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A.

CONCRETE MIX DESIGN CALCULATION


1. Concept of Mix Design Calculation
Composition of each concrete material should be selected to obtain the most
economical concrete,so by using materials that are available will obtain concrete that
has workability ,durability and strength as design before .
Laboratory tests are intended to determine the relationship between the components
of concrete materials such as aggregate,cement,water and admixture to obtain the
optimum combination.However,at the end, the ratio should be determined by trial
and error and adapted to existing condition.
2. Method of Mix Design Calculation
Composition of each concrete material, should be done by of trial and error
method.The tests of the concrete mix design performed before the concrete
fabrication which uses the exact same material as for the fabrication process.After
suitable mixed design ratio obtained, it is necessary to adapt to the real batching plant
during the fabrication.
B. PROCEDURE OF MIX DESIGN CALCULATION
Concrete mix design calculation is basically performed by trial and error method. The
general procedures are explained step by step as follow.
1. Concrete material test,in order to examine whether the material is beyond the
specification or not.
2. Choice of Slump Value
Slump value is generally given for certain types of structure .If the value is not
given,Table D.1 below could be the reference in determining the slump value.
Table D.1. Recommended slump value for certain variance of construction based on ACI 211.1-91

Type of Construction
Reinforced foundation walls and
footings
Plain footings,caissons and
substructure walls
Beams and reinforced walls
Building Columns
Pavements and slabs
Mass Concrete

Range of slump*
mm

in

20-80

1-3

20-80
20-100
20-100
20-80
20-80

1-3
1-4
1-4
1-3
1-2

*upper layer slum can be scaled up to 20 mm ( 1 inch) for hand compaction.

3. The Maximum Grain Size of Coarse Aggregate


The maximum grain size of aggregate should be selected as follow :
The maximum size should not be larger than 1/5 of minimum dimension of
structure element, 1/3 of slab thickness, or of clear distance between
reinforcement.This restriction give the maximum diameter of aggregate at
around 1,5 inch (40 mm).except for mass production.
Research and development nowadays suggests, for the same w/c,decrease of
aggregate grain size will increase the strength of concrete.
4. Estimation of Water Volume and Air Entrained
Estimation of water volume (W) can be determined using table D.2

Workability or air
content

Water content kg/m3 (lb/yd3) of concrete for indicated maximum


aggregate size
12.5
mm
40 mm
15
10 mm
(1/2
20 mm 25 mm ( 1 1/2 50 mm 70 mm mm
(3/8 in)
in )
(3/4 in) ( 1 in )
in )
( 2 in ) ( 3 in )
in
Non-air entrained concrete

Slump
30-50 mm (1-2 in)

205
(350)

200
(335)

185
(315)

180
(300)

160(27
5)

155(26
0)

145(22
0)

125
0

80-100 mm (3-4 in)

225(38
5)

215(36
5)

200(34
0)

195(32
5)

175(30
0)

170(28
5)

160(24
5)

140
0

150-180 mm (6-7 in)

240(41
0)

230(38
5)

210(36
0)

205(34
0)

185(31
5)

180(30
0)

170(27
0)

approximate entrapped
air content (%)

0.5

0.3

30-50 mm (1-2 in)

180(30
5)

175(29
5)

165(28
0)

160(27
0)

145(25
0)

140(24
0)

135(20
5)

120
0

80-100 mm (3-4 in)

200(34
0)

190(32
5)

180(30
5)

175(29
5)

160(27
5)

155(26
5)

150(22
5)

135
0

215(36 205(34 190(32 185(31 170(29 165(28


5)
5)
5)
0)
0)
0)
Recommended average total air content (%)
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
6
5.5
5
4.5
4.5
4
7.5
7
6
6
5.5
5

160(26
0)

150-180 mm (6-7 in)


Mild Exposure
Moderate Exposure
Extreme Exposure

2.5
2
1.5
Air entrained concrete
Slump

Table D.2. Water content dissolver needed and air entrained for different workability of concrete and
aggregate grain size based on ACI 211.1-91

5. Water Cement Ratio


Water cement ratio can be determined based on the desired or designed strength
and resistance.
Strength.Estimation of water-cement ratio can be determined based on its
strength (see Table D.3).
Resistant .If the condition is extreme enough,such as freezing weather,direct
contact to sea water , or direct contact to sulfate , the water cement ratio
should be adapted.

