Sie sind auf Seite 1von 116

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
UNIT 1. KNOWLEDGE OF KERALA INTRODUCTION

10 - 22

1.1 Quick Bytes


1.2 History Of Kerala
1.3 Culture Of Kerala
1.4 Dance In Kerala
1.4.1 Kathakali Introduction
1.4.2 Kathakali Dance In Kerala
1.4.3 Kathakali Performance In Kerala
1.5 Martial Arts Of Kerala
1.6 Kerala Cuisine
1.6.1
Influence In Kerala Cuisine
1.6.2 Staples In Kerala Cuisine
1.6.3 Method For Preparing Kerala Cuisine
1.6.4 Specialities In Kerala Cuisine
1.6.5 How To Eat Food In Kerala
1.7 Geography Of Kerala
1.8 How To Reach Kerala
1.8.1 Air Transport
1.8.2 Rail Transport
1.8.3 Road Transport
1.8.4 Water Transport
1.9 Economic Kerala
1.9.1 Kerala Transportaion
1.9.2 Kerala Traveland Tourism
1.9.3 Kerala Cruises

UNIT 2. TOURISM PLACES IN KERALA


2.1 Thirvanthapuram Tourism
2.1.1 Thiruvanthapuram Facts & Figure
2.1.2 Thiruvanthapuram Location
2.1.3 Thiruvanthapuram Climate
2.1.4 Thiruvanthapuram History
2.1.5 Tourist Attraction In Thiruvananthapuram
2.1.6 Excursion From Thiruvananthapuram
2.1.7 Festivals Of Thiruvananthapuram
2.1.8 Accomodation In Thiruvananthapuram
2.1.9 Tour For Thiruvananthapuram
Page
1

23-54

2.2 Kochi Tourism


2.2.1 Kochi Facts & Figure
2.2.2 Kochi Introduction
2.2.3 Kochi Location
2.2.4 Kochi Climate
2.2.5 Kochi History
2.2.6 Kochi Attraction In & Around
2.2.7 Excursion From Kochi
2.2.8 Shopping In Kochi
2.2.9 Accomodation In Kochi
2.2.10 How To Reach Kochi
2.2.11 Kochi Tour & Tourism
2.3

Kottayam Tourism
2.3.1 Kottayam Facts & Figure
2.3.2 Kottayam The City
2.3.3 Kottyam Look Of The City
2.3.4 Kottayam Climate & Best Time To Visit
2.3.5 Kottayam History
2.3.6 Tourist Attraction In Kottayam
2.3.7 Shopping In Kottayam
2.3.8 Accomodation In Kottayam
2.3.9 How To Reach Kottayam

2.4

Kovalam Tourism
2.4.1 Facts On Kovalam
2.4.2 Location Of Kovalam
2.4.3 Kovalam Climate
2.4.4 Festivals Of Kovalam
2.4.5 Shopping In Kovalam

2.5

Kumarakom Tourism
2.5.1 Climate Of Kumarakom
2.5.2 History Of Kumarakom
2.5.3 Tourist Attraction In Kumarakom
2.5.4 Backwater Cruise
2.5.5 Water & Sanctury
2.5.6 The Vemband Lake
2.5.7 Aruvikkhuzi Waterfalls
2.5.8 Resort In Kumarakom

2.6

Palakkad Tourism
2.6.1 History Of Palakkad
2.6.2 Festivals Of Palakkad
2.6.3 Kalpathy Car Festival
2.6.4 Manapullikavu
2.6.5 Nenmaru Vallengi Vela
Page
2

2.7

Kozhikode Tourism
2.7.1 Kozhikode Location
2.7.2 Kozhikode Climate
2.7.3 Kozhikode History
2.7.4 Kozhikode Tourism Attraction In Around
2.7.5 Excursion From Kozhikode
2.7.6 Festivals Of Kozhikode
2.7.7 Shopping In Kozhikode
2.7.8 Accomodation In Kozhikode
2.7.9 How To Reach Kozhikode

2.8

Munnar Tourism
2.8.1 Munnar Facts & Figure
2.8.2 A Hill Station Called Munnar
2.8.3 Munnar Location
2.8.4 Munnar Visiting Time
2.8.5 Tourist Attraction In Munnar
2.8.6 Excursion From Munnar
2.8.7 Accomodation In Munnar
2.8.8 How To Reach Munnar

2.9

Alapuzha Tourism
2.9.1 Alapuzha Facts & Figure
2.9.2 Alapuzha The Tour In Brief
2.9.3 Alapuzha Physiography
2.9.4 Alapuzha Time To Take That Trip
2.9.5 Alapuzha History

2.10

Kannur Tourism
2.10.1 Climate Of Kannur
2.10.2 History Of Kannur
2.10.3 Tourist Attraction In Kannur
2.10.4 Fort St. Angelos
2.10.5 Thallasery Fort
2.10.6 Snake Park Of Parassini Kadavu
2.10.7 Payyambalam Beach Resort
2.10.8 Moppilasay
2.10.9 Excursion From Kunnar
2.10.10 Festivals Of Kunnar

2.11 Quilon Tourism


2.11.1 Quilion Facts & Figure
2.11.2 Quilion Location
2.11.3 Quilion Climate
2.11 4 Quilion History
2.11.5 Tourist Attraction In Quilion
2.11.6. Festivals Of Quilion
Page
3

2.12 Varkela Tourism


2.12.1 Varkela The Place
2.12.2 Varkela What Make It Tice
2.12.3 Varkela Time To Take That Trip
2.12.4 Tourist Atraction In Varkela
2.12.5 How To Reach Varkela
2.12.6 Accomodation In Varkala

UNIT 3. FESTIVALS OF KERALA


3.1

55-59

Onam Festival
3.1.1 Onam Festivals Facts & Figure
3.1.2 Onam Festivals Introduction
3.1.3 When Onam Is Celebrated?
3.1.4 Onam Celebration
3.1.5 Onam Festivals Rated Hube
3.2 Vishnu Festival
3.3 Trisur Festival
3.4 Kerala Boat Festival

UNIT 4. KERALA WILDLIFE

60-64

4.1

Periyar National Park


4.1.1 Periyar National Park Facts & Figure
4.1.2 About Periyar National Park
4.1.3 Periyar National Park Climate
4.1.4 Best Time To Visit Periyar National Park

4.2

Wildlife In Periyar National Park


4.2.1 Excursion From Periyar National Park
4.2.2 Periyar Packages

4.3

Elephant Safari In Periyar


4.3.1 Wildlife In Periyar
4.3.2 About Periyar Tiger Reserve
4.3.3 Best Time To Visit Periyar Tiger Reserve
4.3.4 Attraction In & Around Periyar Tiger Reserve

UNIT 5. TOUR PACKAGES OF KERALA


5.1

Itenaries
5.1.1 Coast To Mountain Day 1
5.1.2 Coast To Mountain Day 2
5.1.3 Coast To Mountain Day 3
5.1.4 Coast To Mountain Day 4
Page
4

65-82

5.1.5 Coast To Mountain Day 5


5.1.6 Coast To Mountain Day 6
5.1.7 Coast To Mountain Day 7
5.1.8 Coast To Mountain Day 8
5.1.9 Coast To Mountain Day 9
5.1.10 Coast To Mountain Day 10
5.1.11 Coast To Mountain Day 11
5.1.12 Coast To Mountain Day 12
5.1.13 Coast To Mountain Day 13
5.1.14 Coast To Mountain Day 14
5.2

An Exotic Journy Down South


5.2.1 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 01
5.2.2 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 02
5.2.3 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 03
5.2.4 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 04
5.2.5 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 05
5.2.6 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 06
5.2.7 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 07
5.2.8 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 08
5.2.9 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 09
5.2.10 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 10
5.2.11 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 11
5.2.12 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 12
5.2.13 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 13
5.2.14 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 14
5.2.15 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 15
5.2.16 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 16
5.2.17 An Exotic Journy Down South Day 17

5.3

Itenaries
5.3.1 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 01
5.3.2 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 02
5.3.3 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 03
5.3.4 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 04
5.3.5 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 05
5.3.6 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 06
5.3.7 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 07
5.3.8 Kerala Curry & Culture Day 08

5.4

Tour Itineray Of Kerala


5.4.1 Tour Itenaries Of Kerala Day 01 Cochin/Munnar
5.4.2 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 02 Munnar
5.4.3 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 03 Munnar/Kumarakom
5.4.4 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 04 Kumarakom
5.4.5 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 05 Kumarakom/Kovalam
5.4.6 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 06 Kovalam
5.4.7 Itenaries Of Kerala Day 07 Kovalam/Trivandarm
Page
5

5.5

Itenaries
5.5.1 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 01
5.5.2 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 02
5.5.3 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 03
5.5.4 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 04
5.5.5 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 05
5.5.6 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 06
5.5.7 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 07
5.5.8 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 08
5.5.9 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 09
5.5.10 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 10
5.5.11 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 11
5.5.12 Temple Tour Of Southern India Day 12

5.6

Beautiful Nest & The Backwater


5.6.1 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 01
5.6.2 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 02
5.6.3 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 03
5.6.4 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 04
5.6.5 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 05
5.6.6 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 06
5.6.7 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 07
5.6.8 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 08
5.6.9 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 09
5.6.10 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 10
5.6.11 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 11
5.6.12 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 12
5.6.13 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 12
5.6.14 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 14
5.6.15 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 15
5.6.16 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 16
5.6.17 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 17
5.6.18 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 18
5.6.19 Beautiful Nest & The Backwater Day 19

UNIT 6 . VACATION & WEDDING IN KERALA


6.1 Destination For Vacation
6.2 Wedding In Kerala
6.2.1 :01 Day Of Marriage
6.2.2 :02 Wedding Ceremony
6.2.3 :03 Wedding Process
6.2.4 :04 Post Wedding Ceremony
6.2.5 :05 Groom House
Page
6

83 -88

6.3

Pre-Kerala Wedding Retual


6.3.1 Nischayam
6.3.2 Ayana
6.3.3 Marriage Ceremony In A Kerala Wedding
6.3.4 Post Kerala Wedding Rituals

UNIT 7 . KERALA GUIDE

89-103

7.1 Kerala Guide


7.2 People & Lifestyle
7.3 People In Kerala
7.4 Kerala Homestyle
7.5 Tree Houses In Kerala
7.6 Yoga & Meditaion
7.7 Healthcare In Kerala
7.7 Art & Culture
7.7.1 Infrastructure
7.7.2 Thullas
7.8 Sports In Kerala
7.9 Language

UNIT 8. PHOTO GALLERY

104-110

CONTENTS OF FIGURES
INTRODUCTION
UNIT 1. KNOWLEDGE OF KERALA
Fig 1.1
Fig 1.2
Fig 1.3
Fig 1.4
Fig 1.5

Kathakali Dance
Mahiniattam Dance
Kerala Cuisin
Method For Preparing Kerala Cuisin
How To Reach Kerala
Page
7

10-22

Fig 1.6 Kerala Travel & Tourism


Fig 1.7 Kerala Cruise

UNIT 2. TOURISM PLACES IN KERALA

23-54

Fi g 2.1 Thiruvananthapuram
Fig 2.2 Accomodation In Thiruvananthapuram
Fig 2.3 Kochi Tourism
Fig 2.4 Kochi History
Fig 2.5 Kochi Attraction
Fig 2.6 Kumarakom Tourism
Fig 2.7 Resort In Kumarakom
Fig 2.8 Kozhikode Tourism
Fig 2.9 Munnar Tourism
Fig 2.10 Tourist Attraction In Munnar
Fig 2.11 Excursion From Kunnar
Fig 2.12 Varkela Tourism

UNIT 3. FESTIVALS OF KERALA

59-59

Fig 3.1 Festivala Of Kerala


Fig 3.2 Onam Festivals
Fig 3.3 Kerala Boat Festivals

UNIT 4. KERALA WILDLIFE

60 -64

Fig 4.1 Periyar National Park


Fig 4.2 Periyar Packages
Fig 4.3 Elephant Safari In Periyar

UNIT 5 .TOUR PACKGES OF KERALA


Fig 5.1
Fig 5.2
Fig 5.3
Fig 5.4
Fig 5.5
Fig 5.6
Fig 5.7.
Fig 5.8

65-82

Tour Packages Of Kerala


Exotic Journy Down South
Kumarakom/Kovalam
Southern Temple
Southern Tour
Southern Temple
Nest & Backwater
Beautiful Nest & Backwater

UNIT 6. VACATION AND WEDDING IN KERALA


Page
8

83-88

Fig 6.1
Fig 6.2
Fig 6.3
Fig 6.4
Fig 6.5
Fig 6.6
Fig 6.7

Kerala Destination
Kerala Vacation
Wedding In Kerala
Nischayam
Marriage Ceremany
Wedding Retual
Wedding Photo

UNIT 7. KERALA GUIDE


Fig 7.1
Fig 7.2
Fig 73.
Fig 7.4
Fig 7.5

89-103

People & Lifestye


People In Kerala
Tree Houses In Kerala
Yoga & Meditation
Art & Culture

UNIT 8. PHOTO GALLARY

104-110

Fig 8.1 Kerala Tour


Fig 8.2 Kerala Girls
Fig 8.3 Lifestyle Of Kerala
Fig 8.4 Kerala Nature Beauty
Fig 8.5 Kathakali Festival
Fig 8.6 Elephant In Kerala
Fig 8.7 Elephant March Kerala
Fig 8.8 Kerala Night Seen
Fig 8.9 Kerala Water
Fig 8.10 Kerala Sea Boat
Fig 8.11 Kearala Water Fall
Fig 8.12 Kerala Cruise
Fig 8.12 Kerala Hillstation

