real,"he said. "Thatwas a great
manyyearsago; but once you are Real you can'tbecomeunreal
again.
tothethings
Theinnerjourneyofa playingchildtakesshapeinrelation
thathergamesanimate,and sensoryqualitiesofeverykind- appealingto
- enhancethepotential
of
eventaste,as wellas sight
smell,touch,hearing,
sites,
becomingRealliketheSkinHorse.In someoftheearliestexcavation
to crehave uncovereddolls withjointedlimbs,intending
archaeologists
ate an illusionofmovinglifeand helptheplayer'sfantasy
thatthetoyis
In thefirst
animate.11
periodofmass-produced
toysandgamesforchildren,
themakersinstinctively
appealed to theirmarketby givingchildrenthe
chancetohandlethings,
to alter,dress,colorin,build,cutout,and operate
all kindsofillusionsofrealpresence.Publishers
todayoftenblurdistinctionsbetweentoysandbookswhentheyproducesimplestoriesintheform
crossover
ofbathtoysoranimalsorteething
book/soft
rings.A pioneering
Little
which
was
was
Fur
Wise
Brown
(1946),
toy
Family
literally
byMargaret
coveredin rabbitfurwhenit firstappeared,so thata childreading
/cudin
the
book
in
with
the
characters
its
feel
touch
dling
might
pages.12
The sensoryappeal of such artifacts
aims directlyat perceptionto
stimulatevisualizations
and, hence,cognitiveknowledge;pedagogically,
suchtoysandbooksselectfromthevariedmatter
oftheworldtocommunicateitsdistinctive
But
are
(bunnies
properties
furry). thisenhancedphysical
do
than
cannot
otherwise
intotheimagination,
for
knowledge
pass straight
neitherimagination
norfantasyare segregated
fitted
faculties
into
neatly
ancientand modern,
separatecabinsin thebrain,as so manyphilosophers,
havemaintained,
butrather
formtheminditself
andactas thevehiclesfora
mode
of
in
all
and
sizes- as figures
ortools,
prime
rationality.13
Toys
shapes
boxes
and
books
and
and
soft
dolls
kits,
books,
games
picture
toy
paper
- all belongto thisunderlying
animals
unionbetweenlearningdevelopmentand fantasy
oftheirmanufacture
reflects
Also,thehistory
processes.14
and
aesthetic
theories
from
the
changingpsychological
century
eighteenth
to thepioneering
methodsofFriedrich
MariaMontessori,
Froebel,
through
and theBauhaus.Processesofplayingincreasingly
involvedhaptic,messy,
directhandling,
whichgraspat everyvarietyofmediumand material,
no
matter
howhumdrum
orbase oreventrashy:
forthisreasonso littleofthis
kindoftoysurvives.15
ideas forchilManyof theRegencyand Victorian
dren'sactivities
arethemselves
of
visual
out,
ways making
images:cutting
etc.
bricolage,assemblage,pricking,
masquerade,origami, Today,during
thislateera ofmechanicalreproduction,
thebody'simprint
and presence
in theartifact
marks
direct
of
touch
and
have
become
more
action
through

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

and moresoughtafter,
moreand morecherished.
Somatictracespreserve
tomanifest
in
themanaoftherelic,likethesoul- theaura- struggling
itself
and theypossessthepowerto stirempathy
in thebeholder.
theplaything,
In storiesthatappealtotheplayingchild,writers
havemovedbeyondsen- cars,
or anthropomorphic
creatures
to animatemachines
tientcreatures
ofcourse,and tankengines,butalso householdappliances,as in thelate
ThomasM. Disch'sdelightful,
fable,TheBraveLittleToaster
eco-pioneering
(1986)and itssequels.Thingsmaynotactuallyspringtolifein a game,but
storiesand turnsthemuteand inertexpressive;
handling
playinggenerates
a thingcannotanimateit,butit can renderitintelligible.
Manystoriesdo
thisprocess.
theirverybesttoimitate
In theGarden
FriedrichFroebel(1782-1852)developed an
The radical educationalist
in relation
to all
intelligence
approachtoplayingthatemphasizedpractical
A Germanand a contemporary
oftheRomantics,
he did not
phenomena.
in hisattitudes
towardchildpsychology
focuson theimagination
but,like
and understandto enhancefacultiesof observation
Rousseau,preferred
in fostering
thesecognitivecapacitiesin early
ing.However,his interest
and animation,
empathy,
learningnourishesthepowersof visualization,
Whenhe was seventeen,
arenowincreasingly
as psychologists
advocating.
formed
underthedirect
FroebelwenttostudynaturalsciencesatJena,itself
influence
oftheRomantic
Goethe,and a strongforcein
poetand naturalist
in1805hejoined
as wellas idealistphilosophy;
Germanpoliticalradicalism
educationalist
thepioneering
JohannPestalozziat his schoolat Yverdon
- ittookthreeweeks).He foundevenPestalozzitoo
(Froebelwalkedthere
Thenin1840,afternumerous
and rigidandlefthisschoolsoonafter.
formal
hisnewmethodsof
Froebelhituponthewordtocharacterize
experiments,
or"gardenforchildren."
"Kindergarten,"
teaching:
wouldblossomiftheywereattendedto like
In Froebel'sview,children
andwatering.
Theywouldthen
plants,withtherightamountofnourishing
andstrengths.
Lessonsintheabstract
withintheirnaturalgifts
developfrom
became
wouldnotdo: longbeforetheterms"handson" and "interactive"
Froebelstressedthat"directand indirect
thejargonofoutreacheducators,
in
and oftheiractuallivingconnection
ofthingsthemselves,
observation
oftheinner,
constant
nature. . . shouldawaken. . . thegreatthought
living
Thisthought,
Coleridgian
unityofall thingsand phenomenain nature."16
butof
ofnarrative
does notinvokefantasies
in itsNeoplatonist
tendencies,
with
ofinnersignificance
intensified
arisingindirectcontact
understanding
outerqualities.
whichhe
Froebelcreateda seriesofplaythings,
To raisehis nurslings,
coveredin
calledGifts:thesebeginwitha set ofcoloredballs on strings,
and a
knitted
cotton;theythenincludewoodenshapes- a cube,a cylinder,

