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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna

Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Application ofEvaporative Air Coolant


InPurok 6,Brgy. BigaaCabuyao, Laguna

Group Member
Go, Mark Anthony B.
Saunar, Arvin Y.
Velasco, Jezreel A.
Hamor, Michael Angelo E.

Engr. Joel M. Aviso


Professor

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Copyright 2015 Mark Anthony Go, Arvin Saunar, Jezreel Velasco, & Michael Angelo
Hamor
All Rights Reserved

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Background of the study

The City of Cabuyao is located about 43 kilometres (27 mi) southeast of Metro
Manila, at the western portion of Laguna. It is bordered by the Laguna de Bay, the
country's largest lake, to the north (N), Calamba City to the east (E) with Barangays
Uwisan (NE), Banlic& San Cristobal (E) and Mapagong& Canlubang (SE), some portion
of Silang, Cavite (Brgy. PutingKahoy) to the south (S) and by the Santa Rosa City to the
west (W) with the Barangays Malitlit (SW), Dita (W) and Caingin (NW) respectively.
Cabuyao is approximately 54 kilometres (34 mi) away from Santa Cruz, the provincial
capital, and 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the city center of Calamba City, the chartered city
and regional center of CALABARZON region.
The rainfall regime of Cabuyao is characterized by two pronounced season, the
wet and the dry seasons. The wet season is from June to November and the relatively dry
season runs from December to May. The average annual rainfall is about 2,000mm. There
are 150 rainy days in average per year for the wet season.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

The seasonal variation of the temperature field is uneventful. The coldest months
start from November up to January and the warmest month on record is the month of May.
On the average, a 12- degree centigrade temperature difference exists between the
warmest and the coldest months. The mean annual temperature is a warm 27.5 degree
centigrade.
The Annual relative humidity is 76%. The most humid months are June, July,
August and September with the normal relative humidity registered at 84% while April
and May are driest at 70%.
During the dry seasons, most of the households in Cabuyao make use of standard
fans so as to cool the air inside the house. One of their selections is the use of air
conditioning unit however it can lead to a high power usage of electricity leading to higher
electrical bills.
Air cooling is a method of dissipating heat. It works by making the object to be
cooled have a larger surface area or have an increased flow of air over its surface, or both.
An example of the former is to add cooling fins to the surface of the object, either by
making them integral or by attaching them tightly to the object's surface (to ensure
efficient heat transfer). In the case of the latter it is done by using a fan blowing air into or
onto the object one wants to cool. The addition of fins to a heat sink increases its total
surface area, resulting in greater cooling effectiveness.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Free cooling is an economical method of using low external air temperatures to


assist in chilling water, which can then be used for industrial processes, or air conditioning
systems. The chilled water can either be used immediately or be stored for the short- or
long-term. When outdoor temperatures are lower relative to indoor temperatures, this
system utilizes the cool outdoor air as a free cooling source. In this manner, the system
replaces the chiller in traditional air conditioning systems while achieving the same
cooling result. Such systems can be made for single buildings or district cooling networks.
Evaporative cooling differs from typical air conditioning systems which use vaporcompression or absorption refrigeration cycles. Evaporative cooling works by employing
water's large enthalpy of vaporization. The temperature of dry air can be dropped
significantly through the phase transition of liquid water to water vapor (evaporation),
which can cool the air using lesser energy than refrigeration. In extremely dry climates,
evaporative cooling of air has the added benefit of conditioning the air with more moisture
for the comfort of building occupants.
The cooling potential for evaporative cooling is dependent on the wet bulb
depression, the difference between dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature. In arid
climates, evaporative cooling can reduce energy consumption and total equipment for
conditioning as an alternative to compressor-based cooling. In climates not considered
arid, indirect evaporative cooling can still take advantage of theevaporative cooling

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

process without increasing humidity. Passive evaporative cooling strategies offer the same
benefits of mechanical evaporative cooling systems without the complexity of equipment
and ductwork.

STATEMENTOF PROBLEM
In every typical household in Purok 6, Brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao, Laguna, houses have
2-3 windows, 2-3 rooms, 1 door, 4-6 light bulbs or florescent lights, 6-10 appliances and
the houses are just wall-separated.
In these house distances, the people living inside feel inconvenient due to the
blockage of fresh air coming from different direction. Installing an air-conditioning unit
was a great idea but it is too expensive for a typical family, putting a ventilator or electric
fanmay help but it is still not enough to improve convenience to the residents living in
Purok 6, brgy. Bigaa, cabuyao, Laguna.Due to this difficulty, the researcher believes that
putting an advanced cooler inside the house will improve the ventilation of air.

