I,

  
ANALYTICAL STRENGTH ASSESSMENT
5t h Edition
VDMA Verlag
I
Forschungskuratorium II
Maschinenbau
I
FKMGuideline
ANALYTICAL
STRENGTH
ASSESSMENT
OF 
COMPONENTS 

IN 
MECHANICAL 
ENGINEERING 
5 ^{t}^{h} _{,} revised edition, 2003,
English Version
Translation by E. Haibach
Title of the original German Version:
RECHNERISCHER FESTIGKEITSNACHWEIS FUR MASCHINENBAUTEILE
5., iiberarbeitete Ausgabe, 2003
Editor:
Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)
Postfach 71 0864,
Phone
D  60498
*49  69  6603  1345
Frankfurt / Main
(c) 2003 byVDMA Verlag GmbH Lyoner StraBe 18 60528 Frankfurt am Main www.vdmaverlag.de
All rights reserved
AIle Rechte, insbesondere das Recht der Vervielfaltigung und Verbreitung sowie der Ubersetzung vorbehalten.
Kein Teil des Werkes darfin irgend einer Form (Druck, Fotokopie, Mikrofilm oder anderes Verfahren) ohne schriftliche Genehmigung des Verlages reproduziert oder unter Verwendung elektronischer Systeme gespeichert, verarbeitet, vervielfaltigt oder verbreitet werden.
ISBN 3816304257
3
This FKMGuideline was elaborated under contract between Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V. _{(}_{F}_{K}_{M}_{)}_{,} Frankfurt / Main, and IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik Gmhfl, Dresden, as contractor in charge, by
Dr.Ing. Bernd Hanel,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. Erwin Haibach,
Wiesbaden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. TimID Seeger,
Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Werkstoffmechanik,
Dipl.Ing. Gert Wlrthgen,
IMA Materialforschung und Anwendungstechnik GmbH, Dresden,
Prof. Dr.Ing. Harald Zenner,
Technische Universitat Clausthal, Institut fur Maschinelle Anlagentechnik und Betriebsfestigkeit,
and it was discussed among experts from industry and research institutes in the FKM expert group "Strength of components" .
Financial grants were obtained from the "Bundesministerium fUr Wirtschaft (BMWi, Bonn)" through the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen 'Otto von Guericke ' e.V. (AiF, K6ln)" under contract AiFNo. D156 and B9434. The "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau e.V." gratefully acknowledges the financial support from BMWi and AiF and the contributions by the experts involved.
Terms of liability
The FKMGuideline is intended to conform with the state of the art. _{I}_{t} has been prepared with the necessary care. The user is expected to decide, whether the guideline meets his particular requirements, and to observe appropriate care in its application. Neither the publisher nor the editor, the involved experts, or the translator shall be liable to the purchaser or any other person or entity with respect to any liability, loss, or damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or indirectly by this guideline.
4
Preface to the English Version of the 5 ^{t}^{h} Edition.
For engineers concerned with construction and
calculation in mechanical engineering or in related fields
of industry the FKMGuideline for analytical strength
assessment is available since 1994. This guideline was elaborated by an expert group "Strength of components" of the "Forschungskuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM), Frankfurt/Main," with financial support by the Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft (BMWi), by the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereini gungen 'Otto von Guericke" and by the "Forschungs
kuratorium Maschinenbau.
Based on former TGL standards and on the former guideline VDI 2226, and referring to more recent sources it was developed to the current state of knowledge.
The FKMGuideline
 is applicable in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry,
 allows the analytical strength assessment for rod
shaped (lD), for shellshaped (2D) and for blockshaped (3D) components under consideration of all relevant influences,
 describes the assessment of the static strength and of
the fatigue strength, the latter according to an assessment
of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue
strength, or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength
according to the service stress conditions,
 is valid for components from steel, cast steel, or cast
iron materials at temperatures from 40°C to 500 °C, as well as for components from aluminum alloys and cast
aluminum alloys at temperatures from 40°C to 200 °C,
 is applicable for components produced with or without machining, or by welding,
 allows an assessment in considering nominal stresses as
well as local elastic stresses derived from finite element or boundary element analyses, from theoretical
mechanics solutions, or from measurements.
A uniformly structured calculation procedure applies to
all of these cases of application. The calculation procedure is almost completely predetermined. The user has to make some decisions only.
The FKMGuideline is a commented algorithm, consisting of statements, formulae, and tables. Most of the included figures have an explanatory function only.
Textual declarations are given where appropriate to ensure a reliable application.
Its content complies with the state of knowledge to an extend that may be presented in a guideline and it enables quite comprehensive possibilities of calculation. The employed symbols are adapted to the extended requirements of notation. The presented calculation procedure is complemented by explanatory examples.
Practically the described procedure of strength assessment should be realized by means of a suitable computer program. Presently available are the PC computer programs "RIFESTPLUS" (applicable for a calculation using elastically determined local stresses, in particular with shellshaped (2D) or blockshaped (3D) components) and "WELLE" (applicable for a calculation using nominal stresses as it is appropriate in the frequently arising case of axles or shafts with gears etc).
The preceding editions of the FKMGuideline observed a remarkably great interest from which the need of an up to date guideline for analytical strength analyses becomes apparent. Moreover the interest of users was confirmed by the well attended VDI conferences on "Computational Strength Analysis of Metallic Components", that were organized for presentation of the FKMGuideline at Fulda in 1995, 1998 and 2002.
The contentsrelated changes introduced with the third edition from 1998 were mainly concerned with the consideration of stainless steel and of forging steel, with the technological size factor, with the section factor for assessing the static strength, with the fatigue limit of grey cast iron and of malleable cast iron, with additional fatigue classes of welded structural details and with the local stress analysis for welded components, with the specification of an estimated damage sum smaller than one for the assessment of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, with the assessment of multiaxial stresses, and with the experimental determination of component strength values.
An essential formal change in the third edition was a new textual structure providing four main chapters, that describe the assessment of the static strength or of the fatigue strength with either nominal stresses or local stresses, respectively. For ease of application each of these chapters gives a complete description of the particular calculation procedure, although this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in the corresponding sections.
5
The major change in the forth edition from 2002 is the possibility of considering structural components made from aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys by applying the same calculation procedure that was developed for components from steel, cast steel and cast iron materials so far.
The decisions necessary to include aluminum materials were derived from literature evaluations. It had to be recognized, however, that some of the relevant factors of influence were not yet examined with the desirable clearness or that available results could not be evaluated objectively due to large scatter. In these cases the decision was based on a careful consideration of substantial relations.
Concerning an analytical strength assessment of components from aluminum alloys or from cast aluminum alloys this guideline is delivered to the technical community by supposing that for the time being it will be applied with appropriate caution and with particular reference to existing experience so far.
The involved research institutes and the "Forschungs kuratorium Maschinenbau (FKM)" will appreciate any reports on practical experience as well as any proposals for improvement.
Further improvements may also be expected from ongoing research projects concerning the procedure of static strength assessment using local elastic stresses, Chapter 3, and the fatigue assessment of extremely sharp notches.
Last not least the fifth edition of the FKMGuideline is a revision of the forth edition with several necessary, mainly formal amendments being introduced. It is presented in both a German version and an English version with the expectation that it might observe similar attention as the preceding editions on a broadened international basis of application.
Notes of the translator
This English translation is intended to keep as close as possible to the original German version, but by using a common vocabulary and simple sentences. If the given translation is different from a literal one, the technical meaning of the sentence and/or of the paragraph is maintained, however.
The translation observes an almost identical structure of the headlines, of the chapters, of the paragraphs and of the sentences, and even of the numbering of the pages.
Also the tables and the figures as well as their numbering and headlines are adapted as they are, while only the verbal terms have been translated.
In particular the original German notation of the mathematical symbols, indices and formulas, as well as their numbering, has not been modified in order to insure identity with the German original in this respect.
The applier of this guideline is kindly asked to accept the more or less unusual kind of notation which is due to the need of clearly distinguishing between a great number of variables.
In particular the applier is pointed to the speciality,
that a comma
instead of a decimal point ( . ), hence
for example.
(
,
)
is used
with
.
numerical values
1,5 equals 1.5
For updates and amendments see www.fkmguideline.de
6
References
/1/ 
TGL 19 340 (1983). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Dauerfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile. 

/2/ 
TGL 19 341 (1988). Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Eisengusswerkstoffen. 

/3/ 
TGL 19 333 (1979). Schwingfestigkeit, Zeitfestigkeit von Achsen und Wellen. 

/4/ 
TGL 19 350 (1986). Ermiidungsfestigkeit, Betriebsfestigkeit der Maschinenbauteile. 

/5/ 
TGL 19 352 (Entwurf 1988). Aufstellung und Uberlagerung von Beanspruchungskollektiven. 

/6/ 
Richtlinie VDI 2226 (1965). Empfehlung fiir die Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile. 

/7/ 
DIN 18 800 Teil 1 (1990). Stahlbauten, Bemessung und Konstruktion. 

/8/ 
DIN ENV 1993 (1993). Bemessung und Konstruktion von Stahlbauten, Teil11: 

Allgemeine Bemessungsregeln, 
(Eurocode 3). 

/9/ 
Hobbacher, A.: Fatigue design of welded joints and components. Recommendations of the Joint Working Group XIIIXV, XIII153996 / XV84596. Abbington Publishing, Abbington Hall, Abbington, Cambridge CB1 6AH, England, 19996 

/10/ 
Haibach, E.: Betriebsfestigkeits  Verfahren und Daten zur Bauteilberechnung, 2.Aufl. Berlin und Heidelberg, SpringerVerlag, 2002, ISBN 354043142X. 

