Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

Components of Effective Teaching

(Reference: Principles and Strategies of Teaching by Acero et.al pp 1-14)


Prepared by :
CADACIO,JAY M.
BISCAST-SLP-B

1
The Teacher

2
The Learner
3

The Classroom

Personal and Professional Traits


Roles
Manager, counselor, motivator, leader, model,
public relations officer, parent surrogate,
facilitator, instructor
The child as a biological organism with needs, abilities, and goals;
The social and psychological environment;
Cultural forces of which he is a part .
Activities are well organized
Mutual sharing of responsibilities in maintaining a state of order
and democratic living
Pleasant and hygienic conditions prevail
Physical
Location, shape, size, construction of the room
environment
Furniture in the room
Instructional supplies or resources for learning
Provisions for lighting, heating, ventilating
Acoustics of the room
Provisions for sanitation, cleanliness,
orderliness
Intellectual
Patterns of behavior
Climate
Interaction pattern
Qualities of interaction
Attributes that help learners think clearly,
critically, and creatively
Social Climate Autocratic teacher centered
Laissez-faire
o Learner operates as an individual
o Strives for recognition of his own
achievement
o Develops little regard for the rights &
accomplishments of others
Democratic
o Goals are established by group
participation
o Teamwork is fostered
o Teacher as a guide
o Leadership is open to all

1
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Emotional
Climate
4

The

Curriculum

5
Materials of
Instruction

6
Administration

Emotional adjustment and mental health of


learners

The blueprint or master plan of selected and organized learning


content
Actual implementation of plan through simulated experiences in the
classroom
Academic Curriculum
Formal list of courses offered by a school
Extra Curriculum
Planned but voluntary activities sponsored
by a school (sports, drama, social clubs)
Hidden Curriculum
Unplanned learning activities that are
natural by-product of school life (how to
cope with school bureaucracy, boredom,
etc.)
Various resources available for teachers and learners which help
facilitate instruction and learning
Two-dimensional materials
Flat pictures
(any visual appearing to
Graphics
have height and weight)
Three-dimensional
Model
Diorama
materials (have depth or
Realia
Puppets
thickness in addition to hMock-up
w)
Audio-recording materials
Recordings
(experiences of pure
Radio
listening)
Projected materials
Still projection
(enlarged on a viewing
Motion Pictures
screen)
Educational television
The organization, direction, coordination, and control of human and
material resources to achieve desired ends.
o Seeing that all money is economically expanded and accounted for
o Preparing the school budget
o Selecting and purchasing school sites
o Planning, erecting, and equipping school buildings
o Operating the school plant and keeping it in an excellent state of
repair
o Selecting, training, and supervising teachers
o Providing supplies, textbooks
o Assisting in curriculum construction
o Organizing and instructional program
o Keeping the public informed of the aims, accomplishments, and
needs of the school
o Keeping school records and accounts

2
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Aspects or Dimensions of Individual Learning Style


Biological
Sound
Light
Temperature
Design
Perception
Intake
Chrono-biological highs and lows
Mobility needs
persistence
Apraxia (Dyspraxia)
Dysgraphia
Dyslexia
Dyssemia
Auditory
Discrimination
Visual Perception

Developmental-Sociobiological
Preference
Motivation
Responsibility
Need for structure

Different Learning Disabilities


The inability to motor plan or to make an appropriate body response
Difficulty writing, both in the mechanical and expressive sense,
difficulty with spelling
Difficulty with language in its various uses, not just reading
Difficulty with social cues and signals
Trouble with perceiving the differences between sounds and the
sequences of sounds
Difficulty with the ability to understand and put meaning to what
one sees

Recognizing Learning Disabilities:


(National Center for Learning Disabilities, USA)
1. difficulty with reading, wiritng, speech, and mathematics
2. difficulty with perception of time and space
3. concentration and attention problems
4. impulsive behavior
5. difficulty with short-term memory
6. socialization problems
7. difficulty with fine motor coordination
8. low self-esteem
9. difficulty with organization
(Disabilities Association of America)
10. disorganization
11. easily distracted
12. poor attention span
13. overreacts to noise
14. doesnt enjoy when being read to
15. poor hand-eye coordination
16. cant make sense of what s/he hears
17. uses words inappropriately

