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Energy Management Opportunities Reduce Energy Intensity and Carbon Emissions by Changing the Way You Use Energy

Energy Management Opportunities

Reduce Energy Intensity and Carbon Emissions by Changing the Way You Use Energy

This document was specifically prepared to aid Tech Resources’ clients that wish to inform their customers about available

energy management solution options that these customers may wish to consider. Any other use of this material (in whole or in

part) is not allowed without the expressed written consent of Tech Resources, Inc., 2025 Riverside Drive, Columbus, OH 43221.

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

Energy Management Opportunities Reduce Energy Intensity and Carbon Emissions by Changing the Way You Use Energy

Energy Management

Energy Management Mike Carter Mark Farrell © 2009 Tech Resources, Inc. 2

Mike Carter

Energy Management Mike Carter Mark Farrell © 2009 Tech Resources, Inc. 2

Mark Farrell

Energy Management Mike Carter Mark Farrell © 2009 Tech Resources, Inc. 2

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

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Energy Management Mike Carter Mark Farrell © 2009 Tech Resources, Inc. 2

Energy Management Benefits

Energy Management Benefits Bottom line cost savings today! • Energy • Maintenance Reduced noise levels Better

Bottom line cost savings today!

Energy Maintenance

Reduced noise levels Better indoor air quality Reduced air emissions

Energy Management Benefits Bottom line cost savings today! • Energy • Maintenance Reduced noise levels Better

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Energy Management Benefits Bottom line cost savings today! • Energy • Maintenance Reduced noise levels Better

Energy Management Opportunities

Energy Management Opportunities Basics Energy Management Insulation HVAC Lighting Heating Systems Motors Transformers Compressed Air ©

Basics Energy Management Insulation HVAC Lighting Heating Systems Motors Transformers Compressed Air

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Energy Management Opportunities Basics Energy Management Insulation HVAC Lighting Heating Systems Motors Transformers Compressed Air ©

Energy Efficiency Basics

Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy • Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power , like

Power versus Energy

Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power, like the speedometer of your car that records the rate at which miles are traveled.

Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy • Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power , like

A bigger engine is required to travel at a faster rate. Peak power demand is usually measured as an average over a 15-minute period.

Spikes and surges from motor startup and other short-term anomalies have little influence on peak demand.

Kilowatt-hour (kWh) is a measure of energy/load consumptionsimilar to the odometer on your car which measures miles traveled.

Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy • Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power , like

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Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy • Kilowatt (kW) is a measure of power , like

Energy Efficiency Basics

Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy (cont’d) • Energy Cost = Energy Consumption x Unit Cost

Power versus Energy (cont’d)

Energy Cost = Energy Consumption x Unit Cost = kWh x $/kWh

A 113-Watt four-lamp light fixture costs about $66 annually when operating 16 hr/day (113 Wx 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh ÷ 1,000 W/kW)

Motor power (kW) = Horsepower x 0.746/efficiency

A 10 HP motor = 10 HP x 0.746/0.90 = 8.3 kW

A 10 HP motor costs about $4,850 annually (8.3 kW x 5,840 hr x $0.10/kWh) when operating 16 hr/day

Pay the price for improved energy efficiency!

The operating cost over the lifetime of a motor or light fixture can far exceed the original purchase price.

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Energy Efficiency Basics Power versus Energy (cont’d) • Energy Cost = Energy Consumption x Unit Cost

Energy Basics

Energy Basics Load Factor • Ratio of average load over peak load • LF = kW

Load Factor

Ratio of average load over peak load LF = kW Avg /kW P = kWh/hrs kW P

Assume 30-day billing (30 x 24 hrs = 720 hrs)

10,000 kWh load

21 kW peak

LF = 10,000/720 21 kW

LF = 66%

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

Energy Basics Load Factor • Ratio of average load over peak load • LF = kW

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Energy Basics Load Factor • Ratio of average load over peak load • LF = kW

Energy Basics

Energy Basics Peak Demand Curtailment • Separate loads into three categories: Life, health, and safety-driven Mission

Peak Demand Curtailment

Separate loads into three categories:

Life, health, and safety-driven Mission critical Non-critical

Start by considering curtailment of non-critical loads

Non-safety lighting HVAC

Consider installing sub-metering to identify high intensity loads

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Energy Basics Peak Demand Curtailment • Separate loads into three categories: Life, health, and safety-driven Mission

Energy Basics

Energy Basics Power Factor • Real/active power (kW) does real work • Reactive power (kVAR) bound

