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FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA

PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY I(CPE453)

STUDENT NAME

GROUP

EXPERIMENT :

DATE

:

PROGRAMME :

EH221

SUBMIT TO

:

No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

: EH2213A

BERNOULLI'S THEOREM DEMONSTRATION

1.10.2014

CHEMICAL AND PROCESS ENGINEERING /

MR RUSMI BIN ALIAS

Title

Abstract/Summary

Introduction

Aims

Theory

Apparatus

Methodology/Procedure

Results

Calculations

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendations

Reference / Appendix

TOTAL MARKS

Allocated Marks

(%)

5

10

5

10

5

10

10

10

20

5

5

5

100

Marks

Remarks:

Checked by:

--------------------------Date:

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

Table of Content

1.0 Abstract

2.0 Introduction

3.0 Objectives

4.0 Theory

5.0 Apparatus and material

6.0 Experimental procedure

7.0 Results

and calculation

8.0 Discussion

9.0 Conclusion

10.0 Recommendations

References

Appendices

18

4

6

7

9

10

11

14

16

16

17

ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in order to demonstrate Bernoullis

Theorem to investigate validity of Bernoullis Theorem when applied to the

2

steady flow of water in tapered duct and to measured the flow rates and

both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent

tube of geometry for a range of steady flow rates. In fluid dynamics,

Bernoulli principles states that for an viscid flow, an increase in the speed

of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a

decrease in the fluid potential energy. In order to demonstrate Bernoullis

theorem, model FM 24 Bernouli apparatus test is used in this experiment.

The water flow rate is measure by using volumetric method. The time

collected 3L water in the tank was measured. Lastly, the flow rate,

velocity and by using contuinity equation to find the velocities and find

the difference of the velocities were calculated using data of the results

and from the data given. Based on result taken it has been analysed that

velocity of the fluid is increase when it flowing from the wider to narrower

tube regardless the type of flow and pressure different. The velocity is

increase as the pressure different increase for all types of flow. The

velocities different is a positive value that shown this experiment is valid

for Bernoullis equation.

INTRODUCTION

In the Bernoullis Theorem, states that an increase in the speed of

moving air or a flowing fluid is accompanied by a decrease in the air

fluids pressure. This theorem also known as Bernoullis principle. Daniel

Bernoulli which is Swiss scientist (1700-1782), demonstrated that, in most

cases the pressure in a liquid or gas decreases as the liquid or gas move

faster. This is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid

through the pressure difference. Normally, a fluid is moving in a horizontal

direction and encounters a pressure difference. This pressure difference

will result in a net force, which is by Newtons Second Law will cause an

acceleration of the fluid.

Bernoullis Theorem also states that the total energy involves the

pressure energy, potential energy and kinetic energy of an incompressible

and non-viscous fluid in steady flow through a pipe remains constant

throughout the flow, provided there is no source or sink of the fluid along

the length of the pipe. This statement is depend to the assumption that

there is no loss energy due to friction.

2

P + gh + V = constant

identify the validity of Bernoullis equation. It is also used to show the

validity of the continuity equation where the fluid flows is relatively

incompressible. In addition, the results that have been recorded will show

the presence of fluid energy losses, often attributed to friction and the

turbulence with eddy currents associated with a separation of the flow

from the conduit walls.

OBJECTIVES

1. To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter

2. To measure flow rate with venturi meter

3. To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

THEORY

Clearly state that the assumption made in driving Bernoullis principle

equation is:

1. The model calculation here assumes laminar flow(no tubulance)

7

2. The distance from the larger diameter to the smaller is short enough

that viscous losses can be neglected

3. The velocity profile follows that of theoretical laminar flow

4. The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the

critical velocity for the liquid.

5. There is no loss energy due to friction.

Then, it is expressed with the following equation:

p = fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m2.

r = density of the flowing fluid in kg/m3

g = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 (its value is 9.81

m/s2 = 9810 mm/s2)

v = mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s

z = elevation head of the center of the cross section with

respect to a datum z=0

hT = total (stagnation) head in m

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the

pressure head (h), velocity head (hi ), and elevation head (z), respectively.