20. inability to follow simple


instructions
21. poor emotional control
22. difficulty remembering or
understanding sequences
23. chooses younger playmates
or prefers solitary play

3
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

18. hyperactivity
19. limited vocabulary

Basic Principles of Successful Teaching at any Academic Level


(Olsen, et al as cited in Principles & Strategies of Teaching by Acero, et al)

Principle

Components

Activities

1. Educate the whole


child

Aspects of development: physically,


socially, emotionally, ethically, and
intellectually

Challenge emerging
interests, and abilities

2. Keep the program


informal, flexible, and
democratic

Confidence in their
of achievement

3. Capitalize upon
present student
interest

Teachers discover what interests and


purposes students have

Ask questions
freely
Confer with other
learners
Share in planning
activities
Carry personal
responsibility
Praiseworthy purposes
to promote educational
growth

power

Limited versus wide interests


4. Let motivation be
intrinsic

Most moving incentives are those of


real life

Explore the new


and the interesting
Associate actively
with other people
Manipulate and
construct things
Compare opinions
about important
matters
Express ones self
artistically

5. Make learning
experiences vivid and
direct

Generalizations will be useless and


mere verbalisms unless grounded on
meaningful personal experiences

Constant opportunities
for:
Motion pictures
Radio programs
excursions
interviews
service projects
work experience

The need to receive more concrete,


interesting and meaning experiences

4
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Principles

Components

6. Stress problem
solving, the basis of
functional learning

Ability of children to intelligently


attack real problems

7. Provide for the


achievement of lasting
student satisfaction

Teachers put extra effort to make


learning situations opportunities
for students achieve something

8. Let the curriculum


mirror the community

Learning situations reflect


students community life

Activities
Discover,
define, attack, solve,
interpret personal and
social problems
Offer genuine success,
Personal satisfaction
Opportunity for
intellectual, social, and
emotional growth
Simulations

Humanistic Teaching
(is non-threatening coupled with unconditional love)
Principle

Components

1. Emphatic Understanding

Internal frame of reference


Putting oneself in the place of another

2. Respect or non-possessive
warmth

Warm and total acceptance for another as a person


Deep interest and concern for the development and
welfare of students

3. Genuineness

Real and not a mythical teacher

5
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Principles of Good Teaching


1.

Active Learning

Basic Principles of Todays Teaching


Children learn by doing.

2. Many Methods

Learning should be gradual and continuous, not discrete.

3. Motivation

Motivation should be intrinsic and natural, not artificial.

4. Well-Balanced Curriculum

The child can best be educated as a whole, as a unit


organism.

5. Individual Difference
6. Lesson Planning
7. The Power of Suggestion

Instruction should be adopted to individual


needs.
Education means improving the quality of
learning.

8. Encouragement
9. Remedial Teaching
10. Democratic Environment

Learning depends upon the childs ability.

11. Stimulation

Teacher-student and inter-student relationships should


be cooperative

12. Integration

Learning comes through sense impressions.

13. Life-like Situation


14. Independence

Natural social settings should


constitute learning situations

6
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Writing Lesson Objectives


Other terms for
instructional objectives

Performance
Learner
Behavioral
Specific
(objectives)
Process
objectives
Enabling
objectives

Characteristics of
Performance
Objectives

SMART

emphasis on the student outcomes


manifested in behavior

Focus on mental skills: observation,


organization, categorization, evaluation,
drawing inferences
Include task analysis: breaking a complex
task into a logical sequence of steps to
achieve the intended outcome
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Resultoriented, Reliable, Realistic, and Timebounded, Terminal

Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives


Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis

Cognitive
Evaluation
Receiving
Responding
Valuing
Organization
Characterization
by Value

Recall facts, concepts, and generalization


Check understanding of information learned
Apply information in performing concrete actions (ex:
writing, reading, handling equipment)
Examine factual content in order to solve problems
Divide information into component parts
Utilize inductive and deductive learning
Bring to bear information from various sources to
create a product, a pattern or structure
(written, oral, practical)
Apply a standard in making a judgment on the worth
or something (decision-making skills, action, design)
Show willingness to attend to a particular classroom
stimuli in the learning environment
Require active participation based on the stimuli
Display definite involvement or commitment toward
some experience
Integrate a new value into their general set of values
and give its proper place in a priority system
Act consistently according to the value and is firmly
committed to the experience