Power Factor

Real/active power (kW) does real work Reactive power (kVAR) bound up in magnetic fields

Apparent power (kVA) must be supplied by utility to accommodate reactive component

PF = kW/kVA kVA 2 = kW 2 + kVAR 2

(kVA)² = (kW)² + (kVAR)²

= (75)² + (75)²

= 11,250

Apparent Power = 11,250 = 106 kVA Then: Power Factor = kW/kVA = 75/106 = 70.8%

Energy Basics Power Factor • Real/active power (kW) does real work • Reactive power (kVAR) bound

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Energy Basics Power Factor • Real/active power (kW) does real work • Reactive power (kVAR) bound

Energy Basics

Energy Basics Power Factor • Add capacitance to correct power factor • Does not change demand

Power Factor

Add capacitance to correct power factor

Does not change demand (kW) or save much energy (kWh)

Energy Basics Power Factor • Add capacitance to correct power factor • Does not change demand

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Energy Basics Power Factor • Add capacitance to correct power factor • Does not change demand

Energy Basics

Energy Basics Carbon Footprint • Metric tons (2,205 lbs or 19,550 ft ) of CO2 Natural

Carbon Footprint

Metric tons (2,205 lbs or 19,550 ft 3 ) of CO2

Natural Gas - 12 lbs CO2/ccf Electricity - 0.95 lbs CO2/kWh Carbon = CO2 3.67 (100 tons CO2 = 27 tons C)

Pine trees can absorb roughly 1 metric ton of carbon per acre per year

Direct emissions from company-owned stacks Indirect emissions from travel

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Energy Basics Carbon Footprint • Metric tons (2,205 lbs or 19,550 ft ) of CO2 Natural

Corporate Energy Management

Corporate Energy Management Key Components of Energy Management • Commitment by upper level management • Clearly

Key Components of Energy Management

Commitment by upper level management

Clearly stated goals on energy efficiency, waste reduction, and sustainability

Delegation of responsibility and accountability to the appropriate personnel

Sustained tracking and assessment of energy use and technology application

Continuous investigation of potential energy reduction projects

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Corporate Energy Management Key Components of Energy Management • Commitment by upper level management • Clearly

Corporate Energy Management

Corporate Energy Management Energy Information Systems • Measure and Evaluate Knowledge is power – “If you

Energy Information Systems

Measure and Evaluate

Knowledge is power

“If you can't measure it, you can't manage it!"

Access to real-time energy consumption/demand and cost data across multiple plants and facilities

Plan

Benchmark

Against yourself Against similar facilities

Prioritize solutions

Implement

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Corporate Energy Management Energy Information Systems • Measure and Evaluate Knowledge is power – “If you

Insulation

Insulation Insulation has diminishing returns • R-value is resistance to heat flow (additive) R-7 + R-21

Insulation has diminishing returns

R-value is resistance to heat flow (additive)

R-7 + R-21 = R-28 (4 times R-7, and 75% better than R-7) R-7 + R-49 = R-56 (8 times R-7, but only 12% better than R-28!)

U-value is conductance of heat; inverse of R-value

U(R-7) = 1/7 = 0.143 U(R-21) = 1/21 = 0.048

U(R-56) = 1/56 = 0.018 (87% less than R-7) U(R-28) = 1/28 = 0.036 (75% less than R-7)

Insulating Value

0.300 R-3.5 0.250 0.200 R-7 0.150 0.100 R-14 R-28 0.050 R-56 0.000 0 5 10 15
0.300
R-3.5
0.250
0.200
R-7
0.150
0.100
R-14
R-28
0.050
R-56
0.000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
U-Value (Btu/ft.2 °F hr)

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

R-Value

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Insulation Insulation has diminishing returns • R-value is resistance to heat flow (additive) R-7 + R-21

Insulation

Insulation Insulate steam pipes with at least ½" insulation • For a 350°F process steam pipe,

Insulate steam pipes with at least ½" insulation

For a 350°F process steam pipe, savings are $5,000 for 2" dia. and $10,000 for 4" dia. pipe

Diminishing returns for insulation thickness > ½"

 

Type

R-value per inch

Fiberglass 2.2-3.1

Fiberglass

2.2-3.1

Vermiculite/perlite

2.4-2.8

Polystyrene

4.0-5.0

Polyurethane

6.0

Polyisocyanurate

6.0-7.1

 

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Insulation Insulate steam pipes with at least ½" insulation • For a 350°F process steam pipe,