/11/ 
Radaj, D.: Ermiidungsfestigkeit. Grundlage fur Leichtbau, Maschinenbau und Stahlbau. Berlin und Heidelberg: SpringerVerlag, 2003, ISBN 3540440631. 

/12/ 
FKMForschungsheft 241 (1999). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Bauteile aus Alumininiumwerkstoff. 

/13/ 
FKMForschungsheft 230 (1998). Randschichthartung. 

/14/ 
FKMForschungsheft 227 (1997). Lebensdauervorhersage II. 

/15/ 
FKMForschungsheft 2212 (1997). Mehrachsige und zusammengesetzte Beanspruchungen. 

/16/ 
FKMForschungsheft 221 (1996). Wechselfestigkeit von Flachproben aus Grauguss. 

/17/ 
FKMForschungsheft 1832 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, Richtlinie. _{*}_{1} 

/18/ 
FKMForschungsheft 1831 (1994). Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, Kommentare. 

/19/ 
FKMForschungsheft 180 (1994). Schweillverbindungen II. 

/20/ 
FKMForschungsheft 143 (1989). Schweillverbindungen _{I}_{.} 

/21/ 
FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fiir Maschinenbauteile, 3., vollstandig iiberarbeitete und erweiterte Ausgabe (1998). 

/22/ 
FKMRichtlinie Rechnerischer Festigkeitsnachweis fur Maschinenbauteile, 4., erweiterte Ausgabe (2002). 
Related Conference Proceedings
Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Konstrukteure und Entwicklungsingenieure. VDI Berichte 1227, Diisseldorf, VDIVerlag, 1995. Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure. VDI Berichte 1442, Diisseldorf, VDIVerlag, 1998. Festigkeitsberechnung metallischer Bauteile, Empfehlungen fur Entwicklungsingenieure und Konstrukteure. VDI Berichte 1698, Dusseldorf, VDIVerlag, 2002. Bauteillebensdauer Nachweiskonzepte. DVMBericht 800, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung, Berlin 1997. Betriebsfestigkeit  Neue Entwicklungen bei der Lebensdauerberechnung von Bauteilen. DVMBericht 802, Deutscher Verband fur Materialsforschung und prufung, Berlin 2003.
1
1'" and 2 ^{n}^{d} Edition of the FKMGuideline
7
Contents
Page
^{0} 
^{G}^{e}^{n}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{l} ^{s}^{u}^{r}^{v}^{e}^{y} 

_{0}_{.}_{1} 
_{S}_{c}_{o}_{p}_{e} 
_{9} 

_{0}_{.}_{2} 
Technical background 

_{0}_{.}_{3} 
Structure and _{e}_{l}_{e}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{s} 

1 
Assessment of the static strength ^{u}^{s}^{i}^{n}^{g} ^{n}^{o}^{m}^{i}^{n}^{a}^{l} ^{s}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}^{e}^{s} 

_{1}_{.}_{0} 
_{G}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} 
_{1}_{9} 

_{1}_{.}_{1} 
_{C}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s} 

_{1}_{.}_{2} 
_{M}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s} 
_{2}_{2} 

_{1}_{.}_{3} 
Design parameters 
_{3}_{0} 

_{1}_{.}_{4} 
Component 
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{g}_{t}_{h} 
_{3}_{3} 

1.5 
Safety factors 
_{3}_{4} 

_{1}_{.}_{6} 
_{A}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} 
_{3}_{6} 

2 
Assessment of the 
^{f}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{g}^{u}^{e} ^{s}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{n}^{g}^{t}^{h} 

using nominal stresses 

_{2}_{.}_{0} 
_{G}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{l} 
_{4}_{1} 

2.1 
Parameters of the stress spectrum 

2.2 
Material properties 
_{4}_{7} 

_{2}_{.}_{3} 
Design Parameters 
_{5}_{0} 

2.4 
Component strength 
_{5}_{7} 

2.5 
Safety factors 
_{6}_{8} 

2.6 
Assessment 
_{7}_{0} 

3 
Assessment of the static strength ^{u}^{s}^{i}^{n}^{g} ^{l}^{o}^{c}^{a}^{l} ^{s}^{t}^{r}^{e}^{s}^{s}^{e}^{s} 

3.0 General 
73 

3.1 Characteristic stress values 

3.2 Material properties 
_{7}_{6} 

3.3 Design parameters 
85 

3.4 Component strength 
89 

3.5 Safety factors 
90 

3.6 Assessment 
93 

4 
Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses 

^{4}^{.}^{0} ^{G}^{e}^{n}^{e}^{r}^{a}^{l} 
^{9}^{7} 

4.1 Parameters of the stress spectrum 

4.2 Material properties 
_{1}_{0}_{3} 

4.3 Design parameters 
_{1}_{0}_{6} 

4.4 Component strength 
_{1}_{1}_{3} 

4.5 Safety factors 
_{1}_{2}_{5} 

_{4}_{.}_{6} _{A}_{s}_{s}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{m}_{e}_{n}_{t} 
_{1}_{2}_{7} 
_{5}
Appendices
Page
5.1 
Material tables. 
131 
5.2 
Stress concentration factors 178 

5.3 
Fatigue notch factors 
187 
5.4 
Fatigue classes (FAT) for welded 

components of structural steel and of aluminum alloys 
195 

_{5}_{.}_{5} 
Comments about the fatigue strength 

of welded components 
209 

5.6 
Adjusting the stress ratio of a stress 

spectrum to agree with that of the SN curve 

and deriving a stepped spectrum 216 

5.7 
Assessment using classes of utilization 
218 
_{5}_{.}_{8} 
Particular strength characteristics of 

surface hardened components 222 

5.9 
An improved method for computing the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses 223 

5.10 
Approximate assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of nonproportional 

multiaxial stresses 
226 

_{5}_{.}_{1}_{1} 
Experimental determination of 

component strength values 227 

5.12 
Stress concentration factor for a substitute 
^{s}^{t}^{r}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{u}^{r}^{e} 
^{2}^{3}^{0} 

6 
Examples 

6.1 
Shaft with shoulder 
231 

6.2 
Shaft with 
Vbelt drive 
236 
_{6}_{.}_{3} 
Compressor flange made of grey 

_{c}_{a}_{s}_{t} _{i}_{r}_{o}_{n} 
_{2}_{4}_{1} 

_{6}_{.}_{4} 
Welded notched component 
245 

_{6}_{.}_{5} 
Cantilever subject to two independent loads 
250 

_{6}_{.}_{6} 
Component made of a wrought 

aluminum alloy 
256 

_{7} 
Symbols and basic formulas 

7.1 
Abbreviations 
259 

_{7}_{.}_{2} 
Indices 

_{7}_{.}_{3} 
_{L}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{c}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{s} 

_{7}_{.}_{4} 
Upper case characters 
260 

_{7}_{.}_{5} 
Greek alphabetic characters 
261 

_{7}_{.}_{6} 
_{B}_{a}_{s}_{i}_{c} _{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{s} 
_{2}_{6}_{2} 

8 
Subject index 
263 
8
^{9}
oGeneral survey
o General survey
0.1 Scope
This guideline is valid for components in mechanical engineering and in related fields of industry. Its application has to be agreed between the contracting parties.
For components subjected to mechanical loadings it allows an analytical assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength, the latter as an assessment of the fatigue limit, of the constant amplitude fatigue strength or of the variable amplitude fatigue strength, according to the service stress conditions.
Other analytical assessments, for example of safety against brittle fracture, of stability, or of deformation under load, as well as an experimental assessment of strength * ^{1} , are not subject of this guideline.
It is presupposed, that the components are professionally produced with regard to construction, material and workmanship, and that they are faultless in a technical sense.
The guideline is valid for components produced with or without machining or by welding of steel, of iron or of
aluminum materials that are intended for use under normal or elevated temperature conditions, and in detail
_{l}_{R}_{o}_{2} _{E}_{N}_{.}_{d}_{o}_{g}
 for components with geometrical notches, for components with welded joints, for static loading,
 for fatigue loading with more than about 10 ^{4} constant or variable amplitude cycles,
 for milled or forged steel, also stainless steel, cast iron materials as well as aluminum alloys or cast aluminum alloys,
 for component temperatures from 40°C to 500°C for steel, from 25°C to 500°C for cast iron materials and from 25°C to 200°C for aluminum materials,
 for a noncorrosive environment.
If an application of the guideline is intended outside the mentioned field of application additional specifications are to be agreed upon.
The guideline is not valid if an assessment of strength is required according to other standards, rules or guidelines, or if more specific design codes are applicable, as for example for bolted joints.
1 Subject of Chapter 5.11 "Experimental determination of component strength values" is not the realization of an experimental assessment of strength, but the question how specific and sufficiently reliable component strength values suitable for the general procedure of strength assessment may be derived experimentally.
2 In particular, what critical points of the considered crosssections or component.
0.2 Technical Background
Basis of the guideline are the references listed on page 7, in particular the former TGLStandards, the former VlrlGuideline 2226, as well as the regulations of DIN 18 800, the IIWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. Moreover the guideline was developed to the current state of knowledge by taking into account the results of more recent investigations.
0.3 Structure and elements
Contents 
Page 

0.3.0 
General 
9 
0.3.1 
Procedure of calculation 
10 
0.3.2 
Service stresses 

0.3.3 
Methods of strength assessment 
11 
0.3.3.0 
General 

0.3.3.1 
Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 

0.3.3.2 
Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 2 
12 
0.3.3.3 
Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3 

0.3.3.4 
Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses, Chapter 4 
13 
0.3.4 
Kinds of components 
13 
0.3.4.0 
General 