Table.D.3. Relation between water cement ratio and average of concrete compressive strength
based on ACI 211.1-91.

Average

Effective water/cement ratio

1.5
3.5
4.5

compressive
strength at 28
days
Mpa
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
-

psi
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000

(by mass)
Non-air
entrained
air-entrained
concrete
concrete
0.33
0.38
0.41
0.43
0.48
0.4
0.55
0.46
0.57
0.48
0.62
0.53
0.68
0.59
0.7
0.61
0.8
0.71
0.82
0.74

6. Determine The Volume of Cement


Cement unit weight (C) can be determined from unit weight of water (W) and watercement ratio (w/c).
C=

W
w/c

7. Estimation of required coarse aggregate volume can be seen in Table D.4 below.
Table D.4. Volume of coarse aggregate per concrete volume unit based on ACI 211.1-91.

Maximum size
of aggregate
mm
in
10
3/8
12.5
1/2
20
3/4
25
1
40
1 1/2
50
2
70
3
150
6

Dry bulk volume of rodded


coarse aggregate per unit
volume of concrete for fineness
modulus of sand of
2.4
2.6
2.8
3
0.5
0.48
0.46
0.44
0.59
0.57
0.55
0.53
0.66
0.64
0.62
0.6
0.71
0.69
0.67
0.65
0.75
0.73
0.71
0.69
0.78
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.82
0.8
0.78
0.76
0.87
0.85
0.83
0.81

8. Estimation of required fine aggregate volume


Estimation of required fine aggregate volume can be determined using two
methods,such as:
Mass method

Volume method

Mass method estimates the density of the designed concrete ( see Table D.5 below ).
Table D.5. First estimation of density (unit weight) of fresh concrete based on ACI 211.1-91.

Maximum size
of aggregate
mm

in

10
12.5
20
25
40
50
70
150

3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
3
6

First estimate of density (unit


weight)of fresh concrete as
given by ACI 211.1-91
Non-airair-entrained
entrained
kg/m3 lb/yd3 kg/m3 lb/yd3
2285
3840
2190
3690
2315
3890
2235
3760
2355
3960
2280
3840
2375
4010
2315
3900
2420
4070
2355
3960
2445
4120
2375
4000
2465
4160
2400
4040
2505
4230
2435
4120

So,fine aggregate mass per concrete volume unit is :


S = ( W + C + CA )
Or using volume method ,fine aggregate mass estimation per concrete volume unit
can be determined more accurate as follow :

C CA
S= s 1000 W + +
+10 A
ca

)]

s = SSD Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate


= 3.15 ( Cement)
A = Air Content
ca = SSD Specific Gravity of Coarse Aggregate
W = water content
C = Cement
CA = Coarse Aggregate

9. Adaption the aggregate volume regarding to the moisture content of the


aggregates surface.
C. CALCULATION
For this experiment the range of slump between 150-180 mm (6-7in) , so we use the
water of 205 kg/m3 because in the previous experiment we use sieve for the maximum
coarse aggregate is 25 mm , also we use 1.5 for the air content.
For the compressive strength we use the MPa 35 and then we get 0.48 for the ratio of
water and cement in the Non- air entrained concrete.
First we calculate the Cement,
C=

W
=
w/c

205
0.48

= 427.083 kg/m3

Coarse Aggregate
For the table above we get 0.62 from the interpolation of the coarse aggregate
needed.
After that we need to know the heaviest weight of Coarse Aggregate in the saturated
condition. In the previous experiment we get 1414.042
CA = 0.62X 1414.042 = 876.7 kg/m3
Water
From the table we directly get the weight of the water is 205 kg/m3.
Sand

C CA
S= s 1000 W + +
+10 A
ca

)]

From the previous experiment in the module B.1 about specific gravity analysis and
absorption of fine aggregate.

we get 2.4 for s . In this formula we replace with 3.15 and we can get ca
from experiment in the module C.2 about specific gravity analysis and absorption of
coarse aggregate. We get 3 for ca .
After all the data for sand calculation is completed, we can start calculate it :
427.083 876.7
S=2.4 1000 205+
+
+10 X 1.5
3.15
3

= 845.256 kg/m3

)]