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Warner

- and continue
sets
a rangeofmorethana scoreofdifferent
sphere
through
ofsuchaidsgrowing
inrelation
tooneanother.
Froebelaimedto
organically
- hisbeadsand
handicraft
andingenuity
through
bringoutnaturaldexterity
and cutouts,the
grids,smoothwoodentabletsand blocks,paperpatterns
- have
forchildren
stringand sticksand spillsand brickshe manufactured
and marketed,
becamethestockof everyupmarketcatalog,naturalized,
in thehugeindustry
ofchildproducts.ButFroebelin his timewas a real
no "outwardmeans,"no timestables,no spellinglessons,
revolutionary:
- no stories,
even.A childwas toreachoutand
no facts,
no learning
byrote
andlaws,gravtaketheworldbythehandandpalpateitsnaturalmaterials
and limits.For
todiscoveritsharmonies
ityand grace,pliancyand rigidity,
and hispassionforthetoa timein Berlinhe had studiedcrystallography,
he
materials.
infuses
histeaching
AlongsidetheGifts,
pologyofphenomena
ofdifficulty
devised"Occupations":
theytooaregradedinsmallincrements
chartincards;cutting
and includepricking
out,folding,
stitching,
patterns
Yet
weaving,and molding.17
plaiting,
ingon graphpaper;and interlacing,
andmadean influinwhatcametobe calledfolklore
he was also interested
andgestures,
movements
entialanthology
ofsongsinvolving
playing,
finger
or stories,
Buthis kindergarten
containsno characters
and dancing.18
just
andthings
checkered
oblongs,and circles,
paper,coloredsquares,triangles,
Theseshapeswerenot
likeprisms,twine,pebbles,shells,and pic-a-sticks.
however,but symbolically
packedwithmeaning
strippedof reference,
to know.Of the
meaningthatdid notrequirebooklearningor experience
forawaktheFirstGift,
Froebelwrote,"I wishtofindtherightforms
sphere,
to
eningthehighersenseofthechild. . . Whatsymboldoes myball offer
him?Thatofunity. . . theBallconnects
thechildwithnature."19
Froebel's"republicofchildren"
(thisphrasewas echoedbyMalinowski)
stirred
fromsecularand religiousauthorities
alike,and finally,
antagonism
inPrussia,theKindergartens
after
therevolution
of1848anditssuppression
wereallcloseddownin1851.Froebeldiedthefollowing
year.He didnotlive
to see how hismovement
fromGermany
to Switzerland,
France,
migrated
esliberalthinkers,
Holland,England,and theUnitedStatesand attracted
as Froebelteachers,
who,training
peciallywomenofgrowingrestlessness
Annawas
founda meansofself-expression
mother
(FrankLloydWright's
and
ofFroebel'seducational
visionspreadvigorously
one).20Theinfluence
lasted- untilrecentrevisionism
and thereturn
to examsand SATtestsfor
evenverysmallchildren.21
The methodsofMariaMontessori
in Italyalso emphasized
(1870-1952)
and makingbeforeand duringtheyearswhena child
independent
finding
learnsto read:he or she is cast as an investigator
and explorer,
learning
directcontactwithlivingthingsand materials.22
The Montessori
through
Methodstillrecommends
blindfolding
pupilsso thattheycan takein the
- stuffofmatter
forextouch.JoanMiroremembers,
properties
through
ample,his"earlyeducationinthesenses"whenhe drewfroman experience

