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visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Chapter 13 - XML Q1. What is EDI ? Ans. EDI stands for

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Chapter 13 - XML Q1. What is EDI ? Ans. EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange.
Chapter 13 - XML
Q1. What is EDI ?
Ans.
EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange. In it data to be shared first assembled and then transformed
in the EDI standard format using a specific software. In E-Commerce all of the transaction are performed
using EDI.
Q2. What is XML ?
Ans.
XML stands for Xtensible Markup Language. it is a set of rules/tags just like HTML that define the
structure and format of text while presenting text in a records like structure.
Q3. What is a meta language ?
Ans.
A meta language is a language that is used to define other language. XML is a meta language.
Q4. What is a Markup Language
Ans.
A markup language is a set of rules/tags that define a strucutre and format to represent text. it is called
markup language bcoz we write it within <> symbols.
Q5. What is Meta Data
Ans.
Data about Data is called Meta data.
Q6. Write Full forms of the following
a.
SGML
b. HTML
c. XML
d. WML
e. EDI
Ans.
a.
Standard Generalized Markup Language
b.
Hyertext Markup Language
c.
Extensible Markup Language
d.
Wireless Markup Language
e.
Electronic Data Interchange
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Chapter 13 - XML Q1. What is EDI ? Ans. EDI stands for
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Important Differences 1. XML vs SGML XML SGML XML is newer language than

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Important Differences

1. XML vs SGML XML SGML XML is newer language than SGML XML is based on
1.
XML vs SGML
XML
SGML
XML is newer language than SGML
XML is based on SGML
XML is called Xtensible Markup Language
SGML is older generic markup language.
SGML is first markup language
SGML is called Standard Generalized Markup Lang.
New tags can be created
Not possible
2.
XML vs HTML
XML
HTML
XML is called Xtensible Markup Language
New tags can be created
It is a document reprentation language
It is necessary to close each tag
XML is case sensitive
XML is not viewable indepently
HTML is called Hypertext Markup Language
Not Possible
it is a web page layout design language
few tags of HTML does not have closing tag
HTML is not case sensitive
HTML document can be viewed independently
3.
XML vs EDI
XML
It does not requires costly technology
New tags can be created
XML documents can be easily implemented
XML is platform Independent
EDI
costly technology is required
Not Allowed
Not easy implementation
Low platform independency
Features of XML
1.
It is designed to carry data, not to display data
2.
XML does not do anything itself
3.
XML is designed to be self descriptive language
4.
XML is free and extensible
5.
XML is platform Independent
6.
XML can seperate data from HTML
7.
XML can be used to create new languages like ADML, BrainML, GML, WML etc.
8.
XML is a W3C recommendation
XML Structure
1. A style sheet presentation through CSS or XSL
2.
A grammar structure throught DTD
  • 3. Semantics of data through XML file

Naming Rules in XML

  • 1. Names in XML must start either with a letter or underscore

visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Important Differences 1. XML vs SGML XML SGML XML is newer language than
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in 2. Rest of the name can consist of letters, digits, underscore character, the

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  • 2. Rest of the name can consist of letters, digits, underscore character, the dot or hyphen

  • 3. Spaces are not allowed in names

  • 4. XML is case sensitive

5. Names cant start with a string xml. it is a reserved keyword 6. By convention
5.
Names cant start with a string xml. it is a reserved keyword
6.
By convention HTML elements in XML are written in uppercase, and XML elements are written in
lowercase.
Q7. Question. Create a XML Document to represent the data of following table
Student
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
roll
name
class
sec
city
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
101
ram
xi
a
ajmer
102
shyam
xii
b
jaipur
103
kalu
x
a
kishangarh
Ans.
<studentdata>
<student>
<roll>101</roll>
<name>ram</name>
<class>xi</class>
<sec>a</sec>
<city>ajmer</city>
</student>
<student>
<roll>102</roll>
<name>shyam</name>
<class>xii</class>
<sec>b</sec>
<city>jaipur</city>
</student>
<student>
<roll>103</roll>
<name>kalu</name>
<class>x</class>
<sec>a</sec>
<city>kishangarh</city>

</student>

</studentdata>

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visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Q8. What is XML Document System and what are its components ? Ans.

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Q8. What is XML Document System and what are its components ?

Ans. XML document system is the way to process a xml document on the web in a desired manner. it has three main components

a. CSS or XSL - Cascading Style Sheet or Xtensible Style Sheet b. DTD - Document
a.
CSS or XSL - Cascading Style Sheet or Xtensible Style Sheet
b.
DTD - Document Type Defination
c.
Semantics (rules)
Q9. What is InkML ?
Ans.
It is a popular Markup Language. it provides a simple and platform neutral data format to promote the
interchange of digital ink between software applications. All content of a InkML document is contained
whthin a single <ink> element. The fundamental data element in an InkMl file is the trace
In the simplest form an INKML file looks like this
<ink>
<trace>
2344,56,68,56,344,2,45,45,34,56,68,78
</trace>
<trace>
34,4,6,89,78,45,23,23,565,8,89,56,34,23
</trace>
</ink>
Q10. What is RecipeML
Ans.
It is a popular markup language for representing recipes on computer. for e.g if we want to represent
the following recipe -
Tea
* 1 cup water
* 2 cup milk
* 1 teaspoon tea
* 2 teaspoon sugar
* 5 gr ginger
place 1 cup water into canister
boil it for 5 minutes
add 2 cup milk
boil it for 2 minutes
add 1 teaspoon tea and 2 teaspoon sugar
boil it for 2 minute
add 5 gr ginger
boil for 1 minute
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Q8. What is XML Document System and what are its components ? Ans.
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in <recipe> <head> <title>Shahi Indian Tea</title> </head> <ingredients> <ing> <name>water</name> <qty>1 cup</qty> </ing> <ing>

