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# CHAPTER XIV: Transmission Lines

QUESTIONS:
What do you call of the medium or a channel where a signal can
proceed from transmitter to receiver by a variety of means,
including metallic cable, optical fiber, and radio transmission.
We begin with a mettalic cable, which is referred to as a _____?
What do you call of the two conductors are concentric and are
separated by an insulating dielectric?
Coaxial cables are referred to as ______ because of their lack
of sysmetry with respectto the ground (usually the outer
conductor is grounded).
______ in which the amount of solid dielectric is greatly reduced,
with only a few spacers being required to separate the conductor.

## What increases as the frequency increase?

It explains why hollow tubing works just as a solid conductor
for such applications as television antennas and the coils in
radio transmitter for VHF and higher frequencies.
As the frequency increases, the inctance and capacitance begin
to have an effect. The higher the frequency, the ____ the series
inductive reactance and the _____ the parallel capacitive
reactance.
What do you call of the line that is often possible at high
frequencies to simplify calculations by neglecting the resistive
elements and considiering only the inductance and capacitance?
What do you call of the ratio of the voltage to current in transmission lines?
What is the other name for Characteristic impedance?
A transmission line that is terminated in its characteristic
impedance is called?
What gives a characteristic impedance that is a real number
and does not depend on frequency but only on such
characteristic as geometry of the line and the permitivity of the
dielectric?
What do you call of the signal that varies from about 66%
of the speed of the light for coaxial cable with solid polyethylene
dielectric to 78% for polyethylene foam dielectric to about 95%
for air-dielectric cable?
When a voltage is connected across an open-circuited line, the
voltage across the line becomes?
A line that is terminated by the impedance other than Zo is said
to be?
What is usually referred to as the reflection coefficient?
For an open wire line what is the reflection coefficient?
For an shot circuited line what is the reflection coefficient?
What is the leght of line L that causes delay of one period?
The interaction which are both travelling
waves, causes what appears to be astationary pattern waves
on the line. It is customary to call these ______ because of the
appearance?
What do you call ot the ratio of the masimum voltage to the
minimum voltage?
For a matched line, the SWR is _____ (sometimes expressed
as _____ to emphasize that it is a ratio)
what is referred to as the power reflection coefficient?
For short lenghts (less than one quarter wavelenght or 90),
the impedance is _____.
At one quarter wavelenght the line looks like an _____.

Transmission Lines

coaxial lines
unbalanced lines

open-wire line
*=-they can use to provide phase
shifts and time delays and to
match impedances.
*- can be used as a filter or as a
tuned circuit in a receiver or
transmitter stage.
resistance
skin effect

larger, lower

lossless line

Characteristic impedance
surge impedance
matched line
high frequency model of
transmission lines

propagation velovity
of a signal
equal to the source voltage
and current becomes zero.
mismatched line