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

oftouchalone,holdingtheobjectbehindhisback.23Thisintensefocuson
whenreadingwords
enrichesunderstanding
shapingsensoryexperience
inrelation
tothem.24
and makingmentalobjectsandpictures
fortheBauhausfoundation
Itten,drawingup thecurriculum
Johannes
therotaordiagramof
year,laid a similarstresson playand improvisation:
on
itscomponents
placesglass,clay,stone,wood,metal,color,and textiles
theinnerringaroundtheactionofbuilding:studentswereencouragedto
and phenomenaand to
betweenmaterials
intoaffinities
use theirintuition
- doodling,
andmemories
workwithassociations
through
hapticprocesses
In New Jersey
in the1950sthedaughand collage.25
assemblage,
bricolage,
tersofTonySmithwerekeptbusymakingmodelsforhisabstract
geometriremembothnow artiststhemselves,
Kikiand SetonSmith,
cal sculptures:
tableas he
at thekitchen
and octahedrons
berfoldingpapertetrahedrons
possibleanglesand axes.26TheimagesofKikiSmithin
exploreddifferent
thetiesbetweena cognitive
illuminate
graspofphysicalphenomparticular
ofmedia(fabric,
ena andimaginative
variety
usingan exuberant
creativity:
as
well
as moreusual
tissue,
beads,
silver,
hair,
photography,
paper,
glass,
known
fromherown
stories
Kiki
Smith
and
inks,
explores
pencil),
paints,
- fromtheBible,fairytales,saints'lives,and children's
childhoodreading
suchas Daughter
themin sculptures
books- and reinterprets
(a wolf-child,
andinseriesofengravofRedRidingHood) andMaryMagdalene,
offspring
forexample.27
AliceinWonderland,
ingsand drawingsillustrating
HomoLudens
Beforechildrenlearnto read,theyact likereaderswhentheyplay with
materialsand objectslike readers.In play,a childbeams her projective
upon inertmaterialthingsand animatesthemwithfantasy,
imagination
objectswithmeaning.She thusrenderstheworldofthingsintelinfusing
themto
and committing
themwithherimagination
transforming
ligible,
form.In playing,mentalobjectsbecomereal:
mindin thismetamorphosed
thepebblesand grassmakea deliciousmeal,especiallyservedon a plate
that'sa leaf.A cottonreelcanbe a tankora house.Theclothespega wounda seriesofbottlesa train.28
ed soldierorMummy,
Theyreadstoriesoffthe
the
while
also
into
scriptsthatunfoldthe
writing
bring
play,
thingsthey
chilcast.In gamesof make-believe
livesand dramasof theirimaginary
with
theirmeanings
ofcommunication;
drencreatesystems
theysymbolize
world
randomobjectsand chosentoysand animatetheirprivateinterior
invisible
or
nonexistent
even
and
sometimes
lifeless
things.
by activating
witha made-upstory,
circumstances
play-acting
Theyfilltheirimmediate
intopresenceandaction.
of"let'spretend"
theactivity
therolesandturning
"actsupontheworldfrom
"Theveryyoungchild,"wroteJean-Paul
Sartre,
Theobjectsobeytheseordersofconscioushisbedbyordersandentreaties.
Thepoetand criticSusanStewarttakesthisidea even
ness:theyappear."29

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10

Warner

itinitiates
another
"oncethetoybecomesanimated,
world,
further,
writing,
timehereis notan
Thebeginning
ofnarrative
theworldofthedaydream.
new
ofan entirely
extension
ofthetimeofeveryday
life;itis thebeginning
worldparallelto (and henceneverintersecting)
world,a fantasy
temporal
theworldofeveryday
reality."30
unlikea coronation,
character:
itsownfabricated
Playingacknowledges
To playmeansto preitacceptsitsfictional
status,likea deathon stage.31
skillsin ordinary
and mimetic
and itdrawson dramatic
tend(play-acting),
andprojecsocialuse.Readinginvolvesanalogousprocessesofimagination
tion;bothplayingandreadingmayfillsolitudeandbeguileemptydays,but
thetiesbetween
fastening
theybothalso weave thefabricof subjectivity,
withintheimmediate
relations
selfand otherand patterning
groupofkin
butno lessdemanding
and themoredistant
nation,
tribe,
groupsofsociety,
andevenspecies.
- Charlotte,
aretheBront
thebestknownchild-authors
family
Probably
were
theBrontes
Branwell.
As children,
and Anneand theirbrother
Emily,
and theirenergyin inin thevividnessof theirimaginations
exceptional
and images.Buttheyalso exemplify
settings,
ventingstories,characters,
ofthechild
in generaland areemblematic
ofchildren's
thevitality
fantasy
illustrate
well
Theiractivities
ineveryone
acrosstimeandcultures.
fantasist
betweenchildthecloselinksbetweenplayingand themakingofliterature,
WhenBranwell
was givena boxoftwelvetoysoldiersin
hoodandwriting.
to hold
1826,thesiblingsbeganto makebookstinyenoughforthefigures
adventures
oftheir
written
and read;theyfilledthemwithmicroscopically
themagainsta richlyimaginedgeograheroesand heroines,
dramatizing
on theEastAfriphy- Angriaand itscapitalGlassTown(laterVerdopolis)
added titlepages,colocancoast,Gondaland Sneaky'sLand.Thechildren
in scrupulousimitation
and printers'
advertisements
phons,dedications,
subscribed.
ofthemagazinesandjournalstowhichtheirfather
Theydrew
on current
events:theirdastardly
villainsand dashingheroeswere
freely
variations
on theDukeofWellington
andothercontemporary
personalities,
suchas LordByron,whomtheyadored.Theygave theircastfar-fetched
aristocratic
writers
Romantic,
names,and,likesciencefiction
today,showed
a stronglikingforscattering
aboutdiacritics
and namesbeginning
withQ
andZ: theDukeofZamorna,QuashiaQuamina,Zorayda(maidofhonorto
PrincessIrn),andZenobia,Marchioness
werefeatured
Ellrington,
among
thedramatis
personae.32
as theseflights
offancyare,theyinterpenetrated
thereality
Extravagant
of thechildren'slivesand cannotbe unravelledfromtherealworkthey
all undertookto such dazzlingeffect
later.Charlotte
was stilladdingto
thechronicles
ofAngriain 1839whenshe was grownup. The continuity
betweenthefantasies
ofchildhoodand thereality
oflatersurvivalwas reallyseveredonlyin Branwell'scase:withhistoysoldiers,he had beenthe