0.3.4.1 
Rodshaped (lD) components 

0.3.4.2 
Shellshaped (2D) components 
14 
0.3.4.3 
Blockshaped (3D) components 
15 
0.3.5 
Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses 
16 
0.3.0 General
An assessment of the static strength is required prior to an assessment of the fatigue strength.
Before applying the guideline it has to be decided

what crosssections or structural detail of the component shall be assessed * and what service loadings are to be considered.
2
The service loadings are to be determined on the safe side, that is, with a sufficient probability they should be higher than most of the normally occurring loadings *3.
The strength values are supposed to correspond to an anticipated probability of 97,5 % (average probability of survival Po _{=} 97,5 %).
3 Usually this probability can hardly be quantified, however.
^{1}^{0}
o General survey
0.3.1 Procedure of calculation
The procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength is presented in Figure 0.0.1, the almost identical procedure for an assessment of the fatigue strength in Figure 0.0.2 _{*}_{4}_{.}
Sequential
procedure of
calculation
Safety
factors
At the assessment stage (box at bottom of either Figure) the characteristic values of service stress occurring in the component (box at top on the left) and the component strength values derived from the mechanical material properties and the design parameters (middle column) are compared by including the required safety factors (box at bottom on the right). In specifying component fatigue strength values the mean stress and the variable amplitude effects are regarded as essential factors of influence. The assessment of strength is successful if the degree of utilization is less or equal 1,00, where the degree of utilization is defined by the ratio of the characteristic service stress to the component strength value that has been reduced by the safety factor, Chapter 1.6.
In Figure 0.0.1 and Figure 0.0.2 the arrangements of the individual boxes from top to bottom illustrate the sequential procedure of calculation.
0.3.2 Service stresses
Figure 0.0.1 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the static strength.
For an application of the guideline the stresses resulting from the service loadings have to be determined for the socalled reference point of the component, that is the potential point of fatigue crack initiation at the cross section or at the component under consideration. In case of doubt several reference points are to be considered, for example in the case of welded joints the toe and the
Characteristic
 root of the weld.
Sequential
_{s}_{e}_{r}_{v}_{i}_{c}_{e} S~resses
There is a need to distinguish the names and subscripts of the different components or types of stress, that may act in rodshaped (lD), in shellshaped (2D) or in blockshaped (3D) components, respectively, Chapter
0.3.4.
The stresses are to be determined according to known principles and techniques: analytically according to elementary or advanced methods of theoretical mechanics, numerically after the finite element or the boundary element method, or experimentally by measurement.
All stresses, except the stress amplitudes, are combined with a sign, in particular compressive stresses are negative.
To perform an assessment it is necessary to decide about the kind of stress determination for the reference point considered: The stresses can be determined as nominal stresses *5 (notation S and T), as elastically determined local stresses, effective notch stresses or structural (hot spot) stresses * (notation o and r).
Figure 0.0.2 Procedure of calculation for an assessment of the fatigue strength.
6
4 A survey on the analytical procedures of assessment based on the equations of the guideline may be found in Chapter 7.6.
5 Nominal stresses can be computed for a well defmed crosssection only.
6 The elastic stress at the root of a notch exceeds the nominal stress by a stress concentration factor. In the case of welded joints effective notch stresses are applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength only. Structural stresses, also termed geometrical or hot spot stresses, are normally in use with welded joints only. For further information see Chapter 5.5.
^{1}^{1}
oGeneral survey
Correspondingly the component strength values are to be determined as nominal strength values or as local strength values of the elastic local stress, of the effective notch stress or of the structural stress.
With the procedures of calculation structured uniformly for both types of stress determination it is intended that more or less identical results will be obtained from comparable strength assessments based on either nominal stresses or local stresses.
0.3.3 Methods of strength assessment
0.3.3.0 General
In order to present the guideline clearly arranged and
userfriendly, it is organized in four chapters, Figure
0.0.3:
 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter I, Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 2, Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3, Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses, Chapter 4.
.~.
Static strength
LNoml?al
Nominalstresses
)
;/
stresses
Static
strength
aSseSSlllent
^{~}
Fatii:ue strength
Nominal stresses
I
Fatigue
strength'
assessment
~~.
.r" Chapter 3: "<.
(
Stade. strength
" IAcalstrcsses/"
). LO.cal. 
Stresses
Chapter 4:
ali.ou.estr.c.·.n
\.Li
~tb
.~
Figure 0.0.3
~~
Organization of the guideline.
,
\
.)
In particular the procedure of calculation is completely presented in everyone of the four chapters, even if this results in repetitions of the same or almost the same parts of text in Chapter I and Chapter 3 or in Chapter 2 and Chapter 4, respectively.
The procedure of calculation using nominal stresses is to be preferred for simple rodshaped (lD) and for shell shaped (2D) components. The procedure of calculation using local stresses has to be applied to blockshaped (3D) components, and moreover in general, if the stresses are determined by a finiteelement or a boundaryelement calculation, if there are no well defined crosssections or no simple crosssection shapes, if stress concentration factors or fatigue notch factors are not known, or (concerning the assessment of the static strength) in the case ofbrittIe materials.
0.3.3.1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 1
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum values of the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g. nominal values of the axial (or tensioncompression) stress, Szd, of the bending stress, Sb, and so forth *7 *8, Chapter 1.1.
Relevant material properties are the tensile strength and the yield strength (yield stress or 0.2 proof stress) as
well as the strength values for shear derived from these.
A technological
appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature on the material properties  strength at elevated
size effect is taken
into
account if
temperature and creep strength, yield strength at elevated temperature and I% creep limit  is allowed for
by means of temperature factors, Chapter 1.2.
Design parameters are the section factors, by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed .according to yield strength, type of loading, shape of crosssection, and stress concentration factor. From the section factor and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived, Chapter 1.3.
The nominal values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength, divided by the respective overall design factor, Chapter 1.4.
As common in practice the safety factor against the
tensile strength is 2,0. For materials with a yield strength less than 0,75 times the tensile strength the safety factor is 1,5 against the yield strength, however. Under favorable conditions these safety factors may be reduced, Chapter 1.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree
of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of
utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service
stress value, divided by the allowable nominal static component strength value, which follows from the nominal static component strength divided by the safety factor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain an entire degree of utilization. The interaction formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question, Chapter 1.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static strength has to be carried out for the toe section as for nonwelded components, and for the throat section with
7 According to rod, shell or blockshaped components, Chapter 0.3.4.
8 The extreme maximum or minimum stresses for the assessment of the
static strength may be different from the maximum and minimum stresses for the assessment of the fatigue strength, that are determined from the largest amplitude and the related mean value of a stress spectrum.
^{1}^{2}
o General survey
an equivalent nominal stress, that is computed from the components of nominal stress acting in the weld seam
*9.
0.3.3.2 Assessment of the fatigue strength using nominal stresses, Chapter 2
Relevant nominal characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean values of the nominal axial (tensioncompression) stresses, Sa,zd and Sm,zd, and so forth * *, Chapter 2.1.
Relevant material properties are the fatigue limit for completely reversed axial stress and the fatigue limit for completely reversed shear stress of the material in question. A technological size effect is taken into account where appropriate. The influence of an elevated temperature is allowed for by means of temperature factors, Chapter 2.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the fatigue notch factors, allowing for the design of the component (shape, size and type of loading), as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 2.3.
The nominal values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the respective design factors, Chapter 2.4.1. From these fatigue limit values the amplitudes of the component fatigue limit according to the mean stress values (or the stress ratios) are to be derived, Chapter 2.4.2. The amplitudes that specify the variable amplitude fatigue strength of the component are obtained from the fatigue limit values multiplied by a factor depending on the parameters of the stress spectrum (total number of cycles and amplitude frequency distribution), Chapter
2.4.3.
The basic value of the safety factor is 1,5. Under favorable conditions this safety factor may be reduced, Chapter 2.5.
The assessment is carried out by proving that the degree of utilization is less or equal 1,00 . The degree of utilization for an individual stress component or type of stress is the ratio of its nominal characteristic service stress amplitude, divided by the allowable amplitude of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength. The allowable
7
8
9 This assessment of the static strength for welded components is according to DIN 18 800 part 1. As far as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned, the rules of DIN 18 800 are provisional and may be applied with caution only.
amplitude value follows from the nominal amplitude of the derived component fatigue strength divided by the safetyfactor.
If there are several stress components or types of stress their individual degrees of utilization are combined to obtain the total degree of utilization. The interaction
