You are on page 1of 62

RESEARCH PROJECT ON

SELF-ESTEEM &
JOB SATISFACTION
AT NADRA

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Table of Contents
Part I: Self Esteem-The Topic
4
Self Esteem and its importance
Self-Esteem Defined
Importance of Self-Esteem
Self-Esteem, Concept to Practices
Cultural Diversity and Self-Esteem
Self Delusion-The fantasy
Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction
Moderating effect of employee Self-Esteem on Job Satisfaction
Part II: The Research
Aims and Objectives
Aims
Objectives
Research Background
Introduction
Problem Identification
Research Scope
Research Scope
Research Methodology
Introduction
Formulation and Hypothesis
Exploratory Research
Sampling
Data Collection Techniques
Research Work
Organization of Data

13

Part III: NADRA-The Organization


An overview of NADRA
Introduction
Organization Structure
Chairman Message
Concept of HRM at NADRA
HRM department at NADRA
HRM philosophy
Role of HRM department

21

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


Part IV: Facts-The Findings
Findings from the research
Research Errors
Measuring self-Esteem, Part A
Measuring Job satisfaction, Part B

30

Part V: Finale-The Conclusions


Conclusions
Recommendation and suggestions
To the employers
To the upcoming researchers
Limitations & problems faced during research

37

References

45

Appendices

46

Research Proposal
Questionnaire
Interview Queue Sheet
Responses and Filtered Responses

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Self-Esteem & Job


Satisfaction
"The Mountain of Self-Esteem is built on the Isle of Competencies" - Emile
Coue

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Part I

Self Esteem
The Topic

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Self-Esteem and its


Importance

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Self-Esteem defined
Self-esteem is based on self-image, a mental 'picture' of yourself, describing what sort
of person you think you are. It helps you to make sense of your experience and evaluate
it and to organize and control how you behave.
Self-esteem is a reflection of a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own
worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent" or "I am
incompetent") and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame. Self-esteem
can apply specifically (for example, "I believe I am a good person, and feel proud of
myself in general"). Self-esteem is based on feeling of pride in yourself. Your self-image
is "reflexive" meaning that it is the cumulative effect of reactions from others that
provides the basis of what kind of person you think you are - your self-image. It is also
based on how well you cope with situations.

The influencers
If, over time, you are constantly treated as someone who is attractive and/or clever, you
tend to come to think of yourself in those terms. If others behave as if they expect you to
take decisions, exert authority and provide leadership, you will probably come to think
of yourself as having 'leadership qualities'. If your opinion is repeatedly disregarded, you
acquire the belief that your ideas are not worth very much. The effects of these reactions
are much greater on young people, of course, because they do not have any experience of
different reactions to set against the ones currently being experienced. It is why the
influence of parents, teachers and upbringing generally are so important in what our
enduring self-images become.

Ideal and Actual self-image

For many people an important goal is to make their actual self-images closer to their
ideal self-images. It is a valuable goal because it provides motivation for selfdevelopment activities. However, it is not helpful to overemphasize the ideal because
this leads to our underestimating the actual - especially if we place too much weight on
one characteristic that we think is especially desirable. For instance, trying to seem like
the 'nice guy' makes it hard to use any power you may have, or to reprimand or to give
unpopular orders firmly. So your self-image should be positive but not too rigidly
defined.
In people who are comfortable with themselves, the ideal and the actual do not diverge
too far. In one sense, good self-esteem is simply accepting ourselves as we are rather
than demanding we be all we are capable of becoming. Self-esteem is not just words, or
even actions, it is an attitude; one that says I have worth simply because I am a human
being; simply because I breathe and I am alive.

Accepting ourselves

It is about learning to value our basic package of who we are simply because we breathe.
Self-esteem has nothing to do with achieving or producing or even becoming. Rather, it
7

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


is that all-encompassing sensation of feeling acceptable, capable, and most of all lovable,
simply because we are alive. It has everything to do with accepting ourselves and
appreciating who we are. People with self-value accept themselves. They don't expect.

Importance of Self-Esteem
It is important that the significance of self-esteem not be lost in the confusion over what
it means.
Nathaniel Branden, Ph.D., a well known psychotherapist, defined self-esteem several
years ago as: The disposition to experience oneself as being competent to cope with the
basic challenges of life and of being worthy of happiness.
NASENational Association for Self-Esteem modified this to define self-esteem as:
"The experience of being capable of meeting life's challenges and being worthy of
happiness."
Christopher Mruk, Ph.D., a psychology professor at Bowling Green University, reports
in his book gave a detailed description of Self-Esteem. This description of self-esteem
has best withstood the test of time in terms of accuracy and comprehensiveness.
This concept of self-esteem is founded on the premise that it is strongly connected to a
sense of competence and worthiness and the relationship between the two as one lives
life. The worthiness component of self-esteem is often misunderstood as simply feeling
good about oneself, when it actually is tied to whether or not a person lives up to certain
fundamental human values, such as finding meanings that foster human growth and
making commitments to them in a way that leads to a sense of integrity and satisfaction.
A sense of competence is having the conviction that one is generally capable of
producing desired results, having confidence in the efficacy of our mind and our ability
to think, as well as to make appropriate choices and decisions. Worthiness might be
considered the psychological aspect of self-esteem, while competence might be
considered the behavioral or sociological aspect of self-esteem. Self-esteem stems from
the experience of living consciously and might be viewed as a persons overall judgment
of himself or herself pertaining to self-competence and self-worth based on reality.
A close relationship has been documented between low self-esteem and such problems
as violence, suicide, alcoholism, drug abuse, eating disorders, job dissatisfaction, and
high rate of job turnover at individual level. However, it has been difficult to isolate it as
a primary cause using traditional experimental research methods, for it is usually only
one of several contributing factors. What needs to be stressed is that self-esteem is a
critical component of any program aimed at self-improvement or any rehabilitation
program, for it is one of the few solutions that offer hope to correcting these problems.
Many prisons, for example, have now introduced self-esteem programs to reduce
recidivism.

