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# A

Project Report
FULL WAVE
RECTIFIER
Department of Physics

S.D. MODEL
SCHOOL
Towards Partial fulfillment of the Recruitment of the
Class (XII) (Medical)
Session: 2008 2009

## Under the Supervision of:

Mr. Rajesh Atri
Physics Lecturer

Submitted by:
Ajay
Class: XII
Roll No.

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Project entitled FULL WAVE
RECTIFIER & LOGIC GATE is being submitted successfully by
HARPREET KAUR

## partial fulfillment of a bonafide record of work done by her under

supervision.

Guided by:
Mrs. Parveen Diwan
Principal of School

Mr.Rajesh Atri
Physics Lecturer

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

## It gives us a great pleasure to express our grateful thanks to

these whose took who took been interest in completing my project.
I remain grateful thanks to our physics lecturer Mr. Rajesh
Atri and our respected Principal of school Mrs. Parveen Diwan for
having proved their valuable support and guidance to complete
this project.

Harpreet Kaur
XII-A,(Medical)
S.D. Model School,

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

WORKING

COMPONENT USED]
TRANSISTOR
DIODE
RESISTOR
L.E.D.S
INSULATION TERMINAL
COSTING

INTRODUCTION:
The electrical power is generally transmitting and distributed
as A.C. for economical reason. As such as alternating voltage is
available at the main. But mot of the electrical circuit need D.C.
voltage for their operation.
Therefore now-a-day almost all electronic equipment include
a circuit A.C. voltage of mains supply into D.C. voltage.
The rectifier circuit is the heart of a power supply. The
following two rectifier circuit are generally used:
1.

2.

1.

## Half Wave Rectifier:

In this wave rectifier, we can rectify the positive half of A.C.

2.

## Full Wave Rectifier:

It is a device which can rectify the positive and negative half
cycle of A.C.

## Working of Full-Wave Rectifier:

Rectifier is a device which is used for converting alternating
current/voltage in a direct current voltage.
During the positive half of the input A.C. the upper P-N
junction diode is forward biased. The lower P-N Junction diode is
reversed biased. The forward current flows on account of majority
carrier of upper P-N junction diode in the direction shown.
During the other half cycle in input A.C. the upper P-N
junction diode is reverse biased and the lower P-N junction diode
is forward biased. The forward current flows on account of majority
carriers of lower P-N junction diode. We observe that during both
the halves, current through the rectifier flows in the same direction.
The input and output wave forms are obtained. The output signal
voltage

is

unidirectional

having

ripples

contents

i.e.

d.c.

## components and a.c. components. It can be made D.C. by filtering

it through a filter circuit before it can be put to any use.

TRANSFORMER

## The transformer is a device which can transfer A.C. electrical

energy from one electrical circuit to another electrical energy. The
special feature of the device is that takes place through magnetic
flux. The magnetic flux links both the electrical circuit.
Transformer:
The simple element of transformer consist of two coil having
mutual inductance and a laminated steel core. The two coils are
insulated from each other and from the steel are other necessary
part are same suitable container for the assembled core and
windings from its container for suitable beuhing for insulating and
medium for insulating the core and modem out the terminals of the
windings from the tank.
Working Principle of the Transformer:
In the principle of the transformer it has two winding I.J.
primary winding I.J. secondary winding.
When the supply is given to primary winding the alternating
current flow in the coil will establish alternating flux. This
electromagnetic flux can be establish with the help of lungs law

## states that the direction of induced electromagnetic flux is always

opposite to the causes of their direction is applied alternative
voltage.
Types of transformer:
There are mainly two types of transformer:
1.

Step-up transformer

2.

Step-down transformer

## Step-Up Transformer: When the voltage on the output side is

more than the input side then it is called step up transformer.
Step-Down Transformer: When the voltage on the output side is
more less than the input side then it is called step-down
transformer.
In this project, we have used step down transformer of 606volt.

DIODE
Definition:
When a P-type semiconductor is suitable joined to N-type
semiconductor, the connect surface so formed is called P-N
junction.
Formation of P-N Junction:
In actual particle the P-N junction is not formed by the just
bringing

P-type

semiconductor

block

near

to

N-type

## semiconductor loops. Actually P-N junction is fabricated by special

technique namely growing, allowing and diffusion methods.
The most common method of making P-N junction is called
alleging. An alloyed junction is made from n type

slide of

## semiconductors by meeting a plate of trivalent medium placed on

slide.
This id done by heating system. The indium is observed into
germanium or silica to produce a persion and hence a P-N junction
is formed. However diffusion process is also used to form P-N
junction. In this process the semiconductors wafers of one
conducting are placed in vessel that contains an mode of impurity
to the

## &1200C depending upon the junction desired at each a high

temperature, a gas of impurity about atoms diffuses into the
semiconductor material and forms a thin layer of opposite
conductivity. Thus resulting the formation of P-N Junction.
Construction of Diode:
It is a two terminal device consisting of a P-N junction
performed either in germanium and silica. P and N type regions
are referred to an anode and cathode respecting arrow head
indicate the conventional direction of current when forward biased.
It is the same direction in which hole flow takes place.
Commercially available diode have some means to indicate which
number proceeded.
Application:
The main applications of semi conductor diode northern
electric circuitry are as under:
1.