formula to be applied to that combination allows for the ductility of the material in question, that is in the same way as for the assessment of the static strength, Chapter
2.6.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using nominal stresses basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stress are given. They are independent of the tensile strength of the base material (which is different to nonwelded components). They are converted by design factors that follow from a classification scheme of structural weld details. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is considered by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.
0.3.3.3 Assessment of the static strength using local stresses, Chapter 3
Relevant characteristic local service stresses are the extreme maximum and extreme minimum stresses of the individual types of stress or stress components, e.g. local values of the normal (axial and/or bending) stress, o, and of the shear (shear and/or torsional) stress _{*} ^{7} _{*}_{8}_{,} Chapter 3.1.
Relevant material properties are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 3.2.
Design parameters are the section factors, by which an experienced partial plasticity of the component is allowed according to yield strength, type of loading, and shape of the component. The section factors are calculated on the basis of Neuber's formula, but by observing individual upper bound values that follows from the plastic limit load (plastic notch factor). From the .section factors and from further parameters an overall design factor is derived, Chapter 3.3 *11.
The local values of the static component strength are derived from the tensile strength, divided by the respectiveoverall design factor, Chapter 3.4.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 3.5.
10 The assessment of the fatigue strength for welded components makes reference to the llWRecommendations and Eurocode 3. As far as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel, weldable cast iron materials or weldable aluminum alloys are concerned this kind of calculation is provisional and may be applied with caution only.
11 The assessment of the static strength using local stresses on the basis of Neuber's formula and the plastic limit load is an approximation which has to be regarded as provisional and is to be applied with caution only.
^{1}^{3}
oGeneral survey
The assessment is carried out by means of the degree of utilization as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local values of the characteristic service stress and the local component strength values, Chapter 3.6.
For welded components the assessment of the static strength using local stresses is carried out using structural stresses (not with notch root stresses), for the weld toe as for nonwelded components, for the root of the weld using an equivalent structural stress, that is to be derived from the structural stress components acting in the weld seam _{*}_{9}_{.}
0.3.3.4 Assessment of the fatigue strength using local stresses, Chapter _{4}
Relevant local characteristic service stresses are the largest stress amplitudes in connection with the respective stress spectra and the related mean stress values. They are determined for the individual stress components or types of stress, e.g. amplitudes and mean values of the local normal (axial and/or bending) stress, 0"a and O"m, and so forth * ^{7} * ^{8} , Chapter 4.1.
The relevant material properties are determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.2.
Design parameters to be considered in particular are the KtKf ratios, allowing for the design of the component (shape and size), as well as the roughness factor and the surface treatment factor, by which the respective surface properties are accounted for. By specific combination of all these factors a summary design factor is calculated, Chapter 4.3.
The local values of the component fatigue limit for completely reversed stresses follow from the derived fatigue limit values of the material, divided by the respective design factors, Chapter 4.4.1. The conversions to the amplitude of the component fatigue limit and to the amplitude of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength are as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.4.2 to 4.4.3.
The safety factors are to be determined as for nominal stresses, Chapter 4.5.
The assessment by means of the degree of utilization is as for nominal stresses, but with the respective local values of the characteristic stress amplitude and the value of the component fatigue limit or of the component variable amplitude fatigue strength, Chapter
4.6.
For the assessment of the fatigue strength of welded components using structural stresses or effective notch stresses the same basic fatigue limit values for completely reversed stresses apply as for nominal stresses. They hold for effective notch stresses without conversion, but for structural stresses they have to be converted by factors given for some typical weld details. The combined effect of mean stress and of residual stresses in welded components is to be considered as for
nominal stresses by means of a mean stress factor together with a residual stress factor *10.
0.3.4 Kinds of components
0.3.4.0 General
Rodshaped (10), shellshaped (2D) and blockshaped (3D) components are to be distinguished, as in each case other stress components or types of stresses, identified by differing symbols and subscripts, are of concern. The distinction is only a formal one, however, and the procedure of calculation is the same in all cases. Specific particulars apply to welded components.
0.3.4.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
For rodshaped (10) components  rod, bar, shaft, or beam for example  the following system of coordinates is introduced: xaxis is the longitudinal center line of the component, y and zaxes are the main axes of the crosssection that are to be specified so, that for the moments of inertia Iy~I _{z} is valid, Figure 0.0.4.
"0.0
·
'z
Figure 0.0.4 Rodshaped (ID) component (round specimen with groove) in bending. Nominal stress _{S}_{,} and maximum local stress O"m"" at the reference point W.
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of rodshaped (ID) components is carried out by using nominal stresses, Chapter I and 2, the nominal stresses to be computed at the reference point are Szd from an axial load, Sb from a bending moment, T, from a shear load, and/or T _{t} from a torsional moment acting at the respective section.
For
is
provided, that both the bending stress Sb and the shear
stress
stress
be
considered *12.
components
the
equations
T,
act
Sb,y
in
given
the
and
Sb,z
in
Chapter
and
1
and
2
it
to
xzplane.
,
Ts,y
Otherwise
Ts,z are
12 The indices y and z describe the direction ofthe related vectors ofthe bending moments My, Mz and ofthe lateral loads Fy, Fz .
^{1}^{4}
oGeneral survey
In case of rotationally symmetrical crosssections with circumferential notches a resultant bending stress and a resultant shear stress can be calculated from these stress components,
s, =JrS~,y+S~,z'
T
s
=
2
s,y
T
2
+T
S,z
(0.3.1)
The equations given in Chapter 1 and 2 may be applied to Sband T;
In the general case of not rotationally symmetrical crosssections a calculation using local stresses is normally to be preferred.
Additional stresses at notches (as for example the circumferential stress associated with an axial stress of a shaft with groove) may be included in the stress concentration factor, otherwise they will be neglected.
Calculation using local stresses
If the calculation of rodshaped (ID) components is carried out using local stresses _{*}_{1}_{3}_{,} Chapter 3 and 4, the local normal stresses at the reference point from axial and from bending loading (in xdirection), azd = a as well as the local shear stresses "ts = "t from shear and from torsion (normal to the xdirection) are considered.
If the local stresses are calculated from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable.
However, if
the calculation yields the complete local
state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteelement calculation does), the principle stresses 0"1, 0"2, 0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components.
Rodshaped (ID) welded components
For rodshaped (ID) welded components _{*}_{1}_{5} the notations a and "t apply to structural stresses and the notation aK and "tK apply to effective notch stresses *16.
13 The assessment of rodshaped (ID) components should preferably be
carried out using nominal stresses whenever possible.
14 Principle stresses are independent of the chosen coordinate system. In
the special case of a proportional loading the directions of the principle
stresses remain fixed to the coordinates of the component. In the more general case of nonproportional loading the directions and the amounts of the three principle stresses will change with time, see Chapter 0.3.5.
0.3.4.2 Shellshaped (2D) components Rodshaped (ID) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) components  disk, plate, or shell for example  the following system of coordinates is introduced: The x and yaxis are placed in the surface
at the reference point, the zaxis is normal to the surface
in thickness direction. The normal stress and the shear
stress in thickness direction are supposed to be
negligible, Figure 0.0.5.
Figure O. O. 5 Shellshaped (2D) component (shell with cutout detail). Local stresses aa,x at the reference point
W (peak value) and aa,x,ru. at the neighbouring point B.
Calculation using nominal stresses
If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using nominal stresses, Chapter 1 and 2, the nominal stresses at the reference point to be computed are the normal stresses Szdx = S, and Szdy = S, from loadings in the x and ydirections and _{T}_{,} = T from a shear loading.
Calculation using local stresses
If the assessment of shellshaped (2D) components is carried out using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4, the local stresses at the reference point azdx = ax and azdy = ay in the x and ydirections and the local shear stress r, = t are considered.
If the local stresses are computed from the nominal stresses by multiplication with the respective stress concentration factors, the equations given in Chapter 3 and 4 are applicable.
However, if the calculation yields the complete local state of stress at the reference point (as for example a finiteelement calculation does), the principle stresses 0"1,0"2,0"3 are computed *14 and treated as described for blockshaped (3D) components.
15 Rodshaped (ID) welded components are rolled sections with circular, tube, 1, box or other crosssections connected or joined with butt welds and/or fillet welds.
^{1}^{5}
oGeneral survey
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components the notations
o"x , O"y and 't apply to structural stresses and the
0.3.4.3 Blockshaped (3D) components
In the general case blockshaped (3D) components are to be calculated using local stresses, Chapter 3 and 4
notations
stresses *16 .
O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to effective notch
*17
~~'"
For blockshaped (3D) components the coordinate system at the reference point may be of cartesian,
cylindrical or spherical type.
yield the complete state
/Io{ (It'd of local stress at the reference point (as for example a
,finiteelement calculation does). From that the principle
these the
The calculation is supposed to