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Self-Esteem, Concepts to
practices

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Cultural diversity and Self-Esteem


Interestingly, the link between self-esteem and satisfaction is particularly strong in
Western cultures, perhaps because in many Western cultures self-assertiveness and selfefficacy open doors to participation in valued tasks. Western cultures tend to be
individualistic: apparently individualists must think highly of themselves before they
can be satisfied whereas in the collectivistic cultures positive feelings about one self do
not appear to be critical to well-being. This suggests that what causes well-being
depends at least to some degree on the individual's goals and values.
In some families and cultures the "growing up" process is essentially one of getting you
to change, to control your impulses, and do what you 'ought' to do, not what you want to
do, whenever the two conflict. The chosen means is usually negative reinforcement punishment or criticism. The consequence tends to be low self-esteem and selfconfidence.

Self Delusion The fantasy

On the other hand, recent research has pointed to a different phenomenon - selfdelusion. Most people believe they have far more control and more skills than they
actually do have. For instance, the majority of drivers consider themselves more skilful
than the average driver. According to a research (conducted in LUMS - Lahore
university of management sciences), Over 95% of new university students believed they
would successfully graduate; whereas the actual failure rate is about 25%. Most people
believe they have far more control over their lives than is actually the case.
This self-delusion has been found to be healthy, resulting in more success, better health
and longer life than those who are actually realistic! On the other hand, it can lead to
rash experimentation.

10

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Self-Esteem and Job


Satisfaction

11

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Moderating effect of employee Self-Esteem on Job


Satisfaction

Internationally, recent developments in the understanding of staff retention have arisen


through revisiting the concept of equity which was first explored in the mid-1960. This
concept is based on the proposition that employees inevitably compute ratios of inputs
(e.g. job competence and level of education) and outputs (e.g. pay, recognition and job
enrichment). Equity results if ratios are similar, whereas inequity occurs for dissimilar
ratios. When inequity is in the form of an excess of inputs over outputs, the resulting
perception of under-reward can lead to job dissatisfaction and high turnover.
Psychological research published during 1999 found that staff with low self-esteem is
more likely to be more adversely affected by under-reward, which can in turn lead to a
higher predisposition to turnover.
The practical implications of this finding are that enhancements to resources and
practices within the workplace should be undertaken with the aim of developing the
Self-Esteem of employees, that is, positively affecting the image and regard that staff
maintain for themselves about their personal competence in the workplace. Certainly
there are many alternative benefits that might arise from enhanced communication,
providing challenge and growth in the job, and so on. However, if one's priority is to
influence turnover then it is necessary to keep an eye on the ball.
Characteristics of firms that attract loyalty and therefore have better retention rates
include:
The company is a true meritocracy.
It shows caring and empathy for its employees and listens to them.
It is exciting, but not restless or frantic.
Future stars are identified early, and given the support they need to build a
permanent career, and also become the future of the company.
Compensation is at least competitive.
Other insights from the meeting include encouraging people to think that they have a
career, not just a job, with the company, and checking with employees each quarter to
monitor their performance and expectations. Employees should be allowed to nominate
other employees for recognition and perhaps a special award should be instituted for
individuals who embody the values in the corporate mission statement.

12

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Part II

The Research

13

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Aims and Objectives

14

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Aims
The aims in carrying out the exercise of this research are as follows:

To study the Self-Esteem of workers in NADRA.


To suggest the importance of individuals Self-Esteem in workers, in particular, so as
to increase the employee job satisfaction while lowering the rate of employee
turnover and saving the cost of hiring new personnel
To suggest the positive effect of individuals Self-Esteem over Job-Satisfaction which
ultimately lead to increased productivity.

Objectives
The objectives of this report are as under:
To find out the effects of Self-Esteem on job satisfaction
To determine if people with HIGH self esteem are more satisfied with their job than
those with LOW Self-Esteem
Effects of self esteem among employees on overall productivity of the organization
To propose suggestions that help managers of production companies in increasing the
level of Self-Esteem of their workforce so that ultimately it be can helpful in increased
productivity.
To form the basis for further study and research in the subject area

15

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Background

16

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Introduction
Todays workplace is different, diverse, and constantly changing. The typical employeremployee relationship of old has been turned upside down. Workers are living in a
growing economy and have almost limitless job opportunities; at the same time, the
workplace offers less incentive for things like employee loyalty, job-satisfaction and
lifetime employment. This combination of factors has created an environment where the
business needs its employees more than the employees need the business particularly
in the Manufacturing sector.