D.C.

circuits.
2.

## As signals diode in communication circuits for madulation

and demodulation of small signals.

3.

4.

## As varactor diodes for used in voltage controlled tuning

purpose. The diode is deliberating made to have a certain
range of junction capacitance.

## The capacitance of reversed biased diode is given by.

C

RESISTOR
INTRODUCTION:
The flow of current through any material experience on
opposite force which is known as resistance of the material.
These are lot of resistance and variable resistance available
in market to different values for resistance colour coding is used
four colour bands are pointed on the outer coding of Resistor. The
values for different colours has been assigned by manufacturing.
The colour with their values in different bands are listed as under.
Therefore mostly of two type of resistor used i.e. fixed resistor and
variable resistor. Resistor are passive component and they are

S.No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Colour
Black
Brown
Red
Orange
Yellow
Green
Blue
Violet
Grey
White
Gold
Silver
No Colour

Associative
Digit
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
----

Multiplier

Tolerance

100

--

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
10-1

----------

-2

10

10-3

5%
10%
20%

## These colour are there in first three band of resistance where as

fourth band has the colour of gold, silver or no colour. Golt means
5% and silver 10% less or higher than resistance.
The value of resistance can be find out by the following
procedure:
1)

First of all see the colour in the first band. Let it be red. Then
write it (2).

2)

Now see the second band in the first band colour. Let it be
known brown, then write it (1) after first value i.e. (2).

3)

Now see third line colour and let it be red. Then the value of
red in the third band is multiply by first founded two values as
21x102.

## This value of resistance is in ohm.

A point to be noted that Black colour will be found in the first
band.

## LIGHT EMITTING DIODE:

L.E.O. is that which emits light in visible region and emits find
application in the instruments displays panels,indicators,digital
watches,calculators,multimeters inter com, telephone etc.
L.E.D.:
L.E.D.s have a number of advantages over and ordinary
incondenient camps:
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

## L.E.D.s emits visible radiation are materials such as gallium,

phosphate and gallium phosphate.
L.E.D.s that emits in visible rotation and made from gallium
and find application in burglur alarm system and other area which
require invisible rotation.

INSULATION TERMINALS

## Insulating terminals are used at the input for giving supply to

the circuit and at the output for taking the supply.
These are made of brass metal form in the form of belt which
is tighten without to insulators from body to instrument. These
terminals are make below 32 ampere current.
A bakelite hand is also produced. So that there is no sine of
shock when we touch the equipment under the lead condition.
These insulating terminals are called as a protective device which
protect from sparking.

1)

2)

## The output is double to that of the centre tap full wave

rectifier for the same secondary voltage.

3)

The diode having low (half) peak inverse voltage are needed
as the PIV across each diode is on half to that of the centre
tap circuit.

COSTING:
S.NO.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

COMPONENT
Transformer
Diode
L.E.Ds
Terminal
Two Way Switch
Miscellaneous

QUANTITY
1
2
1
2
1
1
--

COST
28
2
2
2
2
1
7

TOTAL
--

44

A PROJECT REPORT
OF
PHYSICS
ON

Submitted to:
The Central Board of Secondary Education
(Session 2005-2006)

## Under the supervision of:

Mr. RAVINDER KUMAR MANGAL
M.Sc. B.Ed.
Lecturer in Physics

Submitted by:
Anil Sharma
XII (Non Medical)
Roll No. ..

Department of Physics

CONTENTS
Bonafide Certificate
Acknowledgement
Introduction
Transformer
Sources of Energy Loss
Precautions
Some Terms related to diode
LED
Full Wave Rectifier
Working of Rectifier
Applications of Rectifier

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

## This is to certify that Project entitled MUSICAL DOOR BELL is

being submitted by student

## Medical) is the work done under my supervision. This is further to

certify that he had worked sincerely in completing the project in
Physics laboratory of our school..