Affective

7
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives

Psychomotor

Reflex Movements
Basic Fundamental
Movements
Perceptual Abilities
Physical Abilities
Skilled Movements
Non-discursive

Occur voluntarily in response to stimuli


Has innate movement pattern from from a
combination of reflex movements
Translate stimulus received through the
senses into appropriate desired movements
Develop basic movements that are essential
to the development of more highly skilled
movements
Develop more complex movements
requiring a certain degree of efficiency
Communicate through body movement

Magers Approach in Writing Objectives: Three Elements:


1. Performance / Behavior - refer to what the learner displays
2. Condition refer to the circumstances under which the learner is able to
perform or exhibit the learned behavior
3. Criterion of Success standard against which the learners performance is
evaluated for teachers to know whether or not the learners objective has
been attained

_______________

References
1. Salandanan, Gloria. Teaching and the Teacher (pp 89-93).
2. Corpuz & Salandanan. Principles and Strategies of Teaching (pp84-90).

Methods and Techniques of Teaching


8
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Approach
Ones viewpoint
toward teaching

Method
A series of related and progressive
acts performed by a teacher and
students to achieve the objectives
of the lesson

Strategy
Set of decisions to
achieve an objective
that results in a plan

Technique
The personal art and
style of the teacher in
carrying out the
procedure

Instructional Tactics
Instructional Activities

Delivery Mode
Conditions under which
instruction is to be offered
to the learner

Media
Manner through which an
instructional message is
communicated

Types of Lesson

9
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Developm
ent Lesson

Preparation
-review facts
-recall old
experiences
related to new
lesson
-establish objectives
Development
lead the class to:
examine
analyze
compare
contrast
generalize
observe
judge
direct
something to achieve
objectives
Application
Use what has been
learned in a new
situation or practice
activities

Review
Lesson

Drill Lesson

Preparation
-define the need
review
-specify the purpose
of
review
-recall concepts
previously learned

Motivation
Arousing the need for
the skill or activity

Review
Proper/Activities
Use any or a
combination of the
following:
Problem Solving skill
Comparison Scheme
Concepts Scheme
Activities Scheme
Open book exercises
Imaginative-Creative
Condensing
Selected reference
Reading

Focalization
Focusing learners
attention on the
specific facts, habits,
or skills to be drilled
on
Repetition of
Attention
Repeating learning
materials meaningfully
Application
Using what has been

Further Application
Use new learning in
new situations

EXPOSITORY VS EXPLORATORY STRATEGY


(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)

10
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Expository Strategy
Less delivery
Utilizes
expositive
strategies such
o Direct

o
o

Exploratory Strategy
time

as:

teaching
Deductive proces
Teacher controlled method

Less students involvement:


Passive
Active

More delivery time


Utilizes discovery
strategies such as:
o Inquiry
teaching
o Inductive
process
o Teacher facilitated methods
High student involvement
Active
Interactive

(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)


Expository Teaching
What
When to use
Steps
Expository A telling method
o When there is
Expository Teaching
Expository Teaching
or
where facts,
of Concepts
Principles and
an immediate
Didactic
concepts,
Generalization
need of a
Method
principles, and
relevant
generalization
1. Teacher presents
Teacher states rules,
information to
ore stated,
principles and
make students concepts and
presented,
definition
generalizations
understand a
defined,
part in the
interpreted by
Teacher explains
lesson
the teacher, and
2. Teacher presents
concepts with a
o When
followed by the
and links concept
principle or
information is
application or
with related higher
generalization
not available
testing of these
concepts
and time can
concepts,
Teacher presents
be saved by
principles, and
3.
Teacher
presents
positive and negative
the teacher
generalizations in
positive and negative examples
directly telling
new examples
examples
it
generated by
o When an idea
students.
Students classify and
or principle can 4. Students classify
examples as either
explain examples,
be best
either positive or
learned only by positive or negative
negative
explanation
5. Students provide
o When the
additional examples
Students provide
source
additional examples
material is not
accessible to
the students

11
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Demonstra
tion

Deductive
Teaching

What
Telling and
showing method
performed
usually by a
teacher or a
trained student
while the rest of
the class become
observers

Process of
teaching that
starts with a rule
or general
statement that is
applied to
specific
cases/examples

(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)