Problem Identification
It has been observed in recent years that retaining employees is becoming more difficult
in companies, particularly the companies involved in production. It has been found that
managers are unable to boost the Self-Esteem in their employees due to which
individuals job satisfaction level is not at optimum. This ultimately results in increased
turnover rate. Thus, the core problem is found to be the lack of Self-Esteem and its
awareness among the employees.

17

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Scope

18

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Scope
Since, the research work was such that first we had to determine whether or not the
workers are aware of the term Self-Esteem and if they are, then we have to gauge it and
then propose a strategy to increase it after examining the results.
Due to the above mentioned tasks I decided to collect Primary Data in order to gauge
the level of Self-Esteem of the workers through questionnaires. To know the efforts done
in this regard from the management side I did an interview with the Managers, Human
Resource Department and Production Plant.
For the second part of MY research, since I did not have much time to experiment the
possible solutions to the problem, I conducted Literature Survey in order to gather
Secondary Data regarding Self-Esteem at work place and its effect on job satisfaction at
individual level and formulated my suggestions for effective policy with the help of
secondary data. The information I gathered is field-tested by many senior management
consultants.
At this point, I would like to acknowledge the blessings of internet which enabled us to
access international research papers in the subject matter.

19

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Methodology

20

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Introduction
The purpose here is to describe the implementation of the research approach, overall
research design, the sampling procedure, the data collection and analysis procedure.

Formulation and Hypothesis


As the research is exploratory, no formal hypothesis have been formed or tested in this
study.

Exploratory Research
Maximum possible information and knowledge can be gathered through an exploratory
research, this can be achieved by the use of;

Professional magazines, periodicals, Newspapers


Personal Interviews and questionnaires
Seminars, discussions, workshops

Sampling
Cost is one main factor which prohibits the study of entire population. Therefore a
subset from the population must be used to make inferences about the same population.

Population: In this study the universe is limited to the staff on regular basis
and the senior management personnel.

Sample: A sample is a subset or an incomplete set taken from a complete set of


objects. Sample has to be representative of the population or universe it is drawn
from.

Sample Size: A sample size of 17 respondents 15 (regular) members of the

operation team and 5 management personnel, including HR was considered to be


appropriate.

Sampling Technique: In this study non-probabilistic sampling was carried


out which is termed as Trade-off between cost & time and precision. The
researcher cannot calculate the bias involved. That is why statisticians usually
avoid non-probabilistic sampling design.

21

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Data Collection Techniques


Two methods of data collection were used in this research, which are described below:

Primary Data

It relates to first hand information. In this study primary data was collected through
personal interviews and questionnaires, (copy of the interview sheet and questionnaire
can be found annexed in the appendices). The main purpose of the primary data was to
gauge the level of Self-Esteem in the employees of team at NADRA.

Secondary Data

It relates to data gathered through some other source than the direct one. In this study
secondary data was collected through Literature Survey done by reading various
research papers and books available online. The main purpose of the secondary data was
to propose valid and practical suggestions in order to increase the level of individuals
Self-Esteem at NADRA.

Research Work
The interviews were conducted between November 10, 2010 and November 12, 2010
during evenings when the respondents had some relaxed time from their hectic official
commitments. While the questionnaires were distributed via HR department on
November 10, 2010 and were collected back after one week

Organization of Data
Research design, sample design and field work were undertaken solely to obtain the
data, which were later analyzed qualitatively so as to yield desired information to draw
inferences, conclusions, recommendations and decisions.

22

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Part III

NADRA
The Organization

23

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

An Overview of NADRA

24

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Introduction
National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA) was established as National
Database Organization (NDO), an attached department under the Ministry of Interior,
Government of Pakistan in 1998. On 10 March, 2000, NDO & Directorate General of
Registration (DGR) merged to form NADRA, an independent corporate body with
requisite autonomy to operate independently and facilitate good governance. With the
mandate of developing a system for re-registering 150 million citizens, NADRA
launched the Multi-Biometric National Identity Card project developed in conformance
with international security documentation issuance practices in the year 2000. The
program replaced the paper based Personal Identity System of Pakistan that had been in
use since 1971. To date over 96 Million citizens in Pakistan and abroad have utilized the
system and its allied services to receive tamper resistant ISO standard Identification
Documents.
NADRA is one of the leading System Integrators in the global identification sector and
boasts extensive experience in designing, implementing and operating solutions for
corporate and public sector clients. NADRA offers its clients a portfolio of customizable
solutions for identification, e-governance and secure documents. NADRA has
successfully implemented the Multi-Biometric National Identity Card & Multi-Biometric
e-Passport solutions for Pakistan, Passport Issuing System for Kenya, Bangladesh High
Security Drivers License, and Civil Registration Management System for Sudan
amongst other projects.
National Database & Registration Authority (NADRA) has gained international
recognition for its success in providing solutions for identification, e-governance and
secure documents that deliver multi-pronged goals of mitigating identity theft, safeguarding the interests of our clients, and facilitating the public. In-depth Research and
Development efforts have enabled NADRA to become the trailblazer in the area of
Software Integration, Data Warehousing, Network Infrastructure Development and
Project Management.
NADRA proudly employs a highly skilled workforce of more than 11,000 technical and
management personnel, who contribute to register more than 96 million citizens and
print more than 95 million Computerized National Identity Cards. To achieve this
gigantic landmark NADRA has developed 365 Multi-biometric Interactive Registration
Centers and deployed 189 mobile vans to register citizens living in far-flung areas, with a
motive to provide quality service and comfort.
During this short span of time, NADRA has gained significant international recognition.
ID World, organizers of the ID Card & Electronic Passport Forum have ranked NADRA
as one of the Worlds Top 50 Suppliers of e-Passport Technology for 04 years running