HVAC

HVAC Implementation Load (kWh) Peak (kW) Temperature Setback Economizers Heat/Energy Recovery Ventilators/Wheels Chiller Water Temperature New

Implementation

Load (kWh)

Peak (kW)

Temperature Setback

 

Economizers

Heat/Energy Recovery Ventilators/Wheels

 

Chiller Water Temperature

New HVAC Equipment

Geothermal Heat Pump

 

Air Doors/Curtains

 

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HVAC Implementation Load (kWh) Peak (kW) Temperature Setback Economizers Heat/Energy Recovery Ventilators/Wheels Chiller Water Temperature New

HVAC

HVAC Temperature Setback/Setforward • Save 3% per °F per 24 hrs • 72°F 68°F ( 4°F)
HVAC Temperature Setback/Setforward • Save 3% per °F per 24 hrs • 72°F 68°F ( 4°F)

Temperature Setback/Setforward

Save 3% per °F per 24 hrs

72°F 68°F ( 4°F) for 12 hrs saves 6%

Economizers Bring in Cool Outside Air

Typical 2 to 5 year payback for economizers

Most appropriate for large systems (>5 tons in West and >11 tons in Midwest)

Not very effective in high humidity climates

HVAC Temperature Setback/Setforward • Save 3% per °F per 24 hrs • 72°F 68°F ( 4°F)

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HVAC Temperature Setback/Setforward • Save 3% per °F per 24 hrs • 72°F 68°F ( 4°F)

HVAC

HVAC Heat Recovery Ventilators • Can recover about 60% to 70% of heat in exiting air

Heat Recovery Ventilators

Can recover about 60% to 70% of heat in exiting air A solution to ASHRAE 62 IAQ requirements

HVAC Heat Recovery Ventilators • Can recover about 60% to 70% of heat in exiting air

Photo source: George Retseck Illustrations

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HVAC Heat Recovery Ventilators • Can recover about 60% to 70% of heat in exiting air

HVAC

HVAC Energy/Enthalpy/Desiccant Wheels • Can recover about 70% to 80% of the energy in the exiting

Energy/Enthalpy/Desiccant Wheels

Can recover about 70% to 80% of the energy in the exiting air and deliver that energy to the incoming air.

Desiccant wheels are most cost effective in climates with extreme winters or summers, and where fuel costs are high.

In mild climates, the cost of the additional electricity consumed by the system fans and drum motor may exceed the energy savings from not having to condition the supply air.

HVAC Energy/Enthalpy/Desiccant Wheels • Can recover about 70% to 80% of the energy in the exiting

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HVAC Energy/Enthalpy/Desiccant Wheels • Can recover about 70% to 80% of the energy in the exiting

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

HVAC

HVAC Narrow Your Chiller Water Temperature Set Points • Typical conditions are chilled water temperature of

Narrow Your Chiller Water Temperature Set Points

Typical conditions are chilled water temperature of 42°F and condensing water temperature of 80°F to 85°F.

2% savings per °F that chilled water temperature is raised

5°F to 10°F increase is possible; more may cause damage and reduce cooling capacity (ton rating)

Efficiency benefits from lowering condensing water temperature are offset by increased fan and pump operation, along with reduced cooling capacity.

Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) and oversizing the cooling tower can help The larger the system, the greater the net energy savings

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HVAC Narrow Your Chiller Water Temperature Set Points • Typical conditions are chilled water temperature of

HVAC

HVAC Upgrade Older HVAC (10 to 15 years) • Chillers: 0.8 kW/ton 0.5 kW/ton (37% less!)

Upgrade Older HVAC (10 to 15 years)

Chillers: 0.8 kW/ton 0.5 kW/ton (37% less!) Unitary rooftop: 1.5 kW/ton 1.2 kW/ton (20% less!)

Geothermal or Water-Source Heat Pump

Roughly 30% savings compared to AC/Boiler or AC/Furnace combination

Geothermal requires higher capital investment and requires significant amounts of real estate

New construction accommodates verticals and pond loop

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HVAC Upgrade Older HVAC (10 to 15 years) • Chillers: 0.8 kW/ton 0.5 kW/ton (37% less!)
HVAC Upgrade Older HVAC (10 to 15 years) • Chillers: 0.8 kW/ton 0.5 kW/ton (37% less!)