Expository Teaching
When to use
Steps
o When process
1
Preparation, motivation, clarifying
objective
is significant
2
but apparatus
Explaining concept, theory, process,
need is limited
3
o When school
Demonstration of correct process involved
lacks facilities
in a theory or performance
for every
4
student
Discussion/Practice
o When
Feedback on elements of process
equipment is
5
too expensive,
Transfer to real world
sophisticated,
dangerous
o When lesson
requires skill in
investigative
procedure or
technical know
how
When pupils re
1. Statement of the problem
asked to:
o
State real life cases, situations,
o test a rule or
problems
further develop
2. Statement of a generalization or rule
it
o Recall two or more generalizations,
o answer
rule, definitions, or principle
questions
o Select one which will be the solution
o solve problems
to the problem
by referring to
3. Apply the rule
laws,
1. Test the rule to specific cases or
principles, and
problems
theories
4. Further verification of the rule
o Try our the rule using other
examples
o Determine the validity of the
inference by consulting accepted
authorities

12
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)

Inductiv
e
Teachin
g

Discove
ry
Teachin
g

Experiential Methodologies : Exploratory


What
When to Use
An exploratory
When the 1
method of logic when
rule,
one arrives at a fact,
concept,
principle, truth, or
truth,
generalization
principle,
Studying: observing,
or
generaliz
comparing, many
ation is
instances or cases in
importan
several instances to
t enough
discover the common
to justify
element and form of
2
the time
generalization
devoted
Formulating
to the
conclusion, a
3
lesson
definition, a rule, a
When the
principle or formula
pupil has
based on knowledge
the
of examples and
4
ability to
details
form and
state the
rule,
principle,
truth, or
generaliz 5
ation by
themselv
es
through
comparis
on and
abstracti
on of
instances

Thoughts are
synthesized to
perceive something
that the individual has
now known before
o Learner gets directly
involved in learning
Learning is a result of the
learners own internalized
o

Steps
Preparation:
o Set an apperceptive basis
by reviewing old facts or
lessons that can be utilized
as background for the new
o Motivate by arousing the
need to achieve the
objective
o State the aim which may be
in the form of a problem or
goal statement
Preparation = present specific
cases, instances, and examples
to the class
Comparison and Abstraction =
discover and identify the
common elements among the
specific cases
Generalization = state the
common element deduced from
the specific instances/examples
as a concept, a generalization,
a rule, a definition, a principle,
or formula
Application = use the learned
concept, generalization, rule,
and principle in new situations.

Deductive discovery:

Inductive Discovery:

Presenting a main idea that can be


checked against evidence

Presenting the following =


specific examples, instances for
observation, discussion

Finding supporting evidences or


examples for the main idea

Identifying attributes of the


common elements

Stating why the evidence is supporting

13
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

insight, reflection, and


experience.

the main idea

Discussing the elements among


given examples

Finding other evidence or proof of the


main idea

Stating the main idea based on


the common elements
Checking the main idea against
new examples

(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)


Experiential Methodologies : Exploratory
What
When to Use
o Problem is a felt
When the goal is:
1
o To sharpen the power to think,
difficulty in a
2
situation that needs
reason, and create a new idea
to be removed
o To learn how to act in difficult
3
o Problem solving is
situations
any purposeful
o To improve judgments
activity that will
4
remove a recognized
difficulty or
5
perplexity in a
situation through the
6
process of reasoning

ProblemSolving
Method

Project
Method

A significant practical
unit of an activity of a
problematic nature
carried on by students in
a lifelike manner and
natural setting. It may
be construction, an
employment, a problem,
or a learning project

o
o
o
o
o

Laboratory
Method

Inquiry
teaching

A set of first learning


activities wherein the
individual investigates a
problem conducts
experiments, observes
processes, or applies
theories and principles in
a simulated setting
Learners are confronted
with a puzzling situation
and are let to enter into
investigative work to
solve the problem

o
o
o

o
o
o
o
o
o

When problems in life


situation exist
When learners initiate and
impose the tasks on them
When time and materials are
available
When there is a decided
advantage over the other
methods in meeting the needs
When training in cooperation,
perseverance, open-minded,
creativity is need.
To cultivate students skills in
the basic science processes
To enhance higher order
thinking skills
To induct learners to scientific
processes

