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Department Of Polymer Engineering,

University Of Engineering And Technology,

Prepared By:
Muhammad Khizar Shafique

Reg. No.:

Computer and Computation

Submitted To:
Miss Farah Haseeb
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Table of Contents

Main Page

Table of Contents
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PDF Reader
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PDF Reader:
I. Introduction

Format (PDF)
an open
standard for document exchange. It is used for representing documents in a manner
independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems. Each PDF file
encapsulates a complete description of a fixed-layout flat document, including the
text, fonts, graphics, and other information needed to display it.

II. History
PDF's adoption in the early days of the format's history was
slow. Adobe Acrobat, Adobe's suite for reading and creating PDF files, was not freely
available; early versions of PDF had no support for external hyperlinks, reducing its
usefulness on the Internet; the larger size of a PDF document compared to plain text
required longer download times over the slower modems common at the time; and
rendering PDF files was slow on the less powerful machines of the day. Additionally,
there were competing formats such as DjVu (still developing), Envoy, Common
Ground Digital Paper, Farallon Replica and even Adobe's own PostScript format (.ps);
in those early years, PDF was popular mainly in desktop publishing workflows.
Adobe soon started distributing its Acrobat Reader (now Adobe Reader) program at
no cost, and continued supporting the original PDF, which eventually became the de
facto standard for printable documents on the web.

III. Functioning
PDF Reader has such a simple functioning that it is extensively used
in all spheres of life. Apart from creating an Online PDF Document, documents from
Microsoft Word can also be easily converted to PDF format. Another advantage is the
file size reduction. When a word document is converted to PDF, it is stored in
decreased sized without any changes in the material to be converted. But PDF is read
only software. No documents can be edited through PDF Reader because, as the
name shows, it can only read a document.

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I. Introduction
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a numerical
computing environment and fourth-generation programming language. Developed
by MathWorks, MATLAB allows matrix manipulations, plotting of functions and data,
implementation of algorithms, creation of user interfaces, and interfacing with
programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, and FORTRAN. Although
MATLAB is intended primarily for numerical computing, an optional toolbox uses
the MuPAD symbolic engine, allowing access to symbolic computing capabilities. An
additional package, Simulink, adds graphical multi-domain simulation and ModelBased Design for dynamic and embedded systems.



Cleve Moler, the chairman of the computer-science department at

the University of New Mexico, started developing MATLAB in the late 1970s. He
designed it to give his students access to LINPACK and EISPACK without them having
to learn Fortran. It soon spread to other universities and found a strong audience
within the applied mathematics community.
They rewrote MATLAB in C and
founded MathWorks in 1984 to continue its development. Little's specialty, but
quickly spread to many other domains. It is now also used in education, in particular
the teaching of linear algebra and numerical analysis, and is popular amongst
scientists involved in image processing.



It can perform a number of tasks like solving complex matrices, finding upto
25 variables in an equation, creating 3D graphs for any given equation, solving
complex problems in mathematics solves all sorts of calculus and analytical

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geometry. The newer versions can even solve complex problems of practical
geometry, topology, wave equations and vector analysis. Due to this capability,
MATLAB is now used in all engineering spheres and rapidly becoming popular all over
the world.

I. Introduction
The goal of programs like HYSYS is, of course, to provide you with
the capability to design an entire process as completely and accurately as possible.
HYSYS does not wait until you've entered everything before beginning calculations. It
always calculates as much as it can at all times and results are always available, even
during calculations. Any changes that you make to the data are automatically
propagated throughout the program to anywhere that entry appears and all
necessary recalculations are instantly carried out. It tends to be a lot easier to catch
errors this way as you build your simulation. However, there are times when you will
not want HYSYS calculating the entire flow sheet over again every time you make a
small change. Hence, the existence of the environments. While you are in one
environment, calculations in the other environments are placed on hold.