For this concrete mix design experiment we will make concretes of three cylinders
and three cubes. We have to calculate the materials we need to make those concretes
Estimation of the area of three cylinders
3 X 3.14 X (7.5 X 10-2)2 X 0.3 = 0.015896 m3
Estimation of the area of three cubes
3 X (0.15)3 = 0.010125 m3
After we know the total area of each concrete we will make , the next thing we do is
calculating it with the required materials.
Estimation of the total quantity for Sand
S = 845.256 X 0.026 = 21.977 kg
Estimation of the total quantity for Water
W = 205 X 0.026 = 5.33 kg
Estimation of the total quantity for Cement
C = 427.083 X 0.026 = 11.104 kg
Estimation of the total quantity for Coarse Aggregate
CA = 876.7 X 0.026 = 22.7942 kg
The materials that prepared is added 20% more.
S = 21.977 kg X 1.2 = 26.3724 kg
W = 5.33 kg X 1.2 = 6.396 kg
C = 11.104 kg X 1.2 = 13.3248 kg
CA = 22.7942 kg X 1.2 = 27.35304 kg
In this calculation we may have done miscalculating besides there are many decimals
we put in the total calculation.

D. DATA ANALYSIS
1. Analysis of Experiment

Before we make the concrete there are certain things we have to consider based
on the recommendation about construction building like in this table.
Table D.1. Recommended slump value for certain variance of construction based on ACI 211.1-91

Range of slump*
mm

Type of Construction
Reinforced foundation walls and
footings
Plain footings,caissons and
substructure walls
Beams and reinforced walls
Building Columns
Pavements and slabs
Mass Concrete

in

20-80

1-3

20-80
20-100
20-100
20-80
20-80

1-3
1-4
1-4
1-3
1-2

*upper layer slum can be scaled up to 20 mm ( 1 inch) for hand compaction.

The slump value will be our guide to mix the materials for the concrete.
For this mixing design there are table of water needed to fulfill the different
workability of concrete aggregate grain size based on the standardization .
Table D.2. Water content dissolver needed and air entrained for different workability of concrete and
aggregate grain size based on ACI 211.1-91

Workability or air
content

Water content kg/m3 (lb/yd3) of concrete for indicated maximum


aggregate size
12.5
mm
40 mm
15
10 mm
(1/2
20 mm 25 mm ( 1 1/2 50 mm 70 mm mm
(3/8 in)
in )
(3/4 in) ( 1 in )
in )
( 2 in ) ( 3 in )
in
Non-air entrained concrete

Slump
30-50 mm (1-2 in)

205
(350)

200
(335)

185
(315)

180
(300)

160(27
5)

155(26
0)

145(22
0)

125
0

80-100 mm (3-4 in)

225(38
5)

215(36
5)

200(34
0)

195(32
5)

175(30
0)

170(28
5)

160(24
5)

140
0

150-180 mm (6-7 in)

240(41
0)

230(38
5)

210(36
0)

205(34
0)

185(31
5)

180(30
0)

170(27
0)

approximate entrapped
air content (%)

0.5

0.3

30-50 mm (1-2 in)

180(30
5)

175(29
5)

165(28
0)

160(27
0)

145(25
0)

140(24
0)

135(20
5)

120
0

80-100 mm (3-4 in)

200(34
0)

190(32
5)

180(30
5)

175(29
5)

160(27
5)

155(26
5)

150(22
5)

135
0

215(36 205(34 190(32 185(31 170(29 165(28


5)
5)
5)
0)
0)
0)
Recommended average total air content (%)
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2

160(26
0)

150-180 mm (6-7 in)


Mild Exposure

2.5
2
1.5
Air entrained concrete
Slump

1.5

Moderate Exposure
Extreme Exposure

6
7.5

5.5
7

5
6

4.5
6

4.5
5.5

4
5

There are the connection between grain size we use and the range of the slump we will
do for this experiment and also the air content.For this mix design experiment we decided to
use The Slump between 150-180 mm (6-7 in) we get 205 kg/m3 for water and 1.5 for the air
content , we concluded that because we have the maximum grain size for coarse aggregate is
25 mm. After we get the estimation for water and air , we estimate the quantity of the cement
and water ratio.
As we know before doing this experiment , we will be analyzing this concrete for
fourteen days and there are three times of crushing test, on the third , seventh and fourteenth
day. In this table below we will choose the estimation of the average compressive strength.
Table.D.3. Relation between water cement ratio and average of concrete compressive strength
based on ACI 211.1-91.