The sum of these terms is known as the total head (hT). According to the

Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head hT at any

cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given above). In a

real flow due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement

uncertainties, the results will deviate from the theoretical ones.

In our experimental setup, the center line of all the cross sections we are

considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the

8

datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above

equation reduces to:

p

' g

v2

2. g

= hT = constant

Total head, hT = hs + hv

For our experiment, we denote the pressure head as h and the total head

as h*i, where i represents the cross section we are referring to.

10

1. Venture meter

2. Pad of manometer tube

3. Hydraulic bench

4. Stop watch

5. Water

6. Water tank equipped with water controller

7. Water host and tubes

PROCEDURE

1. The main switch on the pump is switched on.

2. The flow control valve is fully opened to let the water flow into the

venture meter and manometer tubes.

3. The control valve and valve are closed.

4. The air bleed screw is regulated until water level in manometer

tubes reach 150 mm.

5. The flow control valve is fully opened and waited for some time for

the level in manometer tube h is in steady state.

11

6. After the steady state is achieved, the water tank is closed with

water controller and the time to for volume of water to reach the 3

litre is recorded.

7. The Pitot (total head measuring) tube that connected to manometer

h is pushed gently and its end reaches the cross section of the

venture tube at a. After waited some time, the reading of

manometer h and a are taken.

8. The step 5 to 7 is repeated with difference flow rate.

RESULT

Experiment 1

Volume Collected (m3)

Time (s)

12

0.003

4.155 x 10-4

7.22

Differenc

Cross

Using Continuity

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio

n

A

B

C

D

E

F

(m/s)

hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.262

0.260

0.251

0.242

0.236

0.232

0.198

0.188

0.021

0.128

0.149

0.180

ViB = 2g (hHhi )

(m/s)

1.121

1.189

2.124

1.469

1.306

1.010

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

5.31

3.66

2.01

3.14

3.80

5.31

x

x

x

x

x

x

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

0.782

1.134

2.066

1.322

1.093

0.782

0.399

0.055

0.058

0.174

0.213

0.228

Experiment 2

Volume Collected (m3)

0.003

3.32 x 10-4

Time (s)

9.02

Differenc

Cross

Using Continuity

e,

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio

n

A

B

C

D

(m/s)

hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.21

9

0.21

5

0.21

3

0.20

5

ViB = 2g (hHhi)

(m/s)

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

0.185

0.817

5.31 x 10-4

0.626

0.191

0.170

0.940

3.66 x 10-4

0.908

0.032

0.067

1.692

2.01 x 10-4

1.654

0.038

0.130

1.213

3.14 x 10-4

1.059

0.154

13

E

F

0.20

1

0.19

8

0.146

1.039

3.80 x 10-4

0.875

0.164

0.164

0.817

5.31 x 10-4

0.626

0.191

Experiment 3

Volume Collected (m3)

0.003

2.29x 10-4

Time (s)

13.06

Differenc

Cross

Using Continuity

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio

n

A

B

C

D

E

F

(m/s)

hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.185

0.178

0.173

0.169

0.168

0.163

0.160

0.154

0.104

0.135

0.141

0.146

ViB = 2g (hHhi )

(m/s)

0.700

0.686

1.164

0.817

0.728

0.578

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

5.31

3.66

2.01

3.14

3.80

5.31

x

x

x

x

x

x

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

10-4

0.433

0.627

1.142

0.731

0.604

0.433

0.267

0.059

0.022

0.086

0.124

0.145

14

CALCULATION

Flow Rate, QAC =

Volume collected

Time

0.003

13.06

Using Bernoulli Equation, ViB = 2g (hH-hi)

= 2(9.81) (0.185-0.160)

= 0.7m/s

Q

Ai

2.29 x 104

5.31 x 104

= 0.433 m/s

Difference, ViB Vic = 0.7 - 0.433

= 0.267 m/s

15

DISCUSSION

Based on the objective, this experiment was being conduct to

investigate the validity of the Bernoullis equation when applied to the

steady flow of water in a tapered duct. Since the volume passing through

at given length of pipe during a given period of time will be the same,

there must be a decrease in pressure. From the Bernoullis principle, it

states that the slower the rate of flow, the higher the pressure, and the

fastest the rate flow the lower the pressure.