HVAC

HVAC Use Air Doors/Curtains • A door 14 feet wide and 11feet high, indoor temperature of

Use Air Doors/Curtains

HVAC Use Air Doors/Curtains • A door 14 feet wide and 11feet high, indoor temperature of

A door 14 feet wide and 11feet high, indoor temperature of 70°F, outdoor temperature of 20°F, zero wind velocity, loses 600,000 Btu/h at a cost of roughly $7 per hour Any wind at all triples the loss! Air door recovers 75% of heat loss 1 to 2 year payback possible ($3,500 cap. + $100 op.) Exhaust fans (negative pressure) and wind tunnel effect are problems

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HVAC Use Air Doors/Curtains • A door 14 feet wide and 11feet high, indoor temperature of

Lighting

Lighting Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Replace T12 with T8 or T5 Replace Metal Halide with

Implementation

Load

Peak

(kWh)

(kW)

Replace T12 with T8 or T5

Replace Metal Halide with T8 or T5HO

Replace Incandescent with CFL

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Lighting Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Replace T12 with T8 or T5 Replace Metal Halide with

Lighting

Lighting Replace existing T12 fluorescent lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps (up to 30% savings). Four-lamp T12

Replace existing T12 fluorescent lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps (up to 30% savings).

Four-lamp T12 versus T8 Fixtures

 
Four-lamp T12 versus T8 Fixtures

Lamp Type

Fixture

Fixture

LPW

Watts

Lumens

F32T12

 
  • 148 9,120

62

F32T8

 
  • 113 10,600

94

No magnetic ballasts for new installations sold or manufactured after March 2005.

More stringent magnetic ballast performance requirements after July

2009.

No magnetic ballasts manufactured for replacement after June 2010.

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Lighting Replace existing T12 fluorescent lamps with T8 fluorescent lamps (up to 30% savings). Four-lamp T12

Lighting

Lighting Super T8 lamps , with high-efficiency ballasts, are high lumen (>3,000 versus 2,850 std.) and

Super T8 lamps, with high-efficiency ballasts, are high lumen (>3,000 versus 2,850 std.) and extended life (>24,000 versus 20,000 hrs std.) products.

Only saves energy when combined with a lower ballast factor ballast.

 

Type

Initial

Initial

Ballast

Fixture

Fixture

 

Lumens

Watts

Factor

Lumens

Watts

T8

2,950

 
  • 33 2,496

0.85

 

28

Super T8

3,200

 
  • 34 2,496

0.78

 

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Group relamping recommended at 60% to 80% of rated life.

 

Every 2 to 3 years for 20,000 hour fluorescents

 

Can be 30% to 40% cheaper to group relamp due to labor savings

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Lighting Super T8 lamps , with high-efficiency ballasts, are high lumen (>3,000 versus 2,850 std.) and

Lighting

Lighting Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for Highbay • Probe start (PS) MH with low lumen

Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for Highbay

 
 

Probe start (PS) MH with low lumen maintenance (<65%) is best target for replacement

 

The lumen maintenance of metal halides can decrease to 45% during its lifetime, whereas fluorescents maintain 90% to 95% in optimal conditions.

 

Compare 320 W PS MH with 20,000 EOL lumens and six F32T8 with 18,000 EOL lumens at 220 system watts

Lumen output of fluorescents declines with heat/cold

• Lumen output of fluorescents declines with heat/cold

Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL)

 

You get the same or more light output (lumens) with a 75% energy reduction and over six times the rated life!

Energy savings far outweigh difference in lamp price

Use reflector flood CFLs in recessed can lights

Issue of mercury content can be addressed

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

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Lighting Metal Halide (MH) versus Fluorescent for Highbay • Probe start (PS) MH with low lumen

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Implementation Load (Btu) Load (kWh) Peak (kW) Gas Burner Air:Fuel Ratio Modern Gas Burners/Controls

Implementation

Load (Btu)

Load (kWh)

Peak (kW)

Gas Burner Air:Fuel Ratio

   

Modern Gas Burners/Controls

   

Steam Traps

   

Stack Heat Recovery

   

Infrared Booster Heaters

   

Waste Heat Absorption Chillers

 

Industrial Heat Pumps for Drying/Heating

 

 

Radio Frequency/Microwave Drying/Heating

 

 

Induction Process Heating

   

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Heating Systems Implementation Load (Btu) Load (kWh) Peak (kW) Gas Burner Air:Fuel Ratio Modern Gas Burners/Controls

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Measuring Boiler Efficiency • Fuel-to-steam efficiency is the best efficiency metric Boiler output (Btu)/boiler