OBJECTIVES
As a researcher we aim to achieve the following in doing this research:

To validate the temperature inside and outside of the house in Brgy. Bigaa,
Cabuyao, Laguna.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

To design innovative equipment that can decrease the temperature of a room or


space in the house in brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao, Laguna.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the designed coolant.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


This section will provide brief description on the various significances of the study.

For the people, the proposed study will serve them a guide how to simply reduce
the high temperature to 3-5 degree Celsius inside the house especially on a hot
season.

For students, the proposed study will help them have a deeper understanding in the
air-conditioning system. Furthermore, this study will give them knowledge how to
come up with this innovative and useful project.

To future researchers, the proposed study will serve them a guide for more future
innovations and works.

SCOPE AND LIMITATION


1. The researchers have focused on lowering the temperature in a certain room or
space of a house located in Purok 6, brgy. Bigaa, Cabuya Laguna.
2. The researchers have used ice with a maximum volume of 4 liters and a
minimum of 2 liter.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Axial - Relating to or forming an axis


Boiling point Temperature at which liquid boils: the temperature at which a heated
liquid turns too gas, e.g. 100 or 212 for water at sea level.
Chilling To cool specially without freezing.
Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) - is an organic compound that contains only carbon,
chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and
propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon.
Heat - is energy in transfer other than as work or by transfer of matter. When there is a
suitable physical pathway, heat flows from a hotter body to a colder one. It results in a
net increase in entropy. The pathway can be direct, as in conduction and radiation, or
indirect, as in convective circulation.
Humidifier -Is a device that increases humidity (moisture) in a single room or an entire
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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

building. In the home, point-of-use humidifiers are commonly used to humidify a


single room, while whole-house or furnace humidifiers, which connect to a home's
HVAC system, provide humidity to the entire house.
Hygrometer - is a device used for measuring the humidity content in the atmosphere.
Thermal insulation - is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy
between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in
range of radioactive influence.
Latent heat - is the energy released or absorbed by a body or a thermodynamic system
during a constant-temperature process. A typical example is a change of state of
matter, meaning a phase transition such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water.
Metrological is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses
on weather processes and forecasting.
Mist a fine spray produced by a vaporizer to add moisture to the air for breathing.
Nozzle - is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow
(especially to increase velocity) as it exits (or enters) an enclosed chamber or pipe.
Orifice - is any opening, mouth, hole or vent, as of a pipe, plate, or a body.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Relative Humidity - (abbreviated RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor
to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at the same temperature. Relative humidity
depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest.
Enthalpy - is the preferred expression of system energy changes in many chemical,
biological, and physical measurements, because it simplifies certain descriptions of
energy transfer.

CHAPTER 2
STUDY OF RELATIVE LITERATURE

Thermal Comfort
If temperature and humidity levels in the office are too high or too low, occupants
can be dissatisfied with the environment, uncomfortable and less effective in their tasks.
Comfortable conditions in mechanically ventilated buildings depend on six variables:
air temperature, air velocity, relative humidity, radiant temperature, occupants clothing
insulation and occupants activity level. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard -55 defines a comfort zone based on

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

these variables, where the majority of occupants are likely to feel comfortable.
The higher density of occupants and equipment in most open-plan offices increases
the amount of heat released (and thereby the cooling requirements) in the space. Thus the
heating/cooling system must have the capacity to handle the occupant density, and be
operated appropriately to meet thermal requirements.
According to the comfort zone diagram, comfortable temperatures are almost
impossible to achieve when the relative humidity is high. High humidity also supports
mould and bacterial growth, so ASHRAE recommends that relative humidity be
maintained below 60%. There is no recommended lower level of humidity for achieving
thermal comfort, but as dry conditions can lead to increased static electricity and health
problems, such as skin irritation, the relative humidity should be greater than 30%.
ASHRAEs acceptable ranges of operative temperature (a combination of air and radiant
temperatures) for relative humidity levels of 30% and 60% are shown in Table 1.
Conditions

Acceptable operative temperatures

Relative humidity 30%

24.528

7682

Relative humidity 60%

2325.5

7478

Summer (clothing insulation = 0.5 clo)