Steps
Identification and recognition
of the problem
Discussion of key elements of
the problem
Statement of
hypothesis/proposal of
solution(s)
Collection and interpretation of
related evidence(s)
Critical evaluation of
suggested solutions
Verification of accepted
solution(s):
o If acceptable use the
solution to solve the
problem
o If not, prepare another
solution
1 Purposing = determining goals
and activities cooperatively
2 Planning = deciding on the
activities
3 Executing = carrying out
activities
4 Evaluating = judging the
finished projects/results against
the goals

Preparation = motivation, goal


setting, orientation
o Supervised work = working on
the problem
o Culmination = organizing
findings
o Reporting findings =
communicating results
Step 1 = presentation of a problem/puzzling situation (by a teacher,
class, learners themselves)
Step 2 = defining the problem (list questions)
Step 3 = Gathering and appraising information
Step 4 = Gathering information (answer questions)
Step 5 = Drawing conclusions
Step 6 = Evaluating (conclusions, answers to questions, thinking
processes used0
o

14
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

REFLECTIVE TEACHING as Experiential Learning Cycle


(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)

Concrete
Experience

Observation
&
Analysis

Active
Experimentation

Abstraction
Reconceptualization

Reflective
Teaching

Stages
1. Concrete
Experience
2. Observation &
Analysis

An on-going process that enables individuals to continually learn


from their own experiences by considering alternative
interpretations of situations, generating and evaluating goals, and
examining experiences in the light of alternative goals and
hypothesis
A teaching approach that brings the individuals to continually learn
form their experiences through thoughtful analysis of their own
experiences, actions, decisions, beliefs in the light of alternative
goals and hypothesis
The act of teaching that focuses thought on certain phenomenon
through inspection, introspection, and analysis
Instructional Activities
Identify problematic situation

Observation:
o Gather information about the experiences, beliefs, values,
intentions, attitudes, feelings, and actions
o Describe the experience in a multidimensional and comprehensive
way
Analysis:

15
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

3. Abstraction Reconceptualizaiton

o
o
o
o
o
o

Reflective analysis of the experience by individual and group


Examine both actions/outcomes
Active and self-directed search for new ideas and new strategies
Reshape theories
Engage in creative self-definitional approach
Test assumption and new conceptualizations

METACOGNITIVE TEACHING APPROACHES


(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)
What
How

Strategy

Developing
Metacogniti
ve

A teaching approach where learners are trained to become aware of and exert
control over their own learning by using metacognitive processes
Through the
Planning= deciding what my goals are and what strategies to use
use of the
to get there
following
Deciding = what further knowledge or resources I need
metacognitive
Monitoring progress along the way = am I going in the right
processes
direction?
Evaluating = when I have arrived; and
Terminating = when the goals have been met
Heuristic or
Before = when you are
What in my prior knowledge will
Selfdeveloping the plan of
help me with this particular task?
questioning
action, ask yourself:
In what direction do I want my
thinking to take me?
What should I do first?
How am I reading this selection?
How much time do I have to complete
this task?
During = when you are
How am I doing?
maintaining/monitoring the Am I on the right track?
plan of action, ask yourself: How should I proceed?
What information is important to
remember?
Should I move in a different
direction?
Should I adjust the pace
depending on the difficulty?
What do I need to do if I do not
understand?
After = when you are
How well did I do?
evaluating the plan of
Did my particular course of
action, ask yourself:
thinking produce more or less
than I had expected?
What could I have done
differently?
How might I apply this line of
thinking to other problems?
Do I need to go back through the task
to fill in any blanks in my
understanding?
Knowing when
Guide student in the use of reading, writing, and
you know
reasoning process
Repeat successful experience with the process

16
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Awareness

Knowing what
you know
Knowing what
you need to
know

What is known when you know


Awareness of acquired knowledge and understanding
Subjects/concepts can be studied at multiple levels of
sophistication
Push boundaries of knowledge as far as one can
Learning processes (reading, writing, reasoning) grow as
the learner grows:
o Becoming more selective as information becomes
more dense
o Becoming more creative in the blend of resources
o Becoming more elaborative in the synthesis of ideas

COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGY


(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)
A type of group work in which two or more students interact with the common goal
or mastering specific academic materials.
Two Essential Components:
Cooperative Tasks
Cooperative Incentive structure:
o Students are encouraged and motivated to help one another to learn
rather than compete against each other.
o They are dependent upon the efforts of one another to achieve
success.
o They are rewarded on the basis of learning of all team members
Sample Approaches:

STAD Student Teams Achievement Approach (Slavin)


1 Academic information are presented each week through verbal text.
2 Students are divided into learning teams or four members
(heterogenous)
3 Team members help one another to master the academic materials
using worksheets, tutoring, quizzing one another, and team discussion
4 Quizzes are administered weekly/biweekly and scored and each
student is given improvement score.
5 Improvement scores exceed the students past averages
6 Individual improvement scores are added to give a team score
7 Team success is acknowledged through short newsletter containing the
learning outcomes

Jigsaw I (Dronson, etal)


1 Student is assigned to heterogenous study home teams

17
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

2
3
4
5
6
7

Academic material divided into clearly defined sections is presented to


the students in text form
Within each team, one student is responsible for mastering a section
The teams split into specialist group, student responsible for section
materials meets with corresponding students from other groups.
Each member of the specialist group helps one another in the same
materials referred to as task specializations
Each student in the specialist group returns to his home team and
teaches other members of the teams
Following home teams discussions are quizzes given individually

DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES
(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)

Panel informal discussion of a topic by a group of four to six students led


by a chairman. Each student gives a key opening statement about the
topic.

Symposium more formal setting than a panel discussion points


representing views of different people.

Forum similar to panel in which a group of five to six students take turns
in discussion with the class topics on hand

Round Table five to six students seated around a table discuss a


topic/problem among themselves and with the other class members

Buzz session four to seven students meet together to share each


others opinions, viewpoints, and reactions without formal preparations

Brainstorming class members are tasked to share ideas regarding an


issue, plan, or project. All suggestions are recorded. Decisions are made
later by the whole class

Debate formal speeches and rebuttal by sets of members of two


opposing teams

Simulation Discussion Techniques


(Notes from: COI Workshop 2003, AdDU)

18
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Role playing class members are assigned or adapt certain roles


simulating a situation

Socio-drama portrayal of special scenes from history or literature


Jury trial technique a simulation of court room procedure which
engaged the students in research and a panel in the discussion of an
issue

CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT
Definition:

Administration or direction of activities with special reference to such


problem as discipline, democratic techniques, use and care of supplies
and reference materials, the physical features of the classroom, general
housekeeping, and the social relationships of pupils. (CV Goods Dictionary of
Education)

Includes operation and control of activities (seating, attendance, use of


instructional materials, classroom courtesies); requires planning and
foresight. (Lardizabal, 1991)

19
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Approaches to
Classroom
Management
BusinessAcademic

Assertive
Approach

Group-Managerial

BehaviorModification

Acceptance

Group-Guidance
Success

Social Climate
Elements of
Classroom
Management

Emotional Climate

Environment

Aspects of
CM
Setting

Instruction

Management Techniques
Techniques

Clear all identified traffic routes


Frequently used materials should be kept in readily accessible place
Establish rules for every learning station in the room
Arrange of pieces of furniture that facilitate easy movement, overall
monitoring, visibility and accessibility
Make explicit all procedures for getting, using and returning materials
Maintain effective flow of pacing, momentum, and transition from one
topic to another
Observe effective techniques of questioning to maintain group alertness

20
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Conduct

Routine
Climate

Relationshi
p

Promote cooperation and cohesiveness by holding students accountable


for classroom incidents
Ensure satisfaction and sense of progress and mastery through adjusting
tasks and requirement to students capability level
Prepare a wish list of desired behavior
State rules as desired behaviors
Limit rules to six
Model and teach the rules
Display rules publicly
Apply disciplinary procedures consistently to all pupils
Link disciplinary procedures to students inappropriate behavior
Deal immediately with all appropriate and inappropriate behaviors
Rewards fro appropriate behavior should be appealing to students
Explicitly state and consistently apply punishments
Check the deterrent values of penalties
Provide parents copies of school rules and their consequences for
violations
Enlist participation of the principal and colleagues in the formulation and
administration of school rules and in determining their positive and
negative consequences
Establish a conduct code
Employ low-profile classroom controls
Identify daily activities that can be routinized to save time and effort
Inform students why routines are established
Respect and value students as human beings
Enforce freedom within reasonable limits
Stress group cooperation and cohesiveness over competition
Maintain an atmosphere of freeing rather than control
Make every student in the class feel free s/he is valued
Be direct and honest with students and encourage them to do the same
Develop a sense of interdependence
Be personally involved rather than alienated
Sustain positive and constructive conversations with and among students
Employ corrective measures without sarcasm and ridicule
Employ communication that safeguard self-esteem, and convey respect
Assist every student in building confidence