UNIT 1 . THE KNOWLEDGE OF KERALA


INTRODUCTION
Better late than never India has finally woken up to the potential of tourism. A new found
enthujsim has percolated down to the states,who have not only increased their budedgery allocation
but also invited private investment for the development of tourism project & related
infrastructure.With 14.6 per cent rise the international tourist arrival in india & a 22.4 per cent
growth in foreign exchange earning between January & November 2003,Indian tourism is on its
path of rejuvenation after a long spell of stagnation.Tourism has found of niche for itself has an
effective instrument of generating employment,earning revenue & foreign exchange enhancing
environment preserving culture & tradition & thereby facilitating overall development.Seven key
areas have been identified to provide thrust for tourim development in our contry.
These are.
Page
9

Swagat
Soochana
Suvidha
Suraksha
Sahyog
Samrachana
Safai

( welcome )
( information )
( facilities)
( safety )
( co-operation )
( infrastructure development ) and
( cleanliness )

Almost every state in India,with the augmentation of its budget,is now persuing new project
looking at developing infrastructure & aggressively marketing their branded product.
Kerala has emerged as one of the prime tourism destinations on the national and international map
and is considered as the tourism trendsetter in the country. The availability of plenty of natural
resources, skilled manpower, supportive entrepreneurial community, strong local-self-governments,
civil society organizations, multitude of micro enterprises, streams of professionals and
academicians, responsible media and responsive tourism industry, provide the state an ideal setting
implement and practice 'Responsible Tourism.' The Department of Tourism,Government of Kerala
organized a state-level consultation on responsible tourism in associate with the International Centre
for Responsible Tourism - India (ICRT India) and EQUATIONS (Equitable Tourism Options) at
Thiruvanathapuram on the 2nd and 3rd of February, 2007. The two-day workshop was attended by a
wide range of stakeholders, including representatives from government, local-self-governments,
tourism industry, civil society organizations, academicians, media and also members of the
Legislative Assembly. At the end of the workshop, a state-level committee was constituted, namely,
State Level Responsible Tourism Committee (SLRTC) with representatives from various sectors to
take forward the discussions that emerged during the workshop and to move towards a responsible
tourism destination.
The State Level Responsible Tourism Committee met on 20th April 2007 and decided to take up
the implementation of responsible tourism initiative in phases. Kumarakom, Wayanad, Kovalam,
and Thekkady were identified for the implementation of responsible tourism initiative in the first
phase. The Government also selected Great India Tourism Planners and Consultants (GITPAC)
through competitive bidding, to provide technical assistance and co-ordination for the initiative in
the selected centers. The actual implementation process started in March, 2008.
There is no other state in the country that can present so much enthusiasm for life as it is visible in
Kerala. Despite high population, the economic condition in Kerala is in much better shape than
most of the other Indian states. Basic civic facilities available to the common people are well in
place and people know what there rights are. Industrialization (specially related to Information
Technology) is taking place in Kerala in its true spirit and much faster than most of the states in the
country. Influence from other countries has not eroded the cultural values of the people and they
celebrate all the festivals with much enthusiasm. Combine all these factors and you would know
why Keralites consider their state as God's Own Country.
Tourism in Kerala is going through a significant phase of growth and development. The sustained
efforts of the Department of Tourism over a period of several years have played a crucial role in
Page
10

achieving this momentum and direction. The Department of Tourism is committed to preserving
this trend and working towards long-term goals of establishing tourism as a major development
factor in the State. With improved infrastructure and better publicity, the Department of Tourism
hopes to receive more tourists, both domestic as well as international in the seasons to come. Better
hotels, restaurants and other facilities alone will not develop tourism. Along with the Department of
Tourisms efforts to facilitate adequate infrastructure for the same, it is equally important that steps
be taken to create and maintain a collective mind-set among the people of the State with a positive
orientation towards tourism and hospitality. We have to re-establish the traditional Indian concept of
atithi devo bhava in the tourism industry. Our motto should be to receive a guest and to send back
a friend. Tourism and the hospitality industry can develop only with the cooperation and
wholehearted patronage of a friendly and hospitable host community. It is with this objective that
the Department of Tourism is envisaging a massive awareness campaign in the State. Setting up of
Tourism Clubs in the colleges and schools is aimed at creating proper awarenes about tourism
among the youth.Kerala is one of the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from
around the world. And beautiful and attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can
be more tourist heavy fall in love. Well, if you are looking for a destination blessed with nature,
then the state of Kerala is the place for you. Visit and this condition is to make sure I would love to
come b Kerala is one of the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from around the
world. And beautiful and attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can be more
tourist heavy fall in love. Well, if you are looking for a destination blessed with nature, then the
state of Kerala is the place for you. Visit and this condition is to make sure I would love to come.
Kerala is one of the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from around the
world. And beautiful and attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can be more
tourist heavy fall in love. back again and visit hit inspired by the beauty of nature. Kerala is one of
the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from around the world. And beautiful an
attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can be more tourist heavy fall in love.
Well, if you are looking for a destination blessed with nature, then the state of Kerala is the place for
you.Visit and this condition is to make sure I would love to come back again and visit hit inspired
by the beauty of nature.Not anywhere in the world can enjoy the charm and remote areas, but in
Kerala can enjoy delicious. One of the most important and witchcraft are in remote areas of the state
of Kerala Tourism idol. In this case, there are some gaps in the destination you can enjoy delicious
cruise barge. Kovalam, Alleppey, Kollam, Fort Kochi, Kumarakom are just some of the most
beautiful destinations and charming stagnant state of Kerala. These gaps with attractive landscapes
and historical sites are equipped with terribly Temple alien languages, and romantic waterfalls,
emerald green rice fields and many other sites and charming inspiration awesome.
Kerala is famous for exotic flora and fauna, national parks and protected areas in the state of
Kerala is known types of insurance on the house different from wild animals. The park's most
famous nature reserves and India in the state of Kerala. Peppar nature reserves, nature reserves and
protected areas Idduki Periyar.
Page
11

Silent Valley National Park, nature reserves Chen, Neyyar nature reserves and national parks,
what are some of the famous Eravikulam national parks and sanctuaries of Kerala. To explore the
tourists and nature lovers and lovers of nature, to enjoy a safari to the magic of delicious and exotic
flora and fauna in the state of Kerala.
Kerala has some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Ideal for water sports and leisure
holiday, such as palm beaches attract tourists from all over the world travel to Kerala. Alappauzha
Beach Bekal Beach, Bekal Beach, Marari Beach, Bypore Beach, Kappad Beach, Kovalam Beach,
Varkala Beach, Cherai Beach is some of the best beaches of Kerala, is recognized internationally. It
is the perfect destination for nature lovers and water sport enthusiasts, and many other adventurous
tourists. Honeymoon on the beaches of Kerala has the atmosphere of heaven for couples celebrated
as a romantic honeymoon.

1.1 HISTORY OF KERALA


The name of the state of Kerala has been taken from the word Keralaputra (land of the sons of
Cheras), as mentioned in one of the Ashokan edicts dating back to 273-236 BC. Chera was the first
large empire that took roots in this state, and continued to use Tamil till 7th century as their
administrative language. The Chera power declined in the 10th century AD, after Cholas, the rulers
of Tamil Nadu, were successful in overthrowing the dynasty. After the decline of Cholas in the 11th
century, gradually political power in the state went into the hands of the Zamorin of Calicut.
In 1496, Vasco da Gama became the first European to find a route to India through sea and started
a long-time fight for the power in this region between the Portuguese, British, and Dutch. Haider
Ali and Tipu Sultan also tried to annexe the areas south of Travancore, but could not fulfill their
dream as they were attacked by the British from the east and had to withdraw.
After Tipu's first defeat by the British, the Seringpatnam Treaty brought all the captured parts of
Kerala directly under the British and Travancore and Kochi became princely states under the
British. P Kerala became a separate state only in 1956 when new states on the linguistic basis were
created in India. Formerly it was a part of Madras state and to carve out a new state the regions of
Travancore, Cochin, and Malabar were added into one to be called Kerala.

1.2 QUICK BYTES


Population :

29,032,828

Area :

38,863 sq km

Population Density :

749 (per sq km)

Principal Languages : Malayalam


Capital :

Thiruvananthapuram (Trivandrum)

Date of Statehood :

Nov 1, 1956
Page
12

Religion :

Hindus 60%, Christians 20%, Muslims 20 %

Best time to visit :

October-February
Table No-1.1 Quick Bytes

1.3 CULTURE OF KERALA


A majority of the people of Kerala are Dravidians, who also inhibit most of the southern part of
India. Hinduism is the principal religion with considerable percentages of Muslims and Christians.
The craftsmen of Kerala here can pick up the humblest and meanest bits of material and imbue
them with magical mastery. Woodcarving is the most important of craft forms that this state has
developed. Kathakali is a 300-year-old dance form developed exclusively in Kerala combining the
pantomime.The dance is a beautiful blending of color, dance, music, drama, and expressions.
In a sense, a lot of the fame that the state has gained is mainly due to the popularity of this dance
form. Onam is a time for sports and festivities and in Kerala-where one third of the area is low
lying, covered with canals, lakes, and backwaters-the people take to their boats and country crafts to
celebrate. Christmas is another festival that is celebrated with much vigor and enthusiasm in the
state. Kerala is noted for its variety of pancakes and steamed rice cakes made from pounded rice.
For the Muslims, the lightly flavored Biryani-made of mutton, chicken, egg or fish-takes pride of
place. In seafood, mussels are a favourite.

Fig.1.1Kathakali Dance

1.4 DANCE OF KERALA


14.1 Kathakali Introduction
Kathakali is one of the world-renowned dance forms of Kerala. Kathakali literally means, "storyplay". Kathakali is some 300 years old but its roots go back almost 1500 years. Kathakali draws
from almost every type of formalized dance, drama and martial arts. A number of its elements and
choreography have been influenced by the 9th century art of Kuttiyattam, the only surviving form
of Sanskrit theatre. Despite the inroads of modern theatre, cinema and television,Kathakali,

Page
13

continues to attract enthusiastic audiences in and outside Kerala. This dance-drama of Kerala has
also been able to retain much of its original stylized form, rich in its theatrical traditions and unique
values.
Kathakali scenes are woven around legends and stories from the ancient Hindu epics like the
Ramayana, Mahabharata and Bhagvata Purana. Practiced traditionally by men, it is an exacting
discipline. Kathakali is a unique combination of the insights of an actor, dancer, singer, drummer,
sculptor, designer and dreamer.Kathakali is distinguished for the richness of its colour, a complex
language of eye-movements and its hand-gestures, the mudras. Kathakali is also the most dynamic
dance form unrivalled for its majesty and impact enhanced by glittering costumes of special design.

1.4.2 Kathakali Dancers in Kerala


Four to five hours before the start of the play, the Kathakali dancers subject themselves to an
elaborate make-up. This is governed by complex symbolism of line and design. Each Kathakali
dancer at first paints his face himself in a manner tailored to the kind or role he plays. Looking into
a small mirror, he applies hand-ground colours mixed in coconut oil. Paccha or green stands for
noble characters, divine heroes and kings.

1.4.3 Kathakali Performances in Kerala


Kathakali dance performances has born in Kerala from last lots of year.Kathakali performances in
Kerala are very famous.
With many years of such arduous training and dedicated application behind them, Kathakali dancers
group themselves into well-knit teams and perform in places such as Varkala, dancing into the small
hours of the night. As song and drumbeats fill the air and the earth trembles under their feet,
spectators witness episodes that have thrilled people for centuries.

1.4.4 Mohiniattam Dance in Kerala


Mohiniattam from Kerala is perhaps one of the most graceful dances and totally identifies with the
green environment; gentle singing of the palm trees and the calm ocean waters of Kerala. Kerala
has always preserved all traditional arts and the people of the state consider it an integral part of
everyday in the life of Kerala.
In the word Mohiniattam, Mohini means a maiden who charms the onlooker and attam means
dance.

Page
14

Fig 1.2 Mohiniattam Dance

Usually the legends in India links the name of Mohini to that of God Vishnu who had assumed the
beautiful form of Mohini to entice Demon Bhasmasura and finally destroyed him. It is said that the
demon had a boon, which granted him immortality. He could die only if a hand was placed on his
head. Mohini danced and made Bhasmasura also dance with her and suddenly for a moment placed
her hand on her head. Bhasmasura too followed without thinking and then came his end. There is a
common belief that perhaps the dance form got its names from this episode.The beauty of Indian
classical dance is also its appropriate and relevant costume and jewelry. The traditional costume of
Mohiniattam is white with gold.
The distinctive style of Mohiniattam is the complete absence of heavy stamping and rhythmical
tension. Footwork in Mohiniattam is gentle and soft and sliding. The movements are never abrupt,
they are dignified, easy and natural, but the vertical line of the body is never broken. Hence, among
the styles detailed by Bharata Muni in the ancient Indian treatise on dance, the Natya Sastra,
Mohiniattam resembles the Kaisiki type meaning graceful.