Table 1

Occupants vary their clothing with the seasons, so recommendations for summer
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(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

and winter are given, to reflect the amount of clothing insulation (clo) that clothes
provide. These ranges are valid for typical office activities and for air velocities less than
0.2 m/s (40 ft./min.). For acceptable operative temperatures for different levels of air
velocity, relative humidity, clothing insulation and activity level, refer to ASHRAEs
comfort zone diagrams.1 Findings from an the International Residential Code (IRC) field
study supported what are considered by ASHRAE to be acceptable temperature ranges.
Occupants in open-plan offices typically have to share one thermostat setting,
reducing the control they can exert over the thermal environment. A flexible dress policy
gives occupants one means to fine-tune their thermal comfort, but should not be provided
as an alternative to appropriate building temperature control.
While occupants can be thermally comfortable overall, they may still experience
discomfort on a specific part of their body, most commonly from drafts. Their experience
of draft depends on air temperature, air velocity, and turbulence intensity (the amount of
fluctuation in the air flow).
ASHRAE recommends that conditions be configured so that less than 20% of
occupants are dissatisfied due to draft. In general, air temperature within the comfort zone
and air velocities below 0.2 m/s meet this recommendation, although (IRC) found that a
velocity of 0.1 m/s or less could lead to a further increase in satisfaction.
ASHRAE allows for higher air velocities in warm, humid conditions, as some research
suggests that occupants welcome the cooling effect these higher velocities provide.3 The

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

proviso is that occupants have control over the local air speed.
IRC researchers found the alignment of supply air diffusers relative to
workstations sometimes led to an increased risk of draft. This is most likely to be a
problem with smaller workstations, where there is less opportunity for occupants to move
out of the path of supply air, and where the total airflow is also likely to be higher (to cope
with the greater occupant density and higher cooling load).
As well, there is a greater likelihood of draft when the diffusers are angled to
supply large amounts of air directly toward the occupant. When the office is reconfigured,
it is important to change diffuser placement and ventilation volume to help minimize these
problems.
Occupants seated next to a window tend to be less satisfied with thermal
conditions. Although workstations located next to windows benefit from natural lighting
and a view, their occupants often experience a wider range of temperatures because of the
warm or cool radiant temperatures from the window. Blinds, perimeter heating and
cooling, and well-insulated windows can help minimize these problems.
Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to
denote a certain temperature within enclosed space to which human beings are
accustomed. Room temperature is thus often indicated by general human comfort, with
the common range of 18C (64F) to 23C (73F), though differences in climate may
acclimate people to higher or lower temperaturesfor instance, 78F could be a common

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

temperature for some people.


The term may also refer to the temperature of food to be consumed (such as red
wine), which is placed in a particular room for a given time. In addition, it may refer to a
certain temperature within settings of scientific experiments and calculations.
For human comfort, desirable room temperature greatly depends on individual
needs and various other factors. According to the West Midlands Public Health
Observatory (UK), 21 C (70 F) is the recommended living room temperature, whereas
18 C (64 F) for bedroom temperature. A study carried out at the University of Uppsala
(Sweden), on indoor air quality and subjective indoor air quality (SIAQ) in primary
schools, states that perception of high room temperature was related to a poor climate of
cooperation. To achieve a good SIAQ, it recommends room temperature should be at a
maximum of 22.0 C (71.6 F).
Typically staff and student concerns about indoor thermal comfort occur in areas
that are poorly ventilated and/or inadequately shaded from sunlight. Individual thermal
comfort can also be affected by physical exertion, crowded working areas and some
medical conditions.
The optimal conditions for indoor work environments are outlined below.

Temperature optimum summer temperature range 21-24 degrees Celsius

Temperature range 20-26 degrees Celsius (depending on the time of year)

Humidity range 40-60%

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Minimum recommended fresh air rate 10 Litres per second (L/s) per person or 10
L/s per 10 m2 for mechanical ventilation systems

Optimum air movement 0.1-0.2 m/s (air-conditioned space).


Poor indoor air quality can lead to a number of physical symptoms and complaints.

The most common include:


Headaches
Fatigue
Shortness of breath
Sinus congestion
Coughs
Sneezing
Eye, nose, and throat irritation
Skin irritation
Dizziness
Nausea
Although these physical symptoms and complaints are often attributed to indoor
air quality, it is important to note that indoor air quality is not always responsible. Noise,
overcrowding, improper lighting, poor ergonomic conditions, and job stress can also lead
to these symptoms and complaints. Frequently, a combination of factors is to blame.
Indoor air contaminants affect some people more seriously, including:

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

People with allergies or asthma


People with respiratory disease
People whose immune system is suppressed as a result of disease or treatment
People who wear contact lenses
Air Quality - 6 - Factors affecting indoor air quality A number of factors can affect
the indoor air quality of a building or facility, including:
The physical layout of the building
The buildings heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system
The outdoor climate
The people who occupy the building
Contaminants inside and outside the building
The physical layout of the building and of the buildings HVAC system determines
how air moves throughout the building and how much fresh air enters the building from
outside. For example, changing the layout of a building by erecting walls or dividers
inside can change the air circulation patterns and lead to poor air circulation or a
concentration of contaminants in certain areas. The buildings HVAC system is designed
to distribute outdoor air throughout the building, remove contaminants and odours, and
control the indoor temperature and humidity. A poorly designed or poorly maintained
system can cause indoor air quality problems. The outdoor climate can also affect indoor

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

air quality, especially in colder regions. For example, to reduce heating costs many HVAC
systems reduce the amount of fresh air brought into the building when the outside air is
cold. Also, the humidity level outside the building can make it difficult to control the
relative humidity inside the building. The people who occupy a building also affect indoor
air quality. Occupants may affect air quality by smoking, cooking, wearing cosmetics or
scents, or producing body odours.
When conditions differ from those listed above, productivity and efficiency are
likely to be adversely affected. Lowered concentration due to discomfort can lead to an
increased risk of accidents.

Hot and humid conditions can lead to dehydration.

Insufficient ventilation (supply of fresh air) can result in a build-up of carbon


dioxide levels that can result in occupants feeling tired and complaining of stuffiness.

Too much ventilation, e.g. air movement faster than 0.2 m/s, may result in some
staff complaining of the cold due to noticeable draughts.

Low humidity can cause dryness of the eyes, nose and throat.

High humidity results in rapid fatigue.


The Maintenance of the unit as follows:
After using the unit fill out the water inside the cylindrical bucket. Clean the inside
and outside of the cylindrical bucket with clean cloth. Clean the air filter with water or use
detergent (Depends on the user) then dry out the water on it. Wipe the fan blade with clean

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(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

cloth to remove the dust. Last then keep the unit in a safe place when not using.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY
This chapter contains the principles and methodologies of the research design, and
considered materials used and purposed.
There are different sources/ references were considered in developing this air
coolant which includes the data and information from the different links of the World
Wide Web, books and journals specifically on the topics about air cooling, evaporative
cooling and free cooling. Important contribution was made by a family resident in Purok 6
Brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao, Laguna as our experimental respondent.
This study uses the concept of direct evaporative air cooling. Evaporative cooling

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

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(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

is a process of heat and mass transfer based on the transformation of sensible heat into
latent heat. The non-saturated air reduces it temperature, providing the sensible heat that
transforms into latent heat to evaporate the water. If the process develops in ideal adiabatic
conditions, the dry bulb air temperature decreases as this transformation develops,
increasing the humidity. The heat exchange continues until the air reaches the saturated
state when the air and water temperature reach the same value or adiabatic saturation
temperature. As applied directly in our study, cold water mixed with ice evaporates
directly in the stream of air, producing an adiabatic process of heat exchange in which the
air dry bulb temperature decreases as its humidity increases.Thus, the amount of heat
transferred from the air to the water is the same as the one employed in the evaporation of
the water.
The Researcher measured the inside space, considered the appliances of the chosen
house and conducted a temperature reading experiment inside and outside of the house in
brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao, Laguna. The researcher measured the temperature at 12: 00 NN to
3:00 PM because it is the hottest time in our country have. These data will be serve as a
basis

to

the

design

and

the

gathered

data

are

Area:

___,

People:___,

Height:___Lights:___,Quantities:___, Window:___, Appliances:___


Table2. Location assessment
Temperature

Time
Outside
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Inside

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12: 00 NN
1:30 PM
3:00 PM
The system was composed of different materials, the researcher choose the
materials that has a low thermal conductivity for less heat transfer inside the system.
Thecircular bucketmade out ofpolypropylenethat will served as a body of the
system,Styrofoam will be glued circularly inside the bucket and will be worked as the
insulator to resist the flow of heat.The bucket and Styrofoam is will be pierced three times
using a hole saw which is a saw blade of ring shaped, with a separation distance of 50.8
mm each and having a hole diameter of 50 mm.then three pieces of hallow pipe having a
50mm outside diameter and 76.2 length is will be fixed on the hole by silicon sealant.The
cover of the system is also made up of polypropylene and will be cut based on the frame
diameter of fan.
The fan is 35 watts, 220 volts, 60 Hz and having frame diameter of 200 mm. the
air produced by the fan is coming from the surroundings. This is placed at the top of the
bucket and pushes the air downward throughout the filter.The filter is placed before the
fan to remove any impurities that will make contact to the ice inside.
As the results of that interconnection of the unit when fan blew the air, the ice
worked as a cooling instrument that gives an air development inside the room. When the
warm air made contact through the ice it will start to evaporate as cooled steam and it will
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(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

go around the roomto enhance the temperature.