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

11

buthe didnotwriteandpublishlateras hissistersdid


ofthestories,
catalyst
andhiscareeras a visualartistfoundered.
worldstheir
Not onlyweretheBrontes'livesformedby theimaginary
but sincethentheirparticular,
hyperactive
facultyof
playingmagnified,
has stampedthestoryofromanceitselfwithincalculable
efmake-believe
- psychological,
and cultural.
Childrenplayingarecopyfects
sociological,
Butat thesametimetheyinifirst,
cats,reproducing
impressions.
powerful
offa chainreactionofmimesisin others:how many
tiatemeaning,
setting
havebeenmoldedintheformofJaneEyreand Wuthering
romances
Heights?
worldhas
ButthereasonforthelastingresonanceoftheBrontimaginary
and a halfto a
grownwiththefreshvalue accordedoverthelastcentury
inan unadulterated,
visionofhumankind
presocialstate.
the Brontsiblingsconveyvery
Looked at in theirhistoricalsetting,
and creativity
thatwas
shiftin ideas aboutinspiration
clearlythetectonic
takingplace in theiryouth.Groundedin thethoughtofJohnLockeand
andphiandmoreoptimistic
Rousseau,a kindlier
psychology
Jean-Jacques
A generation
beforetheBrontsiblings
losophyofeducationwas growing.
and spontaneous
childofinnocence
wereborn,Blakepraisedthesymbolic
who can catcha fallingstar,see thetiger'sfearful
symmetry,
intelligence,
and laughaway thecareof old Johnon theechoinggreen;Wordsworth
froma higherspherefilledwithunimaginedan infantas themessenger
notin
"notin utternakedness,
and memories
ofenchantment:
derstanding
cloudsofglorydo we come."Through
entireforgetfulness,
/ Buttrailing
in JaneEyre,Charlotte
Bront
herpictureofLowoodand Mr.Brocklehurst
and thereprestowardchildren
theterrifying
excoriated
cruelty
famously
in the
in schools.Hernovelis theearliestwritten
sionsroutinely
practiced
voiceofa child(Janeis tenwhenthenovelopens),and itreprefirst-person
had
sentsthenewvisionofchildhoodthatshe and hersistersand brother
thefreeplayoffantasy.
helpedtomakethrough
truthsand theirbeliefin
forimagination's
The Romantics'manifesto
of
children'sreadieraccessto themsped on theextraordinary
flowering
focussedon a childprotagocastfroma child'sperspective,
readingmatter
and Otherlands,
toread.SetinWonderlands
nist,and destinedforchildren
at thebackofthenorthwindor underthesea, amongthestarsor on the
GeorgeMacDonald,
icepackoftheArcticcircle,thestoriesofLewisCarroll,
Christina
Rossetti,
JuliaEwing,and,later,
JohnRuskin,CharlesKingsley,
E. Nesbit,J.M. Barrie,and manyothersformedthemotherlode of children'sliterature
today.
thepersonaofa child- AliceorPeterPan ortheVivianGirls
Through
creatortriesoutpossiblepersonaein thesameway as chilthegrown-up
and theirfriends(mostlyimaginary)
drentryout storiesforthemselves
thatgraduallysettleintotheirownlanguage
narratives
unfolding
through
in a rearviewmirror.
oftheself,a kindofself-portrait
(In theUnitedStates

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12

Warner

on thedriver'sside aresometimes
incisedwiththewarning
wingmirrors
a
arecloserthantheyappear."Thisphrasingoffers
"Objectsin themirror
closer
use ofthechildself,whichis brought
pleasinganalogyfortheartist's
intheformofart'sobjects.)33
worlds
adult methodsof buildingfictional
Child'splay foreshadows
in bothwriters'and artists'works.Even afterthe
peopledwithfigments
that
movements
weakeningof Romantictenetsin themoredisenchanted
intense,
followed,thechildremainsthefavoredchannelforsummoning
with figuresand models,or
personalfantasy.Games of make-believe
withnothingmuch(withsticksand stonesand tincans and
sometimes
- its
concerns
unadulterated
pebbles),turna keyintothemind'sintrinsic,
who
default,
idlingstate,ifyoulike especiallywithveryyoungchildren,
have notyetbeen schooledin customand opinion.In thisway,a child's
and children'srhymes
imagination
presentsa studyof theunconscious,
intherawbeforereasonsetsits
and storiesencapsulate
a conceptoffantasy
beforethereal
wildphantasms
to rights,
orin thephraseofAngelaCarter,
narbusinessof"tamingtheid" begins.Forexample,thePortuguese-born
Paula Regotellsstorieswithprolific
rativepainterand illustrator
creativity;
as well as inventions
theseare drawnon herchildhoodmemories
springoffairytales- of
and in a seriesof engravings
ing fromthosememories,
- sheprojects
childhood
and stories
PeterPan,and otherliterature
JaneEyre,
butin otherinstanceswhollyinvented.
self-portraits
personae,sometimes
ofwildboysand girls,
reflections
through
Anglingself-searching
portraits
ofHenryDarger(d. 1973),another
Regohas alwaysinvokedtheinspiration
and in an astonishDargerwas a Chicagohospitalporter,
artist-storyteller.
ofAngria,he
in thedirecttradition
oftheBrontes'chronicles
ingchronicle
dramatizedin picturesand wordstheepic uprisingof theseven"Vivian
theGlanGirls,"theAbbiennian
Princesses,
againsttheiradulttormentors,
delinians.EntitledWhatIs Knownas theRealmsoftheUnreal,his epic account