Measuring Boiler Efficiency

Fuel-to-steam efficiency is the best efficiency metric

Boiler output (Btu)/boiler input (Btu)

Accounts for both combustion and thermal efficiency, radiation, and convection losses

Efficiency mainly influenced by boiler design

Number of passes more important than add-on (turbulator) Burner/boiler compatibility (accounts for geometry, heat transfer, and so on) Burner controls (independent control of fuel and air is best) Heating surface (square feet/boiler HP; 5 ft 2 /HP is desired)

Other factors

Flue gas temperature directly correlates with efficiency Fuel hydrogen/carbon ratio (fuel oil > natural gas) Excess air (10% to 12%) Ambient temperature (every 40°F ~ 1% efficiency change)

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Heating Systems Measuring Boiler Efficiency • Fuel-to-steam efficiency is the best efficiency metric Boiler output (Btu)/boiler

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Proper Boiler Air:Fuel Ratio Combustion Efficiency of Natural Gas Excess % Temp. F (Flue-Comb.)

Proper Boiler Air:Fuel Ratio

Combustion Efficiency of Natural Gas

Excess %

Temp. ° F (Flue-Comb.)

Air

Oxy

200

° F

600 ° F

9.5

 
  • 2.0 85.4%

76.0%

   
  • 28.1 84.7%

    • 4.0 74.0%

 
   
  • 81.6 82.8%

    • 6.0 68.2%

 

Efficiency improvements

82.8% 85.4% = 2.6% 68.2% 76.0% = 7.8%

Heating Systems Proper Boiler Air:Fuel Ratio Combustion Efficiency of Natural Gas Excess % Temp. F (Flue-Comb.)
Heating Systems Proper Boiler Air:Fuel Ratio Combustion Efficiency of Natural Gas Excess % Temp. F (Flue-Comb.)

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Heating Systems Proper Boiler Air:Fuel Ratio Combustion Efficiency of Natural Gas Excess % Temp. F (Flue-Comb.)

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Upgrade to Modern Burners • Motor-controlled flue gas recirculation dampers • Swirl vanes •

Upgrade to Modern Burners

Motor-controlled flue gas recirculation dampers Swirl vanes Turbulence enhancement Premixing chambers Leak-tight modulating air dampers Tangential diluent injection Rotating concentric blade air registers Fuel atomizers Venturi tube air registers Tapered burner tiles with baffles

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Heating Systems Upgrade to Modern Burners • Motor-controlled flue gas recirculation dampers • Swirl vanes •

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Use Electronic Burner Controls (typical savings) • Linkless burners have no backlash (1%) •

Use Electronic Burner Controls (typical savings)

Linkless burners have no backlash (1%) Increased turndown (5%)

Burner on/off cycles and their associated cold air purges also will be reduced

A second PID control (10%)

Some electronic fuel:air ratio controls have two internal proportionalintegralderivative (PID) modulation circuits. If a plant does not run continuously then this second PID

control’s setpoint can be used to switch the boiler to a lower

steam pressure or hot water temperature during periods of reduced activity.

Adaptive oxygen trim (2% to 3%)

Large boilers only (>$100,000 fuel per year)

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Heating Systems Use Electronic Burner Controls (typical savings) • Linkless burners have no backlash (1%) •

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Use Electronic Burner Controls (cont’d) • Fan speed control With mechanical cam control and

Use Electronic Burner Controls (cont’d)

Fan speed control

With mechanical cam control and with basic electronic fuel:air ratio controls, processors sacrifice combustion efficiency at low fire to achieve an improvement in burner turn-down.

By adding fan speed control, burner turn-down can be increased without compromising efficiency, and additional fuel savings can be achieved.

Boiler sequencing (lead/lag) control and communication software

Boiler sequencing control enables the plant operator to achieve better utilization and additional energy savings are possible.

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Heating Systems Use Electronic Burner Controls (cont’d) • Fan speed control With mechanical cam control and

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Fix Broken Steam Traps • One 1/8" diameter stuck-open steam trap orifice on a

Fix Broken Steam Traps

One 1/8" diameter stuck-open steam trap orifice on a large boiler can cost $1,000 (15 psig) to $5,000 (140 psig) per year in increased natural gas consumption

1 lb/hr ~ 1,000 Btu/hr

Heating Systems Fix Broken Steam Traps • One 1/8" diameter stuck-open steam trap orifice on a

There are Several Ways to Test Steam Traps

Plugged traps are cool while operating and leaking traps are hot. Use a non-contact, infrared thermometer.

