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Nanotechnology :

Illusion or Opportunity
Applications to Human Needs
Prof. Elhadj DOGHECHE
Institute of Nanotechnology IEMN CNRS
University of Valenciennes France

Outlines

Presentation of Institute IEMN CNRS


Introduction to Nanotechnology
Applications to human needs
Nanotechnology into business
Conclusion

Introduction
The term nano derives from the Greek word nannos,
meaning very short man.
At its root, the prefix nano- refers to a scale of size in
the metric system. Nano is used in scientific units
to denote one-billionth (0.000 000 001) of the base
unit.

What is Nanotechnology ?
1987
The art and science of manipulating and
rearranging individual atoms to create useful materials, devices,
and systems
Smaller, harder, lighter, faster, cheaper..
Jack Uldrich, The Next Big Thing is Really Small How
Nanotechnology will Change the Future of your
Business, 2003
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Dimensions

Dimensions

Physical properties related to the size


CdSe

3 nm

CdSe

Nanoparticles
Fluorescence Color
defined by size

6 nm

Au

Nanotechnology - History

Future Nobel Price

Pre-history
1959: Richard Feynman:

The American physicist Richard Feynman lectured, "There's


Plenty of Room at the Bottom," at an American Physical Society
meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959, which is often held to
have provided inspiration for the field of nanotechnology.

Richard Feynman
Written with Dip-Pen Nanolithography

Nanotechnology : in the history

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Roman Glassmakers
Roman glassmakers, glasses containing
nanosized metal particles

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Damascus Sword
Nanotechnology in steel, Carbon Nanotubes
The Damascus swords of the Middle East were legendarily
sharp, strong and flexible. Now, an analysis of one of
these weapons under an electron microscope reveals that
the key to its properties is nanotechnology, inadvertently
used by blacksmiths centuries before modern science

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Nanoparticles : History
LES NANOPARTICULES:
Nanoparticules

L'annonciation de Linard Gontier. Chapelle des


catchismes, mdaillon en grisaille (PbO+

PbO NP for yellow


Oxyde
mtallique
colorant)
et jaune
+ Silver
NP for
red on
glass
d'argent chlorure et sulfure d'argent
dans de l'ocre rouge ) sur verre blanc.

Moyen-age
Dans lHistoire
Middle
Age in Europe

Baie 49, le pressoir mystique de


Linard Gontier. Les carnations des
personnages sont faits la

Blood solutions

sanguine (hematite).

Nanotechology imitates nature


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=pla
yer_detailpage&v=nAg_FuG_4XE

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Nanoparticle in the nature


Magnetostatic Bacterial

Synthesize
magnetite
(Fe3O4) 50 nm
Magnetite (Fe3O4) in its
brain

Nanotechnology in the nature

Surface treatment by
nanotechnology process

Nanostructured Surface Super Hydrophobe

Grass from Nanowires


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Renewable Energy

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Photovoltaic Solar Cells

Actual cost :
1500 Euros / m2
Future is on flexible
- mobile solutions

Solar Cells
Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Improved efficiencies: novel
nanomaterials can harness
more of the suns energy
Lower costs: some novel
nanomaterials can be made
cheaper than alternatives
Flexibility: thin film flexible
polymers can be manipulated
to generate electricity from the
suns energy
Basma El Zein PhD topics

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Building integrated Photovoltaic

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Water disalination , using Nanotechnology

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Water Desalination by membranes

Nanofiltration

Nanopores

Between ultrafiltration and inverse osmose


Applications: treatment of water
- Disalination of sea ressources
- Adoucissement of water

Water Purification
Nanotechnology enhancements will provide:
Easier contamination removal:
filters made of nanofibers that can
remove small contaminants
Improved desalination methods:
nanoparticles
or
nanotubes
membranes that allow only pure
water to pass through
Lower costs
Lower energy use

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Water Story
The nanostructuration of the surface
provides to water extrordinary properties

Application : for Glass


Can block UV & glare
Self-cleaning glass coated (titanium dioxide coating breaks down organic matter

Switch able Glass

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Morphology of a Glass Surface

Nanostructured Surface Super Hydrophobe

Grass from Nanowires

Application Domain for Nanotechnology

Materials and fabrication


Nanoparticules, nanostructuration of surface..
Communications, treatment of information
Nanoelectronic, spintronic, NTC.
Biology- health
Nanoparticules, administration of medicine, biomaterials, lab on
chip, bioelectronic.
Environnment and energy
Battery, LED, solar cells

Nanomaterials / nanoproducts commercialized

Cosmtiques
Anti UV
TiO2
Matriaux
plus
rsistants,
lgers

Applications
mdicales

Traitement
deau

Surfaces
antimicrobiennes

Circuits lectroniques
plus rapides
Surfaces autonettoyantes

Les nanomatriaux :
exemples dapplications existantes (4/4)

Les nanotubes de carbone : applications dans les composites.


Raquette
de tennis
Pare choc

2004

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Carbon Nanotube

Diameter
Length
Density

1 10 nanometres
1-100 microns
: # 2,0 g / cm3

Specific Surface

:
: 100-250
m / g
-

Mecanical propertiesModule dYoung +1TPa


Thermal conductivity

Idem diamant

NanoSilver : anti Bacterial Properties

How Does Technology Address Human


Needs and Wants?