25

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Chairman Message
NADRA has been moving forward aggressively and made remarkable progress since it
as founded in March 2000. NADRA has capitalized on solid growth opportunities thus
improving its operational efficiency and expanding its presence.
The current economic order, the rapid rate of technological advancement, the
information revolution, all has opened new series of challenges as well as opportunities.
The ability to innovate and the capacity to adapt to latest technologies are going to be
the forte in the new century.
We have set ourselves the dual objective to modernize and revolutionize the system of
registration of Pakistani Nationals within and outside Pakistan and being recognized as
the premier provider of technology solutions.
We continually explore, create and adopt new innovations to keep our solutions ahead
of the curve. NADRA so far has matured tremendously by incorporating cutting-edge
technologies, thus successfully completing National and International projects of great
importance.
In leading this evolution toward a technological age, the people's desire for a prosperous
society and a peaceful life is a key driving force, especially so in our country. NADRA
seeks to become a leading impetus in achieving this aspiration and advance toward the
new epoch of technology.
This is only just the beginning of what is already turning out to be an exciting and
rewarding journey. NADRA so far has achieved extraordinary results and would like to
recognize extraordinary effort, dedication and contribution made by our committed
management and the staff in achieving the goals and success.
Through on-going investments in our people, processes and technology NADRA
remains committed to lead the way by providing sustainable and innovative technology
solutions, thus ensuring quality deliverables to the citizens of Pakistan."
Ali Arshad Hakeem
Chairman NADRA

26

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Concept of HRM at
NADRA

27

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

HRM department in NADRA


Human Resource Management (HRM) refers to the policies, practices and systems that
influence employees behavior, attitudes and performance.
NADRA refers to HRM as involving people practices. There are several important
HRM practices:
Determining human resource needs (HR planning)
Attracting potential employees (recruiting)
Choosing employees (selection)
Teaching employees how to perform their job and preparing them for the future
(training and development)
Rewarding employees (compensation)
Evaluating their performance (performance management)
Creating positive work environment (employee relations)
Effective HRM practices have been shown to relate to company performance by
contributing to employee and customer satisfaction, innovation, productivity and
development of a favorable reputation in the firms community.
Many companies have human resource management department, but HRM is not just
a functional responsibility! Managers participate in HRM practices on a daily basis.

HRM Philosophy
NADRA's Human Resource is a unique rainbow of variety in skills, competencies and
geographical origin. A pool of immense talent and character from length and breadth of
Pakistan provides NADRA with the competitive advantage over its competitors around
the globe.
Human Resource Directorate at NADRA attempts to provide management support to its
highly specialized and diverse workforce, which is a part of Pakistans largest IT based
public sector organization, and geographically spread across the length and breadth of
Pakistan.
Human Resource Directorate at NADRA, focusing its IT and public sector base, aims to
provide an organizational framework to recruit, select, reward, train, develop and retain
a diverse workforce, while ensuring an environment that optimizes and values
productivity, efficiency and effectiveness.

28

Reach out to diverse group of workers across Pakistan, while recruiting to achieve
fairness and diversity in an efficient manner.

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Increase women participation in NADRA up to 20% to facilitate its 54% customer


base.
Constitute and maintain a comprehensive market competitive reward system to
ensure attraction and retention of qualified and experienced professionals.
Standardization of Directorates internal practices and procedures to improve its
customer satisfaction level.
Enable employees to maximize their career potential by offering increased
number of training and development opportunities from renowned trainers
within the available resources.
Introduce in house training programs.
Introduce a performance management process across NADRA to ensure
objectivity and fairness in performance evaluation and career progression.
Establish and maintain open communication with all level of employees.
We aim to create the environment of learning, culture of business excellence and
belief in performance improvement.

Role of HRM department


Policy formulation

Intimates and formulates new personal policy


Prepares programs concerning recruitment, selection, training and appraisal

Advising

Advises all other departments in areas relating to the management of employees


Advises on industrial relations, collective bargaining and grievance handling

Assistance and Service

Renders secretarial and executive support services such as scrutinizing


applications, conducting tests and interviews, orientation and training
Conducts personal research and maintains personal records

Monitoring and control

Evaluates actual performance in the light of predetermined personnel policies


and procedures
Continually reviews the work

Managing Career
29

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


A Career is a sequence of position occupied by a person during the course of a lifetime.
Career Planning is important because the consequences of career success or failure and
closely linked to an individuals self-concept and identity, as well as with career and life
satisfaction.