and waterof thechildren's


warsfillsthousandsof drawings,
notebooks,
withregularsoldiersalongsideamazingdragcolors;eachpageis thronged
in uniform
schoolchildren
ons,recognizable
creatures,
alongsidefantastical
as Dargerunfolds"theGlandeco-Angelinnian
WarStorm,
as causedbythe
ChildSlaveRebellion."34
SinceRegofirst
respondedto Dargerin the1970s
and 1980s,severalotherartists
inhischronicles,
havealso foundinspiration
whichevokea universeofincident
thatwas undoubtedly
realforhim.35
His
childlike
beliefin an imaginary
worldofhisown creationoffers
a channel
whichotherscanreturn
a
tothatstateofcreative
through
playthatinitiates
childintostorytelling's
reality.
Writersoftenneed to take that kind of detourthroughpointsof
identification
withothersin orderto entertherealmofrepresentation
and
forreaders,and creators
suchas LewisCarroll,
J.M. Barrie,
forgeitsreality
andHenryDargerneededchildalteregostoproducetheirinventions,
their

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

13

andwonderful
stories.
Children
becomethepattern
andpromise
imaginary
- notforthemselves
offuturity
alonebutalso forsocietyas a wholeas these
wouldliketodreamitintobeing.
author/artists
has neverbeenas
Regainingthechild'sspontaneousand vitalfantasy
as it is today- notevenin theheydayofSurrealism's
centralto creativity
The linksbindingcreativity
imagination.
questfora returnto unfettered
and loosenedto a beatthat
and theyare tightened
to playhave a history,
soundsmorestrongly
duringsome periodsthanothers.But morethan
and artists
are
ever,theirperceivedinterrelationship
gainsinvalue.Writers
in thelightofchildhoodas theyconceiveitand inthemselves
cultivating
it."If,though,
as theyhave experienced
through
retrospection,
creasingly,
asked WalterBenjamin(echoingRilke),"that
a modernpoet maintains,"
thereexistsforeach individualan imagearoundwhichtheentireworld
forhowmanydoesthatimagenotriseoutofan old toy
appearstofounder,
chest?"36
Thegreatmedievalhistorian
JohanHuizinga,inhisinspiredbookHomo
Ludens(1938),definedthehumanspeciesas a playinganimal,and he charsuchas highmedievalFranceand
acterizedpinnaclesofaesthetic
culture,
Renaissance
energiesto
Italy,as timeswhensocietydedicateditsbrightest
- throughlanguage,images,buildings,ceremonies,
apparel,and
playing
exchangesof giftsand rituals.Huizingasuggestsseveralaxiomstoward
it is
is free,undertaken
a definition
ofpureplay:theactivity
voluntarily;
dimension
ofexoutsidetherealmofordinary
life,in a fictive
experienced
ofsurvival;and it
or necessity
whichdoes notaim at anyutility
perience,
does notmeetneedsand appetitessuchas warmthand hungerbutthrives
- itis a diversion,
an intermezzo.
fromthem
Huizingagoes
independently
or profit(so he
on: playingdoes notaim at materialgood,at self-interest
and hours
zones(playgrounds
then).It takesplacein demarcated
thought,
- R & R,"QualityTime")purposely
setapartorasidefromthe
ofrecreation
and itrequiresrulesthatsetup theillusory
reallifebusinessofexistence,
withinan
So playtakesplace,howeverfreely,
place.37
playworldinthefirst
drawnup bytherulesofthegame:whentheserulesthat
structure
arbitrary
itbecomesfoulplay,not
areagreeduponbutoftenunspokenareflouted,
theplayerorplayers
fairplay.Finally,
Huizingaarguesthatplaytranslates
fora time;itwrapsthemina senseofmystery
consciousness
intoa different
and apartness
fromdailylife.Theword"illusion"comesfrom"in-ludere,"
he associateswithplayingarisesin
consciousness
to play:theheightened
spellofmake-believe.
partfromtheall-involving
and struggle,
and laughter,
illusion
feigning
Playingincludesmimicry
and display,performance,
alongsidea
masquerade,ritual,and ceremony;
myriaddollsand toys,manyotherformsofplayoccupyus- games,sports
andflirting
andjuggling,
andraces,tumbling
guisingandmiming,
flitting
all fallintoitsrangeofinterests.
evengambling
("gaming" lejeuinFrench)