1.5 MARTIAL ARTS OF KERALA


In Malayalam, Kalaripayattu means 'the fighting art of the Kalari'. In ancient Kerala, Kalari was a
place of learning subjects such as medicine, philosophy, architecture, astrology and geometry,
besides, combat arts and yoga.
The technique is based on the science of yoga for its forms and exercises, and its medical
treatments are based on the science of Ayurveda. The origins of kalaripayattu are obscured by time,
since it has been nurtured from the oldest martial traditions of South India, with influences that
came in with time from north Indian Aryan martial traditions, which have links with Dhanur Vedathe science of the art of war in ancient India. Kalari in its present form has existed, for over 1,500
years, according to the traditions of the masters. Today the martial arts form is a fusion of north and
south Indian fighting traditions, embodying the martial and spiritual practices of Hinduism,
Page
15

Buddhism and Islamic Sufism. The Parisa Kali of North Malabar and Velakanni of Travancore are
two other martial arts forms of Kerala, which involve considerable physical training and knowledge
of the use of the arms.In recent times, the field of martial arts in Kerala has given the basis of circus
training. The Kannur and Thalassery area of north Kerala are known as the "home of the circus in
India".Velakani represent the battle between pandavas & kauravas at kurukshetra,& is played out
during the temple festival at cherthala & ambalapuzha as well as sree padmanabha swami temple at
thiruvanthpuram.

1.6 KERALA

CUISINE

Fig 1.3 Kerala Cuisin

Kerala has a distinctive cuisine, very unusual and different from the rest of India. Cooking in Kerala
is all about discoveries, aromas and colors. Kerala cuisine is very hot and spicy and offers several
gastronomic opportunities to those
willing to experiment with the local cuisine. A tropical paradise of undulating palms and warm
sandy beaches, Kerala is a narrow strip of coastal territory sloping down from the Western Ghats
Kerala is also one of the richest states in India with forests and plantations of rubber, cashew, and
coconuts everywhere. in a riot of green, luxuriant vegetation.The meeting place of many cultures,
Hindu and Muslim, Christian and Jewish, Kerala has a particularly rich heritage of dance and drama
and the people are among the most industrious and well educated in the country.

1.6.1 Influence In Kerala Cuisine


Seafarers have also played an important role in shaping the history, socio-cultural background and
food of Kerala. Christianity came here as early as AD 400, and Judaism and Islam also came via the
sea. Over the years, voyagers from Greece, Italy, China France and Africa came to the spice coast of
Malabar. Kerala's cuisine with its fascinating array of meat and fish dishes is a constant reminder of
the many foreigners who once came here. Kerala' s long stretch of coast and rich sea life ensure that
seafood, coconut and other such things are a part of the Malayali kitchen.

1.6.2 Staples in Kerala Cuisine


Rice, or rather unpolished rice, is the main food of the Keralite. Aside from the boiled product
eaten as a staple, there is also a wide range of snacks and breakfast fare made of the cereal. Pounded
into flour, it gives shape to the bamboo formed puttu, the round spongy vattayappam, the lacy edged
palappam, the pancake-like kallappam, the sweet uniappam, the idiappam that looks like fine
Page
16

noodles, and the stuffed ball called kozhikotta. And then, there is the pathiri, chapatti-like bread that
can be made into a plain thin one called vatipathiri, a box type pettipathiri and a sweet cakeChattipathiri. Pathiris are also stuffed with beef, chicken or mutton and fried, or steamed when
filled with fish.
From time immemorial, the coconut tree has been an integral part of life for the people of Kerala
and nowhere is this more visible than in their food. These people put to good use whatever the land
offers and the result is a marvellous cuisine that is simple yet palate tickling.
Except for the Nambudiris who are strict vegetarians, Hindus of other castes eat both meat and fish
as a matter of course.The high ranges of Kerala boast of vast plantations of cardamom, pepper,
nutmeg, tea and coffee while in its lower elevations there are clove, ginger and turmeric
The midlands have paddy fields, tapioca, all sorts of hardy vegetables such as yam, narrow, gourd,
drumstick, etc. and a huge collection of tropical fruits-banana, jackfruit, mango, pineapple and
cashew. In the lowlands, cultivation is mainly that of coconut trees and paddy.

1.6.3 Methods for preparing Kerala Cuisine


Like most South Indian cuisine, be it seafood or rice and other cereal dishes, the emphasis is on
'healthy food', less use of oil, sugar, and artificial additives, and more use of natural herbs, spices
flavorings, and coconut. Spices that flavor the local cuisine of Kerala give it a sharp pungency that
is
heightened
with
the
use
of
tamarind.
In the Kerala kitchens, be it of any of the various communities living there, methods and the locally
available foodstuff are used to dish out mouthwatering delicacies. Even the ordinary tapioca root,
for example, becomes a main course when boiled and sauted with coconut and spices, a snack
when sliced fine, salted and fried, and a sweet dish when steamed with coconut and jaggery.

Fig 1.4 Method For Preparing


Kerala Cuisin

1.6.4 Specialties in

Kerala Cuisine

Kerala is noted for its variety of pancakes and steamed rice cakes made from pounded rice.
Though the same ingredients are used all over the state, each of the communities has its own
specialties.
Page
17

For the Muslims, the lightly flavored biryani-made of mutton, chicken, egg or fish-takes pride of
place. In seafood, mussels are a favorite. A concoction of mussel and rice flour, cooked in the shell
is called arikadaka. The Arab influence on the local cuisine is very visible in the rich meat curries
and desserts. A community of Muslims who live in an area called Kuttichara, have a special dish-a
whole
roasted
goat
stuffed
with
chickens
inside
which
are
eggs.
For the Christians, who can be seen in large concentration in areas like Kottayam and Pala, ishtew
(There would also be beef cutlets with sallas (a salad made of finely cut onions, green chilies and
vinegar), chicken roast, olathan erachi (fried mutton, beef or pork), meen moilee (a yellow fish
curry), meen mulligattathu (a fiery red fish curry), and peera pattichathu (a dry fish dish of grated
coconut). Another interesting feature is the abundant use of coconut oil, mustard seeds, curry leaves,
and coconut milk. a derivation of the European stew), with appam is a must for every marriage
reception.
There would also be beef cutlets with sallas (a salad made of finely cut onions, green chilies and
vinegar), chicken roast, olathan erachi (fried mutton, beef or pork), meen moilee (a yellow fish
curry), meen mulligattathu (a fiery red fish curry), and peera pattichathu (a dry fish dish of grated
coconut). Kerala also has it's own fermented beverages -the famous kallu or (toddy) and patta
charayam (arrack). Arrack is extremely intoxicating and is usually consumed with spicy pickles and
boiled eggs (patta and mutta).

1.6.5 How To Eat food in Kerala


The method of serving a sadya or meal in Kerala is very precise. The leaves to be eaten from are
always the end section of the plantain leaf. When it is laid on the table, the narrow part of the leaf
must always be on the left side. Serving begins from the bottom left half of the leaf on which is
placed a small yellow banana. Next to this are served jaggery coated banana chips plain banana
chips and papad. Then beginning from the top left half of the leaf are placed lime curry, mango
pickle, injipuli (a thick ginger tamarind curry), lime pickle, thoran (a dry mix of any vegetable with
coconut), vegetable stew or olan (gourd is the main ingredient), aviyal (a thick mixture of
vegetables in a coconut based gravy), Pachadi (raw mango and curd mixture) and khichdi. Only
after all these are placed on the leaf, does the person begin eating.
There after the rice is served at the bottom center. The sambhar (a lentil based gravy that came to
Kerala from neighboring Tamil Nadu) and kalan (a curry of yam and curd, spiced with pepper) is
poured onto the rice. When the meal is over, pradaman (rice flour, coconut milk and jaggery) or pal
payasam (sugar sweetened milk and rice) is served onto the leaf. After dessert, rasam (fiery pepper
water) is poured into cupped hands to be drunk and then a little bit of curd to aid diges

1.7 GEOGRAPHY OF KERALA


Kerala is situated at the Southwest tip of India main land on the Arabian Sea. Kerala is bound by
Arabian Sea on the west, Karnataka on the north and northeast, and Tamil Nadu on the east. The
state can be divided into hills and valleys, midland plains and coastal belts. The hills of Kerala dot
the Western Ghat from Ponmudi in the south to Munnar in the centre and Sultan's Bathery in the
north. In the coastal belts of this state are situated world famous backwaters that are more or less
main attraction of Kerala. Climate of the Kerala is tropical.The maximum temperature during this
Page
18

season is around 33C. Monsoon touches the state in June and remains there till September though
not much difference in temperature can be felt.
Winter is from October to January and temperature drops a bit. Kerala has one of the richest
varieties of flora and fauna in India and they are also the best managed in the country. Eravikulam,
Periyar, and Silent Valley are the three national parks in the state.

1.8 HOW TO REACH KERALA


The state of Kerala is a narrow strip located along Arabian Sea in the southernmost tip of Indian
Peninsula. The state has been crisscrossed by a number of water bodies (popularly known as
backwaters). This has given birth to internal water navigation systems, which also work as the
major trade ways in the state. These backwaters of late have become the major tourist attractions of
Kerala.

Fig 1.5 How To Reach Kerala

1.8.1 Air Transport


Reaching to Kerala is not a difficult thing. Thiruvananthapuram, the state capital, is connected to
most of the major airports in India, including Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, and Bangalore.

1.8.2 Rail Transport


Rails are another good way of moving inside and from the outside Kerala. There are around 200
railway stations in Kerala connecting most of the places in the state to places in the other parts of
the country and inside the state. Long-distance express trains connect important places in Kerala to
places outside the state like Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata.

1.8.3 Road Transport

Page
19

Roads in Kerala are in much better shape than other states in India. Major modes of road transport
are buses, tourist taxis, cars, and local taxis and autos. State is connected with other parts of South
India by a number of National Highways. Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh are some of
the neighboring states that are easily connected to Kerala through roads.

1.8.4 Water Transport


From Cochin (Kochi), there are regular ships venturing towards the Lakshadweep Islands. Inside,
backwaters of Kerala act not only as a popular transportation medium but are tourist attractions in
themselves. These internal water navigation systems are today the single most popular travel
product of Kerala.

1.9 Economy of Kerela


Kerala is situated at the Southwest tip of Since its inception as a state Kerala has witnessed
development in various spheres. Kerala has the highest rate of literacy in India, and a public
transport system that is quite efficient going by Indian standards. Tourism has grown to be a
frontline industry with consistent government backing and better private management of the
destinations. Information Technology is another key area of economic excellence in the state.

1.9.1 Kerala Transportation


There are three airports in the state-at Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, and Kozhikode.
Thiruvananthapuram is also an international airport, connecting the state to many places in the
Middle East. Thiruvananthapuram is also an international airport, connecting the state to many
places in the Middle East. There are around 200 railway stations in Kerala connecting most of the
places in the state to places in the other parts of the country and inside the state. An extensive
network of metalled roads connects most of the places in the state. Inland water navigation systems
are available in many districts. Boats are extensively used to connect many places in the state.

1.9.2 Kerala Travel and Tourism

The land of exotic backwaters and palm fringed beaches, Kerala is one of the most beautiful states
in India. Every year a number of tourists both from across India and abroad visit Kerala. Kerala is
not only about its beautiful beaches and a network of rivers and canals-called backwaters but the
God's Own Country is also a destination of spice plantations and Ayurveda. Kerala in the south of
India is the most sought after tourist destination in India. With the Arabian Sea in the west, Kerala
has a long coastline that offers some of the most beautiful beaches in India.

Page
20

Fig

1.6

Kerala

Travel

&

Tourism

The state has Western Ghats in the east that are home to some popular hill stations like Munnar. The
region is also home to spice, tea and coffee plantations.Ayurveda is another hallmark of tourism of
Kerala. Every year a number of tourists tour Kerala just to take Ayurveda treatment. Kerala has
become a popular Ayurveda destination as well.
You can come to Kerala and travel to spice, tea and coffee plantations region in the state. If wildlife
is what you love, Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary is the right place to tour.
Boat safari is the unique way of watching animals in the sanctuary. The sanctuary is well known
for its elephants. Kerala backwaters are another exciting tourist attraction of Kerala. Backwater
cruise is what excites many and a number of tourists tour Kerala to discover the pleasures of the
backwater cruise in Kerala. Palm fringed beaches with powdery sand is another attraction of Kerala
travel and tourism.
Tourism of Kerala provides complete information on Kerala travel and tourism. Tourism of Kerala
also offers various tour packages to Kerala and to book tour packages for Kerala, please fill up the
form given below. Tourism of Kerala will get back to you.

1.9.3 Kerala Cruises


One of the best possible ways to experience the kaleidoscopic state of Kerala is a cruise along its
backwaters. Any leisure cruise in Kerala reveals its natural beauty and cultural heritage. It is the
Kerala backwaters cruises that complete the tour to southern India.