=1
= -1
wavelegth

standing wave

## standing wave ratio

1
1:01
2
inductive
open circuited

QUESTIONS:
For the lenghts between one-quarter and one-half wavelength, the
line is _____ since the tangent of the corresponding angle
is negative.
At exactly one-quarter wavelength, the line behaves as _____.
What can be substituted for a capacitors, inductors or tuned
circuits applications where lumped constanst components (conventional inductors or capacitors) would be inconvenient or
impratical?
_____ increases with frequency due to the skin effect, which
causes the resistance of the conductors to rise as the frequency
increases.
_____ of energy no only contributes to the cable loss but can
also be interference and crosstalk. Any cable that radiates
_____ are usually given in decibel per 100 feet or per 100 meters.
A ______ in a feedline between a transmitter andits antenna
means that only one-half the transmitter power actually reaches
the antenna.
A impedance of _____ is more common in transmitting applications qhile an impedance of _____ is used with television
antennas and cable-TV system, where power levels are low.
When either the load or the line is unbalanced, and the other
is balanced, it is highly desirableto intall a device called?
What measures complex funtions, that also tend to use this
display format?
What can be used to match impedances, provided the load
impedance is the real at the point where it is inserted?
_____ are usually toroidal, using ferrite or powdered iron cores.
Transformer are also useful for connecting balanced lines to
unbalanced lines, since there is no electrical connection
between windings. A transformer used this way is called?
A _____ ofa transmission line can also be used as a transormer.
What is the most important use of the TDR?
What is a very straight forward way of conducting transmission
line measurements?
What do you call of the device that allows the measurement of
power moving along the line in each direction, that it is possible
to measure incident and reflected power separately?
What do you call of the device that allows power to be measured
in either direction by simply turning a removable element?
Any pair of a conductor can act as a ______.
Any transmission line has a ______ determined by its geometry
and dielectric. If a transmission line is terminated by an
impedance that is different from I, and part of the signal travelling
down the line will be reflected. Usually, this is undesirable.
Reflections on lines are characterized by the ______ and _____.
the latter is easier to measure. A matched line has a reflection
coeeficient of _____ and SWR of 1.
Lines that are tern\minated by either a short or open circuit can
be used as ______ or as either _____ or _____ depending
on their length.
What can be used to matched the lines?
What aloows grahical transmission line calculations and shows
transmission line parameters in a intuitive way?
Most transmission lines calculation are now done using special
_____.
Specialized test equipment used with transmission lines include
_____, _____, and _____ meters
What is a device for coupling balanced and unbalanced lines?

capacitive
parallel- resonant circuit.
stub

I2 R

transmission line losses
3 dB

50
75
balun network
network analyzer
transformer
FR transformer
balun transformer
or balun
one-quarter wavelenght
*-to determine the position
and type defect on a line
Slotted line
directional coupler

## Bird Thruline meter

transmission line

Characteristic impedance
reflection coefficient and
standing wave
0
reactances,
series
parallel- resonant circuit
lumped constant
transmission line transformer
shorted stubs
Smith Chart
computer programs
slotted line,
time-domain reflectometer
SWR meter
balun

QUESTIONS:
It is the ratio between voltage and current on an infinitely long
transmission line.
What is a transmission line containing concentric conductors?
What is a transmission line containing parallel conductors
separately by spacers?
What do you call ot the speed of the signals travel down a transmission lines?
It is a section of a transmission line, electrically a quarter
wavelenght in length, that is used to changed impedances
on a transmission lines.
What is the ratio of reflectedto incident voltage on a transmission
lines?
What is a graphical transmission line calculator?
What is the ratio of maximum to minimum voltage on a
transmission line.?
What so you call ot a short section of a line, usually shortcircuited at one end, used for impedance matching?
Any pair of conductors used to conductelectrical energy.
It is the ratio of the speed of the propagation on a line to that
of light in free space.

Characteristic impedance
coaxial line
open-wire line
propagation velocity
quarter-wave transformer

relection coefficient
Smith Chart
Standing Wave ratio
stub
transmission lines
velocity factor

QUESTIONS:
In _____, _____ demostrated transmission from one sparks gap
to another and also showed the presence of standing wave.
_____ are one form of electromagnetic radiation.
What are the other forms of radio wave?
It means that the electric field, the magnetic filed, and the
direction of travel of the wave are all mutually perpendicular.
The speed of _____ of an electromagnetic wave in free space is
the same as that of light, approximately _____.
What do you call of the ratio of electric field intensity and the
magnetic filed intensity?
What do you call of the surface on which, all the waves have the
same phase, would be the surface of a sphere. Such a source,
is called?
The _____ is a plane wave simply the direction of its electric
field vectors.
The wave can rotote in either direction it is called?
There is no loss of energy in free space, but there is definitely
_____ due to the spreading of waves?
What are the two important characteristic of antenna?
What do you call of the negative gain?
What are the other name for loss?
What do you call of the reflection of the plane waves from a
smooth surface?
What is perpendicular to the reflective surface?
Any plane wave entering along the axis of the antenna will be
reflected in such a way that all of its energy passes through a
single point called the _____ of the reflector.
The more important ______ modes, proceeding roughly in
order of frequency, from low to high.
What is the other name for line-of-sight?
It is vertically polarized that follows the ground and can therefore
afollow the curvature of the earth to propagate far beyond horizon.
Long-range communication in the high-frequency band is
possible because of the refraction in a region of the upper
atmosphere called?
_____ provides very reliable communication that is almost
independent of weather and solar activity.
The ionospher layer vary in height from about ____ to ____ above
the earths surface, while the radiusof the earth is approximately
______.
What are the 3 regions of the ionosphere?
The levelof ionization increases with the height above the earth
and is greater in _____?
At _____, when the solar radiation is not received, the D and E
regions dissapear and the F1 and F2, layer combine into a single
F layer.
Ionization level change with the amount of solar activity, which
caries greatly over an 11-year cycle known as the _____ .
The _____ frequency, the more ionization is necessary for
refraction.