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Some Current Applications


of Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology in Construction
NANOHOUSE (University of Sydney)
The idea of this project is to implement products of nanotechnology into
a smart house that fits needs of a modern family. Authors are
incorporating already existing, commercially available products as well
as prototypes of recent developments.
The emphasis is on energy efficiency due to reduction of the solar heat
gain.

SELF-HEALING HOUSE (University of Leeds)


The aim is to design a high-tech villa in Greece that will be capable of resisting
earthquakes due to nano polymer particles which will liquefy under pressure,
flow into cracks and harden to form a solid material.
Walls will also contain wireless, battery-less sensors which will collect data
about stresses, vibrations, temperature etc., and set off the alarm in the case of
the earthquake.

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Computing
Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Faster processing speeds:
miniaturization allows more transistors
to be packed on a computer
chip(optoelectronics)
More memory: nanosized features on
memory chips allow more information
to be stored (nanodots)
Thermal management solutions for
electronics: novel carbon-based
nanomaterials carry away heat
generated by sensitive electronics
Improved security( quantum
cryptography)
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Quantum computing
Quantum computing is the area of study focused on developing computer
technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the
nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum (atomic and
subatomic) level.
Quantum computers, which have not been built yet, would be based on
the strange principles of quantum mechanics, in which the smallest
particles of light and matter can be in different places at the same time.
In a quantum computer, one "qubit" quantum bit could be both 0 and
1 at the same time. So with three qubits of data, a quantum computer
could store all eight combinations of 0 and 1 simultaneously. That means
a three-qubit quantum computer could calculate eight times faster than a
three-bit digital computer. Typical personal computers today calculate 64
bits of data at a time. A quantum computer with 64 qubits would be 2 to
the 64th power faster, or about 18 billion billion times faster. (Note:
billion billion is correct.). Quantum computers have the potential to
perform certain calculations significantly faster than any silicon-based
computer.
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Clothing
Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Anti-odor properties: silver nanoparticles
embedded in textiles kill odor causing
bacteria
Stain-resistance: nanofiber coatings on
textiles stop liquids from penetrating
Moisture control: novel nanomaterials on
fabrics absorb perspiration and wick it
away
UV protection: titanium nanoparticles
embedded in textiles inhibit UV rays from
penetrating through fabric

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Batteries
Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Higher energy storage capacity and quicker
recharge: nanoparticles or nanotubes on
electrodes provide high surface area and
allow more current to flow
Longer life: nanoparticles on electrodes
prevent electrolytes from degrading so
batteries can be recharged over and over
A safer alternative: novel nano-enhanced
electrodes can be less flammable, costly
and toxic than conventional electrodes

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Sporting Goods and Equipment


Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Increased strength of materials:
novel carbon nanofiber or
nanotube-based
nanocomposites give the player a
stronger swing
Lighter weight materials:
nanocomposites are typically
lighter weight than their
macroscale counterparts
More perfect fabrication of materials: controlling material
characteristics at the nanoscale helps ensure that a ball flies
in the direction of applied force and/or reduces the chance
for fracture of equipment
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Cars
Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Increased strength of materials:
novel carbon nanofiber or
nanotube nanocomposites are
used in car bumpers, cargo liners
and as step-assists for vans
Lighter weight materials:
lightweight nanocomposites
mean less fuel is used to make
the car go

Nanogate

Control of surface characteristics: nanoscale thin films can be


applied for optical control of glass, water repellency of
windshields and to repair of nicks/scratches
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Food and Beverage


Nanotechnology enhancements provide:
Better, more environmentally
friendly adhesives for fast food
containers: biopolymer
nanospheres instantly tack
surfaces together
Anti-bacterial properties: Nano
silver coatings on kitchen tools
and counter-tops kill
bacteria/microbes
Improved barrier properties for carbonated beverages
or packaged foods: nanocomposites slow down the
flow of gas or water vapor across the container,
increasing shelf life
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Whos involved in nano?

Kraft
Nestle
Unilever
Pepsi Co.
Cargill
Mars

For more information visit


http://nano.foe.org.au

Coatings & Paints


Nano particles enhance physical and aesthetic qualities
Hard, durable finish
Excellent water resistance
Scrub-ability
Stain blocking and other properties

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Insulation
Aerogel, a translucent thermal-acoustic
insulator
Looks like frozen smoke
Best insulating solid in the world
Weighs only 90 grams per litre
Extremely flexible
- blankets, beads, sheets

The new plastic*


*Not reallyits amporphous silica (sand)
An aerogel is an open-celled, mesoporous, solid foam that is
composed of a network of interconnected nanostructures
and that exhibits a porosity (non-solid volume) of no less
than 50%.
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Video on coating
Video on sensors
Code for 'Unbreakable' Quantum Encryption
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3DGlEvC7
8iE&feature=related

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The time to start watching how companies are investing


in and deploying nanotech wont come in some
distant future . . . that time is now!
Lux Research

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Nanotechnology into business


bridging the gap between lab based and
industrial applications in nanotechnology by
creating a wide approach and mechanisms for
lowering the barriers and spreading best open
innovation practices for rapid commercialization
and investment in innovative nanotechnology
driven products

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Technology based Economic


Development Approach

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New jobs , New companies ,


and the nanotechnology economy

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Questions

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Thank you

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