This part contains the computation of materials specification based on the design.
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
Power Input: 220V- 60 Hz 35watts
Diameter of Blade: 106mm
RPM: 3600
For finding the total head (ht)
P = Q x aht

(source: Primess Industrial Power Plant Engineering, pp. IV-2)


P Power, Kw

a density of air, 0.01251 kN/m3

Q fan capacity, m3

ht total head, m

Q = Velocity x Area
V = DN = x 0.106 m x

3600 rpm
=19.99 m/s
60 sec .

A=

D2 ( 0.106 m)
=
=8.8247 x 103 m2
4
4

Q = 19.99

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m
m3
x 8.8243 x 103 m2=0.1763
s
s

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m3
kN
0.035 kW =0.0882
x 0.01251 3 x ht
s
m
t= 15.87 m
h

Styrofoam
Height: 356mm
Thickness: 12.7mm
Thermal Conductivity: 0.033 W/(mK) (foam, 0.05 g/cm3)

Bucket(Polypropylene)
Diameter (Inside and outside): 285mm, 305mm
Inside: 285mm
Outside: 305mm
Height: 395mm
Thermal Conductivity: 0.17 0.22 W/m K

Pipe
Diameter: 50.8mm
Length: 89mm

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Filter
Diameter: 270 mm

HEAT TRANSFER INSIDE THE SYSTEM


Q=

A ( T )
xb xs
+
kb k s
(Source: Primess Industrial Power Plant Engineering, pp. I-2)

Where:
Q heat transmitted, W
A heat transfer area, m2
T change in temperature inside to outside, K
x b thickness of bucket, 0.010 m
x s Thickness of Styrofoam, 0.0127 m
k s Thermal conductivity of Styrofoam, 0.17
k b Thermal conductivity of bucket, 0.033

W
m K
W
m K

A=H x L
(Source: Plane and Solid Mensuration by Earnhart and Bejasa, 2007, pp. 94)
Where:
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H Height of bucket/Styrofoam,0.356 m
L Length of bucket/Styrofoam ( L = C)
C=2 r
(Source: Plane and Solid Mensuration by Earnhart and Bejasa, 2007, pp. 94)
C Circumference of the bucket/Styrofoam
r Radius of bucket/Styrofoam, 0.1525m

C=2 ( 0.1525 m )
C=0.95818 m
A=L x C
A=0.95818 m x 0356 m

A=0.341114 m2

Q
0.341114 m
=
(T)
0.0127 m
0.010 m
+
W
W
0.033
0.17
m K
mK

Q
W
=10. 4628
K
(T)
The different parameters on how we come up with the materials that used in the
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study.
Centrifugal Fan
Power

Volts

Ampere

Size

RPM

35 Watts

220

0.16

20 cm

3600

Total
Head
15.87m

Styrofoam
Height
35.6 cm

Thickness
1.27 cm

Thermal Conductivity
0.033 W/(mK) (foam, 0.05 g/cm3)

Bucket (Polypropylene)
Diameter
Inside
Outside
28.5 cm 30.5 cm

Height

Thermal Conductivity

39.5 cm

0.17 0.22 W/m K

Total Heat Transfer in the system


Heat Transmitted
10.4628 W/K
Pipes
Diamete
r
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Length

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5.08 cm

8.9 cm

Filter
Filter it removes particles from the air stream to both keep the air coolers clean and
to remove particles from the air.
Figure 1

Centrifugal Fan
The use of this is to push the cold air inside from the inside to the outside of the
bucket.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

(Figure 2)

Bucket Cover
The use of this are cover and handle of rotating fan.
Figure 3

Styrofoam
The use of this is thermal insulation for the bucket.
Figure 4

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Hollow Pipes
The use of this is to convey the cold air from the inside of the cylindrical bucket to
the outside of the cylindrical bucket.
(Figure 5)

Cylindrical bucket
The use of this is a case for the Styrofoam.
(Figure 6)

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College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

System specification
(Figure 7

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

1. Centrifugal Fan
2. Cylindrical Bucket Cover
3. Styrofoam
4. Hollow Pipes
5. Cylindrical Bucket

ACTUAL PROCEDURE:
PROCEDURE
(Figure 8)
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Figure 9

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Apply the shell wood glue on


the Styrofoam

Then Place the styrofoam inside the


bucket

(Figure 10)

After putting the styrofoam inside the


bucket, make sure it is firmly fitted on it
sides, then use the 50.8 mm hole saw to
make a hole for the pipes

(Figure 12)

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(Figure 11)

Then Cut the pipes in to


3 pcs with a length of 89 mm then place it
on the signify holes.

