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UITM SHAH ALAM

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA


FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA
PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY I(CPE453)
STUDENT NAME
GROUP
EXPERIMENT :
DATE
:
PROGRAMME :
EH221
SUBMIT TO
:

No.
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: MOHD ADAFI OMAR(2013632232)


: EH2213A
BERNOULLI'S THEOREM DEMONSTRATION
1.10.2014
CHEMICAL AND PROCESS ENGINEERING /
MR RUSMI BIN ALIAS

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference / Appendix
TOTAL MARKS

Allocated Marks
(%)
5
10
5
10
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
100

Marks

Remarks:
Checked by:
--------------------------Date:

UITM SHAH ALAM

TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE

PAGE

Table of Content
1.0 Abstract
2.0 Introduction
3.0 Objectives
4.0 Theory
5.0 Apparatus and material
6.0 Experimental procedure
7.0 Results
and calculation
8.0 Discussion
9.0 Conclusion
10.0 Recommendations
References

Appendices

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6
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9
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14
16
16
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ABSTRACT
The experiment was conducted in order to demonstrate Bernoullis
Theorem to investigate validity of Bernoullis Theorem when applied to the
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steady flow of water in tapered duct and to measured the flow rates and
both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent
tube of geometry for a range of steady flow rates. In fluid dynamics,
Bernoulli principles states that for an viscid flow, an increase in the speed
of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a
decrease in the fluid potential energy. In order to demonstrate Bernoullis
theorem, model FM 24 Bernouli apparatus test is used in this experiment.
The water flow rate is measure by using volumetric method. The time
collected 3L water in the tank was measured. Lastly, the flow rate,
velocity and by using contuinity equation to find the velocities and find
the difference of the velocities were calculated using data of the results
and from the data given. Based on result taken it has been analysed that
velocity of the fluid is increase when it flowing from the wider to narrower
tube regardless the type of flow and pressure different. The velocity is
increase as the pressure different increase for all types of flow. The
velocities different is a positive value that shown this experiment is valid
for Bernoullis equation.

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INTRODUCTION
In the Bernoullis Theorem, states that an increase in the speed of
moving air or a flowing fluid is accompanied by a decrease in the air
fluids pressure. This theorem also known as Bernoullis principle. Daniel
Bernoulli which is Swiss scientist (1700-1782), demonstrated that, in most
cases the pressure in a liquid or gas decreases as the liquid or gas move
faster. This is an important principle involving the movement of a fluid
through the pressure difference. Normally, a fluid is moving in a horizontal
direction and encounters a pressure difference. This pressure difference
will result in a net force, which is by Newtons Second Law will cause an
acceleration of the fluid.
Bernoullis Theorem also states that the total energy involves the
pressure energy, potential energy and kinetic energy of an incompressible
and non-viscous fluid in steady flow through a pipe remains constant
throughout the flow, provided there is no source or sink of the fluid along
the length of the pipe. This statement is depend to the assumption that
there is no loss energy due to friction.
2
P + gh + V = constant

UITM SHAH ALAM

The converging-diverging nozzle apparatus also can be used to


identify the validity of Bernoullis equation. It is also used to show the
validity of the continuity equation where the fluid flows is relatively
incompressible. In addition, the results that have been recorded will show
the presence of fluid energy losses, often attributed to friction and the
turbulence with eddy currents associated with a separation of the flow
from the conduit walls.

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OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the discharge coefficient of the venturi meter
2. To measure flow rate with venturi meter
3. To demonstrate Bernoullis Theorem

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THEORY
Clearly state that the assumption made in driving Bernoullis principle
equation is:
1. The model calculation here assumes laminar flow(no tubulance)
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2. The distance from the larger diameter to the smaller is short enough
that viscous losses can be neglected
3. The velocity profile follows that of theoretical laminar flow
4. The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the
critical velocity for the liquid.
5. There is no loss energy due to friction.
Then, it is expressed with the following equation:

Where (in SI units):


p = fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m2.
r = density of the flowing fluid in kg/m3
g = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 (its value is 9.81
m/s2 = 9810 mm/s2)
v = mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s
z = elevation head of the center of the cross section with
respect to a datum z=0
hT = total (stagnation) head in m
The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the
pressure head (h), velocity head (hi ), and elevation head (z), respectively.
The sum of these terms is known as the total head (hT). According to the
Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head hT at any
cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given above). In a
real flow due to friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement
uncertainties, the results will deviate from the theoretical ones.
In our experimental setup, the center line of all the cross sections we are
considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the
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datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above
equation reduces to:
p
' g

v2
2. g

= hT = constant

(This is the total

head at a cross section).