1887
Heinrich R. Hertz
infrared, visible light
ultraviolet, X rays, and
gamma rays
TEM
Transverse Electromagnetic
Waves
propagation
3x10 6 m/s
Characteristic impedance
wave front

polarization
right-handed
attenuation
gain and effective area
loss
free space loss
or path loss
specular reflection
normal
focus

terrestrial propagation
space-wave propagation
ground wave
ionosphere

Ground Waves
60-400 Km
6400 Km
D layer
F layer
E layer
daytime
night

sunspot cycle
higher

## In the daytime, the D and Elayer absorbs frequencies below

around ___ to ____.
At night, the D and E layer virtually disappear, allowing lower
frequencies to reach the _____ without being absorb.

QUESTIONS:
It transmit on a number of different frequencies that span the
HF spectrum, in the hope that atr least one of these will work
at a given time.
what can be used to make some measurements on which to the
base propagation predictions?
What is the highest frequency that is returned to the earth in a
vertical direction?
What do you call of the highest frequency that returns to earth
over a given path?
What is the lowest layer of the ionosphere?
When the surface is highly reflective, the reduction in signal
strenght can be _____ or more. This effect is called fading.
Fading can be reduced by using either _____?
There may not only phase cancellation but also significant time
differences between the direct and reflected waves. These can
cause type of distortion called?
What is the cellphone range?
In a typical steel-reinforced concrete officebuilding, _____ if
the user is near the window facing the base station.
As the mobile user travels through the environment, the signal
strenght tends to _____ and _____ as the mobile moves
between areas of constructive and destructive interference.
What must transmit and receivesimultaneously on at least two
frequencies?
Normally the same antenna is used for both transmitting and
receiving,and Q filter a _____ , using resonant cavities, is used
to separate the transmit and receive frequecies.
What do you call of the interference from the transmitter on the
same frequency in otherv cells-is the range-limiting factor?
The number ofcells required isinversely proportional ________?
A typical portable cell phone produces about _____ .
_____ of the conventional type, where two channels are used
in place of one in each direction, is similar impractical.
What do you call of the receiver that can receive several data
streams at once?
Usually this consist of positioning two receiving antennas at the
base station (two per sector in a sectorized system), though it
is possible to use space diversity on a vehicle by installing an
antenna at each end.
What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?
_____ can give reliable communication overdistance of about
80 to 800 Kmatfrequencies from about 250 MHz to around GHz.
Toposcatter can operate at much greater range than _____
communication, thus reducing the requirement for repeater
station.
One with refractive index.
What is not reliable enough for commercial use. In fact, it is
more likely caused problems?
What are constantly entering the earth's atmosphere and being
destroyed because of the heat generated by the friction with
the air?
Radio waves are ____ electromagnetic waves, very similar
except for frequency, to light waves.
What is the ratio of the electrical and magnetic field atrenghts
in that medium?
What is the impedance of the free space?