(Figure 13)

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Apply silicon sealant

Cut the cover circularly to


make a hole, where the fan will
be place

toprevent leakage inside the bucket


After applying dry it first then
prepare the cover
(Figure 15)
(Figure 14)

RESULT
Then after applying all the
needed materials of the
unit. Paint it for better
appearance

(figure 16)

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Air Cooling System

(Figure 17)

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Fix the fan with the cover of the bucket


Use Tie wire to connect it with each other.
Then last place it on the top of the bucket to
complete the unit
Operational Procedures
Steps on how to operate the air cooler
1. Prepare the air cooler and the pack of ice
2. Place the air cooler 1 meter above the ground
3. Get the outdoor air temperature
4. Get the initial dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature of the room
5. Measure the initial volume of ice pack
6. Put the ice inside the air cooler unit
7. Turn on the fan, set it to the highest stage
8. Measure the air temperature coming out from the air cooler
9. Record the running time of the air cooler
10. Measure the final dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature of the room.

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

11. Check the properties of the ice pack


12. Compute the effectiveness of the air cooler inside the room

Experimentation and handling of data


In order to prove/test the cooling effect of the system, series of experiments was
performed.

The Researcher measured the inside space, considered the appliances of the chosen
house and conducted a temperature reading experiment in brgy. Bigaa, Cabuyao, Laguna.
That has been measured in different time. The researcher tabulated the data such as area,
height, people, lights, quantities of window, doors and appliances

(Table3) Location assessment


Temperature

Time
Outside
1pm
2pm
3pm

Cooling unit
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Inside

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

This experiment was performed by running the unit with specific volume of ice
and measured the temperature of the discharge air in different running time. The
researcher assumed the following volume: 2, 3, 4 litters of ice in each trial. Three trials
were conducted.
Pure ice, slightly melted, nearly melted, almost water. Pure ice, the water is at its
solid form, zero percent water. Slightly melted, the content of water is thirty percent.
Nearly melted, the content of water is sixty percent. Almost water, the content of water is
eighty percent. Water form meaning the there no more ice content.

(Table 4)condition of the ice and the air temperature coming out
Running Time: 15 minutes
Temperature of air coming

Volume of
Trial

Property of Ice
from the unit(C)

the Ice
(Litter/s)

Before

After

Before

1
2
3
(Table 5)condition of the ice and the air temperature coming out
Running Time: 30 minutes
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After

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Temperature of air coming

Volume of
Trial

Property of Ice
from the unit(C)

the Ice
Before

(Litter/s)

After

Before

After

1
2
3
(Table 6)condition of the ice and the air temperature coming out
Running Time: 1 Hour
Volume of
Trial

Temperature of air coming


Property of Ice
from the unit(C)

the Ice
(Litter/s)

Before

After

Before

After

1
2
3
After getting all the experimented data, the researcher chooses the most effective
volume of ice in each different running time.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Determination of the effect of using an ice cooled air cooler.

This experiment was performed by comparing the air cooler versus electric fan and
selecting time at which the temperature is considered hot. The experiment will be
performed at 12:00 NN to 3:00 PM, the researcher will acquired the dry bulb temperature
and wet bulb temperature of the room by using digital thermometer.

The researcherwill choosethe volume of iced based on the result in previous


experiment and used it with a running time of 1 hour and 30 minutes break to restart the
temperature inside the room.
(Table 7)The effect inside the room

Trial
1
2
3

Starting Time
12:00 NN
1:30 PM
3:00PM
CHAPTER 4
DATA AND RESULT

Location assessment
Area: 277cm x 242 cm = 67034 cm2
People: 3
Height: 238cm
Lights: LED lights
Quantities: 1
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Condition of Room
Using electric fan
Using air cooler
Tdb
Twb
Tdb
Twb

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(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Window: 1
Appliances: Television
Cell phone/Charger
Laptop
Standard Temperature of the area
(TABLE 8)
Temperature