Part IV

Facts
The Findings

30

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Findings from the


Research

31

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Errors
Criteria
Sample
Respondents
No-Response Error

Number

Percentage
15
15
0

100%
100%
0%

Measuring Self EsteemPart A


This part of the questionnaire was developed in order to measure the Self-Esteem at
individual level. This questionnaire was considered as Part A. It was referenced from the
course book (originally developed by A.H. Eagly). However the provided twenty
questions were cut down to ten, just to avoid respondents hesitation and the chance of
questions being overlapped.

Questions

1. How often do you have the feeling that there is nothing that you can do well?
2. When you talk in front of a group of people of your own age, how often do you feel
worried or afraid?
3. How often are you troubled with shyness?
4. How often do you feel inferior to most people you know?
5. How often do you worry about whether other people like to be with you?
6. How often do you feel that you have handled yourself well at a social gathering?
7. How often do you feel that you are a successful person?
8. How often do you feel sure of yourself when among strangers?
9. In general, how often do you feel confident about your abilities?
10. When you talk in front of a group of people of your own age, how often are you
pleased with your performance?

Scoring Criteria

The scoring was be done by simply adding the numbers provided in front of each
question. The scoring criteria was such that, higher the score the higher will be the SelfEsteem. For the first five questions the scoring will be simple, but for the last five
questions the criteria was inverted i.e. a 5 becomes 1, and a 4 becomes 2.

32

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Scores
The scoring of all the respondents can be viewed in tabular form as follows. For the
questions, please refer the appendices.
Respondent
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Max
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50
50

Q1
2
1
1
3
2
2
3
2
4
3
1
4
3
1
2

Q2
3
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
4
2
2
2
3
2
1

Part A - Self Esteem


Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7
1
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
2
4
2
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
1
4
1
3
3
2
3
2
4
4
1
1
4
3
3
2
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
3
3
1
4
2
4
4
2
3
2
4
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2

Q8
3
4
2
1
2
1
2
3
3
2
1
3
3
3
1

Q9
4
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1

Q10
1
2
3
4
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
2
2
1

Score
21
19
15
28
16
18
20
21
27
22
15
29
26
15
13

Per.
42%
38%
30%
56%
32%
36%
40%
42%
54%
44%
30%
58%
52%
30%
26%

Filtered Responses

The responses were filtered by creating five different categories i.e. below 30%, 30-50%,
50-60%, 60-70%, and above 70%.
Criteria
Below 30%
30 to 50%
50 to 60%
60 to 70%
Above 70%

Respondents

Percentage
1
10
4
0
0
15

7%
67%
27%
0%
0%
100%

Final Filter
The filtered responses then sub-merged in to three broad categories i.e. High SelfEsteem, Average Self-Esteem, and Low Self-Esteem. To do so, the first two categories
and the last two categories in the filtered responses were merged together.
Criteria
High SE
Average SE
Low SE

33

Respondents.

Percentage.
0
4
11
15

0%
27%
73%
100%

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Explanation
High Self-Esteem workforce is eventually found to be none. The main reasons of such
ambiguous are found to be:
1- Most of the workforce is unaware of the concept of self.
2- Low motivational effort at the managements side.
3- Underestimation of the concept of Self-Esteem from the management.
4- The HRM policy dictates about the three perspectives of career management i.e.
Individual focusing on themselves, Organization focusing on individual, and
Organization focusing on their own maintenance and growth. Although the third
part is being fulfilled by the management but there is a lack of physical efforts seen
for the first and second components.
5- The upbringing of the civilians of a third world country is such that, there is less or
no effort either at the guardians or at the teachers end to create and develop the
concept of self in young minds. These two are the key players in the upbringing of an
immature personality to a mature one.

Measuring Job SatisfactionPart B


This part of the questionnaire was developed in order to gauge the level of job
satisfaction at individual level. Measuring job satisfaction is not possible in a nonstipulated environment, because there are many variables and factors have influence
over it. Not all the variables can be accessed and manipulated at the same time and at
one study setting. However, to take a brief idea about the job satisfaction a non-tested
questionnaire was developed in which only few aspects are covered, while considering
others as constant.
This questionnaire was considered as Part B. It was developed through brainstorming of
the group members. However the course book was used as a reference which provided
me the key influencers acting over job satisfaction. These influencers include wok
conditions, pay scale, co-workers, job placement, personal development, job enrichment
opportunities etc.

Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Does your job involve any kind of decision making?


Do you think that your job is critical for the overall production process?
Do you consider yourself a responsible production worker?
Do you think that your job is a routine work?
Do you think that your job is a challenging one?
Do you think that the type of job assigned to you helped you in developing yourself?
Do you think that your pay is according to your job?
Do you think that there is another job placement within the company for which you
are suitable?
9. Are you not satisfied with the working conditions that are provided around you?
34

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


10. Do you feel uncomfortable with your colleagues or the other production workers
around you?

Responses
Part B - Job Satisfaction
Q1
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
1
2
4
1
7
15

Per.