Average
compressive
strength at 28
days
Mpa
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
-

psi
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000

Effective water/cement ratio


(by mass)
Non-air
entrained
air-entrained
concrete
concrete
0.33
0.38
0.41
0.43
0.48
0.4
0.55
0.46
0.57
0.48
0.62
0.53
0.68
0.59
0.7
0.61
0.8
0.71
0.82
0.74

From the table above we choose 35 for the quantity of average compressive strength.
So, we get 0.48 the effective quantity of water/cement ratio.
The fifth step is we determine the quantity of the coarse aggregate, as we can see in
this table below
Table D.5. First estimation of density (unit weight) of fresh concrete based on ACI 211.1-91.

3.5
4.5

Maximum size
of aggregate
mm

in

10
12.5
20
25
40
50
70
150

3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1 1/2
2
3
6

First estimate of density (unit


weight)of fresh concrete as
given by ACI 211.1-91
Non-airair-entrained
entrained
kg/m3 lb/yd3 kg/m3 lb/yd3
2285
3840
2190
3690
2315
3890
2235
3760
2355
3960
2280
3840
2375
4010
2315
3900
2420
4070
2355
3960
2445
4120
2375
4000
2465
4160
2400
4040
2505
4230
2435
4120

The fact is our bulk volume of coarse aggregate is not shown in this table above so we
interpolate the calculation and we get 0.62 to added with the weight of coarse aggregate
we get from the previous experiment.
The last step before we mix altogether the materials is we calculate the quantity we
need for sand , now we have already gathered the other quantities to put into the
estimation of sand
C CA
S= s 1000 W + +
+10 A
ca

)]

S=2.4 1000 205+

427.083 876.7
+
+10 X 1.5
3.15
3

)]

= 845.256 kg/m3
We have already done calculating all the quantities of the materials we need to make
the concrete , we follow all the steps mentioned in our module book of structure and
material but there is an additional materials we add when we mixed all the materials , we
added 1 liters of water as our guide for this mix design told us .

2. Result analysis
The total quantity of each material we need for 3 cylinders and 3 cubes
concrete.
S = 21.977 kg X 1.2 = 26.3724 kg
W = 5.33 kg X 1.2 = 6.396 kg
C = 11.104 kg X 1.2 = 13.3248 kg
CA = 22.7942 kg X 1.2 = 27.35304 kg

And also the additional of 1 liters water .


3. Error analysis

For the calculation we needed extra time to calculate the quantity of materials
before we do the experiment , we might too fast to calculate all the data
because we had to calculate it over and over again and there was a little
difference from the first calculation
When we weighed the appropriate quantity for the materials we used , we
might have added more than we had to that it was different from our
calculation

E. CONCLUSION
We have to calculate the appropriate number of quantity of all materials for making
the concrete . We collected the data from the previous experiment like the weight of
coarse aggregate and fine aggregate , we put the exact number to the formula and we
get all fixed quantity
S = 21.977 kg X 1.2 = 26.3724 kg
W = 5.33 kg X 1.2 = 6.396 kg
C = 11.104 kg X 1.2 = 13.3248 kg
CA = 22.7942 kg X 1.2 = 27.35304 kg
And also the additional of 1 liters water .
This additional quantity of water is caused because not always we didnt allow to add
more materials needed , we have to look the condition that moment when we are
doing the experiment because it might be our mistakes for the miscalculation.

F. REFERENCES
American Concrete Institute committee 211.1-91, Standard Practice for selecting
proportions for normal,heavyweight, and mass concrete,Part 1, ACI Manual of
Concrete Practice,1994.
American Concrete Institute Committee 318-89,Building Code Requirement for
reinforced concrete,Part 1,ACI Manual of Concrete Practice,1994.
Neville, A.M and J.J Brooks, Concrete Technology .Longman Singapore Publishers (Pte)
Ltd.

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS EXPERIMENTAL REPORT


EXAMINATION OF SUBSTANCES AND QUALITY OF CONCRETE
MODULE D.1
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN CALCULATION

GROUP 29
Fajar Surya Muhammad

1306437170

Muhammad Alif Maggalatta

1306388906

Raihan Alisha Nabila

1306437126

R.A Tamara R F Iskandar

1306388894

Zain Zahran Azzaino

1306437044

Date of Experimental

: October 27th 2013

Experimental Assistant

: Putri Marastuti

Date of Approval

Score

Assistants Signature

LABORATORY OF STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTEMENT
ENGINEERING FACULTY
UNIVERSITY OF INDONESIA
DEPOK 2013