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PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF CONCESSION

(CM T V MNH CH S NHNG B)


Cm t v mnh ch s nhng b dng din t hai tri ngc trong cng mt cu.

I. PHRASES OF CONCESSION

Cm t ch s nhng b thng c bt u bng gii t In spite of hoc Despite (mang


ngha mc d, cho d)
Cu trc :

In spite of
Despite

+ N/N phrase/Gerund phrase, Main clause

Sau hai gii t ny phi l mt danh t, mt cm danh t hoc mt V-ing.


E.g.
Despite the cold weather, they enjoyed the picnic.

Despite the fact that the weather was cold, they enjoyed the picnic.
Despite the weather being cold, they enjoyed the picnic.
In spite of his old age, he still leads an active life.
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Mnh c Despite hoc In spite of c th c t trc hoc sau mnh chnh. Nu ng


trc mnh chnh, ta phi thm du phy vo trc mnh chnh, nu ng sau mnh
chnh, ta khng cn thm du phy.

She couldnt pass the exam despite studying hard.

II. CLAUSES OF CONCCESSION

Mnh trng ng ch s nhng b l mnh ph ch s tng phn ca 2 hnh ng trong cu.


Mnh ny thng bt u vi nhng t ni : although, though, even though, no matter,
whatever (d, cho d)
Cu trc :

1/

Although
Though
Even though

+S+V ,

Main clause

ng sau 3 cm t ny phi l mt mnh hon chnh (c c ch ng v ng t). Cc mnh


ny c th ng trc hoc sau mnh chnh. Nu ng trc mnh chnh, ta phi thm du
phy vo trc mnh chnh, nu ng sau mnh chnh, ta khng cn thm du phy.
E.g.
Although the weather was cold, they enjoyed the picnic.

Jane will be admitted to the university even though she has bad grades.
Anna was fond of Jim though he often annoyed her.

Nu though ng mt mnh cui cu, tch bit bi cu chnh bi du phy th n mang ngha tuy
nhin.

He promised to call me, till now I havent received any call from him, though.

2/

No matter + who/what/when/where/why/how (adj, adv) + S + V, main clause


Whatever (+N) + S + V, main clause

Mnh bt u bng NO MATTER hoc WHATEVER thng c t trc mnh chnh, mang
ngha d . i na

E.g.

No matter how hard she tried, she couldnt pass the exam.
No matter what she says, I dont believe her.

Whatever jobs he chose, his parent were pleased with him.

PHRASES AND CLAUSES OF REASON


(CM T V MNH CH L DO)

I. PHRASES OF REASON

Cm t ch l do thng c bt u bng t ni : because of, owing to, due to, as a result


of, on account of
Cu trc :

Because of
Owing to
Due to
On account of
As a result of

+ N/N phrase/Gerund phrase,

Main clause

Cc cm t ny c th ng trc hoc sau mnh chnh, mang ngha l v, do. Nu ng trc


mnh chnh, ta phi thm du phy vo trc mnh chnh, nu ng sau mnh chnh, ta
khng cn thm du phy.
E.g.
Jan was worried because of the rain.

Because of the traffic jam, the students arrived late.


The project has to be abandoned due to a lack of government funding.
Owing to his illness, he could not continue with his studies.
She dies as a result of her injuries.

II. CLAUSES OF REASON

Mnh trng ng ch l do l mt mnh ph ch l do hoc nguyn nhn ca hnh ng c


nu trong mnh chnh.
Mnh trng ng ch l do thng c ni vi mnh chnh nh cc t ni nh : because,
as, since. (Lu : since v as thng t u cu)
Cu trc :

Because/As/Since + S + V, main clause


E.g.

He came ten minutes late because he missed the first bus.


As the weather was bad, they didnt take part in the trip.

EXERCISES
I.

Complete the sentences with although/ in spite of/ because/ because of

1. ................. it rained a lot, we enjoyed our holiday.


2. I couldnt get to sleep ...................... the noise.
3. ..................... I had an apple for lunch, I ate dinner early.
4. A lot of things went wrong ...................... all our careful plans.

5. She wasnt wearing a coat .......................... it was quite cold


6. He only accepted the job ....................... the salary, which was very high.
7. I went home early ................................. I was tired.
8. ............................. I knew the truth, I decided not to tell them.
9. Sarah cant climb up the tree ........................ her fear of heights
10. We decided not to go out for a meal ............................... we had no money.

II. Rewrite the following sentences using the words provided without changing the meaning.
1. It rained alot but we enjoyed our holiday. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. Though we had planned carefully, alot of things went wrong. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3. I managed to sleep despite the fact that there was alot of noise. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. I couldnt sleep well although I was very tired. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. They have very little money but they are very happy. (in spite of )
.........................................................................................................................................................................
6. Inspite of the silly story, I enjoyed the film.(although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
7. I was feeling well but I went home early. (though)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
8. I could get to sleep although it was noisy. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
9. He has a very important job, but he isnt particularly well-paid. (although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
10. Although the trafic was bad, I arrived on time. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
11. We went out inspite of the rain. (Although)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
12. Although I had all the necessary qualifications, I didnt get the job. (In spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
14. I had an umbrella but I got very wet in the rain. (Even though)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
15. Although my foot was injured, I managed to walk to the nearest village. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
16. She wasnt wearing a coat although it was quite cold. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
17. Although I didnt speak the language, I managed to make myself understand.(in spite of)

.........................................................................................................................................................................
18. I didnt recognise her although Id met her twice before. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
19. Although I had never seen her before, I recognized her from a photograph. (in spite of)
.........................................................................................................................................................................
20. He took many pictures though the sky was cloudy. (despite)
.........................................................................................................................................................................

III. Combine sentences, using clause or phrase of reason:


1. It's raining, so we stay at home.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. Most people hear jogging is a good exercise, so they begin to jog.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3. The climate in the country is healthy, so people like to live here.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4.

A computer can be used for various purposes, so it becomes very popular nowadays.

.........................................................................................................................................................................
5.

Tomorrow is a public holiday, so all the shops will be shut.

.........................................................................................................................................................................

IV. Change clauses of reason to phrases:


1. Mary didn't go to school yesterday because she was sick.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
2. She went to bed early because she felt tired.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
3.Ann didn't go to the circus with Betty because she had a bad cold
.........................................................................................................................................................................
4. John succeeded in his exam because he worked hard and methodically.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
5. Margaret stayed home because her mother was sick.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
6. I like him because his father is kind to me.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
7. I can't eat these fruits because they are green.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
8. I couldnt do the test because it was difficult.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
9. I couldnt read the letter because it was dark.
.........................................................................................................................................................................
10. He came late because it rained heavily.