Total head, hT = hs + hv
For our experiment, we denote the pressure head as h and the total head
as h*i, where i represents the cross section we are referring to.

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APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

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1. Venture meter
2. Pad of manometer tube
3. Hydraulic bench
4. Stop watch
5. Water
6. Water tank equipped with water controller
7. Water host and tubes

PROCEDURE
1. The main switch on the pump is switched on.
2. The flow control valve is fully opened to let the water flow into the
venture meter and manometer tubes.
3. The control valve and valve are closed.
4. The air bleed screw is regulated until water level in manometer
tubes reach 150 mm.
5. The flow control valve is fully opened and waited for some time for
the level in manometer tube h is in steady state.
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6. After the steady state is achieved, the water tank is closed with
water controller and the time to for volume of water to reach the 3
litre is recorded.
7. The Pitot (total head measuring) tube that connected to manometer
h is pushed gently and its end reaches the cross section of the
venture tube at a. After waited some time, the reading of
manometer h and a are taken.
8. The step 5 to 7 is repeated with difference flow rate.

RESULT
Experiment 1
Volume Collected (m3)

Time (s)

Flow Rate (m3/s)


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0.003

4.155 x 10-4

7.22

Differenc
Cross

Using Bernoulli Equation

Using Continuity

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio
n

A
B
C
D
E
F

(m/s)
hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.262
0.260
0.251
0.242
0.236
0.232

0.198
0.188
0.021
0.128
0.149
0.180

ViB = 2g (hHhi )
(m/s)
1.121
1.189
2.124
1.469
1.306
1.010

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

5.31
3.66
2.01
3.14
3.80
5.31

x
x
x
x
x
x

10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4

0.782
1.134
2.066
1.322
1.093
0.782

0.399
0.055
0.058
0.174
0.213
0.228

Experiment 2
Volume Collected (m3)
0.003

Flow Rate (m3/s)


3.32 x 10-4

Time (s)
9.02

Differenc
Cross

Using Bernoulli Equation

Using Continuity

e,

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio
n

A
B
C
D

(m/s)
hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.21
9
0.21
5
0.21
3
0.20
5

ViB = 2g (hHhi)
(m/s)

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

0.185

0.817

5.31 x 10-4

0.626

0.191

0.170

0.940

3.66 x 10-4

0.908

0.032

0.067

1.692

2.01 x 10-4

1.654

0.038

0.130

1.213

3.14 x 10-4

1.059

0.154
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E
F

0.20
1
0.19
8

0.146

1.039

3.80 x 10-4

0.875

0.164

0.164

0.817

5.31 x 10-4

0.626

0.191

Experiment 3
Volume Collected (m3)
0.003

Flow Rate (m3/s)


2.29x 10-4

Time (s)
13.06

Differenc
Cross

Using Bernoulli Equation

Using Continuity

Equation

ViB Vic

Sectio
n

A
B
C
D
E
F

(m/s)
hH

Hi

(m)

(m)

0.185
0.178
0.173
0.169
0.168
0.163

0.160
0.154
0.104
0.135
0.141
0.146

ViB = 2g (hHhi )
(m/s)
0.700
0.686
1.164
0.817
0.728
0.578

Ai = D2/4

Vic = QAC/Ai

(m2)

(m/s)

5.31
3.66
2.01
3.14
3.80
5.31

x
x
x
x
x
x

10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4
10-4

0.433
0.627
1.142
0.731
0.604
0.433

0.267
0.059
0.022
0.086
0.124
0.145

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CALCULATION
Flow Rate, QAC =