<;,fI"c(<lC<{
nO)'jJIr'rtfl.{
computed *14, and for , degrees of utilization are determined.
~2,.~~~.,are
>tl~esses_~!
If the reference point W is located at a free surface of a blockshaped (3D) component, Figure 0.0.8, it is supposed that 0"1 and 0"2 are the principle stresses at the surface, while the principle stress _{0}_{"}_{3} is supposed to point normally to the surface inwards the component.
In general stress gradients exist for all three principle stresses, ·both normal to the surface and in either direction of the surface. However, only the stress gradients for 0" 1 and 0"2 normal to the surface can be considered in the procedure of calculation, while the stress gradients for 0"1 and 0"2 in any directions of the
surface and the gradients of 0"3 can not.
Blockshaped (3D) components can be calculated as shellshaped (2D) components if the stresses O"x , O"y and 't at the load free surface are of concern only.
Figure 0.0.6 Shellshaped (2D) welded component. Example: Strap with longitudinal stiffner. After Radaj
/10/.
Top: Joint, Centre: Stress distribution, Bottom: Profile. Relevant is the stress at the reference point W (at the toe line of the weld).
Calculation using nominal stresses: Stress Sx .
Calculation using structural stress: Maximum stress _{O}_{"}_{x}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} obtained from extrapolating the stress distribution towards the weld toe.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: Maximum stress O"Kx,max occurring at the weld toe, see Figure 0.0.7.
F
Radius r = 1 mm
/
I
\
\/
F
Figure 0.0.7 Shellshaped (2D) welded component. Example: Cruciform joint and butt weld. After Radaj
/l0/.
Calculation using effective notch stresses: The maximum stress O"Kx,max occurring at the toe or at the root of the weld has to be computed by introducing a fictitious effective notch radius r _{=} 1 rom, unless the real radius is r > 1 rom (the fictitious notch radius is intended for the assessment of the fatigue strength only).
The fictitious notch radius r = 1 rom applies to welded joints from structural steel. It is supposed, however, that it is applicable for other kinds of material as well, although this has to be considered as a preliminary specification for welded aluminum materials so far.
Figure 0.0.8 Blockshaped (3D) component (flange). Local longitudinal stress 0"1 and circumferential stress 0"2 at the reference point W (peak values), stresses O"u,s and 0"2,~sat neighboring point B.
16 Structural stresses can be applied to the assessment of the static strength and to the assessment of the fatigue strength. Effective notch stresses can be applied to the assessment of the fatigue strength, but not to the assessment of the static strength.
17 For blockshaped components the determination of a nominal stress is not possible since there is no well defmed crosssection.
^{1}^{6}
oGeneral survey
Blockshaped (3D) welded components
Welds at a loadfree surface of blockshaped (3D) components having no inner defects can be assessed as shellshaped (2D) welded components. Then the notations G _{x} , G _{y} and 't apply to structural stresses and the notations O"Kx , O"Ky and 'tK apply to the notch root stresses at the surface, Figure 0.0.6.
0.3.5 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses
The stresses occurring in the crosssection or at the reference point of a component may be caused by a single load or
 by several loads acting simultaneously.
In both cases an uniaxial stress or multiaxial stresses may result at the reference point.
An uniaxial stress occurs under special circumstances only, as for example in a tension loaded prismatic bar, or at an unloaded edge of shellshaped (2D) or block shaped (3D) components, the latter even if several loads act on these components simultaneously, Figure 0.0.9. In addition an uniaxial stress may be assumed at the reference point if, by comparison, any further stresses are small.
In general components are subject to multiaxial stresses, however. Then two or three normal stresses, or normal stresses and shear stresses occur at the reference point.
+~
Sy t
"+T
t': x {Q:Jt :'
~
~
Figure 0.0.9 Uniaxial and multiaxial stresses.
Nominal stresses Sx Sy and T.
Left: multiaxial stresses in a sheet section, Right: uniaxial stress in a sheet section at the edge of a cutout.
In this guideline a basic principle is defined both for an assessment of the static strength and of the fatigue strength in case of multiaxial stresses:
the individual degrees of utilization for everyone of the computed types of stress or stress components have to be determined and assessed separately in a first step, and thereafter these individual degrees of utilization will be combined by means of an appropriate interaction formula to obtain the entire degree of utilization for final assessment.
Assessment of the static strength
For the assessment of the static strength the most unfavorable case to be considered is that the extreme values of all maximum and minimum stresses occur simultaneously. Accordingly the entire degree of utilization has to be computed. However, stresses of different sign that will decrease the entire degree of utilization are to be included only _{i}_{f} they definitely occur together with the remaining stresses, Chapter 1.6 or 3.6.
Assessment of the fatigue strength
For the assessment of the fatigue strength *18 multiaxial stresses varying with time have to be distinguished as follows:
proportional stresses, synchronous stresses, or nonproportional stresses.
Proportional stresses
Normally proportional stresses result from a single loading acting on the component.
Examples of proportional stresses are the circumferential and the longitudinal stresses of a cylindrical vessel loaded by internal pressure, or the bending and torsional stresses of a round cantilever loaded eccentrically by a single load.
If this single acting loading is varying with time, all multiaxial stresses are varying proportionally to that loading and proportionally to each other, which also is true with regard to their amplitudes and their mean values. Further, as a consequence, the principle stresses observe nonchanging directions relative to the component. The amounts of the stresses, also in the stress amplitude spectra, may be converted by constant factors. Hence all stress spectra are of similar shape, but may differ in intensity (amount of their characteristic maximum stress).
Proportional stresses my also result from several loadings that act on the component simultaneously and, for their part, change proportionally with time as well. Then several stresses of the same kind are to be overlaid additively.
For proportional multiaxial stresses, the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6 are exactly valid in the sense of material mechanics, _{i}_{f} the related rules of signs are observed.
18 Both for the assessment of the fatigue limit and for the assessment of the variable amplitude strength.
^{1}^{7}
oGeneral survey
Synchronous stresses
Synchronous stresses are a simple case of non proportional stresses. They are proportional with regard to their amplitudes, however nonproportional with regard to their mean values.
Normally synchronous stresses result from a combined action of a constant loading with a second, different kind of loading, that is varying with time. Examples are a shaft with a nonchanging torsional loading and a rotating bending loading. Or a long, lying cylindrical vessel under pulsating internal pressure, where the longitudinal stress is nonproportional to the circumferential stress because of the bending stress from the dead weight is additively overlaid.
For synchronous multiaxial stresses, the interaction formulae given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6  if observing the related rules of sign  are valid as a useful approximation, because they are applied to the stress amplitudes, which are proportional to each other, and because the fatigue strength is determined by the stress amplitudes in the first place. Additional rules for considering the mean stresses are required, however.
An improved procedure for the assessment of the component fatigue limit in the case of synchronous multiaxial stresses is presented in Chapter 5.9.
Nonproportional stresses
Nonproportional stresses result from the action of at least two loadings that vary nonproportionally with time in a different manner.
In this most general case of nonproportional loading different spectra apply to the individual types of stress that result from the combined loadings. In particular the amounts and the directions of the principle stresses are variable with time.
The case of variable directions of the principle stresses can not be considered with the interaction formulas given in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6.
Appropriate methods of calculation proposed for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non proportional stresses, that have been developed from a material mechanics point of view, require much computing effort and are applicable with computer programs for short stress sequences only. Their plausibility is currently subject of investigations.
Therefore only an approximate way of calculation for the assessment of the fatigue strength in the case of non proportional multiaxial stresses can be given, Chapter 5.10: As proportional stresses result from each of the acting loadings the degrees of utilization of these individual loadings can be correctly computed and assessed as described in Chapter 2.6 and 4.6. The so
determined degrees of utilization for the individual loadings are then added linearly in order to estimate the entire degree of utilization. Compared to usual interaction formulas developed for proportional stresses the linear addition may be assumed to produce results
on the safe side *19.
A necessary reservation for applying this approximate
way of calculation is, that a thorough stress analysis is performed in every case and that careful evaluation of the result is performed finally.
In order to reach an optimum degree of utilization of the
component fatigue strength in the case of non proportional multiaxial stresses, an experimental assessment of the fatigue strength has to be recommended according to the contemporary state of
the art.
19 For nonproportional multiaxialloadings the reference point may be at different positions in the case ofthe combined loadings and in the case of each ofthe individual loadings, respectively. This is because the most damaging stresses from the combined loadings may occur at positions different from the positions ofthe maximum stresses from the individual loadings. By the above mentioned approximation, however, the full damaging effect of each loading may be assumed to be superimposed at the reference point in question.
^{1}^{8}
oGeneral survey
_{1}_{.}_{1} _{C}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{v}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e}_{s}
^{1}^{9}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.0 General
IR>11 N.doq
According to this chapter the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is to be carried out.
It should be observed that not necessarily the component static strength is determined by a failure occurring at a notched section. Likewise a global failure occurring at a different, unnotched or moderately notched section of the component may be determining, Figure 1.0.1.