Reference: COI workshop Notes, 2003

Rules to Remember

(Reference: Tchng Strat 1 by Alcantary et.al)

RULE
Content words, usually stressed
Function words are usually
unstressed

EXAMPLE
Nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs,
Demonstrations: this, that, these, those
Interrogatives: who, when, why, where, how
Articles: a, an, the
Prepositions: to,of,in,from,by,etc.
Personal Pronouns: I,me,she,he,it,etc.
Possessive adjectives: my,your,his,our,etc.

21
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

Relative pronouns: who,that,which,what, etc.


Common conjuctions: and, but, as, if, etc.
Noun substitutes
Verbs used as auxiliaries or helping verbs: be, have, do, will,
shall, would, should, can, could, may, might, must.
Note:
These verbs are usually unstressed, even when they are used as
principal verbs. However, when they come at the end of a
sentence or when they are used in reiterative formulas, they are
stressed.

Most words with two syllables are


stressed on the 1st syllable
Intensive- reflexive pronouns
receive a stronger stress on the 2nd
syllable
Phrases which end in a noun
generally have the phrase stress on
the noun
Phrases which end in noun
compounds, the phrase stress is on
the 1st part of the compound.
Phrases which end with an adjective
usually have the phrase stress on
the adjective

Dancer, river, person, holy, etc.


Yourself, myself, itself, herself, himself, ourselves
I sent her a gift.
His companion is Rico.
You owe me a peso.
The boys are playing basketball.
Miss Almazan is our English Professor.
Please go to the post office.
My brother is a truck driver.
We have a kitchen table.
The test is difficult.
All the children got scared.
The rooms on the floor are dirty.
Noras performance is excellent.
Mr. Garcia owns the new house.
Your friend is a personable, young man.
I found a gold ring on the table

In phrases where there are two


items with primary stress, one of
them, usually the 1st, is reduced to
secondary stress.
The adjective is given the
secondary stress, while the noun
gets the primary stress
This pattern (^)should be learned in contrast with another pattern, a sequence of primary-tertiary
(^)found in noun constructs or compound noun. In noun constructs, both items may be nouns as bus
stop, milk shake or a combination of an adjective and a noun greenhouse, freeway, shortstop.
Phrases (^)
English teacher
(a teacher from England)

Constructs (^)
English Teacher
(a teacher of English

hair brush
(a brush made of hair)

hair brush
(a brush of for the hair)

blue stocking
(a stocking that is blue)

Bluestocking
(an intellectual woman)

22
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez

grand father
(a wonderful father)

grandfather
(the father of ones father or mother

Pointers for Verse Recitation


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Be clear. Speak so that every word is heard.


Vary the speed. Some parts should be faster than others.
Vary the tone of voice. Some parts should be matter-of-fact,
some angry, some mock-serious, some tender, etc.
Vary the volume. Some parts should be louder or softer than
others.
Recite intelligently. Do not recite mechanically at the end of lines regardless
of the sense.
Decide what emphatic words are emphasize them.
Pause in appropriate places. Do not be afraid to keep the audience waiting.
Give them time to ponder what has been said to speculate about what is to
come. Pause before emphatic words, before and after direct speech, before
any kind of climax

Suggested activities to test the students proficiency in speaking:


1. Reading aloud to test pronunciation, stress, and intonation.
2. Short talks (with preparation) on topics chosen from a list or based on a picture.
3. Conducting an interview.
4. Role simulation (giving instructions, advice, etc.)
5. Role-playing with examiner and student each taking part.
6. Role-playing in typical situations.
7. Vocational exposition and demonstration (projects).
8. Giving appropriate responses in a series of situations.
9. Re-telling of a story read aloud by the examiner.
10. Giving appropriate instructions in a series of situations.

Reference: Tchng Strat 1 by Alcantary et.al

23
Educ 222 Principles of Teaching 1
Melanie Jeane C. Galvez