Page
21

Fig 1.7 Kerala Cruise


The countryside when experienced on the Kerala cruises is an unforgettable experience. For the
nature lovers cruises in Alleppey region of Kerala displays the fantabulous flora and fauna. Cruises
in Kuttanad area of Kerala bring you in the lap of Mother Nature with the gorgeous green paddy
fields. Houseboats are you partners for Kerala cruises; they have been transporting men & material
in the back water of Kerala through ages.Each cruise in Kerala makes you glide in serenity &
absorb the surrounding beauty. Kerala Nature cruises, Kerala houseboat cruises, Kerala coir-making
cruises, Kerala culture cruises, Kerala culinary cruises, and Kerala heritage cruises. All in all, the
Kerala cruises are the best way to unwind and rejuvenate you.
We at indianvisit.com offer a variety of Kerala cruises. You may enjoy the
backwater cruises of Kerala or the houseboat packages for cruises in Kerala.
We offer several luxury cruises for Kerala, romantic Kerala cruises, family
cruises in Kerala, and group cruises in Kerala. As per your budget and nature of
Kerala cruises we can come up with a customized holiday plan for you.

Page
22

UNIT 2. TOURISM PLACES IN KERALA

2.1 THIRUVANANTHAPURAM TOURISM


2.1.1 Thiruvananthapuram Facts and Figures
Area
Population
Average rainfall (MayNov)
Languages
Best time to visit
STD code

74 sq km
699,872 (1991)
170 cm
Malayalam and English
SeptemberMay
0471

2.1.2 Thiruvananthapuram Location


Thiruvananthapuram or Trivandrum, lying on the southwest coast of India, is the capital to the
state of Kerala. The city extends from latitude 829' N to longitude 7659' E.

Fig 2.1 Thiruvananthapuram

Page
23

2.1.3 Thiruvananthapuram Climate


Because of its nearness to the sea, the climate of Thiruvananthapuram is tropical. This also gives
Thiruvananthapuram a very pleasant weather round the year. The average maximum temperature
can go up to 36.2C in summer months and to a minimum of 18.0C in the winters. Monsoon comes
to Thiruvananthapuram in the month of May and remains there until November.

2.1.4 Thiruvananthapuram History


The city, according to the legends, boasts of being associated with King Solomon whose ships
landed at a port called Ophir.
The city, according to the legends, boasts of being associated with King Solomon whose ships .The
city derives its name from the deity at the Sree Anantha Padmanabhaswami Temple, one of the
major landmarks of the place. The name of the city is derived from the words Thiru-AnanthaPuram, meaning the town of Anantha. Although no records of the antiquity of the temple really
exists, the temple nevertheless is believed to be several thousands years old. Thiruvananthapuram
shot into prominence in the 18th century when the capital was shifted here form Padmanabhapuram,
a little down south. The erstwhile kings of the then Travancore State, taking on the title of
Padmanabhadas (servant of Lord), had dedicated themselves completely to the service of the Lord
residing in the temple here. By the terms of this dedication, the deity owns the kingdom while the
king is the mere executor of the trust. After independence, the city was designated as the capital of
Kerala.

2.1.5 Tourist Attractions in Thiruvananthapuram


There are a number of tourist attractions in Thiruvananthapuram, India. A must on every tourist
itinerary for Thiruvananthapuram, the Padmanabhaswami temple with its gopuram (tower) soaring
majestically upwards, is believed to be one of the 108 shrines sacred to the Vaishnavites .
Besides this magnificent temple, Thiruvananthapuram offers a great deal more. There is the
Observatory to start with, established over a hundred years ago in Thiruvananthapuram in India. A
repository of fine works of art, the chief attraction here is the 250-year-old temple car made for
Lord Vishnu, artistically designed and ornamented. Besides this, objects carved out of wood,
models of temple, antique jewelry, etc., make the museum worth a visit.
Lying within the museum compound of Thiruvananthapuram, Sri Chitra Art Gallery proves to be
an ideal place for art lovers. The piece de resistance is the large section devoted to the paintings of
Raja Ravi Varma, an Indian painter of distinction in the history of the country's modern art. Besides
him, the Indian section also contains works of Rabindranath Tagore, Jamimi Roy, K. K. Hebar,
miniatures from the Rajput and Mughal schools of painting and the famous Tanjore paintings
encrusted with semi-precious stones. The gallery's collection also includes paintings from
Indonesia, China, and Japan. Then, of course, a trip to Thiruvananthapuram in India is incomplete
without a boat-ride on its enchanting backwaters. These waterways of Thiruvananthapuram in India
teem with life. One can be seduced by the panorama of beautiful landscapes, beaches and
Page
24

waterways, coconut palms and, of course, beautiful, friendly people of Thiruvananthapuram in


India.

2.1.6 Excursions from Thiruvananthapuram (India)


Two nearby places worth visiting while in Thiruvananthapuram, India are Veli and
Shankhumuggam; the former has been converted into a superb tourist village while the latter
boasts of lovely temples and a huge statue of a mermaid presently being worked upon by a famous.
An absolute must is Kovalam that lies barely 18 km away Thiruvananthapuram. The beach is
considered one of the finest in the world and provides ingredients for an ideal holiday excursion
from Thiruvananthapuram.

2.1.7 Festivals of Thiruvananthapuram


Onam is the main festival of Thiruvananthapuram, which is celebrated in the month of August or
September. This is the harvest festival of Thiruvananthapuram and signifies association of the
people with agriculture. Christmas is the other festival of this part of the country and
Thiruvananthapuram wears a colourful look during this time of the year. Classical Music Festival is
celebrated from January 27 to February 3 every year and is a great time to enjoy for the lovers of
pure classical music forms such as Carnatic and Hindustani music in Thiruvananthapuram, India.

2.1.8 Accommodation in Thiruvananthapuram


Thiruvananthapuram is the capital of Kerala and one of the finest tourist destinations in the God's
Own Country. Thiruvananthapuram is bounded by the Arabian Sea on the west and Tamil Nadu on
the east. Thiruvananthapuram has a number of popular tourist destinations. Koavalam is the most
beautiful beach in Thiruvananthapuram. The other tourist attractions in Thiruvananthapuram
include Shanghumugham Beach, Padmanabhaswami Temple, Kanakakunnu Palace and Koyikal
Palace.

Fig

2.2 Accommodation In

Thiruvananthapuram

Page
25

2.1.9 Tours for thiruvananthapuram


Tourism of Kerala provides complate information on tours for Thiruvanathpuram in all over
India.Thiruvananthapuram is wonderfull destination in Kerala that offers tourist palm frimged
beaches & wonderful monument to tourist .Thiruanantpuram has a number of tourist attraction that
you can tour.Some of the important tourist attracton in Thiruananthapuram include
padmanabhaswami temple,kanakakunu,shanghumugham beach,kovalam beach,botanikul garden
zoo kovikal palace & Tourism of Kerala also offers various tour packages to Thiruvananthapuram
India and to book tour packages for Kerala, please fill up the form given below. Tourism of Kerala
will get back to you.

2.2 KOCHI TOURISM


2.2.1 Kochi Facts and Figures

Area
Population
Languages
Best time to visit
STD code

8,700 sq km
1,600,000
Malayalam and English
December to May
0484

Fig 2.3 Kochi Tourism

Page
26

2.2.2 Kochi Introduction


In Kochi or Cochin dawn is not often a thing of breathtaking beauty, but just a careless smear of
tinted light where sea and sky unite. Daybreak is full of indeterminate promise. A slow lividness at
the mist-obscured harbor mouth meets the swelling untamed surge of the ocean. Cargo-laden barges
and vallams or country boats move, ponderously slow, over the sprawling vastness of the Vembanad
Kayal, Keralas largest lake that spreads full bosomed and silver gray in the sultry sun.

2.2.3 Kochi Location


Popularly referred to as the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Cochin is located on the west cost of India
in the beautiful state of Kerala. The city can be regarded as the commercial and industrial capital of
Kerala. The city extends from latitude 958' in the North to longitude 7617' in the East.

2.2.4 Kochi Climate


Being situated very close to the sea, Kochi has a moderate climate, with heavy rains during June
August due to the southwest monsoon. Winter starts from December and continues till February.

2.2.5 Kochi History


Though Cochin had been an important roadstead in days gone by, it became a natural harbor only
when nature decrease. Muziris (present-day Kodungalloor on the mouth of the Periyar River), 40
km north of Cochin, was the center of trade with ancient Rome in the products like pepper and
pearls, fine silks, cotton, muslin, honey, oil, betel, tortoise shell, cinnamon leaf, black pepper, ginger
grass, and indigo.
The formation of Cochin harbor has a violent story of which nature herself was the main character.
The harbor was formed in a.d. 1341, when a great flood in the Periyar River led to an outlet in the
sea. The floods had meanwhile silted up the mouth of the Muziris harbor and this rich ancient port
was banished to the footnotes of history. For centuries, Cochin was the battleground of European
powers for the mastery of the lucrative trade of the Indian west coast. The fortunes of political
powers in Cochin were dictated by pepper. The Portuguese were the first to come in. Two years
later, the adventurous mariner, the legendary Vasco da Gama himself landed in Cochin. The
Portuguese erected a fort for the protection of their factory. Fort Manuel, or Manuel Kotta, named
after the King of Portugal, was the first fortress constructed by the Europeans in India.
To the Portuguese must go the credit for the extensive scientific cultivation of coconut, ginger, and
pepper, backbone of Keralas economy today. Tobacco, cashew nut, and fruit cultivation were also
introduced.
Page
27

Fig 2.4 Kochi History

The Dutch, full of


enter the scene and
Portuguese very soon.

energy and zeal, were next to


succeeded in throwing out the

But the Dutch never


endured too, and it was the
British who came in next to play out their role. A great milestone was the direct export of pepper to
England in 1636 and once again, power flowed from pepper.
For a hundred years and more, from 1795, Cochin received a gracious patronage of the British.
They tried their best to develop the harbor at Cochin, the gateway of South India, but for long
dismissed as a dream beyond the realm of hope for a rock-like barrier of sand blacked the approach
to the port from the sea. No dredging proposition since the days of the Suez Canal project has
aroused so much technical interest as the opening up of the Cochin Harbor.
It fell to the lot of an Admiralty Engineer Sir Robert Bristow to envision this marvel of
engineering.
It was not an easy task for Bristow to construct a port in these serendipitous surroundings. Cochin
was declared a major port in 1936.With its opening, there was a complete reorientation of shipping
and commercial activities on the Malabar Coast.
With its year-round shipping facilities, it is the busiest port south of Bombay, lying as it does on
the direct route to Australia and the Far East from Europe and serving the vast southern hinterland
of industrial areas and plantations. It is a passenger port for the United Kingdom and America in
South India. Moreover, it is one of the few ports of the world with all the three main forms of
transportland, sea, and air, centered in the same place.

Fig 2.5 Kochi Attraction

Page
28

2.2.6 Kochi- Attractions In and Around


There are a number of places to be visited in and around kochi.
While in kochi, you must visit the Fort kochi that reveals the European heritage of kochi. Then
there is the Santa Cruz Basilica that happens to be a landmark of kochi and a major tourist attraction
of kochi.
Further there is the St. Francis Church, of the 16th century, in kochi. It is noteworthy that the St
Francis church is the oldest existing European church not only in kochi, but also in India. Fort
kochi also uses the famous Chinese nets, the best possible bet for backwater fishing.
The other place of tourist interest in kochi is the Dutch Palace at Mattancherry. One of the oldest
synagogues in the world namely The Paradeshi Synagogue is a must visit at kochi.
While staying in kochi, you may move to other parts of Ernakulam, Vypeen and Gundu islands,
near kochi.

2.2.7 Excursions from kochi


Kochi also offers great excursion options. For the oil paintings, old coins, sculptures, Mughal
paintings, and temple models the visit to the Parishath Thampuram Museum near kochi is ideal. For
the collections of the kochi and Travancore royal families you may move to Thripunithura from
kochi. Edapally, near kochi has the Museum of Kerala History. Parur, close to kochi, encapsulates
the cultural and religious medley of this region.

2.2.8 Shopping in kochi


There are a lot of handicraft and antique emporia in kochi. One can also buy and see the works of
contemporary artists from different art galleries situated around kochi.

2.2.9 Accommodation in kochi


In order to make the travel tour to kochi even more joyful we at TourismofKerala offer just the
right kind of accommodation for you and your family or friends in kochi. We can customize the
kochi tour package and offer the hotel accommodation in kochi.The various hotels packages for
kochi offer the best of facilities. The well-furnished rooms of kochi hotels place most of the
comforts at your feet.
Enjoy the luxuries of life on your stay at the kochi hotel. Take your pick from a range of luxury
and budget hotels in kochi. We will provide all the travel services like air ticketing for kochi, hotel
booking for kochi, car rental for kochi et al to make your holiday at kochi unforgettable. Get ready
for the kaleidoscopic experience at kochi.
Page
29

2.2.10 How to Reach kochi


There are Indian Airlines and Jet Airways direct services to Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Goa,
Bangalore, and Thiruvananthapuram from kochi. kochi is connected by rail to most of the important
cities like Delhi, Mumbai, and Chennai.

2.2.11 Kochi Tours and Tourism

Once you tour Kochi,you realize why this place is called queen of the Arabian sea.Kochi has a coast
line that brims with beautiful beaches & city also has number of wonderful monument some of
them date back as far as 16 century. Kochi is an exiting way of exploring various tourist attraction
in the city & around Chinese fishing nets that dot the coast in Kochi are a wonderful site to look
at.These fishing net as the name suggest were introduce by the Chinese traders & present a wonder
photo during sunset.Tourism of Kerala provides complats information on Kochi tour &
tourism.There is no better way of touring Kochi that take you close to different aspects of
Kochi.Tourism of Kerala offers various tour packages to Kochi India.