8-10 MHz
F layer

frequency diversity

Ionospheric sounding
crtical frequency
MUF
Maximum Usable Frequency
troposphere
20 dB
frequency diversity or
spatial diversity
multipath distortion
20 dB at 800MHz
increase
decrease
repeater
duplexer

cochannel interference
700mW of RF power
frequency diversity
Space diversity

troposphere
Troposcatter
line-of-sight
superrefractive layer
ducting
Meteors

transverse
impedance
377

## What is the direction of its electric field vector?

_____, _____ and _____ occur with radio waves just as they do
with light; the rules are similar to those of light.
What gives a result over a long distances for signals in the
MF range and below?
It is relatively relatively unreliable and noisy but achievers worl
wide communication in th HF range.

QUESTIONS:
It is a system most commonly used at VHF and above. The
radio range is actually somewhat greater than the visible range;
it is very independent on the height of the transmitting and
receiving antennas.
What can be used to extend the range of line-of-sight communication systems?
It is used as low a power level as possible to allow frequency
reuse.
What do you call of the reduction in signal strenght due to
spreading of the waves at a distance from the transmitter?
What is the magnitude of the electric filed required to cause
breakdown and arcing in a dielectric?
What is a means ofpropagation in which the waves are confined
within a refractive region of the troposphere or between such a
region and the ground?
What is a device that allows a transmitter and receiver; operating
at different frequencies, to be connected to the same antenna
and operate simultaneously?
What is the area from which a receiving antenna can be
considered to extract all the energy in an electromagnetic wave?
What is the ratio of the electric force on a charge to the change,
at a given point (units are volts per meter)?
A vacuum that allows radio waves to propagate without any
obstruction?
It is vertically polarized electromagnetic wave tht propoagates
along the surface of the earth.
What is the ratio of the phase velocity of a wave in free space
to that in the medium under consideration?
What is the ionized region of the earth?
What is a hypothetical antenna having zero physical size and
no loss and radiating equally in all directions?
What is the magnitude of the magnetic field vector (units are
amperes permeter)?
What is the highest frequency that will be returned by the
ionosphere at a given point?
It is the changes to the baseband caused by multipath
reception.
It is a situation in which a signal arrives at a reciving antenna
via two or more paths ( usually one of these paths is direct from
the transmitting antenna and the other(s) involvesreflections).
It is a line drawn perpendicular to the interface between two
media.
What is the ratio between the signal appearing antenna terminal
and that at the receiving antenna terminals?
It is a quantum of electromagnetic radiation?
It is a direction of the electric filed vector of an electromagnetic
wave.
The power flowing through aunit cross-sectional area normal
to the direction oftravel of an electromagnetic wave.
It is the process by which waves travel through a medium.
It is a receiver capable ofreceiving several versions of the same
signal with different arrival times, and combining the received
versions into a single signal with better quality.
In a cellular radio, the division of a cell into sectors by the use
of directional antennas at a single cell site.

polarization
reflection, refraction,
and diffraction
Ground wave propagation
Ionospheric propagation

Line-of-sight propagation

repeatears
Cellular systems
attenuation
of free space
dielectric strenght
ducting

duplex

effective area
electric field (or strenght)
free space
ground wave
index of refraction
ionosphere
magnetic field intensity
(or strenght)
MUF
maximum usable frequency
multipath distortion
multipath reception

normal
path loss
photon
polarization
power density
propagation

sectorization

## It is an electromagnetic wave that is returned to each by the

ionosphere.
What is an electromagnetic eave that is returned to earth by the
ionosphere?
It is the propagation along the near the surface of the earth.
what is the region of the atmosphere that is closest to the earth?