In acoustic testing, an inspector listens for the variances in the acoustic patterns of working or failed traps.

The electronic procedure typically involves touching the trap

on the downstream side with the instrument’s contact probe

and adjusting the sensitivity to better hear the flow.

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

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Heating Systems Fix Broken Steam Traps • One 1/8" diameter stuck-open steam trap orifice on a

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Stack Heat Recovery • Each 40°F reduction in stack temperature results in a 1%

Stack Heat Recovery

Each 40°F reduction in stack temperature results in a 1% improvement in efficiency.

Preheating combustion air A 200°F air preheat saves 5%

Heating Systems Stack Heat Recovery • Each 40°F reduction in stack temperature results in a 1%

Best applications >900°F stack temperature

1,000°F 800°F results in 5% savings

Recuperators, regenerators, and heat exchangers

Infrared Booster Heaters

Reduces curing times of coatings by 25% to 40% Best in conjunction with convection and for thin simple shapes

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

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Heating Systems Stack Heat Recovery • Each 40°F reduction in stack temperature results in a 1%
Heating Systems Stack Heat Recovery • Each 40°F reduction in stack temperature results in a 1%

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Absorption Chillers • Fueled by waste heat but high capital costs • Best for

Absorption Chillers

Fueled by waste heat but high capital costs

Best for high peak demand charges, CFC or HCFC environmental concerns, waste heat temperature >270°F and >500 tons capacity

Heating Systems Absorption Chillers • Fueled by waste heat but high capital costs • Best for

Yazaki Energy Systems (Plano, TX) and Thermax (Piscataway, NJ) claim to have low temperature (185°F to 203°F) absorption chillers (20 to 30 ton max capacity)

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Heating Systems Absorption Chillers • Fueled by waste heat but high capital costs • Best for

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Industrial Heat Pumps Process Key Enabler Applications Reduced column pressure enables distillation Propane/propylene, Separation

Industrial Heat Pumps

Process

Key Enabler

Applications

 

Reduced column pressure enables distillation

Propane/propylene,

Separation

at low temperatures

butane/butylenes

Concentration

Low (<50°F) temperature lift results in gentle evaporation cycle

Beer, sugar solutions, milk and whey, juice, steep water, syrup and radioactive waste.

Drying

Upper temperature limit; Slow dry time desired; Continuous operation

Lumber and paper

Dehumidification

High temperature air used for drying; Slow dry time desired

Brick, ceramics

Space Heating

Higher thermal efficiency than other furnaces

Shop, warehouse

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Heating Systems Industrial Heat Pumps Process Key Enabler Applications Reduced column pressure enables distillation Propane/propylene, Separation

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Radio Frequency/Microwave Process Key Enabler Applications Pre-drying Selective heating (water only) to avoid product

Radio Frequency/Microwave

Process

Key Enabler

Applications

Pre-drying

Selective heating (water only) to avoid product damage; Speed

Fiberglass packaging and mats; Dyed yarn spools; Ceramic fiberboard, powder, and extrusions

Post-drying

Low final moisture content; Uniform (small temperature gradient) heating; No surface

Foods such as cookies, potato chips, and pasta; Dry pet foods;

(20%->8%)

crust

Polyurethane foam

Tempering

Volumetric heating; Speed

Frozen meats; Room temperature bacon; Chocolate

Cooking

Reduce drip loss (water, fat, nutrients, and flavor)

Sausage, bacon

Curing

Uniform heating; Precise temperature control; Speed

Adhesives for wood and laminates

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Heating Systems Radio Frequency/Microwave Process Key Enabler Applications Pre-drying Selective heating (water only) to avoid product

Heating Systems

Heating Systems Induction Process Key Enabler Applications Metallurgical processing (Hardening, Tempering, Annealing) Selective heating; Speed; In-line

Induction

Process

Key Enabler

Applications

Metallurgical processing (Hardening, Tempering, Annealing)

Selective heating; Speed; In-line continuous process

Gear teeth; Cutting blades; Pulleys; Axles; Camshafts; Galvanized sheet

Preheating prior to deformation (Forging; Swaging; Upsetting; Bending; and Piercing)

Reduced scale formation; Speed

Turbine engine blades; Billets; Mill rolling of slabs and strips

Melting

Speed; Flexibility

Steel; Iron; Copper alloys; Aluminum; Zinc

Brazing and Soldering

Localized heating; Precise temperature control and uniformity

Dissimilar materials; Carbide tips; Turbine blades; Eyeglass frames

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Heating Systems Induction Process Key Enabler Applications Metallurgical processing (Hardening, Tempering, Annealing) Selective heating; Speed; In-line

Motors and Transformers

Motors and Transformers Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Replace motors Use variable speed drives Right size

Implementation

Load

Peak

(kWh)

(kW)

Replace motors

 

Use variable speed drives

Right size the motor

 

Disconnect unused transformers

© 2009 Tech Resources, Inc.