Time
Outside

Inside

1pm

30

34

2pm

31

35

3pm

32

34

The Cooling UnitTrials


(TABLE 9)Running Time: 15 minutes
Volume of
Trial

Property of Ice

the Ice

Temperature of air coming


from the unit(C)

(Litter/s)

Before

After

Before

After

Pure Ice

Slightly Melted

25

27

Pure Ice

Slightly Melted

21

23

Pure Ice

Slightly Melted

19

20

(TABLE 10)Running Time: 30 minutes


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College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Trial

Volume of the
Ice (Litter/s)

Property of Ice

Temperature of air coming


from the unit(C)

Before

After

Before

After

Pure Ice

Nearly Melted

25

27

Pure Ice

Nearly Melted

21

27

Pure Ice

Slightly Melted

19

24

(TABLE 11)Running Time: 1 Hour


Temperature of air coming
Volume of the

Property of Ice
from the unit(C)

Trial
Ice (Litter/s)

Before

After

Before

After

Pure Ice

Water

25

30

Pure Ice

Almost Water

21

28

Pure Ice

Nearly Melted

19

27

Ice properties

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

(Figure 18)
In figure 18 it shows that after 1 hour the property of ice turns pure Ice to water

(Figure 19)

In figure 19 it shows that after 1 hour the property of ice turns pure Ice to slightly
water.
(Figure 20)
In figure 20 in the final test it shows that after 1 hour the property of ice turns pure

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Ice
to

slightly water.

Determination of the effect inside room.


Eff. = (Tdb-Te) / (Tdb-Tw) * 100%
Eff. = Efficiency of air cooler as a Percentage
Tdb= Temperature air entering air cooler
Te = Temperature of room after 1 hour
Twb = Wet bulb temperature (entering the air cooler)
Initial temperature
Starting
Trial
Time

1
2
3

12:00 PM
1:30 PM
3:00PM

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Condition of Room

of the room

Using electric
Tdb
34
35
34

Using evaporative air cooler

Twb
26.1
27.4
26.3

fan
Tdb
32
33
32

Twb
25.9
26.5
26.5

Tdb
31
32
31

Twb
27.4
28.1
27.3

University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

(Table 12)

Using Electric fan


At 1:00 PM
Eff. = [(34 32)/(32 25.9)]*100
Eff = 28.17%
At 2:30 PM
Eff. = [(35 32)/(35 26.1)]*100
Eff. = 28.99%
At 4:00 PM
Eff. = [(34 32)/(34 26.3)]*100
Eff = 26.66%
Average eff. = [(28.17 + 28.99 + 26.66)/3]*100
Average eff. = 27.94%

Using Evaporative air cooler

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College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

At 1:00 PM
Eff. = [(34 31)/(34 26.1)]*100
Eff = 37.97%
At 2:00 PM
Eff. = [(35 32)/(35 27.4)]*100
Eff. = 39.47%
At 3:00 PM
Eff. = [(34 31)/(34 26.3)]*100
Eff = 34.48%
Average eff. = [(37.97 + 39.47 + 34.48)/3]*100
Average eff. = 37.31%
Room improvement = Average eff. Of evaporative air cooler Average eff. Of electric fan
= 37.31 27.94
= 9.37 % improvement vs. ordinary electric fan
Data Analysis
(Figure 21)
This is the gathered data for the overall trials that has been conducted in different
time frame.

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College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
This Study was to develop an evaporative air cooler system and its adverse
effectiveness on the extent of our research. The following are the findings after conducting
the experiments:
1. After 15 minutes, the temperature difference for 2L of ice was 2C while for 3L
and 4L, the difference was 3C.
2. At 30 minutes running time, there was an ambient temperature rise for 2L from
31C to 32C making the temperature difference of 1C from the initial
temperature. The same observation was seen for 3L of ice however its temperature
difference was 2C from initial temperature. The same result was observed for 4L
of ice from the 15mins running time.
3. After 1 hour, as based from 30mins running time, the same results were observed
for 2L, 3L, and 4L having a temperature drops of 1C, 2C, and 3C respectively.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

4. Based from the three different time frames, the 4L of ice showed a consistency in
the temperature difference from its initial temperature. The ambient temperature
after the operation of the air cooler settled at 31C having a temperature drop of
3C.
5. Taking into account on the volume of the ice, 30% has melted for 4L, 60% for 3L
and 80% for 2L. The results also show a reasonable outcome hence the surface
area of the ice is also an account for the heat exchange.
6. The improvement of room while using Evaporative air Cooler increased to 9.37 %.
BILS OF MATERIALS FOR THE PROTOTYPE
(figure 22)
Name Of Materials