Q2
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
2
8
1
1
15

Per.
20%
13%
53%
7%
7%
100%

Q3
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
5
5
2
0
15

Per.
20%
33%
33%
13%
0%
100%

Q4
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
9
4
2
0
0
15

Per.
60%
27%
13%
0%
0%
100%

Q5
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
0
2
5
3
5
15

Per.

Q6
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
1
1
8
2
3
15

Per.

Q7
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
0
1
2
8
4
15

Per.

Q8
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
3
6
2
1
15

Per.
20%
20%
40%
13%
7%
100%

Q9
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
2
5
4
2
2
15

Per.
13%
33%
27%
13%
13%
100%

Q10
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
4
3
6
1
1
15

Per.
27%
20%
40%
7%
7%
100%

35

7%
13%
27%
7%
47%
100%

0%
13%
33%
20%
33%
100%

0%
7%
13%
53%
27%
100%

7%
7%
53%
13%
20%
100%

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Explanation
From the above data we can manipulate the job satisfaction of employee. As self esteem
is directly co related with the job satisfaction and productivity, we can say that self
esteem is the byproduct of both. High self esteem or low self esteem has its direct impact
on satisfaction.
From the data gathered through the questionnaire about job satisfaction it is clearly
reveal that employee with low self esteem has lack of interest in the job. From my
research it is concluded that:
People of NADRA think any kind of decision making is not given to them
Employee thought neutral about job importance, their job characterized by careful
evaluation and judgment
They consider themselves a responsible worker.
They think about their job is a routine job.
Which is not a challenging one, but on the other way some of 33% think neutral.
Employee perceived their job is a developing one that Grow, progress, unfold, or evolve
through a process of evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive
environment.
Only the 7% employees are satisfied with the pay and the remaining think pay is not
according to their job.
There will be another job placement within the company for which they are suitable
according to some employee.
All employees are not satisfied with the working conditions of NADRA.
They feel uncomfortable while working there.

36

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Part V

Finale
The Conclusions

37

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Conclusions

38

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


Businesses have searched widely for the competitive advantage, the best equipment, the
most powerful computer, or the latest business technique. These devices provide only
temporary solutions. The true competitive advantage is motivated, self-esteemed and
professional people proudly working together, contributing vitality and energy toward
the goals of the enterprise.
A worker with strong belief in self will be more satisfied with his job and as a result
contribute vitality and energy to the organization, infusing the organization with
tremendous productivity and a competitive edge all the while providing a valuable
service or product for the business and its customers. Organizations that decide to
become proactive in transforming their work environments into employee-friendly
places will likely sail toward a rewarding future. For those who refuse to change,
thinking their organizations are too sound to run aground, disaster may not be far off.
Thus, we can conclude that the workforce with high level of Self-Esteem and strong selfimage are more satisfied with their jobs and in turn are more productive. People need to
grow, they need to remain competitive. So, managers especially those who are
managing production workers should change their traditional bossy attitudes and try to
recognize the importance of individuals belief, helping them to raise their Self-Esteem,
promoting them to in a way that they feel satisfied with the job assigned to them.
Psychological research published during 1999 found that staff with low self-esteem is
more likely to be more adversely affected by under-reward, which can in turn lead to a
higher predisposition to turnover. Here this point is worth mentioning that the low SelfEsteem leads to job dissatisfaction which in turn may lead to employee turnover. It is
not correct to establish a direct relationship between Self-Esteem and job satisfaction,
but it acts as one of the contributing factor.

39

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Recommendations and
Suggestions

40

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

To the Employers
I would like to provide following suggestions to the employers or managers of
companies:

Explain the big picture for the company and how this influences their employment
and growth
Provide feedback on the employees performance. Be specific; mention a particular
situation or activity
Make sure they understand the companys expectations
Involve the employee in the decision-making process whenever possible
Listen to their ideas and suggestions
Give them room to do the job without unnecessary restrictions
Pay for employees to attend workshops and seminars
Offer on-site classes where employees can learn new skills or improve upon old ones
Make them realize that they are significant for the organization
Challenge them with lots of responsibility
Assign them a coach or mentor to help them in developing their carrier
Help them in developing their self-image
Make them realize that their job is not just a routine work

Increasing Self-Esteem in workers


A work environment that attracts, keeps, and motivates its workforce is one that gives
workers a sense of pride and purpose in what they do. The most successful businesses
are those that provide motivating environments. Managers have the sole responsibility
for creating this work environment. It is up to them to provide the leadership and set the
tone for the rest of the organization. Managers can improve their leadership position
and help individuals in building the self image by following the five-step PRIDE model
P
R
I
D
E

Provide a positive working environment


Recognize, reinforce, and reward everyones efforts
Involve everyone
Develop skills and potential
Evaluate for continuous improvement

In short, we would like to say that try to create a work environment where people enjoy
what they do, feel like they have a purpose, and feel they are reaching their potential. It
requires more time, more skills, and managers who care about people. It requires true
leadership.

41

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

To the Upcoming Researchers


As a matter of fact that there was not enough time to touch every aspect of this research
hence there is a room for the forthcoming researchers to identify and resolve other areas
of related study. Therefore, We would like to deliver a message to the forthcoming
researchers of this field in the words of Sir Henry George.