Page
30

2.3 KOTTAYAM TOURISM

2.3.1 Kottayam Facts and Figure

Area
Population
Languages
Best time to visit
STD code

2204 sq. km
1,82,8271
Malayalam
August to February
0481

2.3.2 Kottayam The City


The word Kottayam is a composition of the words Kotta (meaning fort) and Akkam (meaning
inside). Kottayam is one of the exotic backwaters sites attracting tourists throughout the year. Being
a mountainous region with scenic landscapes, backwaters, bird sanctuaries, temples and churches
make this a place of tourist attraction. Lying below the sea level, some of its nearby places are also
a treat to the eyes.

2.3.3 Kottayam Look of the City


Having all the three types of land composition like low, middle and high, this place is a rich
panorama of natural beauty. The land is situated on the southern side of Kerala with beautiful
landscape surrounding the city. It has Ernakulam on its north while the east is protected by Idukki
district. The exotic Alappuzha and Pathanamthitta districts signify the southern part, whereas
Vembanad Lake makes the western side of Kottayam even more striking. Kottayam is also
connected with picturesque Vembanad Lake with a canal.

2.3.4 Kottayam Climate & The best Time to Visit


Page
31

The best time to visit this place is during the months of August and March when the tropical climate
is not so hot and humid. This makes traveling comfortable. Light winter sweaters and a shawl
would be enough to meet the chill here.

2.3.5 Kottayam History


The history of Kottayam is significant from the time of the second Chera Empire who used to have
a great influence on the region. Maharaja Marthandaverma had a great influence on the state of
Kerala as a ruler. He conquered the Vembolinadu established by his former rulers. Since ages,
Kottayam has been regarded as one of the most important places of Kerala both politically and
otherwise.

2.3.6 Tourist Attractions in Kottayam


Peermed, an inviting hill resort with an altitude of 1066 meters, is a place worth visiting while
going to Kottayam. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary is another place worth visiting from Kottayam. It is
the place to go if one wants to have a look at the natural habitat of elephants, the tiger and the
bison. The Thirunakkara Shiva Temple is also a famous must-see spot in Kottayam. The temple is a
storehouse of the typical Kerala temple culture.
The walls of the temple are decorated with beautiful paintings. Phalguna Utsav is celebrated every
March. The Kootiattam or the Sanskrit dramas are also an event of attraction in Kottayam.
One of the places to visit near Kottayam is Kumarakom. It is in the west of the Vembanad Lake.
This lake is also famous for the seasonal migratory birds that come to this bird sanctuary in their
respective seasons. Backwater cruises are accessible from this spot. Forty km north of Kottayam is
another important Shiva temple known as the Vaikom Temple. This temple is associated with the
legendry Parasurama.
Wagamon is another place to visit while going for excursion in and around Kottayam. A few other
places worth visiting while at Kottayam are St Mary's Church (Valiapally), St Mary's Orthodox
Church (Cheriyapally), and St Joseph's Monastery (Mannanam)

2.3.7 Shopping in Kottayam


Kottayam, along with most of the other parts of Kerala, is a big producer of spices and
condiments. Eco-friendly rubber products are also worth buying from Kottayam.

2.3.8 Accommodation in Kottayam


Standard and budget accommodation options are available in Kottayam. One can also use the
luxurious houseboats floating in the backwaters of Kottayam. Though the usual accommodation
options like the hotels, and lodges are also available to the tourists visiting Kottayam.
Page
32

You can get accommodation as per your choice.

2.3.9 How to Reach Kottayam

Kottayam is well connected by train. However, Kottayam does not have an


airport of its own. The nearest airport is at Kochi, which is about 80 km away
from Kottayam. Kottayam is well linked with the cities of Thiruvananthapuram,
Thekkady, Ernakulam, Madurai, and Munnar by road. Kottayam is also famous
for its water transport by boats and ferries. Kottayam runs number of boats and
ferries to connect to the nearest small and big ghats.

2.4 KOVALAM TOURISM

Kovalam, meaning "a groove of coconut trees," is just 10 km from the state capital of KeralaThiruvananthapuram. Kovalam is actually a combination of three small beaches. Among these, the
southernmost beach, named Lighthouse Beach, is the most frequented beach in Kovalam. Earlier
this beach of Kovalam was an anglers' paradise. It still has some small villages, just a few
kilometres away, which belong to the fishing community.Gradually, this beach of Kovalam has been
transformed to a tourist spot of great interest. Kovalam is an ideal place for a sunbath during the
winter. Tourists to Kovalam can also experience the typical Kerala massage from the parlours
available a few kilometers away along the Kovalam beaches.

2.4.1 Facts on Kovalam

Page
33

Languages
Best time to go
STD Code

English, Malayalam and Tamil


November to February
0471

2.4.2 Location of Kovalam

The beach paradise of Kovalam is located 16 kms. from the state capital of Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram.

2.4.3 Kovalam Climate


September to March is the best time to visit Kovalam. In winter the average temperature of
Kovalam is 30 - 32 degree Celsius whereas the summer temperature of Kovalam is 30- 35 degree
Celsius. The monsoons in Kovalam start at the beginning of June, which lasts till the beginning of
August.

2.4.4 Festivals of Kovalam


The village temples of Kovalam hold festivals during the months of January, February and March

2.4.5 Shopping in Kovalam


Shopping in Kovalam is fun. You may pick up handicraft items and spices from Kovalam besides
sunglasses.

2.5 KUMARAKOM TOURISM


Page
34

On the shores of the enchanting Vembanad Lake, 14 km from Kottayam, lies Kumarakom a smalltown. The most interesting area in the backwaters is the "Kuttanad region" called the rice of Kerala.

Fig 2.6 Kumarakom Tourism

The village of Kumarakom is a cluster of little islands on the Vembanad Lake, and is part of the
Kuttanad region. The bird sanctuary in Kumarakom is spread across 14 acres is a favourite haunt of
migratory birds and an ornithologist's paradise. Egrets, darters, herons, teal, waterfowl, cuckoo,
wild duck and migratory birds like the Siberian stork that live in flocks, in Kumarakom, are a
fascination for visitors. An enchanting backwater destination, Kumarakom offers visitors many
other leisure options. Boating and fishing facilities are available in Kumarakom.

2.5.1 Climate Of Kumarakom


Being situated very close to the sea, Kumarakom has a moderate climate, with heavy rains during
June-August due to the southwest monsoon. Winter starts from December and continues till
February in Kumarakom. In summer, the temperature in Kumarakom rises to a maximum of 35C
and 25C in the winters. Annual average rainfall in Kumarakom is 310 cm.

2.5.2 History Of Kumarakom


Earlier & older rubber
a leaisure retreat very
houseboats kown as
Kumarakom,settle here
land.

plantation kumarakom was developed into bird santury.Kumarakom is now


popular with foreigner,who club visit to sanctuary with ride on Kerala
kettuvalllom.An Englishman Henry Baker.fasinated by beauty of
in the last century.He made a Kumarakom his home buying 104 acres of

2.5.3 Tourist Attractions in Kumarakom

Welcome to the holiday at Kumarakom the ornithologist's paradise. Bask in the beauty of nature
amidst marvelous mangrove forests, coconut canopies and Pulsating paddy fields sprinkled with
enchanting waterways and canals decked with while lilies.

2.5.4 Backwater Cruise


Page
35

The backwaters of Kerala - endless miles of snaking waterways flanked on either side by emerald
palms. Tranquil and alluring, they offer you the experience of a lifetime. While Kumarakom the
boat races, houseboat cruise, canoeing and fishing are something not to be missed. A stay at the
houseboat, called Kettuvallom is an unparallel and unique experience. The scintillating beauty of
nature and the simplicity of the people will not fail to touch you at Kumarakom.

2.5.5 Water Bird Sanctuary


A14 acre bird sanctuary is situated on the estem bank of the vemband lake.The sanctuary adds to
the nature beauty of kumarakom.Birds (waterfall,water ducks,cuckoos,wild ducks etc.) nest &
spend happy summer here.Birds like Siberian storks migrate here every year.
At the water bird sanctuary you can spot domestic bird like cuckoo, wild duck, egrets,darters,
herons, teal & waterfowl as well as migratory birds like the Siberian storks.Further ahead from
Kumarakom you may visit the backwater town of kottayam.At kottayam you must chech out the
rubber.

2.5.6 The Vembanad Lake


Kottayam is a vast network of rivers & canals which empty into great expanse of water called the
vembanad lake.The lake,enchanting picnic spot & fast developing backwater tourism destination
provides boating, fishing & sightseeing experience that are truly exhilarating.

2.5.7 Aruvikkuzhi Waterfalls


Located 18 km from Kottayam town, is this beautiful picnic spot where streams tinkle as they make
their way through the landscape and waters roar as they cascade down the mountains from a height
of 100 ft. Tourists can also enjoy the shade of the rubber plantations here.
The various hotels packages for Kumarakom offer the best of facilities. The well-furnished rooms
in Kumarakom hotels place most of the comforts at your feet. Enjoy the luxuries of life on your stay
at the hotel in Kumarakom. Take your pick from a range of luxury and budget hotels in Kumarakom
besides the star categorized accommodation hotels in Kumarakom. Most of the hotels in
Kumarakom offer excellent view of the peaks and the nature at its best through their suites. We will
provide all the travel services for Kumarakom like air ticketing, hotel booking, car rental et al to
make your holiday at Kumarakom memorable. Kottayam is 14 kilometer from Kumarakom and
both State highway and National Highway very close to link of the Kerala.

2.5.8 Resorts in Kumarakom

Page
36

In Kumarakom, the captivating coconut canopies, swaying palms and breathtakingly beautiful
beaches beckon the weary
traveller for an unwinding holiday.
Offering
comfortable
accommodation
around
the
beaches of Kumarakom.The
Resorts in Kumarakom are so
romantic that honeymoon in
Resorts in Kumarakom and
wedding in Resorts in
Kumarakom are popular. For the
tourists the Resorts in
Kumarakom offer the best of
facilities. The luxury Resorts
in Kumarakom

Fig 2.7 Resorts In Kumarakom

There are several all-inclusive Resorts in Kumarakom, heritage Resorts in Kumarakom, five star
Resorts in Kumarakom, four Resorts in Kumarakom, three star Resorts in Kumarakom, two Resorts
in Kumarakom, budget Resorts in Kumarakom, economical Resorts in Kumarakom and Ayurvedic
Resorts in Kumarakom. You may take your pick for any of the Resorts in Kumarakom.
You may savour multi-cuisines in the Resorts in Kumarakom. The Ayurvedic Resorts in
Kumarakom offer several rejuvenation packages especially during the monsoons. Yoga and
meditation programs in the Resorts in Kumarakom also help the tourists feel refreshed. Just like the
beach hotels in Kumarakom, the Resorts in Kumarakom offer conferencing and banqueting
facilities too. It is recreation that dominates the Resorts in Kumarakom. While in the Resorts in
Kumarakom you may enjoy sunbathing, swimming, catamaran cruises et al. The volleyball court
and the hammocks are the spots around the Resorts in Kumarakom.
We at TourismofKerala can arrange booking for you at the Resorts in Kumarakom besides
transportation to and from the Resorts in Kumarakom. So, what are you waiting for? Walk on the
silver sands, count the stars in the sky and have the time of your life in the Resorts in Kumarakom.

2.6 PALAKKAD TOURISM


The tourist destination of Palakkad known as the granary of Kerala is a land of valleys, hillocks,
rivers, forests, mountain streams, dams and irrigation projects. Situated at the foot of the Western
Ghats, Palakkad is the gateway to Kerala from the north. Palakkad derives its name from the
Malayalam words Pala (a tree Alsteria scholaris) and Kadu (forest), which goes to prove that this
place was once a beautiful stretch of forests covered with the sweet-scented flowers of the Pala
tree.
Palakkad (the other name Palghat is a contribution of the British Raj) is prime among Kerala's
Page
37

most picturesque districts, thanks to its distinctive palmyra trees and extensive green paddy fields.
Palakkad has probably the biggest mountain pass in the world (30-40 Kms) separating the two folds
of the Western Ghats on the border of Kerala with Tamil Nadu. Palakkad is rightfully therefore
known as the Gateway of Kerala, giving the rest of India access to the State. For precisely the same
reasons, Palakkad had to bear the brunt of invasions from the bordering kingdoms in the past.
Palakkad is a melting pot of different cultures and ethnic denominations, enriching its life, arts &
culture.

2.6.1 History of Palakkad


There are many views on how Palakkad (or "Palghat" the anglicised version) got its name. One
view is that the word 'Pala' (barren land) together with 'Kadu' (jungle) gave the land its name.
Yet others believe that it is connected with the ancient Jain temple in the town: 'Pali' being the
sacred language of the Jains, giving the land its name as 'Palighat', which over the years changed to
Palakkad. However, most believe that Palakkad is derived from 'Pala', an indigenous tree which
once densely occupied the land, and hence Palakkad or "the forest of Pala trees." Not much is
known about Palakkad's ancient history. It dates back to the Paleolithic period, and several
megalithic relics have been found in the region. At the turn of the first millenium AD, for several
hundred years the Perumals ruled the land.Later their governors called Utayavars took possession of
this land and divided it among themselves
William Logan, the Scottish author of the celebrated Malabar Manual, suggests that one of the
hubs of the Pallavas of Kanchi who invaded Malabar in the second and third centuries was
Palakkad. One of the earliest records about Palakkad has a chronicle of a war victory in A.D 988
when the king of Palakkad, Nedumpurayur Nadudayavar, stopped an invasion by the forces of the
King of Kongunadu at Chittur. Even today, a festival is celebrated in memory of this victory at
Chittur.