Price (Php)

Nylon wire

25

Hole Saw Set

400

Glue

55

Styrofoam

63.75

Red paint metallic 2pcs

178

Gold paint metallic 2pcs

178

Sealant White

130

Devcon epoxy

150

Water Base paint

40

Pipe

70

Rotation fan

400

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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Bucket sets

150

Amazing roller stand

150

Filter free/donation

Total Expenses

1989.75

CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion
The following conclusions are being deduced from the findings of the experiment:
1. The evaporative water cooler is an effective cooling device as it shows a 3-degree
Centigrade difference in the room temperature from its initial temperature reading.
2. The larger the volume of the ice used, the longer is the running time for the cooling
device to operate.
3. The speed of the fan and the initial ambient temperature (temperature before the
application of air cooler) also affects the time limit or the melting time of the ice inside the
air cooler.
4. The tolerable or enough room size would correspond to a best result of the evaporative
water cooler.

Recommendation
Based on the results and inferences of the study, the following are recommendations for
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Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

the improvement of the study:


1. With a blower in the cooling system, one disadvantage is that it is expected that the
ice would melt quicker but not enough to improve the temperature of the
room.However for future studies, we suggest adding a suction or exhaust
systemwill enhance the flow of air through the area.
2. On the other side, if the availability of ice is sufficient, we suggest to add salt on
ice for faster room cooling. Adding salt to water lowers the freezing point, thus
preventing the formation of ice. In the effect when salt is added to water, the salt
and water molecules stick together removing the additional heat that is required to
freeze the salt-water combination making the ice melts faster.
3. For future innovations, the researchers would also like to recommend the use of a
desiccant for the air blown by the air cooling system. A desiccant would sustain the
dryness of the air in the vicinity of the cooler.
4. We would also like to suggest the usage of the air-cooling system on the exact
room area or size for the cooling system for it to be well functional in respond to
the needs of the people. A smaller area is highly suggested.
5. We further recommend trying the air-cooling system to other space area having a
different construction, like wood, so as to experiment on the efficiency of our
innovation.

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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

Reference

Francisco ,Jose R (2006). Air-conditioning and Analysis and Design hand book,
Quezon City:C&E Pub., 2006.
Mandawe, J.A and Capote, R.s (2007). Industrial Plant Engineering hand book [s.l.]:
Benchmark Publishers, c2005. ISBN9718060227
Sta. Maria, Hipolito B.(1993) Air-conditioning 2nd edition handbook. Publisher:
Manila: National Bookstore, 1989
Sta.Maria ,Hipolito B. (1990). Thermodynamics 1 published by Ser Nas FErnandez
on Oct 04, 2013
Sta. Maria, Hipolito B., Melegnito, Raymund M., Pasamontes, Nelson M., Sapano,
Renato M. (1991). Thermodynamics 2, Published by Unified Mechanical
Engineering and Technology Society on Apr 04, 2010
Wang, S. K., Lavan, Z., & Kreith, F. (1999). Air-conditioning and refrigeration,
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University of Perpetual Help System Laguna


Sto. Nio, Bian City, Laguna

College of Engineering & Tech-Voc


(02) 520-8290 local 3006 / CELL# 09228900917`

mechanical engineering handbook. CRC Press LL. Frank Kreith Boca Raton.
Zubair, S. M., Yaqub, M., & Khan, S. H. (1996). Second-law-based thermodynamic
analysis of two-stage and mechanical-subcooling refrigeration
cycles. International journal of refrigeration, 19(8), 506-516.
Blumberg, Mark S. 2004. Body Heat: Temperature and Life on Earth. New Ed Edition.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674013697
Fendrich, J. (2009). Chemistry in Action-Triple Delight. Science Scope, 33(2), 46.
Charles, K. E., Reardon, J. T., & Magee, R. J. (2005). Indoor air quality and thermal
comfort in open-plan offices. Institute for Research in Construction, National
Research Council of Canada.
Raj, V. A. A., & Velraj, R. (2010). Review on free cooling of buildings using phase
change materials. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(9), 2819-2829.
Voss, Matt , Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., (2006), The salt does in fact melt the ice, Science
K-12 Educators, sponsored and operated by Argonne National Laboratory's
Educational Programs, Andrew Skipor, Ph.D., Head of Educational Programs.
Zalba, B., Marn, J. M., Cabeza, L. F., & Mehling, H. (2004). Free-cooling of
buildings with phase change materials. International Journal of Refrigeration,
27(8), 839-849

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