Kt,A
c
~
_
~  ' .
.~+
F

F
Figure 1.0.1 Different sections for a static failure occurring as a local failure (A) or as a global failure _{(}_{B}_{)}_{.}
For GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with low elongation, A < 12,5 % , for all sorts GT and GG as well as for cast aluminium alloys the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 _{*}_{1}_{.}
In the case of very high stress concentration factors the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3 *2.
For blockshaped (3D) components the assessment of the static strength is to be carried out by using local stresses according to Chapter 3.
For all other kinds of material (GGG sorts and wrought aluminium alloys with high elongation, A'2 12,5 % , GS, milled steel and forgingsteel) and for smaller stress concentration factors of rodshaped (lD) and of shellshaped (2D) components the assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses is applicable.
1 Because these materials lack sufficient plasticity.
2 Because extremely high local strains are associated with a very high stress concentration factor. The stress concentration factor Kt = 3 ofa flat bar with a hole issuggested asa limit value.
1.1 Characteristic stress values
Contents 
Page 

1.1.0 
General 
19 

1.1.1 
Characteristic stress values 

1.1.1.0 
General 

1.1.1.1 
Rodshaped (ID) components 
20 

1.1.1.2 
Shellshaped (2D) components 

1.1.0 General 

According to this chapter 
the 
characteristic 
service 
stress values are to be determined.
Relevant are the extreme maximum and rmmmum
stresses Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd,
components expected for the most unfavorable operating conditions and for special loads according to
specification or due to physical limits _{*}_{3}_{.} Both the maximum and minimum stresses can be positive or negative. It is assumed, that all stresses reach their extreme values simultaneously.
of the individual stress
Elevated temperature
In case of elevated temperature the values Smax,ex,zd,
and Smin,ex,zd,
(related to the high temperature strength or high temperature yield strength).
For a longterm·loading (related to the creep strength or 1% creep limit) correct results will only be obtained in case of a constant (static) tensile stress Smax,ex,zd equally distributed over the section of concern.
are relevant for a shortterm loading
In all other cases of constant or variable loading the assessment will be more or less on the safe side _{i}_{f} the
values Smax,ex,zd ,
distribution with a stress gradient, and/or _{i}_{f} they refer to
the peak values of a variable stress history, which are of short duration only, while for the rest of time the stress is lower.
refer to a stress
and
Smin,ex,zd,
If in those cases it becomes necessary to make best use of the longterm load bearing capacity of the component
3 In general the values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd for the assessment of the static strength are the extreme values of a stress history. For the assessment ofthe fatigue strength a stress spectrum is to be derived from that history consisting ofstress cycles ofthe amplitudes Sa,zd,i and the mean values Sm,zd,i , Chapter 2.1. The largest amplitude ofthis stress spectrum is Sa,zd, 1 , and the related mean value is Sm,zd,l . The related maximum and minimum values are Smax,zd,l = Sm,zd,l + Sa,zd,l and Smin,zd,l = Sm,zd,l  Sa,zd,l .The values Smax,ex,zd and Smin,ex,zd may be different from the values Smax,zd,1 and Smin,zd,1 . This is because extreme, very seldom occurring events are important only for the assessment of the static
strength, but hardly for the assessment ofthe fatigue strength. In a stress
spectrum which is supposed to apply to normal service conditions not have to be considered therefore.
they do
1.1 Characteristic stress values
^{2}^{0}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
(because otherwise the assessment cannot be achieved) an expert stress analysis is recommended to define the appropriate stress value to be used for the assessment. Such an analysis is beyond the scope of the present guideline, however.
Superposition
If several stress components act simultaneously at the reference point, they are to be overlaid. For the same type of stress (for example tension and tension
) the superposition is to be
carried out at this stage, so that in the following a single
) exists for each type of stress
*4. For different types of stress (for example bending and torsion, or tension in direction x and tension in direction y) the superposition is to be carried out at the assessment stage, Chapter 1.6.
stress value (Smax,ex,zd,
Smax,ex,zd,l, Smax,ex,zd,2 ,
Stress components acting opposed to each other and which do not or can not occur simultaneously, are not to be overlaid however.
1.1.1 Characteristic stress values
1.1.1.0 General
Rodshaped (lD) and shellshaped (2D), as well as non welded and welded components are to be distinguished.
Figure 1.1.1
and TJ. in welds. After DIN 18800, Part 1.
Left: Butt weld, Right: Fi)let weld; the nominal stress istobecomputed with the throat thickness a.
Components of nominal stress SII' Til' SJ.
Rodshaped (ID) welded components
For rodshaped (ID) welded components the nominal stresses are in general to be determined separately for the toe section and for the throat section _{*}_{7}_{.}
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components, Eq. (1.1.1) .For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1 _{*}_{8}_{.}
Swv,zd =
S
2
L,zd
+ T
2
L,zd
2
+1j1,zd '
S Axial stress normal to the weld seam
L,zd
(1.1.2)
11.1.1 Rodshaped (ID) components
Rodshaped (ID) nonwelded components
For rodshaped (lD) nonwelded components an axial stress Szd , a bending stress Sb, a shear stress T, *5 and/or a torsional stress T _{t} are to be considered. The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
T Shear stress normal to the weld seam, Shear stress parallel to the weld seam.
Swv,b, T WV,s and T wv,t in analogy.
TII,zd
L,zd
The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent nominal stresses are
Smax,ex,wv,zd and
Smin,ex,wv,zd,
(1.1.3)
Smax,ex,zd, Smax,ex,b, Tmax.exs . Tmax,ex,t, Smin,ex,zd, Smin,ex,b, Tmin.ex,s, Tmin,ex,t .
(1.1.1)
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,zd positive, Smin,ex,zd
to be considered
separately *6. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
negative for instance) are generally
Stresses of different sign (Smax,ex,wv,zd posiuve, Smin,ex,wv,zd negative for instance) are generally to be considered separately. For shear and for torsion the highest absolute value is relevant.
4 Stress components having different signs may cancel out each other in part orcompletely.
5 Bending and shear in two planes (components y and z) are to be considered if appropriate, see Chapter 0.3.4.1 .
6 Particularly inthe case ofcast iron materials with different tension and compression strength values aswell asinthe case ofunsymmetrical cross sections.
7 For welded components ingeneral anassessment ofthe static strength isto be carried out for the toe section and for the throat section, because the crosssectional areas may be different and because the strength behavior is evaluated in a different way. The assessment for the toe section istobecarried out asfor nonwelded components. The assessment for the throat section is to be carried out with the equivalent nominal stress Swv.zd
8 According to DIN 18 800 part 1, page 36. The nominal stress SII (normal stress parallel tothe orientation ofthe seam) istobeneglected.
9 Normally Swv,zd will result mainly from S loading analogous.
Lzd.
Further types of
1.1 Characteristic stress values
^{2}^{1}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.1.1.2 Shellshaped (2D) components
Shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components
For shellshaped (2D) nonwelded components normal stresses in the x and ydirections Szd,x = Sx and Szd,y = Sy as well as a shear stress Ts = T are to be considered.
The extreme maximum and minimum stresses are
Smax,ex,x , Smax,ex,y , Tmax,ex , Smin,ex,x , Smin,ex,y , Tmin,ex .
(1.1.4)
Tension stresses (positive) or compression stresses (negative) are generally to be considered separately *10. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
Shellshaped (2D) welded components
For shellshaped (2D) welded components, Figure 0.0.6, the nominal stresses are in general to be determined
separately 
for 
the 
toe 
section 
and 
for 
the 
throat 
section *7. 
For the toe section the nominal stresses are to be computed as for nonwelded components, Eq. (1.1.4),
For the throat section equivalent nominal stresses Swv,x, Swv,y and T wv have to be computed from the nominal stresses resulting from the particular types of loading, Figure 1.1.1, according to Eq (1.1.2). The extreme maximum and minimum values of the equivalent stresses are
Smax,ex,wv,x and
Smin,ex,wv,x ,
(1.1.5)
In case of opposing effect Smax,ex,wv,x is to be regarded as positive and Smin,ex,wv,x as negative. Tension and compression are generally to be considered separately. For shear the highest absolute value is relevant.
10 See footnote *6. And moreover because the second normal stress Sy may reduce the degree ofutilization.
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{2}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.2 Material properties
11m EN.dog
Contents 
Page 

1.2.0 
General 
22 
1.2.1 
Component values according to standards 
23. 
1.2.1.0 
General 

1.2.1.1 
Component values according to standards of semifinished products or test pieces 

1.2.1.2 
Component values according to the drawing 

1.2.1.3 
Special case of actual component values 
24 
1.2.2 
Technological size factor 

1.2.2.0 
General 

1.2.2.1 
Dependence on the effective diameter 

1.2.2.2 
Effective diameter 

1.2.3 
Anisotropy factor 
26 
1.2.4 
Compression strength factor and shear strength factor 

1.2.4.0 
General 

1.2.4.1 
Compression strength factor 

1.2.4.2 
Shear strength factor 
27 
1.2.5 
Temperature factors 

1.2.5.0 
General 

1.2.5.1 
Normal temperature 

1.2.5.2 
Low temperature 

1.2.5.3 
Elevated temperature 
1.2.0 General
According to this chapter the mechanical material properties like tensile strength _{R}_{.}_{n}_{,} yield strength _{R}_{,} and further characteristics for nonwelded and welded components are to be determined *1.
All mechanical material properties are those of the material test specimen. Values according to standards, component values and component values according to standards are to be distinguished, Figure 1.2.1.
Material test specimen
In the context of this guideline the material test specimen is an unnotched polished round specimen of do = 7,5 mID diameter *2
1 If in this chapter values are given for GT, GG or cast aluminum alloys, they are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only, Chapter 2, but not for the assessment of the static strength, which is to be carried out using local stresses for these materials, Chapter 3.
2 This definition is the basis of the presented calculation, although specimens for tensile tests may usually have diameters different from
Figure 1.2.1 Values according to standards and com ponent values according to standards, _{R}_{m} and Rp, or values specified by drawings, R.n.z and Rp,z .
Top: All kinds of material except GG,
Semilogarithmic decrease of the mechanical material properties with the
effectivediameter deft'.
.
R _{m} =:; Rm,N,
Rp =:; Rp,N
Bottom: GG,
mechanicalmaterial propertieswith the effectivediameter deff.
Rm =:; or ~ Rm,N . Doublelogarithmic decrease of the
Specified values according to drawings Rm,zand Rp,z.
Values according to standards
The values according to standards <Rm.N, R.n, Rp,N, Rp) correspond to an average probability of survival Po = 97,5 % and depend on the effective diameter cleft' and on the technological size factor.
Component values
The component values <Rm , R.n.z , R, , Rp,z ) are valid for the effective diameter cleft' of the component, they may correspond to different probabilities of survival Po , however.
Special case of actual component values
If specific values for a component <Rm.r , Rp,v have been determined experimentally, they normally apply to a probability of survival Po = 50 % ,. and therefore they
7,5mm.
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{3}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
are valid only for the particular component, but not for the entirety of all those components. They may be used, for instance, fora subsequent assessment of the strength of the particular component in case of a service failure, if for that purpose all safety factors are set to 1,00 in addition.
Component values according to standards
The component values according to standards _{<}_{R}_{m} _{,} _{R}_{p}_{)} apply to an average probability of survival P _{u} = 97,5 % and are valid for the effective diameter, _{d}_{e}_{l}_{I}_{,} of the component. Their application is not limited to a particular component, and therefore they may be used for an assessment of strength, valid for the entirety of all those components.
To determine the tensile strength _{R}_{m} and the yield strength R, *3 the technological size factor, the anisotropy factor and the temperature factors are to be considered in general. Furthermore compression strength and shear strength values are to be considered.
1.2.1 Component values according to standards
1.2.1.0 <Teneral
The component values according to standards, Rm and
determined from the values of semi
finished products or of test pieces defined by standards,
Rm,Nand Rp,N , or from the component value specified in the drawing, Rm,z . As a special case the experimentally determined actual component values, _{R}_{m}_{,}_{r} and _{R}_{p}_{,}_{r} _{,} may be applied.
R, , are to be
1.2.1.1 Component values according to standards of
semifinished products or of test pieces
The component values according to standards of the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are
Rm = KJ,m' K _{A} ' Rm,N,
R, = KJ,p
. K _{A} ' Rp,N,
(1.2.1)
KJ,m, KJ,p technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, K _{A} anisotropy factor, Chapter 1.2.3, Rm,N, Rp,N values of the semifinished product or of a test piece defined by standards, Chapter 5.1 .
In the case of steel or wrought aluminum alloys the tensile strength, Rm,N js the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished
3 The term yield strength is used as a generalized term for the yield stress (of milled or forged steel as well as cast steel) and for the 0.2 proof stress (of nodular cast iron or malleable cast iron as well as aluminum alloys).
product *4 , in the case of cast iron or cast aluminum it is the value from the test piece defined by the material standard.
The yield strength, Rp,N , is the guaranteed minimum value specified for the smallest size of the semifinished product *4 or for the test piece defined by the material standard *5.
Moreover there are to be considered: for compressive stresses the compression strength factor f, , Chapter 1.2.4, for shear stresses the shear strength factor _{:}_{4} _{,} Chapter 1.2.4, and for elevated temperature the
temperature factors Kt,m,
, Chapter 1.2.5.
1.2.1.2 Component values according to the drawing
The component value of the tensile strength, RID, is
Rm = 0,94 . Rm,z .
(1.2.2)
The component value according to the drawing Rm,z is the tensile strength of the material specified on the drawing. As the value Rm,z is normally verified by random inspection of small samples only *6, it is
assumed to have a probability of survival less than
97,5 % . Eq. (1.2.2) converts the value Rm,z to a component value R; that is expected to conform with the probability of survival of P _{u} _{=} 97,5 _{%}_{.}
tensile
The
P _{u} =
yield
strength
R,
corresponding
to
the
strength _{R}_{m} is _{*}_{7} _{.}
Rp= Kd,p 
. Rp,N 
. Rm, 
Kd,m 
Rm,N 
(1.2.3)
technological size factors, Chapter 1.2.2, values of the semifinished product or of a test piece defined by standards, Chapter 5.1 .
4 If different dimensions of that semifinished product are given by the standard.
5 A probability of survival Po = 97,5 % is assumed for the component
prop~ies according to standards Rm,N ' Rp,N . This probability of survival should also apply to the values R _{m} ' R _{p} calculated therefrom.
6 The value R _{m} Z is checked by three hardness measurements
(n=3) for exampl~, where every test has to reach or to exceed the
required value. The probability of survival of the lowest ofn=3 tests
estimated to 75 % (= 1  1/(n+l) = 1  11(3+1)= 0,75), and
may be assigned to Rm,Z . With a likely coefficient of variation of 4% the conversion to Po = 97,5 % follows from Eq. (1.2.2).
may be
7 A conversion proportional to R _{p} N I R _{m} N would not be correct
since the technological size effect is more pronounced for the yield
strength than for the tensile strength.
_{1}_{.}_{2} _{M}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{a}_{l} _{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{e}_{s}
^{2}^{4}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
1.2.1.3 Special case of actual component values
If only an experimental value of the tensile strength Rm,r is known the value of the yield strength Rp,r may be computed from Eq. (1.2.3) with Rm = Rm,r.
1.2.2 Technological size factor
1.2.2.0 <ieneral
The technological size factor accounts for a decrease of the material strength values usually observed with increasing dimensions of the component, It is specified as a function of the effective diameter, Figure 1.2.1. It is different for nonwelded and for welded components
*8
1.2.2.1 Dependence on the effective diameter
Nonwelded components
Steel and cast iron materials
For GG the following technological size factor applies to the tensile strength: For cleff 5 7,5 mm
Kt,m = 1,207,
for cleff > 7,5 mm *9
Kt,m = 1,207 . (cleff /7,5 mm)  0,1922 .
(1.2.4)
(1.2.5)
For stainless steel within the dimensions given in material standards there is
Kt,m = Kd,p = 1.
(1.2.7)
For all other kinds of steel and cast iron materials the
technological size factor is: For
cleff 5 cleff,N,m
Kt,m = Kd,p=1, 
(1.2.8) 