The Bernoulli theorem was an approximate relation between

pressure, velocity, and elevation, and was valid in regions of steady,

incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. The

equation was obtained when the Eulers equation was integrated along

the streamline for a constant density for incompressible fluid. The

constant of integration (called the Bernoullis constant) varies from one

streamline to another but remains constant along a streamline in steady,

frictionless, incompressible flow. Despite its simplicity, it had been proven

to be a very powerful tool for fluid mechanics. Bernoullis equation states

that the sum of the kinetic energy (velocity head), the pressure energy

(static head) and Potential energy (elevation head) per unit weight of the

fluid at any point remains constant provided the flow were steady,

irrotational, and frictionless and the fluid used is incompressible. This

however, on the assumption that energy is neither added to nor taken

16

Bernoullis equation was viscous effects are negligibly small compared to

inertial, gravitational, and pressure effects.

The Bernoullis equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of

fluid flow problems such as jets issuing from an orifice, jet trajectory, flow

under a gate and over a weir, flow metering by obstruction meters, flow

around submerged objects, flows associated with pumps and turbines etc.

The equipment was designed as a self-sufficient unit it has a sump tank,

measuring tank and a pump for water circulation as shown in figure1. The

apparatus consists of a supply tank, which was connected to flow channel.

The channel gradually contracts for a length and then gradually enlarges

for the remaining length.

From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the velocity

of water decrease as the water flow rate decrease. So, it can be concluded

that the diameter of the tube will affect the differences in velocity as a

bigger tube will cause the differences in velocity become bigger while the

smaller tube cause the velocity differences between Vib and Vic to be

smaller. The flow rate of the difference flow also different. From the result,

we can see that the flow rate of fast condition was 4.155 x 10-4., then for

medium flow rate was 3.32 x 10-4 and lastly for the slow rate was 2.29 x

10-4.

From the experiment, we knew that as the fluid flow from wider to

narrower one, the velocity of flowing fluid increases. This shown in all the

results table, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct

increases as the duct area decreases. From the analysis we can conclude

that for this flow, the difference velocity increases as the pressure

difference increases. There must be some parallax and zero error occurs

when taking the measurement of each data. The observer must have not

17

read the level of static head properly. Moreover, the eyes are not

perpendicular to the water level on the manometer.

when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and absolute velocity

values increase along the same channel. Although the experiment proof

that the Bernoullis equation was valid for both flow but the values obtain

might be slightly differ from the actual value.

CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the objective of this experiment was achieved that to demonstrate the

Bernoullis Theorem experiment. The result collected from the experiment was according to

the Bernoullis Theorem, the highest speed was the one at the lowest pressure, whereas the

lowest speed was present at the most highest pressure. Due to the highest pressure of the

water, it causes the reading of manometer become the highest. This principle complies with

18

the principle of conservation of energy which was the sum if all forms of mechanical energy

along the streamline.

RECOMMENDATION

1.Make sure the trap bubbles must be removing first before start running the experiment.

2.Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get more

accurate results.

3.The valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant values of the pressure

difference as it is quite difficult to control.

4.The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when taking the

reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error.

5.The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and must be

only a person who taking the time.

6.The leakage of water in the instrument must be avoided.

REFERENCES

John F.Douglas, (2001), Fluid Mechanics (4th ed.), Pearson Education

Limited.

19

B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi, (1998), Fundamentals of Fluid

Mechanics

http://www.scribd.com/doc/39165346/Bernoulli-s-Theorem-DistributionExperiment

http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf

Bernoulli experiment, 27 August 2010 at

http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125607/Bernoulli- Experiment

Bernoulli Lab Report, 27 August

2010,athttp://www.scribd.com/doc/23106099/Bernoulli- Lab-Report

http://www.oneschool.net/Malaysia/UniversityandCollege/SPM/revisionca

rd/physics/forceandpressur e/bernoulliprinciple.html#3

20

APPENDICES

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