In 1757, to check the invasion of the Zamorin of Calicut, the Raja of Palakkad sought the help of
Hyder Ali of Mysore, who freed all parts of Palakkad invaded by the Zamorin. Eventually, Haider
helped himself to Palakkad and later his son Tipu Sultan was the unquestioned ruler of this region.
But after his defeat to the British, Tipu ceded all his Malabar territories to the British.
Palakkad Fort, situated in the town close to Fort Maidan, is the best-preserved fort today in Kerala.
Hyder Ali of Mysore constructed it in 1766. Today, this Palakkad Fort, popularly known as Tippu's
Fort, is one of the protected monuments in Palakkad town.It is square in shape, with walls of
immense thickness and with strong bastions at all four corners and in the middle. The old
drawbridge has since been replaced by a permanent one. Malampuzha Gardens is one of the biggest
tourist attractions of Palakkad in Kerala. This Vrindavan of Kerala brings in tourists from the state
Page
38

& other states every year. The garden has lush green lawns, innumerable flowerbeds, glittering
pools and fountains. The natural grandeur of the garden is enhanced by fresh water aquarium, Snake
Park and children's park with a toy train. Another major attraction of Palakkad is the Udankhatola South India's only Passenger Ropeway. Fly over the garden at 60 ft. height to have the best
panoramic view of the beautiful gardens nestled below the Blue Mountains. Unique by nature,
extremely safe and economical too, you are assured that this twenty minutes sky ride in Palakkad
will be an unforgettable experience.

2.6.2 Festivals of Palakkad


Palakkad is also a place of temple festivals. The temples that dot the landscape of Palakkad have
carved their own niche' in the arts & culture of this region.

2.6.3 Kalpathy Car Festival


Kalpathy Viswanatha swamy temple is the oldest Siva temple in Malabar. It was build around
1425 AD. by Kombi Achan, the then Raja of Palakkad. Kalpathy Car Festival is based on vedic
Tamil Brahmin culture. The main centre of the festival is Kalpathy Sree Viswanathaswamy temple.

2.6.4 Manappullikavu
Manappullikavu Vela is a major festival held every year at the Manappullikkavu Bhagavathy
Temple. It is believed that the temple is about 1200 years old. It is different from other Bhagavathy
Temples by way of rites and rituals.

2.6.5 Nenmara-Vallengi Vela


Nenmara-Vallengi Vela is a renowned festival of Palakkad attracting people from far and wide. It
is held annually on the Pooram day of the Malayalam month Meenam. The Festival starts with the
hoisting the sacred flag.72. Palakkad formed part of the Malabar District of the Madras Presidency
thereafter.

2.7 KOZHIKODE TOURISM

Page
39

Fig 2.8 Kozhikkode Tourism

2.7.1 Kozhikode Location


Kozhikode or Calicut is situated iPn the south Indian state of Kerala on the southwest coast of the

Arabian Sea. The district extends from latitude 1115' N to 7549' E. Basking in the idyllic setting
of the serene Arabian Sea on the west and mesmeric peaks of the Wayanad hills on the east, this
district has all the required ingredients to fascinate a tourist.

2.7.2 Kozhikode Climate


Due to its nearness to sea, the place has a hot and humid climate. Summer starts from March and
continues until May. Maximum temperature recorded in the month of May is 36C and minimum
temperature recorded in the month of December is 14C. Southwest monsoon arrives in the first
week of June and average annual rainfall is 254 cm.

2.7.3 kozhikode History


There is not much known of the early history of Calicut except for some prehistoric rock-cut caves
that have been found at many places of the district. During the Sangam age, the district was under
the Chera administration until ad 1122. This was the time when this region was a major center of
trade between Kerala and the outside world. The city of Calicut came into existence in the 13th
century when Udaiyavar, the king of Ernad.
The outer world came to know about India in 1498 when Vasco da Gama came to Calicut and
obtained permission to carry out trade from here. Quickly in succession came the English and
Dutch. Disputes over the control of Calicut continued for a long time until 1792, when the East
India Company went into an agreement with the local Zamori rulers to directly administer this area.

2.7.4 Kozhikode Tourism


Attractions in and around
There are a number of places worth visiting in Kozhikode. Kappad is the place where Vasco da
Gama set foot for the first time when he came to India on May 27, 1498. There is a small stone
monument at the beach to commemorate that event. Situated next to Pazhassirajah Museum is an art
gallery. While in Kozhikode, Dolphin's Point is a good place to watch dolphins playing in the sea
early in the morning.
Page
40

Two crumbling piers, more than hundred years old, stand out into sea at Kozhikode beach. The
Kozhikode beach is easily accessible from Kozhikode city and provides a good view of the setting
sun. Kozhikode beach also has a Marine Life Aquarium open whole day.
The Science Planetarium at Jaffarkhan Colony is the best place to unravel the mysteries of
universe. Kozhikode's planetarium has an interesting array of games, puzzles, and scientific
gadgetry, which can keep a person busy for the whole day. Mananchira, which was the palace tank
of King Mana Vikrama, has been now turned into a traditional architectural splendor with carpeted
green grass and surrounded by ethnic buildings. The place also has a musical fountain and worth
visiting in Kozhikode.

2.7.5 Excursions from Kozhikode


There are a number of excursion options from Kozhikode. Beypore is 11 km from Kozhikode.
Vadakara, 48 km from Kozhikode is a commercial center of martial arts. the birthplace of Tacholi.
98 km from Kozhikode is Tellicherry and Sultan Battery famous for their breathtaking scenery.

Thusharagiri is famous for its waterfalls and lush green forests. It is at a distance of 11 km from
Kodenchery, a place abounding in rubber plantations, coconut, pepper, ginger, and spices of all
sorts.
There is a dam at located around 45 km from Kozhikode. This excursion from Kozhikode offers
challenging trekking and rock-climbing through river path and numerous waterfalls.
There is another dam at 60 km from Kozhikode. It is a place of beauty, calm, and serenity and
boasts. Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary, 25 km from Kozhikode is a heaven for migratory birds.
Terns, gulls, herons, sandpipers, whimbrels, and other migratory birds flock the place from the
month of November. Other places worth visiting near Kozhikode are Velleri Mala, a beautiful
location for trekking and Velliyamkallu.

2.7.6 Festivals of Kozhikode


The most important festivals of the Kozhikode (Kerala) district are Pooram Festival
(March/April), Memunda (March/April), Vadakara (November/December), Kaliatta Mahotasavam
(March), and Shivratri (February/March).

2.7.Shopping in Kozhikode
S.M. Street is the busiest shopping area in the city of Kozhikode (Kerala) and famous for its
innumerable sweetshops. Those willing to see or buy the traditional boats of Kerala should go to
Beypore, which is barely half an hour's journey from Kozhikode (Kerala).
Page
41

2.7.8 Accommodation in Kozhikode


Standard and budget accommodation options are available in the city of Kozhikode (Kerala). One
can also use the luxurious houseboats floating in the backwaters of Kozhikode (Kerala).
Tree houses around Kozhikode (Kerala) are an unusual attraction for accommodation, but quite
popular these days for the tourists wanting something different.

2.7.9 How to Reach Kozhikode


Access through air is quite easy as Indian Airlines and Jet Air connect Kozhikode (Kerala) with the
Gulf countries, Mumbai, Chennai, Coimbatore, Delhi, Kochi, Goa, and Tiruchirapalli.
Kozhikode (Kerala) is connected to all the major cities of India through rail link. The station is
around 2 km south of Mananchira Square. Kozhikode (Kerala) is well connected with other cities
like Bangalore (354 km), Mangalore (74 km), Mysore, Ooty, Madurai, Coimbatore, Pondichery,
Thiruvananthapuram (445 km), Alappuzha, Kochi (224 km), and Kottayam by road.

2.8 MUNNAR TOURISM


2.8.1 Munnar - Facts & Figures

Languages
Best time to go
STD Code

Malayalam and English


OctoberMarch
0486

Fig 2.9 Munnar Tourism

2.8.2 A Hill Station Called Munnar


Munnar is a small hill station set amongst the Kannan Devan hills. It is famous for its lush green
surroundings, lakes, reservoirs, forests, and tea estates. The quiet environs of Munnar attract the
Page
42

traveler to relax in the lap of Mother Nature. Munnar also beacons the adventure-seeking traveler,
who is interested in paragliding. It has some of the highest tea estates in the world.

2.8.3 Munnar - Location


Munnar is located in the eastern part of the state of Kerala, in the southern region of India, amongst
the craggy hills of the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1524 m above sea level. It is 130 km east of
Kochi and borders the state of Tamil Nadu. The weather in Munnar is pleasant.
Summers (AprilJune) are mild, while winters (NovemberFebruary) are cool. It experiences
heavy southwestern monsoon rains in JuneAugust.

2.8.4 Munnar - Visiting Time


The best time to visit Munnar is between the months of October to March. Travelers must avoid the
monsoon season while visiting Munnar.

2.8.5 Tourist Attractions in Munnar


There are a number of tourist attractions in the hill station of Munnar. Travellers can have
panoramic view of the verdant surroundings and forested hills from Munnar. Walks and hiking
around the small town of Munnar offer an exhilarating experience.

Fig 2.10 Tourist Attraction In Munnar

Travellers can also enjoy walking amongst the numerous tea estates of Munnar and view the entire
process of making tea, right from plucking of tealeaves.Anaimudi (2,695 m), the highest peak in
southern India, can be viewed from Munnar.
The Christ Church is an important place to visit in Munnar. Built of stone, it was constructed by the
British in 1910. This church of Munnar is known for its stain glass windows. It has a number of
brass plaques in memory of the tea planters of Munnar.The National Adventure Foundation
conducts a course on paragliding in Munnar.

2.8.6 Excursions from Munnar

Page
43

The Evarikulam National Park is 16 km from Munnar. This national park is the home of elephants,
lion-tailed macaque, and the Nilgiri tahr (a rare mountain goat). Travellers can also explore the
Rajamala Hills adjoining the national park as an excursion option from Munnar.
Marayoor is 42 km from Munnar to east of the Evarikulam National Park. The Chinnar Wildlife
Sanctuary is 52 km from Munnar. This sanctuary is the home of elephants, leopards, and bear. Top
Station, bordering the state of Kerala, offers spectacular views of the Western Ghats
10 km from Munnar, en route to Top Station, one can visit the Mudapetty Dam. This is a popular
picnic spot and travellers from Munnar can indulge in activities like boating and horse riding here.

2.8.7 Accommodation in Munnar


There are enough decent accommodation options in Munnar and the scene is getting better every
passing dayThere are a number of star category hotels and resorts catering to the needs of tourists
coming to explore. In order to make the travel tour to Munnar even more joyful we at Tourism of
Kerala offer just the right kind of accommodation for you and your family or friends in Munnar.
We can customize your Munnar tour package and offer the hotel accommodation in Munnar. The
reservations of the hotel room in Munnar can be made well in advance as per the requirements. The
various hotels packages for Munnar offer the best of facilities. The well-furnished rooms in Munnar
hotels place most of the comforts at your feet. Enjoy the luxuries of life on your stay at the hotel in
Munnar. Take your pick from a range of luxury and budget hotels in Munnar besides the star
categorized accommodation hotels in Munnar. Most of the hotels in Munnar offer excellent view of
the peaks and the nature at its best through their suites. We will provide all the travel services for
Munnar like air ticketing, hotel booking, car rental et al to make your holiday at Munnar
memorable.

2.7.8 How to Reach Munnar


Munnar does not have an airport or railway station of its own. The nearest airport and railway
station to Munnar is at Kochi, which is 130 km west of Munnar. Munnar is accessible by road from
most of the towns in Kerala. Munnar can also be reached from Madurai (6 hours) and Coimbatore
(6 hours), which are located in the state of Tamil Nadu. TourismofKerala can arrange for your
transportation in and around Munnar.

Page
44

2.9 ALAPPUZHA TOURISM

2.9.1 Alappuzha - Facts & Figures

Population

2,65,000

Languages Spoken Malayalam and English


Best time to go

August to March

STD Code

0477

2.9.2 Alappuzha - the Town in Brief


Alappuzha or Alleppey is one of the exotic backwater sites of Indias southern state Kerala.
Washed by the Arabian Sea, interlocked by a number of canals and bridges, this tiny marketplace is
also famous for its Nehru Trophy boat race held every year. Alappuzha attracts tourists not only by
its natural beauty but also through its locally made coir products that are of a very superios quality.

2.9.3 Alappuzha - Physiography


Separated out from the former districts of Kottayam and Quilon, Alappuzha consists of seven
taluks spread over an area of 1414 sq km.
It is bounded by Kochi and Kanayannur taluks on its north; Vaikom, Kottayam, Changanassery
Thiruvalla, Kozhencherry and Adoor taluks on its east; Kannathur and Karunagappally taluks on its
south and the exotic Lakshadweep of the Arabian Sea on its west.