Although, every bit of the progress and


advancement makes sharper the
contest between the house of have and
the house of want, even then progress is
not real and cannot be permanent.

42

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Limitations and Problems


faced during Research

43

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


The nature of the topic was such that it needed sufficient time to be completed.
Therefore, one of the many factors that hindered the practice of this research was time,
which was the most important and pivotal among all other factors that caused problems
during the research and hence limited the scope of the research. Despite of these known
difficulties and problems, we chose to work for it because

The best way out of a difficulty is through it.


It is due to the factor of time that we have limited our research only to the Self-Esteem
of production workers employed by the company. Moreover, many other important
aspects related to this research remained untouched but still this work has provided a
platform to the upcoming researchers to take a start from.
Although the sample size was too small to generalize the results over the whole
population but the responses given by the respondents to each question were very much
similar. Therefore the results of this research could be generalized over the whole
population and hence this research work could be considered a success, as the main goal
has been achieved. Nevertheless, still the chances of having biases in this research
cannot be neglected since the sampling technique was non-probabilistic convenient
sampling.

44

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

References
1. Stephan P. Robbins, (2000), Organizational Behavior, Ninth Edition:
Prentice Hall.
2. Fred Luthans, (2002), Organizational Behavior, 9th Edition: McGraw-Hill
Education
3. Bruce, Anne, and Pepitone, James S. (1999), self esteem in Employees. New
York: McGraw-Hill.
4. Daft, Richard L. (1997), Management, 4th ed. Orlando, Fl.: Harcourt Brace.
5. A.H. Eagly. (1998), Toward a Psychology of Being, 3d Ed. New York: Wiley.
6. McCoy, Thomas J. (1992), job satisfaction: Maximizing Employee
Performance. New York: AMACOM, a division of American Management
Association.
7. Petri, Herbert L. (1996), Self esteem: Theory, Research, and Applications,
4th ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
8. Quick, Thomas L. (1985), The Manager's Desk Book, New York: Wiley.
9. Dean Mcfarlin, self esteem in employees is not a one-time deal in Dayton
Business Journal, (2007, September 26)
10. productivity by Imran Naseem - 19/10/2005
11. www.wikipedia.org
12. www.nadra.gov.pk

45

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Appendices

46

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

RESEARCH
PROPOSAL

Proposal for Final Report


Topic: Self-Esteem & Job Satisfaction

About the Topic


Self-esteem is a reflection of a person's overall evaluation or appraisal of his
or her own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am
competent" or "I am incompetent") and emotions such as triumph, despair,
pride and shame. Self-esteem can apply specifically (for example, "I believe I
am a good person, and feel proud of myself in general").Self-esteem is based
on feeling of pride in yourself. To the some extent your self-image, a mental
'picture' of yourself, describing what sort of person you think you are.
It helps you to make sense of your experience and evaluate it and to organize
and control how you behave. Your self-image is "reflexive" meaning that it is
the cumulative effect of reactions from others that provides the basis of what
kind of person you think you are. It is also based on how well you cope with
situations.
Psychological researchers have found that:
Staff with low Self-Esteem is more likely to be more adversely affected by
Job dissatisfaction, which can in turn lead to a higher predisposition to
Turnover

47

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Research Objectives
1. To find out the effects of Self-Esteem on job satisfaction?
2. To determine if people with HIGH self esteem are more satisfied with their
job than those with LOW Self-Esteem?
3. Effects of self esteem among employees on overall productivity of the
organization?

Research Scope
I will carry out this research through qualitative and quantitative means. For
this purpose I have selected a government organization named NADRA . It is
basically a chemical manufacturing company, which supplies raw material to
its customer. It is an innovative company with a competitive advantage in
terms of cost leadership.
It enjoys a good reputation with its customers and is largely through of as
synonymous with quality. In 1998 it added to its strength by the takeover of
HOECHST Company adding to its economies through synergies.

Research methodologies
Cost is one main factor which prohibits the study of entire population.
Therefore a subset from the population will be used to make inferences about
the same population.
A sample size of 20 respondents 15 (regular) members of the production
team and 5 management personnel is considered to be appropriate. The
number of total employees in the production department being 50 (Amongst
those 50 employees, 30 workers are involved in production, and rest of the 20
employees includes management team and other staff.) The Sampling
Technique which I will use is non-probability convenience sampling.

48

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Data Collection Techniques:


Two methods of data collection will be used in this research and are described
below:
Primary Data is related to first hand information. In this study primary data
will be collected through personal interviews from management which
includes 15 questions and a questionnaire having almost 20 questions with
employee. This questionnaire is based on rating scale that is LIKERT scale.
The main purpose of the primary data is to gauge the level of Self-Esteem in
the employees at NADRA and then its Effects on overall organizational
productivity.
Secondary Data will be collected through Literature Survey done by reading
various research papers and books available online.

Expected Findings
To study the Self-Esteem of workers
To suggest the positive effect of individuals Self-Esteem over JobSatisfaction
To propose suggestions that help managers in increasing the level of SelfEsteem of their workforce so that it can help in increasing the productivity
To form the basis for further study and research in the subject area

Estimations
My research will take approximately three month to be completed, keeping
the other external factors (strikes, shutdowns etc.) constant.