Volume collected
Time
0.003
13.06

= 2.29 x 10-4 m3/s


Using Bernoulli Equation, ViB = 2g (hH-hi)
= 2(9.81) (0.185-0.160)
= 0.7m/s
Q
Ai

Using Continuity Equation, Vic =

2.29 x 104
5.31 x 104

= 0.433 m/s
Difference, ViB Vic = 0.7 - 0.433
= 0.267 m/s

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DISCUSSION
Based on the objective, this experiment was being conduct to
investigate the validity of the Bernoullis equation when applied to the
steady flow of water in a tapered duct. Since the volume passing through
at given length of pipe during a given period of time will be the same,
there must be a decrease in pressure. From the Bernoullis principle, it
states that the slower the rate of flow, the higher the pressure, and the
fastest the rate flow the lower the pressure.
The Bernoulli theorem was an approximate relation between
pressure, velocity, and elevation, and was valid in regions of steady,
incompressible flow where net frictional forces are negligible. The
equation was obtained when the Eulers equation was integrated along
the streamline for a constant density for incompressible fluid. The
constant of integration (called the Bernoullis constant) varies from one
streamline to another but remains constant along a streamline in steady,
frictionless, incompressible flow. Despite its simplicity, it had been proven
to be a very powerful tool for fluid mechanics. Bernoullis equation states
that the sum of the kinetic energy (velocity head), the pressure energy
(static head) and Potential energy (elevation head) per unit weight of the
fluid at any point remains constant provided the flow were steady,
irrotational, and frictionless and the fluid used is incompressible. This
however, on the assumption that energy is neither added to nor taken
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away by some external agency. The key approximation in the derivation of


Bernoullis equation was viscous effects are negligibly small compared to
inertial, gravitational, and pressure effects.

The Bernoullis equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of
fluid flow problems such as jets issuing from an orifice, jet trajectory, flow
under a gate and over a weir, flow metering by obstruction meters, flow
around submerged objects, flows associated with pumps and turbines etc.
The equipment was designed as a self-sufficient unit it has a sump tank,
measuring tank and a pump for water circulation as shown in figure1. The
apparatus consists of a supply tank, which was connected to flow channel.
The channel gradually contracts for a length and then gradually enlarges
for the remaining length.

From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the velocity
of water decrease as the water flow rate decrease. So, it can be concluded
that the diameter of the tube will affect the differences in velocity as a
bigger tube will cause the differences in velocity become bigger while the
smaller tube cause the velocity differences between Vib and Vic to be
smaller. The flow rate of the difference flow also different. From the result,
we can see that the flow rate of fast condition was 4.155 x 10-4., then for
medium flow rate was 3.32 x 10-4 and lastly for the slow rate was 2.29 x
10-4.
From the experiment, we knew that as the fluid flow from wider to
narrower one, the velocity of flowing fluid increases. This shown in all the
results table, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct
increases as the duct area decreases. From the analysis we can conclude
that for this flow, the difference velocity increases as the pressure
difference increases. There must be some parallax and zero error occurs
when taking the measurement of each data. The observer must have not

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read the level of static head properly. Moreover, the eyes are not
perpendicular to the water level on the manometer.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the Bernoullis equation was valid


when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and absolute velocity
values increase along the same channel. Although the experiment proof
that the Bernoullis equation was valid for both flow but the values obtain
might be slightly differ from the actual value.

CONCLUSION
As a conclusion, the objective of this experiment was achieved that to demonstrate the
Bernoullis Theorem experiment. The result collected from the experiment was according to
the Bernoullis Theorem, the highest speed was the one at the lowest pressure, whereas the
lowest speed was present at the most highest pressure. Due to the highest pressure of the
water, it causes the reading of manometer become the highest. This principle complies with

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the principle of conservation of energy which was the sum if all forms of mechanical energy
along the streamline.

RECOMMENDATION
1.Make sure the trap bubbles must be removing first before start running the experiment.
2.Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get more
accurate results.
3.The valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant values of the pressure
difference as it is quite difficult to control.
4.The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when taking the
reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error.
5.The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and must be
only a person who taking the time.
6.The leakage of water in the instrument must be avoided.

REFERENCES
John F.Douglas, (2001), Fluid Mechanics (4th ed.), Pearson Education
Limited.

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B.R. Munson, D.F. Young, and T.H. Okiishi, (1998), Fundamentals of Fluid
Mechanics

(3rd ed.), Wiley.

Lab Manual: Bernoullis Theorem demonstration Unit.


http://www.scribd.com/doc/39165346/Bernoulli-s-Theorem-DistributionExperiment
http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf
Bernoulli experiment, 27 August 2010 at
http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125607/Bernoulli- Experiment
Bernoulli Lab Report, 27 August
2010,athttp://www.scribd.com/doc/23106099/Bernoulli- Lab-Report
http://www.oneschool.net/Malaysia/UniversityandCollege/SPM/revisionca
rd/physics/forceandpressur e/bernoulliprinciple.html#3

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APPENDICES

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