for 
cleff,N,m < cleff 5 cleff,max,m *10: 
(1.2.9) 

!Cd, 
10, 7686·ad,m ·lg(deff /7,5mm) 

. 
m 1 0, 7686· ad,m ·lg(deff,N,m /7,5mm) , 

for 
cleff ~ deff,max,m it is: 
Kt,m = Kt,m (cleff,max,m)·
(1.2.10)
cleff cleff ,N,m, ~m
Considering the yield strength the values Kt,m, cleff,N,m , and ~m have to be replaced by the values Kt,p , deff,N,p ,
and ~p (except for GG).·
effective diameter, Chapter 1.2.2.2 , constants, Table 1.2.1 and 1.2.2 .
.
8 The influence factors according toChapter 1.2.3 (KA ), Chapter 1.2.4
(fer, f't) and Chapter 1.2.5 (KT m nonwelded and welded compon~ts.
9 Footnote and Eq. (1.2.6) cancelled.
) aresupposed to be valid for both
10 _{0}_{,}_{7}_{6}_{8}_{6} = l/ig 20.
For milled steel there is deff,max,m = deff,max,p = 250 mm. For all other kinds of material there are no upper limit
values cleff,max,
,
(1.2.11)
unless otherwise specified in the material standards.
Aluminum alloys
For wrought aluminum alloys the component values of the tensile strength, Rm , and of the yield strength, Rp, are given in Chapter 5 according to the type of material and its condition, and depending on the thickness or diameter of the semifinished product. To these values the technological size factors Kt,m = Kt,p = 1 apply.
For cast aluminum alloys the technological size factors for the tensile strength and for the yield strength are as follows: For deff~ defl;N,m = defl;N,p = 12 mm
:KI,m = :KI,p = 1,
(1.2.12)
for 12 mm < deff < defl;max.m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
v.
I.~m
= v.
.I.~p
=
1 1 . (,I
,
Ueff
/ 7 5 mm)  0,2
,
,
(1.2.13)
for deff~ defl;max,m = defl;max,p = 150 mm
:KI,m = :KI,p = 0,6 .
(1.2.14)
Welded components *11
For all kinds of material the technological size factor for the toe section and for the throat section of welded components is _{*}_{1}_{2}
(1.2.15)
For materials such as conditionally weldable steel, stainless steel or weldable cast iron the subsequent calculation is provisional and therefore it is to be applied with caution.
1.2.2.2 Effective diameter
For components with a simple shape of the cross section the effective diameter is given according to the cross section in Table 1.2,3.
In general the upper limit of the effective diameter is specified in the material standards.
For the determination of the effective diameter cleff two cases are to be distinguished as to the kind of material.
11 Valid for steel, cast iron material and aluminum alloys. 12 For structural steel and fine grain structural steel according to
DIN 18800, part 1, page 40.
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{5}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table 1.2.1 Constants deff,N,m , 
, and adm, 
, for steel 

Values in the upper rowreferto thetensile strength R _{m} , 

Values 
in 
the 
lower 
rowreferto the yield strength R _{p} . 

Kinds of material ~ ^{1} 
deff,N,m 
ad,m 

cleff,N,p 
ad,p 

inmm 

Nonalloyed structural steel DINEN 10 025 
40 
0,15 

40 
0,3 

Fine grain structural steel DIN 17102 
70 
0,2 

40 
0,3 

Fine grain structural steel DIN EN 10 113 
100 
0,25 

30 
0,3 

Heat treatable steel, q&t DIN EN 10 0831 
16 ~3 
0,3 

16 
0,4 

Heat treatable steel, n DIN EN 100831 
16 
0,1 

16 
0,2 

Case hardening steel, bh DIN EN 10 0831 
16 
0,5 

16 
0,5 

Nitriding steel, q&t DIN EN 10 0831 
40 
0,25 

40 
0,30 

stainless steel DIN EN 10 0882 ~4 
 
 

Steel for big forgings, q&t SEW 550 ~5 
250 
0,2 

250 
0,25 

Steel for big forgings, n SEW 550 
250 
0 

250 
0,15 
q&t=quenched a. tempered, n=normalized, bh=blank hardened
~1 Within the kinds of material there are thetypes of material.
~2 More precise values depending on the kind of material (except for nonalloyed structural steel) seeTable 5.1.2 to Table 5.1.7.
~2 For 30 CrNiMo 8 and 36 NiCrMo values ad,mandad,p as given above.
~4 No technological size effect within the dimensions mentioned in the material standards.
~5 For 28 NiCrMoV 8 5 or 33 NiCrMo 145: deff,N,m = deff,N,p
16: deff N m = 40 mm, '
,
= 500mm or 1000 ~ resp., values ad.mandad,p asgiven above.
Case 1
Components (also forgings) made of heat treatable steel, of case hardening steel, of nitriding steel, both nitrided or quenched and tempered, of heat treatable cast steel, of GGG, GT or GG.
The effective diameter cleff from Table 1.2.3, Case 1, applies.
In general it is:
deff= 4 . V /0,
(1.2.16)
V,O
Volume and surface of the section of the component considered.
Table 1.2.2 Constants deff,N,m, iron materials , 
and amn, 
, 
for cast 

Values 
in 
theupper 
row 
referto refer to thetensile strength R _{m} ' the yield strength R _{p} . 