## Mr. Ravinder Kumar Mangal

Lecturer of Physics
S.V.N.P. School
Yamuna Nagar.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With immense pleasure, I extent my heartfelt thanks to those
whose help went long way in the completion of this very project. I
also express my gratitude to Mr. Ravinder Kumar Mangal
(Lecturer of Physics) & Mr. Rakesh Sharma (Lab Assistant).
Without whose valuable guidance it would have been impossible to
complete my project work.
I am also thankful to my parents, whole staff of Physics
Department for their timely help. Last but not the least thanks goes
to the Mrs. Manjeet Kaur (Principal) for her cooperation and
above all I thank God who is always there to help me.

(Anil Sharma)
XII (Non Medical)

INTRODUCTION

## RECTIFIER: It is a device which is used for converting alternating

current voltage into direct current/voltage.
Rectifier are two types:
1.

2.

## But our aim is to discuss about Full Wave Rectifier.

STEP UP TRANSFORMER

P1

Input A.C.

P2
Laminated Core
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

P1
S1
Input A.C.

Output

P2

S2

Laminated Core

TRANSFORMER

## A transformer is an electric device which is used for

changing a.c. current or voltage.

Types of Transformer:
1.

Step up transformer

2.

## Step down transformer

Principal:
A transformer is based on the principle of mutual induction
i.e. whenever the amount of magnetic flux linked with a coil
changes, an e.m.f. is induce in the neighbouring coil.
For an ideal transformer we assume that there is no loss of
energy i.e.
Es Is =

Eplp

IN TRANFORMER
1.

## Copper Loss: It is a loss of energy in the form of heat in

copper coils of a transformer. This is due to joulte heating of
conducting wires.

2.

Iron Loss: Iron loss in the energy loss in form of heat in iron
core of transformer. This is due to formation of eddy current
in iron core.

3.

## Leakage of Magnetic Flux: Leakage of magnetic flux

occurs in spite of our best insulations. Therefore, rate of
change of magnetic flux linked with each turn of SIS2 is less
than the magnetic flux linked with each turn of PIP2.

4.

## Hysteresis Loss: When the a.c. supply is fed to the primary

coil, iron core becomes magnetized. Let us suppose that
during positive half cycle of a.c. iron core becomes
magnetized. Now some energy loss is need to be supplied in
negative half cycle to reduce the residual magnetism to zero.

PRECAUTIONS

1.

## To minimize the eddy currents, the iron core to be used is

taken in form of thin laminated sheets.

2.

## To avoid the leakage of magnetic flux, some ferromagnetic

substances are placed in between primary and secondary
coils.

REVERSE BIASE

DEPLECTION LAXER

## SOME TERMS RELATED TO DIODE

Intrinsic Semi Conductors: A pure semiconductors which is free
from every impurity is called Intrinsic semi conductors.
Extrinsic Semi Conductors: A doped semi conductors or a semi
conductors with suitable impurity atoms added to it is
called Extrinsic semi conductors.
1.

2.

## P-N Junction: The arrangement in which p type semiconductors

is brought into a close contact with n type semi
conductor is called P-N junction.
Resistance: It is the obstruction posed by the conductors to the
flow of electric current in conductors.
Eddy Currents: The Current induced in the conductor when
magnetic flux linked with the conductor is changed.
Forward Biasing: When the positive terminal of the battery is
connected to P Junction and Negative terminal of the battery is
connected to the N Junction of the diode.

## LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED)

DEFINITION:
It is a p-n junction made of gallium arsenide or indium
phosphide as the semiconductors, it is used in forward bias
arrangement as shown in figure:-

WORKING OF L.E.D.
Due to recombination of holes and electronic energy is released at
junction which is emitted at light. In the present case wave length
of light falls in the visible region therefore it can be observed.

D1

DIN4007

Output

220Vac

D2
D2

DIN4007

## Principle: Its working is based on the fact that the resistance of

p-n junction becomes low when forward biased and becomes high
when reverse biased.
Construction: A.C. to be rectified is connected to primary P 1P2 of
a step down transformer S1S2 is the secondary coil of the same
transformer S1S2 connected to p & n junction respectively. Output
is taken across the load resistance.

## During positive half cycle upper diode is forward biased and

thus conducts whereas lower diode is reverse biased. Hence no
current flows through it.
During negative half cycle; lower being reverses biased do
not conducts.
The output voltage is unidirectional and have ripples
contents i.e., a.c. components along with d.c. components. It can
be made d.c. filtering it by passing through a capacitor before it is
put in use.

Time

Time

APPLICATIONS

1.

2.

a.

T.V.

b.

Tape Recorder

c.

Walkman

d.

Computers

e.

Videogames