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<recipe> <head> <title>Shahi Indian Tea</title> </head> <ingredients> <ing>

<name>water</name> <qty>1 cup</qty> </ing> <ing> <name>Milk</name> <qty>2 cup</qty> </ing> <ing> <name>Tea Powder</name> <qty>1 spoon</qty> </ing> <ing>
<name>water</name>
<qty>1 cup</qty>
</ing>
<ing>
<name>Milk</name>
<qty>2 cup</qty>
</ing>
<ing>
<name>Tea Powder</name>
<qty>1 spoon</qty>
</ing>
<ing>
<name>Sugar</name>
<qty>2 spoon</qty>
</ing>
<ing>
<name>Ginger</name>
<qty>5 gram</qty>
</ing>
</ingredients>
<directions>
<step>place 1 cup water into canister</step>
<step>boil it for 5 minutes</step>
<step>add 2 cup milk </step>
<step>boil it for 2 minutes</step>
<step>add 1 teaspoon tea and 2 teaspoon sugar</step>
<step>boil it for 2 minute</step>
<step>add 5 gr ginger</step>
<step>boil for 1 minute</step>
</directions>
</recipe>

Q11. What is prolog ? Ans.

It is a preface or introduction to the XML document. It has five types of components

visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in <recipe> <head> <title>Shahi Indian Tea</title> </head> <ingredients> <ing> <name>water</name> <qty>1 cup</qty> </ing> <ing>
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in a. An XML Declaration c. Document Type Declaration e. White space b. Processing

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  • a. An XML Declaration

  • c. Document Type Declaration

  • e. White space

b. Processing Instructions

d. Comments

Q12. What is DTD ? Ans. The grammar rules for creating a XML Document are called
Q12. What is DTD ?
Ans. The grammar rules for creating a XML Document are called DTD. it begins with !Doctype
Declaration. A Sample DTD is <!doctype Animals system="WIDAnim.dtd">
Q13. What are comments?
Ans.
Comments are the additional descriptive statemens that are not processed by XML parsers. they are
used to add notes about document structure or to break a document into sections.
comments in XML or HTML starts with <!--
........
-->
Q14 What is a Element ? explain following types of elements ?
a. root element
b. child element
Ans.
Elements are means to define individual data items. An element begins with a start tag and ends with an
end tag. The parent element of all other elements in data instance is known as root element or
document element. The elements nested inside other elements are called the child elements.
for eg.
<employee>
<name>ramkumar</name>
<code>235</code>
<address>
<hno>34/4a</hno>
<city>Ajmer</city>
</address>
</employee>
In the above example EMPLOYEE is root element
Name , code , address are child elements of employee
hno, city are child elements of address element
Q15. What are XML Naming rules ?
Ans.
1.
Names in XML must start with a letter or underscore
2.
name can contain leters, digits, dot, hyphen or underscore
3.
spaces are now allowed in names
  • 4. xml is case sensitive

  • 5. names cannot start with string "xml"

visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in a. An XML Declaration c. Document Type Declaration e. White space b. Processing
visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Q16. What is a attribute in XML ? Ans. Attributes are the properties

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Q16. What is a attribute in XML ?

Ans. Attributes are the properties of elements for example <account type="saving"> here type is an attribute of element account

Q4. What is a Well formed document Ans. The XML document that obeys XML grammar rules
Q4. What is a Well formed document
Ans. The XML document that obeys XML grammar rules is called well formed document
Properties of a Well formed docuemnt
1.
at least one element
2.
unique opening and closing tag
3.
tags must be closed properly
4.
tags must be nested properly
5.
attribute values must be quoted
Q17. What is a Valid Document
Ans. A Valid XML document is one that is well formed as well as confirms to the DTD schema of the
document
Properties of a Valid document
1.
Must be a well formed document
2.
Follows its DTD (document type defination)
3.
Validation can be done only if th XML document has valid DTD
Q18. What is CSS ?
Ans.
CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheet. it is a collection of formatting rules that control appearance of
content in a web page.
Advantages of XML
1.
It is easy than HTML
2.
It is fully compatible with various applications like JAVA, Asp.net and other languages
3.
It is extremely Portable Language
4.
We can create our own tags, that is whey it is extremely expandable language
5.
It is platform Independent language
6.
It can be deployed on any network.
7.
Size of a XML document is very small
8.
XML can represent hierarchically rich data in plain text
  • 9. It represents and store the data in a very easy and human readable format

10. It can be used to share data over wide variety of networks.

visit @ http://www.infotechcomputer.in Q16. What is a attribute in XML ? Ans. Attributes are the properties