49

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


Dear Respondent,
I am the student of IBA, conducting an organizational research about
employees Self-Esteem and its effect on Job Satisfaction. So, in this regard
you are required to fill up the following questionnaire. Please be honest while
filling the questionnaire. Your cooperation will highly be appreciated.
Regards
Name:

Designation:

Part A Self Esteem


Instructions:
Circle the number which best describes you, in front of each question with
respect to the following ranking scale.
12345-

Very often
Fairly often
Sometimes
Once in a great while
Practically never

1. How often do you have the feeling that there is


nothing that you can do well?
2
3

2. When you talk in front of a group of people of your


own age, how often do you feel worried or afraid?
2 3
4
3. How often are you troubled with shyness?
2 3

4. How often do you feel inferior to most people you


know?
2 3
4
5. How often do you worry about whether other people
like to be with you?
2 3
4

50

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


6. How often do you feel that you have handled
yourself well at a social gathering?
2 3

7. How often do you feel that you are a successful


person?
2 3
4
8. How often do you feel sure of yourself when among
strangers?
2 3
4
9. In general, how often do you feel confident about
your abilities?
2 3
4
10. When you talk in front of a group of people of your
own age, how often are you pleased with your
performance?
2
3
5

Part B Job Satisfaction


Instructions:
Circle the number which best describes your job, in front of each question
with respect to the following ranking scale.
12345-

Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

11.
Do your job involve any kind of decision making?
2
3
5
12.
51

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


Do you think that your job is critical for the overall
production process?
2
3
5
13.
Do you consider yourself a responsible production
worker?
2
3
5
14.
Do you think that your job is a routine work?
2
5

15.
Do you think that your job is a challenging one?
2
3
5
16.
Do you think that the type of job assigned to you
helped you in developing yourself?
2
3
5
17.
Do you think that your pay is according to your job?
2
3
5
18.
Do you think that there is another job placement
within the company for which you are suitable?
2
3
5
19.
\
Are you not satisfied with the working conditions that
are provided around you?
2
3
5
52

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

20. Do you feel uncomfortable with your colleagues or the


other production workers around you?
2
3
5

Thank you, for Filling up this Questionnaire.


It was really difficult to conduct this survey without your cooperation.
Comments:

53

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Interview Queue Sheet


1. What kind of role do you think; the Human Resource Management
Department is responsible to play?
2. What policies does your human resource department define?
3. Do your management belief that the concept of Self-Esteem is vital for
the mental development of employee?
4. Do you think that Self-Esteem is one of the variables which have an effect
over job satisfaction?
5. Do you believe
productivity?

that

employee

job

satisfaction

leads

to

greater

6. Are you agreed with the fact that employee dissatisfaction towards job
leads to Neglecting job or even high level of employee turnover?
7. What efforts you have done so far to acknowledge the employee or help
them in acknowledging themselves?
8. What efforts you have done so far to develop a motivated workforce?
9. Do you think that you are successful in providing a reasonably good work
environment to the workers?
10. Do you think that your recruitment department fulfills the phrase
square pegs in square holes very well?
11. Do you think that workers have enough opportunities
enrichment as well as the job enlargement?

of job

12. Do you think that Self-Esteem cannot be developed in a mature mind


and it can only be developed during an individuals upbringing stage?
13. Do you think that your management has been successful in using the
existing diverse workforce for the betterment of individual?
14. Does your management has a policy of involving (at some extent)
workforce in the decision making process?

54

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA


15.

Do you think high self esteem of employees create a problem of selfobsession and prestige issues?

Responses

55

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Filtered Responses
Criteria

Respondents

Percentage

Below 30%

7%

30 to 50%

10

67%

50 to 60%

27%

60 to 70%

0%

Above 70%

0%

15

100%

56

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Final Filter

57

Criteria

Respondents.

Percentage.

High SE

0%

Average SE

27%

Low SE

11

73%

15

100%

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Part B - Job Satisfaction


Q1
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
1
2
4
1
7
15

Per.

Q2
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
2
8
1
1
15

Per.
20%
13%
53%
7%
7%
100%

Q3
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
5
5
2
0
15

Per.
20%
33%
33%
13%
0%
100%

Q4
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
9
4
2
0
0
15

Per.
60%
27%
13%
0%
0%
100%

Q5
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
0
2
5
3
5
15

Per.

Q6
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
1
1
8
2
3
15

Per.

Q7
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
0
1
2
8
4
15

Per.

Q8
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
3
3
6
2
1
15

Per.
20%
20%
40%
13%
7%
100%

Q9
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
2
5
4
2
2
15

Per.
13%
33%
27%
13%
13%
100%

Q10
Strongly Agreed
Agreed
Neutral
Disagreed
Strongly Disagreed

No.
4
3
6
1
1
15

Per.
27%
20%
40%
7%
7%
100%

58

7%
13%
27%
7%
47%
100%

0%
13%
33%
20%
33%
100%

0%
7%
13%
53%
27%
100%

7%
7%
53%
13%
20%
100%

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

Filtered Responses

59

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

60

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

61

SELF-ESTEEM & JOB SATISFACTION AT NADRA

62