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14

Warner

Thecategory
ofplayis vast.Reading,however,
rarelyfallsundertherubric
in his account.Yet,
ofplaying,and Huizingadoes notincludetheactivity
we mayassume,readingforpleasure(notstudy)surelymeetsHuizinga's
inhisworkand in
criteria
forpureplay.Thereis an underlying
assumption
acthatplayinvolvesgroups,and so readingas a solitary
others,
however,
- until"readinggroups"attempt
it
toreturn
fallsoutsideitsembrace
tivity
thewaysofa playingchild,
tothesphereofplay.Butsucha viewoverlooks
as so tenderly
hissonHartley:
evokedbyColeridgewatching
A littlechild,a limberelf
Singing,
dancingtoitself. . ,38
in intenselyricpoems,suchas
attention
to hischildren
Payingenraptured
his
own
as a new
"Frostat Midnight,"
personalfeelings
Coleridgeplaced
father
atthecenterofa man'sproperinterests.39
Sincethen,a childbeganto
all thebestpossibledreamsforthefuture
mirror
personinpotentia.
was
for
definition
of
byJeanPiaget
Huizinga's
play
challenged, example,
that"playing
andD. W.Winnicott,
whomaintained
thelatter
mostradically,
... is a basicformofliving."40
withreallife:
He insistson theconnection
forlifeitselfanditliesattheheartofmentaland social
playingis practicing
health(he evencharacterized
itselfas a formofplay):"Itis
psychotherapy
playthatis theuniversal/'he assertedin Playingand Reality(1971),"and that

an originaland sturdybasis
ButHuizingastilloffers
belongsto health."41
andstrangeness
reveals
fordiscussion.
His insistence
onplay'sseparateness
how thelanguageofpurityand dangerpertainsto thiszone ofpleasure:
valuesheldin common,as well as limitsand prohibitions,
playmagnifies
and thisdrawsgamesofmake-believe
closerto magic.Theinvisible,
regulatedzoneofplayrequiressymbolic
actsand mimesis:"Yoube He," orders
one playerto anotherin a gameoftag,"Thisis Home,"declaresanother.
- and receiving
and demanding
"Cruces,"criesa third,crossingfingers
atcreates
writes
He
then
draws
is
order, order,"
mercy.42
"Play
Huizinga.
tention
totheaffinity
betweenplayingandart:"Thewordswe use todenote
theelements
ofplaybelongforthemostparttoaesthetics,
termswithwhich
we tryto describetheeffects
ofbeauty:tension,poise,balance,contrast,
resolution
etc."43
variation,
Again,readingremainsa ghostpresencein his
the
success
of
a storybook'screationofillusiondependson
thinking,
yet
aesthetic
skills.
setsitsfaceagainst
Aimingat fun(on thewhole),playingby definition
and
But
it
can
number
ofmoods,and
tedium,solemnity, grief.
inspireany
thesedo notexcluderealpassions,as anyonewhohas everplayedknows.
Foralthough
realwillleakfromthegameinto
playingimpliesthatnothing
lifeitself,
shows
all
that
too
gambling
clearly thisis byno meansthecase.44
So does reading:itcombinesHuizinga'sviewsofplayas a different
order
ofreality
withWinnicott's
of
its
relevance
to
that
same
practical
perception

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

15

order.Whiletheactivity
assumesa dividebetweenplay and
intrinsically
betweensomething
simulated
andsomething
anyrealactsandrealfeelings,
undertaken
forreal,playingmakesthingshappen.As Winnicott
stated,
"Playingis doing/'45

In oneoftheessaysinMythologies,
RolandBarthes
excoriated
thetoysof
"inwhichonerecogthetime:"French
head,"hewrites,
toysarelikea Jivaro
andhairoftheadult."46
tothesizeofan apple,thewrinkles
nises,shrunken
withconlikechildren's
Forthetoyindustry,
publishing,
alwaysinteracts
thepsyche,as manycritvaluesand mores,instrumentalizing
temporary
to deplore.In hisrancorBartheswas
icssuchas JackZipeshavecontinued
his generation's
revoltagainsttheideal embourgeoisement
chilexpressing
dren'smaterialsaimedat- and he had notyetseen dollslikeBarbieand
andaccessories
and
Girl,withtheirwardrobes
SindyandBratzorAmerican
likeGI Joeand ActionMan. Imor boys' "role-playing
figures"
lifestyles,
as is verywell
aginativewritersforchildrenhave respondedvigorously,
- representations
to
known,to themounting
critiqueofclass- and gender
forwhilethetoyinwhichBarthes'sdiatribemadean earlycontribution;
toputgunsinboys'handsandjewelsround
continues
unremittingly
dustry
as DianaWynne
Wilson,
Jones,
Jacqueline
girls'necks,authorsas distinctive
ThomasM. Disch,and PhilipPullman
MichaelRosen,MichaelMorpurgo,
andthecharacterization
oftheirchildprotaghavemovedthesocialcontext
or even TheLittlePrincess
onistsfarfromthe world of LittleLordFauntleroy

bookofmine,itsJane
(thoughI shouldconfessthelatterwas a veryfavorite
dreams).TheUtopiantendency
arousingpowerful
fantasy
Eyre/Cinderella
recasttraditional
material
literature
ofso muchchildren's
today,as writers
intimate
contactwith
or inventnew worldsout ofwholecloth,maintains
atplayrepresent.
thatchildren
theidealfuturity
NOTES

1.
2.
3.
4.