sky wave
space wave
terrestrial propagation
trosphere

## CHAPTER XVI: Antennas

QUESTIONS:
It is the interface between these two media and is thus a very
important part of communication path.
It is a combination of a receeving antenna with a low-noise
pre amplifier.
It serves as a way to described the functions of an antenna and
as a reference for other antennas.
It simply means it has two parts.
Ahalf-wavedipole is sometimes called ?
What refers to the dipole of infinistesimal length?
It is the potion of an antenna's input impedance that is due to
power radiated into a space known, appropriately, as?
_____ does not radiate uniformly in all directions.
What is the angle measured upward from the ground?
An observer must be far enough away from the antenna that any
local capacitive or inductive coupling is negligible.
The space close to the antenna is called the ______ and does
not have the same directiona characteristics.
The distance from the center graph represents the strenght of
the ______ in a given direction.
It is the gain calculated assuming a lossless antenna.
It is defined as the angle between its half-power points.
The half-wave dipole has a _____ of about 78 in one plane and
360 in the other.
It is generally expressed in dB,in which case it can be found by
subtacting the gain in dBi or dBd.
It is simply the actual power going into the antenna multiplied
by its gain with respect to an isotropic radiator.
It represents the power input multiplied by the antenna gain
measured with respect to a half-wave dipole.
A ______ is a balanced device, and should be used with a
balanced feedline.
If _____ is used, a balun (balanced-to-unbalanced) transformer
should be connected between the cable and the antenna.
It is the orientation of its electric field vector
What produces horizontally polarized waves?
It gives a vertical polarization.
This allows the impedance tobe adjusted to matched trasmssion
line.
Are complex because the characteristic of the ground are
so variable.
It is simple, useful, and very common, but it is by no means the
only type of antenna in use.
Fed at one end with an unbalanced feedline, with the ground
conductor of the feedline connected to a good earth ground.
What is the conductors buried in the ground and extending
outward from the antenna?
It can be a conductive sheet, but it is more likely to be
constructed of four or more metal rods radiating outward
from the base of the antenna and made at least as long as the

antennas
active antenna
dipole
hertzian antenna
Hertzian dipole
half-wave dipole
vertical angle
far-field region
near-field region
directivity
with of this beam
beam width
front-to-back ratio
EIRP
power
center-fed dipole
coaxial cable
horizontal antenna
vertical antenna
delta matched
Ground Effects
half-wave dipole
monopole antenna
ground plane

antenna itself.
It is characterized by a very wide bandwidth,covering
approximately a 10:1 frequency range, and an omnidirectional
pattern in the horizontal plane.
A course of spireal .
What is the other name for helical antenna?
It cancels the capacitive effect of the too-short antenna and,
when carefully adjusted, can result in an antenna that looks
electrically like quarter-wave monopole.
What are the classificationof arrays?
In a _____, all the elements are connected to the feedline.

QUESTIONS:
Since the transmitter can be said to drive each element
by supplying power, such arrays area also called _____.
Antennas that are knowing as parasitic arrays.
It is a half-wave dipole or folded dipole.
It is slightly longer than one-half wavelenght.
It is slightly shorter than reflector.
What is the spacing between the elemnts?
What arethe parts of yagi uda?
It also has a _____ at the sidesof the pattern and a lobe to the
back of the pattern.
It is the ratio in decibels between the power densities in the
in a direction 180 away from it.
_____ drives its name from the fact that the feddpoint impedance
is a periodic function of the operating frequency.
It is a simple combination of two dipoles designed to give omni
directional performance in the horizontal plane, with horizontal
polarization.
What is the gain of the turnstile antenna?
_____ are often used for FM broadcast reception, where they
give reasonable performance in all directions without the
need for a rotor.
It is often mounted with the mounted with the main axis veritcal.
Acts in a similar way to an ordinary mirror.
_____ have the useful property that any ray that originates
at a point called _____ and strikes the reflecting surface will
be reflected parallel to the axis of the parabola, that is _____
beam of radiation will be produced.
The _____familiar from backyard satellite-receiver installations,
consists of a small antenna at the focus of a large parabolic
reflector,whichfocuses the signal in the same way as the same
way as the refelctor of a searchlight focuses a light beam.
What provides a simple and efficient method to feed power
to the antenna?
It is a feedhorn in the center of the dish itself radiates to a
reflector at the focus of the antenna.
It is often used for a tereestrial microwave links.
This _____ can be done mechanically by mounting the antenna
so that it aims downwards at a slight angle, but it can also
be done electrically.
_____ are the reciprocal passive devices that a couple
electrical energy between transmission lines and free space.
The _______ is convinient forcalculations because it emits all the
energy supplied to it equally in all directions.
_____is usually calculated with reference to an isotropic radiator.
What is obtained in an antenna when more power is emitted
in certain directions than in others?
It is the angle between the half-power points of the main lobe.