2.9.4 Alappuzha - Time to take that Trip


Page
45

The climate of this small town is temperate and humid in general and relatively more pleasant in
the winter season. The temperature ranges from 22 to 35C in summer and 20 to 32C during
winters.
The best time to visit Alappuzha is during the winter season. The months from AugustSeptember
and FebruaryMarch are ideal for a visit to this place.
The backwater cruises in the exotic houseboats, which also serve Keralan cuisine delicacies, are an
eternal experience. The Nehru Trophy boat race is the major attraction of this place, which is held
during Onam festival celebrated in the month of August. The festivities of the Mullakal temple
during the month of December are highly recommended as some of Indias finest temple musicians
perform in the main hall during this festival. Besides these, the locally made coir and carpets of
coconut fibers are also attracting tourists these days.

2.9.5 Alappuzha - History


Before the Dutch took over this place, the Portuguese were the predominant rulers of this place.
Later Maharaja Marthandavarma came into power and he gave ample importance to the
developmental works of the place. Slowly it became a very busy commercial place attracting
merchants from all over.

2.9.6 Tourist Attractions in Alappuzha


There are several places of tourist interest in and around Alappuzha.Punnamada Kayal,the mustvisit place of Alappuzha where the annual Nehru Trophy boat race takes place. During the month of
August-September, the backwaters become crowded withthousands of spectators and a large
number of competitors. Krishnapuram Temple, the two-storied building of Alappuzha, displays the
typical Keralan style of architecture. The largest mural painting, Gajendra Miksham, is displayed in
a museum here.
Ambalapuzha Temple, where Lord Krishna is worshipped, is also an important place to visit in
Alappuzha. Here one can see the typical temple architecture and culture of Kerala along with the
chance to taste the Keralan delicacy, payasam, which is served to the visitors in Alappuzha. St.
Andrew's Church, established by the Portuguese missionaries in Alappuzha, celebrates the feast.
Surrounded by thick-green forests, Mannarasala Sree Nagaraja Temple of Alappuzha is a holy place
where the king of serpents is worshiped. Number of devotees from all over India and abroad.
Kottamkulangara Mahavishnu Temple and Devi Temple are the oldest temples of Alappuzha and
are sites worth visiting, especially during the time of festivals.

2.9.7 Shopping in Alappuzha


Page
46

Among the locally available products of Alappuzha are the coir products and carpets. The fine
quality, variety and reasonable price tag make these products stay high in the demand list of tourists.
Besides Alappuzha is also famous for its pepper, coconut oil, areca nut, cardamom, sugar, etc. There
are several markets are available in Alappuzha.

2.9.8 How to Reach Alappuzha


Cities like Cochin, Chennai, Howrah, Bangalore and Bokaro are well connected to Alappuzha.
National Highway 47 goes through Alappuzha connecting it with almost all the nearby places of
South. Alappuzha is also well connected through waterways. Alappuzha is linked by boat and ferry
services through the scenic backwaters to Cochin, Kottayam, Kevalam, Changanassery and
Chengannur.

2.10 KANNUR TOURISM


With the Western Ghats in the East (Coorg district of Karnataka), Kozhikode and Wayanad
districts in the South, Lakshadweep sea in the West and Kasargod in the North Kannur itself shares
much of this natural splendor.It has been a key contributor to the cultural, religious, political and
industrial heritage of the Indian state of Kerala. In addition, Kannur enjoys the credit of having been
the cradle of colourful folk art and folk music of Kerala - notably Theyyam - a stylistic dance form
guaranteed to make your visit to Kannur a memorable one!

2.10.1 Climate of Kannur


Kannur is normally humid and hot most of the year around. But during November to February the
weather in Kannur is agreeable and it is the recommended season for the tourists. For those
interested in the monsoons, June to August would be ideal for feeling the fury of the rains in
Kannur.

2.10.2 History of Kannur


Cannanore or more appropriately Kannur as it is known today is a place with a rich history right
from the time of the Aryan migration. The word Kannur may have evolved from a village named
Kannathur around which the modern town of Kannur grew. Or according to some it is a
combination of Kannan (Lord Krishna), a deity in the Hindu pantheon and Ur meaning a place or an
abode. With the advent of the Europeans, the name underwent yet another change - Cannanore!
Cannanore is steeped in its historical legacy. By early 9th century, the Cheras of Tamil Nadu had
established complete control of the entire area under Raja Kulashekhara Varman. The empire lasted
till 1102 AD. At around the same time, another line of kings known as Mooshika Rajas held sway
Page
47

over the present day areas of Kannur. By the 14th century, these kings were known as the rulers of
the Kingdom Koluthunad, and were known as the Kolathiris.
Another kingdom to the South was the kingdom of the Samuthiris or Zamorins of Calicut, with
whom the Kolathiris had running feuds for centuries. It was the Zamorin of Calicut who welcomed
the first Eurpoean to set foot in India using the sea routs - the Portuguese under Vasco da Gama in
1498.
Vasco De Gama was quick to notice the enemity between the Kolathiris and the Zamorins.
Exploiting these rivalries, Vasco De Gama managed to get virtual monopoly over the spices trade
from India and concessions, which were totally one-sided. Francisco De Almedia arrived from
Portugal soon after to build fortifications at strategic points. One such was built at Kannur and
named Fort St Angelo, which is in a remarkable shape even today. The Kolathiris and Zamorin
allied in 1558 against the Portuguese. Some classic naval battles were fought in the Arabian Sea
against the might of the European navies. The Kunjali Marakkars of Calicut were perhaps the only
naval opposition to the European expansion in this region. But their victories were not enough to
drive the European powers out of India. Soon however, the Dutch followed and drove the
Portuguese out of Kannur Fort St Angelo By 1663 and the rule of the Portuguese had come to an
end.
The English East India Company got its first foothold in the district in the closing years of the 17th
century, when the Thalassery Fort was built. The British were more successful than the Portuguese
since they refused to interfere in the religious and social life of the natives. By the 18th century they
managed to capture the lucrative spices trade and were the unquestioned masters of the seas around
Kannur. The conquest of Malabar by Tippu Sultan in the closing tears of the 18th century caused
much distress and unrest in the region. But his defeat by the British at
Srirangapatanam in 1792 formally ended his reign here and the entire province ceded to the British.
The British organized the province into two administrative divisions - one with Headquarters at
Thalassery and the other at Cherpulassery, under the overall control of the Chief magistrate at
Calicut . The British rule brought some measure of political stability to the region. But the
unpopular revenue policy followed by the British triggered the revolt by a local raja - Pazhasi Raja
in 1796. Many are the legends and stories of his heroic exploits against the foreignrulers that exist
to this day. He remains the symbol of a heroic age when injustice was not tolerated and patriotism
had its first stirrings. The revolt itself was doomed to failure because of the vastly superior British
military strength. On November 30, 1805, the British Commander Baber and his men shot Pazhasi
Raja dead. The Raja was given a funeral fit for royalty considering his bravery in battle. With the
death of Pazhasi raja
Cannanore played a prominent part in the freedom struggle against the British a century later. The
echo of the Salt Satyagraha of Mahatma Gandhi found its echo on the beaches of Payyannur.
Kannur also was the region from which the Communist movement in Kerala really took roots under
AK Gopalan. This movement would finally culminate in Kerala electing the first communist
Government anywhere in the world. Even today, Kannur remains a stronghold of the Communists
and many notable leaders of the present Government are residents of this district.
Page
48

2.10.3 Tourist Attractions in Kannur


There are several tourist attractions in Kannur. The St. Angelos Fort in the Kannur Cantonment,
which was constructed in 1505, is a symbol of Portuguese architecture and attracts plenty of
tourists. The Thalassery Fort is an important tourist center in Kannur. Kannur beach and Ezhimala
are known for scenic beauty. Places of Historic importance, like the house of Gundert, who
composed the first Malayalam-English Dictionary and the mosque at Madayi constructed in 1124,
using marble brought from Mecca attract many tourists to Kannur.

2.10.4 Fort St. Angelos


Fort St. Angelos is in the West of Kannur town. It was built in 1505 by the first Portuguese
Viceroy, Don Francisco De Almeida, with the permission of the Kolathiris, on the promontory
jutting into the Lakshadweep sea. The Dutch captured the fort in 1663 and sold it to the Ali Raja of
Kannur in 1772, and in 1790 it came into the possession of the British. The British rebuilt it and
made it their most important station in Malabar.
A few ancient cannons are on display inside the fort. The fort is a protected monument under the
Archaeological Survey of India.

2.10.5 Thalassery Fort


The British arrived in Thalassery in 1683 and erected a trading shed there. They shifted their
commercial capital to Thalassery from Kozhikode, following obstruction from the Dutch. In 1700,
the British built the Thalassery fort on a small hill called Tiruvellapadakunnu and in 1708, it was
strengthened by increasing its height and with bastions. The fort is a square structure built of laterite
and is distinguished by its massive ventilated walls and strong flanking bastions. It was here that
Haider's captain was imprisoned. The famous St. Johns Anglican Church is behind this fort. It is
another tourist attraction in Kannur.

2.10.6 Snake Park at Parassinikadavu


The snake park at Parassinikadavu is 18 kms. away from Kannur town. It is one of the known snake
parks in the state. The park is dedicated to the preservation and conservation of snakes, most of
which are becoming extinct gradually. There is a large collection of poisonous and non-poisonous
snakes. Snake demonstrations conducted every hour draw large crowds to Kannur.

2.10.7 Payyambalam Beach Resort


The Payyambalam beach is one of the beautiful beaches in Kerala and is an ideal place to spend
evenings, irrespective of seasons. It is near Kannur town.

Page
49

2.10.8 Moppila Bay


Moppila Bay is a natural fishing harbour, lying near Fort St. Angelos in Kannur. A sea wall
projecting from the fort separates the rough sea and inland water. The bay was famous during the
Kolathiri's regime as a commercial harbour that linked Kolathunadu with Lakshadweep and
foreign countries, in imports. Today, Mopila bay has turned into a modernised fishing harbour,
developed under the Indo-Norwegian pact.

2.10 9 Excursions from Kannur


There are several excursion options available from Kannur.
Meenkunnu Beach (12 km from
tourist's paradise, with golden
Parassinikadavu (16 km from
Temple stands on the banks of the
centre is famous for the

Kannur) It is not crowded, and a


sand and surf.
Kannur town) Sri Muthappan
Valapatanam river. This pilgrim
Muthappan Theyyam..

Fig 2.11 Excursion From Kannur

Dharmadam Island The small 5-acre island covered with coconut palms and a dense bush is a
beautiful sight from the beach. Permission is required to enter this privately owned island
Muzhpilangad Beach(15 km from Kannur) Its shallow waters make it a swimmer's paradise.
Perhaps this is Kerala's only drive-in beach where you can drive down the entire length of 4 km.
Gundert Bungalow (20 km from Kannur, near Thalasseri town, on the National Highway at
Illikunnu): Dr. Herman Gundert, the revered German missionary, scholar and lexicographer lived in
this Bungalow for 20 years from 1839. Sree Ramaswami Temple, Thiruvangad (23 km from
Kannur) The temple dedicated to Sri Rama is one of the most important temples in Malabar. The
exquisite carvings in the temple are said to have been carried out nearly 400 years ago.
Madayi Para (25 km from Kannur) The Madayi Kavu Temple, the Vadukunnu Temple and the 12th
century mosque built by Malik bin Dinar with white marble imported from Arabia, are the major
attractions here. There is also a dilapidated fort at Madayi, which is supposed to have been built by
Tipu Sultan of Mysore. The view from the fort is fascinating. Malayala Kalagramam (29 km from
Page
50

Kannur) This renowned centre for arts and culture at Mahe, conducts courses in painting, sculpture,
music dance and pottery. Thodeekulam Shiva Temple (34-km southeast of
Kannur) Located 2 km from Kannavam on the Thalassery-Mananthavady road, this temple is
famous for its mural paintings. It is believed to have been constructed 2,000 years ago and was
closely connected with the Pazhassi Raja family of Kottayam
Pazhassi Dam (37 km east of Kannur) An ideal retreat for tourists, the dam site is famous for its
scenic beauty. Pythal Mala (65 km from Kannur town) This enchanting hill station, situated 4,500
ft. above sea level near the Kerala. Karnataka border is rich in flora and fauna. It is a 6-km trek to
the top of the hills. Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary (35 km from Thalassery): Elephants, sloth bears,
sambars, mouse deer etc. can be found in the 55 sq. km sanctuary.