in a Rear-View Mirror/'an essay


This essay has been adapted from"Self-Portrait
I wroteforthe catalog of OnlyMake-Believe:
WaysofPlaying,an exhibitionI curatedat ComptonVerney,Warwickshire,
England,in 2005. 1 would like to thank
very much the residentcuratorsthere,JohnLeslie and Antonia Harrison,for
theirhelp; the staffof the Bodleian Library,Oxford,especiallyClive Hurst and
JulieAnne Lambert;the staffof the Froebel Institute,Roehampton,especially
JaneRead; and Mariet Westermann,Sina Najafi,Claudia Swan, Mary Jacobus,
JacquelineRose, and Paula Rego forinspirationand help. I am immenselygrateful forthe opportunityto reworkthe piece, which Ellen Handler Spitz in her
generosityhas given me, and her commentshave been veryhelpful.
ed. MarCharlesbaudelaire, Morale du joujou, m bauaeiaire:ueuvrescompletes,
cel A. Ruff(Paris: ditionsdu Seuil, 1968),358-60(translationby theauthor).
Ibid.
Ibid.
ed. Marcel
Baudelaire, PetitsPomesen prose,in Baudelaire:OeuvresCompletes,
A. Ruff(Paris,1968),160.

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16

Warner

5. Ibid.
6. RainerMaria Rilke,"Puppen: Zu den Wachspuppenvon LottePritzel,"in Werke:
Kommentierte
Ausgabein 4 Bde.,ed. ManfredEngel und UlrichFlleborn(Darmstadt:WBG, 1996),4:685-92;comparewithRainerMaria Rilke,"Some Reflections
on Dolls/' in Rodinand OtherPieces,trans.G. Craig Houston [slightlyaltered]
(London: Quartet,1986),121-22.
7. Ibid.
8. The PinocchioofC. Collodi,translatedand annotatedby JamesT. Teahan (New
York:Schocken,1985); see chap. 3 forthe bringingof the puppet to lifeas he is
being carved.
9. See Marina Warner,Monumentsand Maidens: The Allegoryof theFemaleForm
(1985; reprint,Berkeley:UniversityofCaliforniaPress,1997),213ff.
10. MargeryWilliams,TheOriginalVelveteen
Rabbit,orHow ToysBecomeReal([original
artby WilliamNicholson,1922];London: EgmontBooks,2004), 10-11.
11. For example, toys fromthe second and thirdcenturieswere found on the Via
Cassia, Rome; theyare now in Palazzo Massimo aile Terme(NationalMuseums),
Rome.See http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/doll_massimo.jpg.
12. See Carol Mavor, ReadingBoyishly:Roland Barthes,J. M. Barrie,JacquesHenri
MarcelProustand D. W.Winnicott
(Durham,NC: Duke UniversityPress.,
Lartigue,
2007), 111.She rightlycomments,"thereis a certainsadism,an unnervingchildish sadism,to Brown'slittlebook dressed in fur.Given thatthefirstprintingran
... to morethan50,000copies."
13. See CharlesFernyhough,TheBabyin theMirror:A Child'sWorld
fromBirthtoThree
(London: Granta,2008), 173-80,207-8
14. See Ellen Handler Spitz, InsidePictureBooks(New Haven, CT: Yale University
Press,1999),passim.
15. I researchedthese rare,early survivorschieflyin the Opie and JohnJohnson
collectionsat theBodleian Library,Oxford.
16. See JoachimLiebschner,A Child'sWork:Freedomand Play in Froebel'sEducational
andPractice(Cambridge:Lutterworth,
2001),52-63;and Susan Herrington,
Theory
"The Garden in Froebers Kindergarten:Beyond the Metaphor,"in Studiesin
theHistoryofGardensand DesignedLandscapesInternational
Quarterly18 (1998):
326-38.
17. See Kate Douglas Wigginand Nora ArchibaldSmith,Froebel'sOccupations(New
York:Houghton Mifflin,1896); and Norman Brosterman,Inventing
Kindergarten
"Froebeland the
(New York:Abrams,1997),58-88;see also NormanBrosterman,
Giftsof Kindergarten,"Cabinet,no. 9 (Winter2002-3):51-57;and PeterWeston,
Friedrich
Frobel:His Life,Timesand Significance
(London, 1998).
18. FriedrichFroebel,Mother-,
Play-and NurserySongs(1844).
19. Kate Douglas Wiggin and Nora S. Archibald Smith,Froebel'sGifts(London,
1896),7.
20. Brosterman,
139-45.
Inventing
Kindergarten,
21. A powerfulgroup of childrens writers,including Philip Pullman, have been
campaigningin England againstthe growingemphasis on testingfornumeracy
and literacyforchildrenunder the age of five.See Pullman's letterto theLondon
Times,July24, 2008.
22. See James Hall, The Worldas Sculpture(London: Chatto and Windus, 1999),
253-78,fora finediscussion of the influenceof Montessori methods.
23. Ibid.,261.
24. See furtherdiscussion of this themein Marina Warner,"The Word Unfleshed:
Memoryin Cyberspace,"Raritan(Spring2006). This was originallya talkgiven
to theFriendsoftheBodleian Libraryin June2005 and was reprintedin Wasafiri:
TheBookin theWorld,ed. RobertFraser,No. 52 (Autumn2007).
25. JohannesItten,Designand Form:TheBasicCourseat theBauhausand Later,revised
and updated by Anneliese Itten,translatedfromthe German by Fred Bradley
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1975);see also JamesHall, TheWorldas Sculpture,
268 ff.;and Brosterman,
122.
Inventing
Kindergarten,