Values 
in 
the lower 
row 

Kinds of material 
cleff,N,m 
3.d,m 

deff,N,p 
ad,p 

inmm 

Cast steel 
100 
0,15 

DIN 1681 
100 
0,3 

Heat treatable steel casting, DIN 17 205 
300 ~1 
0,15 

300 
0,3 

Heat treatable steel casting, q&t, DIN 17 205, 
100 
0,3 

types ~2 No.1, 3, 4 
100 
0,3 

as above 
200 
0,15 

types 
~3 No. 2 
200 
0,3 

as above 
200 
0,15 

. types No.5, 6, 8 
200 
0,3 

as above types No.7, 9 
500 
0,15 

500 
0,3 

GGG DIN EN 1563 
60 
0,15 

60 
0,15 

15 
0,15 

DIN EN 1562 
15 
0,15 
q&t= quenched and tempered
~1 For GS30 Mn5 or GS25 CrMo 4 there is deff N m = 800 mm or 500 mm respectively, values ad,mandad,pas gi~edabove.
~2 Material typessee Table 5.1.11.
~3 Valid for strength level V I, for level V II deff,N,m = deff,N,p = 100 mm with values ad,mandad,p as above. ~4 The values for GT are needed for the assessment of the fatigue strength only.
Case 2
Components (also forgings) made of nonalloyed structural steel, of fine grained structural steel, of normalized quenched and tempered steel, of cast steel, or of aluminum materials.
The effective diameter d _{e}_{f}_{f} is equal to the diameter or wall thickness of the component, Table 1.2.3, Case 2.
Rodshaped (1D) components made of quenched and tempered steel
The effective diameter is the diameter existing while the heat treatment is performed.
In case of machining subsequent to the heat treatment the effective diameter cleff is the largest diameter of the rod. In case of machining prior to the heat treatment the effective diameter cleff is defined as the local diameter in question. The diameter cleff according to the first sequence of machining is an estimate on the safe side .
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{6}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Table 1.2.3 Effective diameter deff
No. 
Cross section 
deff 
deff 

Case 1 
Case 2 

1 
d 
d 

2 
2s 
s 

3 
2s 
s 

4 
2b·s 
s 

 

b+s 

5 
r:£13 
b 
b 
1.2.3 Anisotropy factor
The anisotropy factor allows for the fact that the strength values of milled steel and forgings are lower transverse to the main direction of milling or forging than in the main direction of processing. It is to be supposed that the specified strength values are valid for the main direction of
In case of multiaxial stresses, and also with shear stress, the anisotropy factor is
K _{A} = 
1. 
(1.2.17) 
Steel and cast iron material 

The anisotropy factor for cast iron material is 

K _{A} = 
1. 
(1.2.18) 
For milled steel and forgings *13 the anisotropy factor in the main direction of processing is
(1.2.19)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Table 1.2.4 is to be applied.
13 With material properties depending on the direction.
Aluminum alloys
The anisotropy factor for cast aluminum alloys is
K _{A} =
1.
(1.2.20)
For forgings ·13, for which material standards specify
the strength values as depending on the testing direction, the anisotropy factor is not to be applied:
(1.2.21)
For aluminum alloys the anisotropy factor for the strength values in the main direction of processing is
(1.2.22)
For the strength values transverse to the main direction of processing the anisotropy factor from Tab. 1.2.4 is to be applied.
Table 1.2.4 Anisotropy factor K _{A} _{•}
Steel:
Rm 
up to 600 
from 600 
from 900 
above 
in Mpa 
to 900 
to 1200 
1200 

K A 
0,90 
0,86 
o.ss 
0,80 
Al uminum a ovs: II 

Rm 
up to 200 
from 200 
from 400 

in Mpa 
to 400 
to 600 

K A 
1,00 
0,95 
0,90 
1.2.4 Compression strength factor and shear strength factor
1.2.4.0 (;eneral
The compression strength factor allows for the fact that in general the material strength is higher in compression than in tension.
The shear strength factor allows for the fact that the material strength in shear is different from the tensile strength.
1.2.4.1 Compression strength factor
For tensile stresses (axial or bending) the compression strength factor is
(1.2.23)
For compression stresses (axial or bending) the tensile strength Rm and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the compression strength Rc,m and the yield strength in compression Rc,p:
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{7}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
Rc,m 
= 
f, 
. 
Rm , 
(1.2.24) 
Rc,F 
= f, 
. Rp, 
f" R _{m} _{,} R _{p}
compression strength factor, Table 1.2.5, tensile strength and yield strength, see Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rc,m and Rc,p are not explicitly neededfor an assessment of the static strength, as only the compression strength factor f, is needed *14.
Table 1.2.5 Compression strength factor f, and shear strength factor f,;
Kinds of material 
r, 
f, 
f, 
for 
for 

tension 
compress. 

Case harden'g steel 
1 
1 
0,577 
Stainless steel 
1 
1 
0,577 
Forging steel 
1 
1 
0,577 
Other kinds of steel 
1 
1 
0,577 
GS 
1 
1 
0,577 
GGG 
1 
1,3 
0,65 
Aluminum alloys 
1 
1 
0,577 
~1 0,577 = 1 /.J3, accordingto v. Mises criterion, also valid for welded components.
1.2.4.2 Shear strength factor
For shear stresses the tensile strength _{R}_{m} and the yield strength Rp are to be replaced by the shear strength Rs,m and the yield strength in shear Rs,p:
Rs,m = f't . Rm,
Rs,p = f't . Rp ,
(1.2.25)
f't
R _{m} _{,} Rp tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
The values Rs,m and Rs,p are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the strength, as only the shear strength factor f't is needed.
shear strength factor, Table 1.2.5
1.2.5 Temperature factors
1.2.5.0 General
The temperature factors allow for the fact that the material strength decreases with increasing temperature.
Normal temperature, low temperature and higher temperature are to be distinguished.
14 Tensile strength and yield strength in compressionare supposedto be
positive, Rc,rn, Rc,p > 0, thereforefor
compressionf _{c}_{r} > 1.
1.2.5.1 Normal temperature
Normal temperatures are as follows:
 for fine grain structural steel from 40°C to 60°C, for other kinds of steel from 40°C to _{+} lOO°C, for cast iron materials from 25°C to + lOO°C, for agehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to 50°C, for nonagehardening aluminum alloys from 25°C to lOO°C.
For normal temperature the temperature factors are
KT,m =
_{=}
_{I}_{.}
(1.2.26)
1.2.5.2 Low temperature
Temperatures below the values listed above are outside
the field of application of this guideline.
1.2.5.3 Elevated temperature
In the field of elevated temperatures  up to 500°C for
steel and cast iron materials and up to 200°C for
aluminum materials  the influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties is to be considered. In case of elevated temperature the tensile strength R _{m} is to be replaced by the high temperature strength Rrn,T or by the creep strength Rrn, Tt • The yield strength Rp is to be replaced by the high temperature yield strength _{R}_{p}_{,}_{T} or by the 1% creep limit Rp,Tt *15.
For the shortterm values Rm,T and Rp,T as well as for
Eq. (1.2.27) to
the longterm values Rm,Tt and Rp,Tt (1.2.35) apply.
Shortterm values
Short term values of the static strength are
Rm,T = KT,m Rp,T = KT,p .
.
R _{m}_{,} R _{p} ,
KT,m, Kt,p.
R _{m} , R _{p}
temperature factors, Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.33), tensile strength and yield strength, Eq. (1.2.1) to (1.2.3).
(1.2.27)
The values Rm,T and Rp,T are not explicitly needed for an assessment of the static strength, as only the temperature factors KT,m and KT,p are needed.
Steel and cast iron materials
According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT,m and KT,p apply as follows:
15 The relevant temperature factors will be applied in combination with the safety factors at the assessment stage.
1.2 Material properties
^{2}^{8}
1 Assessment of the static strength using nominal stresses
for fme grain structural steel, T _{>} _{6}_{0}_{°}_{C}
KT,m = KT,p =
1 
1,2
. 10 3 • T /
DC,
_{*}_{1}_{6}_{.}
(1.2.28)
for other kinds of steel *17, T > 100°C, Figure
1.2.2:
(1.2.29)
KT,m = KT,p = 11,7' 10 ^{3} _{•} (T / °C100),
for GS, T> 100°C:
(1.2.30)
Kr,m = Kr,p =
1 
1,5 . 10 3 . (T / °c  100),
 for GGG, T > 100°C:
K _{r}_{.} _{m} =
Kr,p =
1 
2,4 . (10 3 . T / "C) 2.
(1.2.31)
Eq. (1.2.28) to (1.2.31) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 500°C. For a temperature above 350°C they are valid only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
^{o} o
100200
300
400
500
~~
Tin'C
Figure 1.2.2 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of nonalloyed structural steel plotted for comparison.
R _{p} I R _{m} = Rei R _{m} = 0,65,
Rm,T/R _{m} = KTm = Rp,T/R r = KT,p,
Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m = Rp,Tt
Rp=KTt,p·
Rm,T, Rp,T as well as Rm,Tt Rp,Tt for t = 10 ^{5} h,
Safety factors according to Chapter 1.5 and 2.5:
jm = 2,0,
jp = Jmt = 1,5, jpt = 1,0 .Jn = 1,5 .
Aluminum alloys
According to the temperature T the temperature factors KT,m and KT,p for aluminum alloys apply as follows:
 for agehardening aluminum alloys: T > _{5}_{0}_{°}_{C}_{,}
Figure 1.2.3
(1.2.32)
16 There is an insignificant discontinuity at T = 60°C.
17 For stainless steel no values are known up to now.
Kr,m =
1 
4,5 . 10 3 . (T / °C 
K
=
1 
4 5 . 10 3 . (T / °C 
T,p,
50)
50)
~
>

0,1,
0 1
"
 for not agehardening aluminum alloys:
T> 100°C, Figure 1.2.3
Kr,m =
1 
4,5 . 10 3 . (T / °C 
Kr,p = 1 4,5' 10 ^{3} . (T / °C 
100) ~ 0,1, 100) ~ 0,1,
(1.2.33)
Eq. (1.2.32) and (1.2.33) are valid from the indicated temperature T up to 200°C, and in general only, if the relevant characteristic stress does not act on long terms.
1.2.3
()
5&lliQ
_{I}_{S}_{O}
20.0
2S0
300
TIT.
Figure 1.2.3 Temperature dependent values of the static strength of aluminum alloys plotted for comparison.
Static strength values:
Rp,T/R _{m}_{=} KT,m= KT,p/Rp= KT,p
Rm,Tt/Rm=KTt,m= KTt,p/Rp= KTt,p
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