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Motors and Transformers Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Replace motors Use variable speed drives Right size

Motors

Motors Repair or Replace Motors • Replace motors <40 HP • Replace if cost of rewind

Repair or Replace Motors

Replace motors <40 HP Replace if cost of rewind >65% of new motor Replace motors last rewound before 1980

Motors Repair or Replace Motors • Replace motors <40 HP • Replace if cost of rewind

Variable Speed Drives/Adjustable Speed Drives

Best for variable torque loads often found in variable flow applications (pumps, fans, and blowers) and greater than 2,000 hours operation Horsepower varies as the cube of speed/flow Cut speed/flow by 50%, you cut energy consumption by nearly 90%! (0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 = 0.125) Converts 60 Hz to 120 to 400 Hz in pulse width modulation

Pulse-width modulation most common Current-source inverter used for 100+ HP motors

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Motors Repair or Replace Motors • Replace motors <40 HP • Replace if cost of rewind

Motors

Motors Right Size the Motor • Motor efficiency plummets at <40% rated load Premium Efficiency Motors

Right Size the Motor

Motor efficiency plummets at <40% rated load

Premium Efficiency Motors

Good motor efficiency varies from about 85% ( 1 HP) to 95% (>75 HP)

NEMA Premium Efficiency motors are 1% to 3% basis points more efficient than baseline (EPACT 1992)

Motors Right Size the Motor • Motor efficiency plummets at <40% rated load Premium Efficiency Motors

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Motors Right Size the Motor • Motor efficiency plummets at <40% rated load Premium Efficiency Motors

Transformers

Transformers Transformer Losses • Remove power from unused transformers No load losses (NL) Caused by the

Transformer Losses

Remove power from unused transformers

No load losses (NL)

Transformers Transformer Losses • Remove power from unused transformers No load losses (NL) Caused by the

Caused by the magnetizing current to energize the core

Do not vary according to the loading on the transformer

<0.5% of rating (for example, roughly 125 watts on a 50 kVA transformer)

Full load losses (FL)

Heat losses, or I²R losses, in the winding materials Roughly 5x NL losses (600 watts on a 50 kVA transformer)

High-Efficiency Transformer

Paying a little more upfront ($400 to $4,000) leads to long term savings (>$20,000 for a 1500 kVA transformer)

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Transformers Transformer Losses • Remove power from unused transformers No load losses (NL) Caused by the

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Only use when there is no other option Fix

Implementation

Load

Peak

(kWh)

(kW)

Only use when there is no other option

 

Fix leaks

 

Right size

Use variable speed compressor motor drives

 

Implement heat recovery

   

Use two-stage, lubricated or centrifugal

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Compressed Air Implementation Load Peak (kWh) (kW) Only use when there is no other option Fix

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Compressed Air energy cost for 6,000 hrs at $0.10/kWh = $125/CFM • At 4

Compressed Air energy cost for 6,000 hrs at $0.10/kWh = $125/CFM

Compressed Air Compressed Air energy cost for 6,000 hrs at $0.10/kWh = $125/CFM • At 4

At 4 CFM/HP, a 250 HP compressor costs about $125,000 annually

Only use compressed air when it is absolutely necessary!

If possible, switch to motors, mechanical actuators, and other means to accomplish the same function

Leaks often account for 20% to 30% of compressor output

A 1/32" leak in a 90 psi compressed air system would cost approximately $185 annually

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Compressed Air Compressed Air energy cost for 6,000 hrs at $0.10/kWh = $125/CFM • At 4

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Compressors operate at highest efficiency at full load or off • • Optimum controls

Compressors operate at highest efficiency at full load or off

Optimum controls results in big savings

For example, at 50% full-load flow, kW input varies from 51% to 83%.