II. History

Aspen HYSYS is a market-leading process modeling tool for

conceptual design, optimization, business planning, asset management, and
performance monitoring for oil & gas production, gas processing, petroleum refining,
and air separation industries. It is always prepared by Aspen technologies and has got
quite a history in starting a new era of chemical industrialization. It has such a wide
range of applications that it is widely used from 1980s in all the industries.

III. Functioning
The functioning of HYSYS is quite simple but not for beginners. There
are special classes now arranged for teaching the functioning of HYSYS. Aspen HYSYS
has established itself as a very intuitive and easy to use process simulator in the oil &
gas and refining industry. Users with little prior knowledge of Aspen HYSYS can pick
up and train themselves in its modeling capabilities. Some of the very intuitive
capabilities include a highly interactive process flow diagram for building and
navigating through large simulations. Aspen HYSYS offers a comprehensive
thermodynamics foundation for accurate calculation of physical properties, transport
properties, and phase behavior for the oil & gas and refining industries.

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I. Introduction
CHEMCAD is an integrated suite of intuitive chemical process
engineering software. It has the power and tremendous range of capabilities to meet
an engineer's chemical process simulation needs, from day-to-day challenges to
large, multifaceted projects. CHEMCAD helps solve basic calculations and complete
daily tasks faster, increasing productivity. More extensive projects with several team
members are made more efficient by CHEMCAD's integrated modules and intuitive
interface. CHEMCAD streamlines processes used in smaller projects to improve work
flow. CHEMCAD can be used as a pivotal player in very large, ongoing projects,
working seamlessly with other software programs.

II. History
CHEMCAD was first prepared by Chemstations in 1978 when its first version
was put to use in chemical factories of Germany. Later it was made in use in USA and
Russia too. Today it is used all over the world from simple details of Chemical
processes to high level industrial processes and techniques. It is also used for
educational purposes and has got a wide range of applications in all factories.

III. Functioning
CHEMCAD has got such an easy functioning that anyone having a
knowhow of chemistry can easily operate it. It has User-customizable panes.
CHEMCAD Explorer has pane to make navigating simulations easy. It is a complete
workspace to create and work with process flow diagrams (PFDs) . The newer
versions have palette pane for easy drag and drop of unit operations, text, and
symbols Message pane which makes it easy to see diagnostics as you work with a
simulation Toolbar makes common tasks easy to access.

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I. Introduction
AutoCAD is a software application for computer-aided design (CAD) and
drafting in both 2D and 3D. It is developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc. First released in
December 1982, AutoCAD was one of the first CAD programs to run on personal
computers, notably the IBM PC. At that time, most other CAD programs ran on
mainframe computers or mini-computers that were connected to a graphics computer
terminal for each user.

II. History
AutoCAD was derived from a program called Interact, which was written in a
proprietary language (SPL) and ran on the Marinchip Systems 9900 computer
(Marinchip was owned by Autodesk co-founders John Walker and Dan Drake.) When
Marinchip Software Partners (later renamed Autodesk) formed, they decided to recode Interact in C and PL/1 They chose C because it seemed to be the biggest
upcoming language. In the end, the PL/1 version was unsuccessful. The C version
was, at the time, one of the most complex programs in that language. Autodesk had
to work with the compiler developer (Lattice) to update C to get AutoCAD to run. [1]
Early releases of AutoCAD used primitive entities lines, polylines, circles, arcs, and
text to construct more complex objects. Since the mid-1990s, AutoCAD has
supported custom objects through its C++ Application Programming Interface (API).

III. Functioning
These changes and features included: increased canvas control, associated
arrays, improved 3D model manipulation, and other less noticeable additions. [2] After
the release of AutoCAD 2011 for Mac, the Windows version lacked several features
found in the Mac version. Several of the Mac version canvas controls have now been
added to the 2012 release. To accomplish the goal for better 3D model manipulation,
Autodesk did away with the old saved history method and introduced a new plug-in
that will automatically be installed, Autodesk Inventor Fusion. This plug-in allows
users to directly open and edit 3D models without having to save and export their
work manually.

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