discone
helix
rubber ducky
phased array

driven arrays
parasitic element
driven element
reflector
directors
0.2 wavelength
minor lobes and major lobes
side lobes
front-to-back ratio

log-periodic antenna
turnstile array
3 dB less than that of a
single dipole in its direction
Turnstile Antenna
Collinear antenna
plane reflectors
Parabolic reflectors
focus
collimated

parabolic"dish" antenna

horn antenna
Gregorian feed
hog-horn
downlift

Antennas
antenna gain
gain
beamwidth of a directional
antenna

## It is a simple pratical antenna with a bidectional pattern, a small

gain over an isotropic radiator, and a feedpoint impedance of
The _____ of an antenna is the equivalent resistance that appears
at its feedpoint due to the radiation of energy into space.
The _____ ofmost simple antennas is the same as the axis of
the antenna.
_____ must often be matched to the feedline in order to achieve
efficient transfer of power.
Simple antennas can be used as _____ of an array in order to
obtain specified values of gain and directivity.
What can be used to increase the gain and directivity of
antennas?

QUESTIONS:
What do you call of a receiving antenna with a built-in preamplifier?
It is an enclosure lined with material that absorbs
What is an angle measured upward from the horizon. Used to
described antenna patterns and directions?
What is an antenna system composedof two wire or more simpler
antenna elements?
What is the angle between the points on the majorlobe of the
antenna at which the radiated power density is one-half its
maximum value?
What is a measure of antenna gain: deicibels with respect to a
loss-less half-wavedipole?
A measure of antenna gain: decibels with respect to an isotropic
What is an antenna sonsiting of a single conductor with zero
current only at its two ends?
What is the ratio of maximum to the average radiation intensity
for an antenna?
For a receiving antenna, the ratio of the available output power
to the power density of the received wave.
It is the product of the power supply to atransmitting antenna
and the gain of the antenna with respect to an isotropic radiator.
What is the product of the power supplied to a transmitting
antenna anf the gain of the antenna with respect to a losslesshalf-wave dipole?
It is an antenna array, an individual conductor or group of
conductors.
It is a distance far enough from an antenna that a local inductive
and capacitive effects are insignificant.
It is the ratio between intensity in an antenna's direction of
maximum radiation and the intensity at an angle of 180
to this direction.
It is an artificeal ground consisting of a conducting surface
or an equivalent ( such as wire mesh or a groupof wires) at the
base of a vertical antenna.
A spiral.
What do you call of a hypothetical antenna that would radiate all
the energy supplied to it, with equal intensity in all directions?
What is the process of increasing the electrical length of an
antenna by the addition of inductance and cdapacitance?
It is a portion of an antenna pattern between two nulls.
It is the lobe in the direction of a maximum radiation.
A lobe with less intensity than the main lobe.
What is an antenna with a current null at one end and a
maximum at the other, with no other nulls in between?

half-wave dipole

polarization
Antennas
elements
plane and parabolic reflectors

active antenna
anechoic chamber
angle of elevation
antenna
array
beamwidth

dBd
dBi
dipole
directivity
effective area
EIRP
Power
ERP

element
far-field region
front-to-back ratio

groud plane
Helix
lobe
main lobe
minor lobe
monopole

## What do you call of the region close to an antenna, where local

inductive and capacitive effects predominate?
In an antenna pattern, the greek letter ____ denotes the angle
in the horizontal plane, from the x axis toward the y axis.
What is the direction of the electric field vector of an electromagnetic wave?
In a monopole antenna, a wire extending along the surface of the
ground orjust below it, away from the antenna.
It is an equivalent resistance at the feedpoint corresponding
to the radiation of energy by an antenna.
It is a minor lobe at an angle of approximately 90 to the main
lobe.
In an antenna pattern, the greek letter ____ refers to the angle
from the horizonal (x-y) plane toward the zenith, represented
by the z axis.
The direction straight up from thehorizontal plane.

near-field region
phi
polarization