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Out ofan Old ToyChest

17

26. Helaine Posner,KikiSmith(Boston:Little,Brown,1998),11.


27. See KikiSmith:Prints,Booksand Things[exhibitioncatalog],ed. WendyWeitman
1980-2005
(New York:Museum of Modern Art,2003); KikiSmith:A Gathering,
[exhibitioncatolog],ed. SiriEngberg(Minneapolis:WalkerArtCenter,2006). Included in thelattervolume is my essay "Wolf-Girl,
Soul-Bird:The MortalArtof
Kiki Smith/'in whichI exploreher close relationswithfairytales (42-53).
Glance:Imagination
and Childhood(New
28. See Ellen Handler Spitz, TheBrightening
York:Pantheon,2006), passim; and Fernyhough,TheBabyin theMirror,173-80,
207-8.
29. Jean-PaulSartre,ThePsychology
(New York:Farrar,Straus,Giroux,
ofImagination
1991),177.
30. Susan Stewart,On Longing:NarrativesoftheMiniature,theGigantic,theSouvenir,
theCollection(Durham,NC: Duke UniversityPress,1993),57.
31. Caillois draws the distinctionwell when he writes,"Secrets,mysteries,indeed
disguise certainlylend themselvesto play,but it mustbe swiftlyadded thatthe
It exposes it,makes
activitytakesplace to the detrimentofa secretor a mystery.
itpublic,and, in some way,spendsit."RogerCaillois,LesJeuxetleshommes
(Paris:
Gallimard,1967),33.
32. Their fatherPatrick Bront began the trend when he changed the family
surnamefromBruntyin honor of theAdmiralLord Nelson, who became Duke
ofBrontafterwinninga victorynear a townby thatname in Sicily.See Christine
Alexander and JaneSellars, TheArtoftheBrontes[catolog of firstinternational
exhibitionof Brontart] (Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress, 1995),passim; also CharlotteBront,A Leaffroman UnopenedVolume,or TheManuscriptof
an Unfortunate
Author:An AngrianStory,ed. Charles Lemon (London: Haworth,
1986),xv.
33. The Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme,which I drove veryhappily in Californiain
1987-88,had such a mirror.
at theAmerican
FolkArt
34. BrookeDavis Anderson,Darger:TheHenryDargerCollection
Museum(New York:AmericanFolkArtMuseum withHarryN. Abrams,2001).
35. For example, the TurnerPrize-winningpotterGrayson Perryhas paid warm
tributeto Darger's influence.
36. WalterBenjamin,"Spielzeug und Spielen" [1928], in UberKinder,Jugendund
Mehlman, Walter
Suhrkamp,1969),72, quoted by Jeffrey
Erziehung(Frankfurt:
An EssayonHis RadioYears(Chicago: UniversityofChicago
Benjamin
forChildren:
Press,1993),5.
37. See Johan Huizinga, Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Elementin Culture,
trans.R. F. C. Hull (London: Routledgeand Kegan Paul, 1949),1-27;and Caillois,
LesJeuxetleshommes,
32-33,42-44.
38. FromSamuel TaylorColeridge,"Christabel."
39. See Robert Crawford,"'My babe so beautiful!': How Coleridge Circles the
November 26, 2004,
Cradle in 'Frost at Midnight,'"TimesLiterarySupplement,
13-14,fora most sensitivereadingof the new father-child
sympathyevoked by
Coleridge.
du rel chez I enfant(Paris, 1937); and D. W.
40. See Jean Piaget, La Construction
Hove: Brunner-Routledge,
Winnicott,
2001),50;
Playingand Reality(1971;reprint,
see also Adam Phillips,Winnicott
(London: Fontana,1988); Phillips,On Kissing,
and BeingBored(Cambridge,MA: Harvard UniversityPress,1993); and
Tickling
Phillips,TheBeastin theNursery(New York:Pantheon,1998).
41. Winnicott,
41; emphasis added.
Playingand Reality,
42. See Iona and PeterOpie, "Code of Oral Legislation,"in The Loreand Language
(1959; reprint,New York:New YorkReview of Books Classics,
ofSchoolchildren
2001),121-53.
43. Huizinga, Homo Ludens, 10; see also Manet Westermann, Adriaen van de
eeuiu15, no. 1
Venne,JanSteen,and the Art of Serious Play," in De zeventiende
(1999):33-47.

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18

Warner

44. RogerCailloistakessevereissuewithHuizingaforleavingoutgamesofchance
- forexample,
and discussesAmericanslotmachinesas well as otherforms
- inLesJeux.
Russianroulette
and "Chicken/'
45. Winnicott,
also alludesto
41; emphasisadded. Winnicott
PlayingandReality,
and is knownas "playing
whichcan hardlybe said tobe fictive
masturbation,
withoneself/'
selectedand translated
46. RolandBarthes,"Toys,"in Mythologies,
by Annette
Lavers(NewYork:HillandWang,1972),53-55.

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