   

Percent kW Input at Operating Capacity for Lubricant-Injected Rotary Screw

   

% Full-

Load/No-load

Modulation

Variable

Variable

Load Flow

(5 gal/cfm)

Displace

Speed

90%

95%

97%

92%

91%

80%

92%

95%

83%

81%

70%

85%

90%

78%

71%

60%

78%

85%

68%

61%

50%

72%

83%

63%

51%

40%

63%

80%

60%

42%

Source: Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, DOE

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Compressed Air Compressors operate at highest efficiency at full load or off • • Optimum controls

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Variable speed is best applied to compressors that operate primarily as trim units, or

Variable speed is best applied to compressors that operate primarily as trim units, or as single units with loads below 75% to 80% demand

Below 85% loading, variable displacement units become less efficient than variable speed, and are very poor at loads below 50%

Compressed Air Variable speed is best applied to compressors that operate primarily as trim units, or

Reducing system pressure by 10 psi saves 8% to 10% Use ¾" diameter hose for >3 HP tools or >50' lengths

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Compressed Air Variable speed is best applied to compressors that operate primarily as trim units, or

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Heat Recovery • Air-cooled compressors offer recovery efficiencies of 80% to 90% Ambient atmospheric

Heat Recovery

Air-cooled compressors offer recovery efficiencies of 80% to 90%

Ambient atmospheric air is heated by passing it across the system’s aftercooler and lubricant cooler.

As a rule, approximately 50,000 British thermal units per hour (Btuh) of energy is available for each 100 cfm of capacity (at full-load).

Air temperatures of 30°F to 40°F above the cooling air inlet temperature can be obtained.

Space heating or water heating.

Water-cooled compressors offer recovery efficiencies of 50% to 60% for space heating only.

Limited to 130°F

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Compressed Air Heat Recovery • Air-cooled compressors offer recovery efficiencies of 80% to 90% Ambient atmospheric

Compressed Air

Compressed Air Reciprocating air cooled compressor has lowest first cost, but is inefficient Spend a little

Reciprocating air cooled compressor has lowest first cost, but is

inefficient Spend a little more for a two-stage unit and achieve better efficiency

Lubricated compressors are often more efficient than a similar non- lubricated unit, but they contribute oil content to the system and may impact the compressor air quality

 

Air Compressor Efficiency Benchmarks

 
   

Reciprocal

Rotary Screw

Centrifugal

 

Air

Water

Water

Lubricated

Lubricated

Non-

<250 HP

cooled

cooled

cooled

lube

Units

Single-

Single-

Two-

Single-

Two-Stage

Two-

 

Stage

Stage

Stage

Stage

Stage

BHP per 100 CFM

26-32

 
  • 25 19-22

23-26

20-22

20-26

22-27

kW per 100 CFM

22-27

 
  • 21 16-18

19-22

17-18

17-22

18-22

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Compressed Air Reciprocating air cooled compressor has lowest first cost, but is inefficient Spend a little

Questline

Questline Go to www.questline.com Provided by: Tech Resources 2025 Riverside Drive Columbus, OH 43221 800-824-0488 mcarter@questline.com

Go to www.questline.com Provided by:

Tech Resources 2025 Riverside Drive Columbus, OH 43221

800-824-0488

mcarter@questline.com

This document was specifically prepared to aid Tech Resources’ clients that wish to inform their customers about available

energy efficient options that these customers may wish to consider. Any other use of this material (in whole or in part) is not allowed without the expressed written consent of Tech Resources, Inc., 2025 Riverside Drive, Columbus, OH 43221.

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Questline Go to www.questline.com Provided by: Tech Resources 2025 Riverside Drive Columbus, OH 43221 800-824-0488 mcarter@questline.com

What’s Next?

If you would like more information about the four strategies to increase cash flow, contact your local Manufacturing Extension Partner.

What’s Next? If you would like more information about the four strategies to increase cash flow,

This document was specifically prepared to aid Manufacturing Extension Partnerships and their customers. Any other use of this

material (in whole or in part) is not allowed without the expressed written consent of Tech Resources, Inc., 2025 Riverside Drive, Columbus, OH

43221.

Arizona Manufacturing Extension Partnership

California Manufacturing Technology Consulting

Maryland Technology Extension Service

Montana Manufacturing Extension Center

The Oklahoma Manufacturing Alliance

Rhode Island Manufacturing Extension Services

South Carolina Manufacturing Extension Partnership

Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center

University of Tennessee Center for Industrial Services

West Virginia Manufacturing Extension Partnership

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What’s Next? If you would like more information about the four strategies to increase cash flow,