2.10.10 Festivals of Kannur


Cherukunnu Famous for its Anna Poorneswari Temple, the weeklong annual festival is in April.
There is a Kathakali-Panchavadya school called Asthikalalaya near the temple Kottiyoor There is a
Shiva Temple here on the banks of the Bavali River. Thousands of devotees attend the annual 2
Attukal Pongala (February) is the one and the only temple festival in the world where women
assemble together to make offerings by cooking a pudding for the goddess in the Attukal temple. It
is taken home after the chief priest of the temple will come and sprinkle the holy water and will
shower the flowers.Payippad Jelotsavam (August/September) Held in memory for the Prathista
ceremony of Haripad Subramanya temple and therefore has a religious significance. This festival is
celebrated for three days commencing from the Onam festival day. Snake boat processions are
taken out on the first two days and competitive boat race take place on the third day.Sree Murugan
Kovil, Munnar Sree Ayyappa Temple, Anachal, MunnarSree ParthaSarathy
Temple,MundakkayamThis temple at Mundakkayam, 65 Km from Thekkady.
This temple is dedicated to Lord Ayyappa. It is situated at Anachal, 15 Km from Munnar. This
temple is dedicated to Lord Subrahamanya, also known as Sree Murugan - son of Lord Siva. The
one day festival is known as 'Thrikkarthika Utsavam'. On the Karthika day - the festival day - the
entire temple is illuminated by thousands of traditional oil lamps. In the afternoon the ritual known
as 'Thookkam' is conducted.This temple, preclude on a top amidst the green tea gardens, is
dedicated to Lord Krishna. It is located at Peerumedu, 42 Km from Kumili. The most renowned
destination is the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary at Thekkady, one of India's major sanctuary areas. The
Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary was declared a Tiger Reserve in 1978 (spread across 777 Sq. Km). The drive to
Thekkady itself is enchanting as the road winds through tranquil countryside, rich plantations and thick jungles.(Entry
time 06.00 am to 06.00 pm).7-day festival during May-June.

2.11 QUILON TOURISM

2.11.1 Quilon - Facts & Figures


Page
51

Area
Population

2,398,285

Best time to visit

October to March

Languages

Malayalam, English, and Hindi

STD Code

0474

2.11.2 Quilon - Location


Quilon or Kollam is situated in the southwest corner of India in the state of Kerala. The district is

encircled by Alappuzha in the north, Pathanamthitta in the northeast, Thiruvananthapuram in the


south, Tirunelveli (Tamilnadu) in the east, and the Arabian Sea in the west. It extends latitude 928'
and longitude 7617' north.

2.11.3 Quilon - Climate


The climate is of tropical humid type with an oppressive summer and plenty of seasonal rainfall.
The summer, lasting from March to May, is followed by the southwest monsoon from June to
September. The northeast monsoon occurs from October to November. The rest of the year is
generally dry.

2.11.4 Quilon History


Quilon is an old seaport town on the Arabian coast and a great trade center of Kerala. It stands on
the Ashtamudi Lake.
The city has changed its name frequently and known as Desinganadu, Kollam, Quilon at various
points of time. It has sustained commercial reputation from the days of Phoenicians and the
Romans. Ibn Batuta identified it as one of the five ports he saw in the time span of 24 years during
his travel in India. The rulers of Quilon and China had diplomatic relations in the 14th century and
they exchanged embassies with each other. There was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Quilon
during that period. Great Venetian traveler Marco Polo visited the city in 1275 in his capacity as a
Chinese Mandarin. From the beginning of 16th century, the Portuguese, Dutch, and British came in
quick succession to establish trading centers at Quilon. British stationed a garrison at Quilon in
pursuance of a treaty between Travancore and British in the 18th century.
Page
52

2.11.5 Tourist Attractions in Quilon


Quilon was an international emporium of trade and even now it is a prosperous commercial centre.
Quilon edges with the famous Astamudi lake. Many a foreign traveller has visited Quilon in the
early midieval period. Quilon was one of the early centres of Christian activity in Kerala. The
popularity of Quilon has been established by the time-honoured proverb once you see Quilon, you
will not need your home any more.
The 144 ft. Thangassery Light house, built in 1902, is a centre of attraction in Quilon. The Ananda
Valleeswaram Temple of Quilon attracts people on almost all days. There are several Churches and
Mosques around Quilon. The Pullichira Church was established in 1700 A.D. One of the oldest and
most important Mosques in Quilon is the Chinnakkada Palli. The Thangal Kunju Musaliar College
of Engineering, the first of its king in the state, is at Kilikolloor, about 7 kms. east of Quilon
town. Mahatma Gandhi beach & park at Kochupilamoodu, Thirumullavaram beach and Ashramam
picnic village, are some of the important spots of local sight seeing. Mahatma Gandhi beach lies just
2 kms. from Quilon. It is fascinating place for an evening. Thirumullavaram Beach is 5 kms. from
Quilon. The sea here is ideal for swimming and bathing. Ashramam picnic village is located in the
48-acre Guest House Complex. Quilon stands along Ashtamudi Lake and is a major attraction for its
elegance and architectural beauty. Tourists can stay here at economical rates. The children's Traffic
& Entertainment Park, designed by NATPAC, is also worth visiting in Quilon. Different types of
boats, including luxury cruise boats, powerboats and motorboats, are available on hire from the boat
jetty near to the Adventure Park.

2.11.6 Festivals of Quilon


In addition to the traditional past times like Kathakali, Koothu, Ottamthullal, Pattakam, Harikatha,
Kaikottikkali, Thiruvathirakkali, Kolattam etc., there are certain amusements and festivities, which
are unique to Quilon. They are held in connection with festivals in temples. The mock swork-fight Oachirakkali, is one of the most important of such festivals in Quilon. Oachira has been famous for
long as one of the sacred places of Kerala.
Historically too this place is very famous, for, it was on the plains of Oachira that the much famed
battle in the history of Travancore, the battle of Kayamkulam, was fought between
Marthandavarma, the Maharaja of Travancore and the Raja of Kayamkulam. In commemoration of
this historic battle Ochirakkali is conducted on the first and second of Mithunam (June-July) every
year. On this occasion, the young and the old, drawn from the two Karas lying east and west of
Oachira, from themselves into two groups, reach the Padanilam (the place for fighting) and conduct
the age-old fencing exercise under the leadership of the elder kalari asan.
In Kottamkulangara Temple in Chavara, there is a peculiar custom of men dressing up as women
and carry lighted lamps (Thalappoli). The Uriati is a typical festival of Quilon associated with
Krishna Temple. The annual Uriati festival held at Vadayattukotta temple in connection with
Ashtami Rohini deserves mention. The Kettukazhcha (exhibition of effigies) festival held at
Mahadevar Temple, Thrikkadavur in February-March every year is one of the colorful festivals of
Page
53

Quilon. There are similar festivals in the temples of Sasthamcotta, Velinallur, Chathannur,
Chirakkara etc.

2.12 VARKALA TOURISM


2.12.1 Varkala - The Place
AVarkala, a new destination in Kerala, is for those who prefer to do absolutely nothing while
holidaying. Due to a spillover resulting from the over saturation of Kovalam, foreigners started
coming to the town about six years ago. The trend that started as a trickle became a steady flow
within two years. Today, there is a constant stream of visitors. However, because of the areas
comparative inaccessibility, a large influx of outsiders has not happened here. At the Varkala
platform, there is no indication that this town is on many a tourist itinerary.

Fig 2.12 Varkala Tourism

2.12.2 Varkala - What

Makes it Tick

Separated out from the former districts of Kottayam and Quilon, Alappuzha consists of seven taluks
spread over an area of 1414 sq km. It is bounded by Kochi and Kanayannur taluks on its north;
Vaikom, Kottayam, Changanassery Thiruvalla, Kozhencherry and Adoor taluks on its east;
Kannathur and Karunagappally taluks on its south and the exotic Lakshadweep of the Arabian Sea
on its west.

2.12.3 Varkala - Time to take that Trip


What makes the coastline of Varkala exceptional is its landscape. Towering cliffs that stand like
silent sentinels, guarding the sparkling waters, back the beach. Highly unusual land formations, the
sheerness of the cliffs, and the view from atop, simply astound the visitors. Shining white sands,
cloudless skies touching the blue water and the red soil of the hilltop, coupled with yellow-green
paddy fields, and green coconut trees, make a composite picture of the beauty and awesomeness of
nature. Nature in its pristine glory remains so untouched that to get to the secluded part of the
beach, one has to either scramble over rocks during high tide or climb down the cliff. With constant
use, a path of sorts has been worn into the hill face. However, the state government does have
Page
54

development plans for its inland waterways that will, in time, have an effect on the growth of
Varkala.

2.12.4 Tourist Attractions in Varkala

Sivagiri Mutt is the samadhi (memorial) of Shri Narayana Guru, spiritual leader and social reformer
of Kerala. A man much ahead of his times, he propagated the idea of one caste, one religion, and
one God. His discourses were conducted mainly in and around Varkala. Located about 2.5 km from
the town, on the banks of the Thiruvananthapuram-Shornur canal, Sivagiri Mutt is visited by
thousands of Hindu pilgrims, annually. Most people, who visit Sivagiri, also make it a point to go to
Janardhana Swami Temple. This temple is situated close to Varkala's beach. Ironically enough,
much before Varkala became known, internationally, for its sandy stretch, the beach, named
Papanasam, was already well known to pilgrims in Kerala. Considered an auspicious site, during
the season of Karkkidakavavu, special pujas for invoking departed souls are conducted here.
Varkala and its 3 km stretch of beach beckons the jaded and the travel weary.

2.12.5 How to Reach Varkala


The tourist destination of Varkala can be reached from Thiruvananthapuram, the capital of Kerala.
Varkala is about an hour's drive from Thiruvananthapuram. The nearest airport is the
Thiruvananthapuram International airport, which is about 46 km from Varkala.
The Varkala railway station links the tourist destination of Varkala with other places like
Thiruvananthapuram and Ernakulam.

2.12.6 Accommodation in Varkala


Accommodation is easily available in Varkala. There are several hotels, beach resorts, motels and
inns that offer facilities for a comfortable stay in Varkala. As per your budget you may take your
pick from the luxury and economy accommodations available in Varkala.

Page
55

UNIT 3. FESTIVALS OF KERALA


The Indian state of Kerala is renowned for its rich cultural heritage. Be it family reunions, dances,
music and large-scale feasts mark the festivals in Kerala. Malayalis celebrate one festival
irrespective of caste and creed: Onam. There are a few other festivals that are important like
Thiruvathira, Vishu and Sabarimalai pilgrimage. There are also many local festivals in Kerala and
every temple and church has its own annual festival. Thus, incase you are planning a trip to Kerala,
the festivals are the best time.

Fig 3.1Festivals Of Kerala

3.1 ONAM FESTIVAL


3.1.1 Onam Festivals - Facts and Figures

Time of the year


Places to visit
Duration

September
Kerala
Seven to ten days

Page
56

Fig 3.2 Onam Festival

3.1.2 Onam Festival Introduction


Onam is a time for sports, festivities, and ritual celebrations in Kerala. The Keralites celebrate this
festival in memory of the golden era of King Mahabali whose spirit is said to visit the state at the
time of Onam. Colorful aquatic festivals are organized along the sacred rive Pampa as part of the
celebrations.
After three months of heavy rains, the sky becomes a clear blue and the forests a deep green. The
brooks and streams come alive, spouting a gentle white foam, the lakes and rivers overflow and
lotuses and lilies are in full bloom as if to welcome the spirit of the King. It is time to reap the After
the torrential rains of Karkidakam month, also called as Ramayana month, the sky becomes clear
blue and the forests deep green. The flowers are in full bloom.Kerala gets ready to celebrate and
rejoice the State Festival Onam in the following month of Chingam (Bhadrapada), which falls
usually at the end of August or beginning of September.Onam is a ten-day harvest festival starting
with Atham and also the greatest festival of Kerala. After a bounteous harvest, Onam is the time
for the farmers to celebrate the bounties of nature and make merry. A unique feature of this festival
is that it is celebrated unitedly by all Keralites without caste or religious differences

3.1.3 When Onam is Celebrated?


Depending on the positioning of the stars and the moon, the festival is held at the end of August or
beginning of September, less than a fortnight after the Malayalam New Year, Chingam begins. This
is the biggest festival of the southern Indian state of Kerala. Onam also marks the time when one
should visit Kerala. The color, enthusiasm, and celebrations associated with Onam are enough to
make you return again.

3.1.4 Onam Celebrations


The celebrations begin within a fortnight of the Malayalam New Year and go on for ten days. The
last day called the Thiruonam is the most important. All over the state, rituals along with new
clothes, traditional cuisine, dance, and music mark this harvest festival. In Trichur, a vibrant
procession with resplendently caparisoned elephants is taken out while at Cheruthuruthy, people
gather to watch Kathakali performers enact scenes from epics and folk tales. Pulikali, also known as
Page
57

Kaduvakali is a common sight during Onam season. Performers painted like tigers in bright yellow,
red and black, dance to the beats of instruments like udukku and thakil.
At Aranmulla, where there is a temple dedicated to Lord Krishna and Arjuna,thousands of people
gather on the banks of the river Pampa to witness the exciting snake boatraces. Nearly 30 chundan
vallams or snake boats participate in the festival. Singing traditional boat songs, the oarsmen, in
white dhotis and turbans, splash their oars into the water to guide their boats to cruise along like a
fish on the move. The golden lace at the head of the boat, the flag and the ornamental umbrella at
the center make it a spectacular show of pageantry too. The swing is another integral part of Onam,
especially in the rural areas.

3.1.5 Onam Festival - Related hubs

Best Pookalam Designs Floral Festival of Kerala


The Story of Onam: The origin of Onam is a story connected with the mythical King
Mahabali. Kerala people believe that, thousands of years before King Mahabali ruled over
Kerala. As per the story, when...
Onam Festival in Kerala 2010 - Thiruonam Celebrations

Onam is the most popular festivals celebrated in Kerala, India. Onam is a ten day annual
festival celebrated all over Kerala.

Mytholgy of Onam festival


Onam is one of the greatest festivals of Kerala. The legend of King Mahabali is the most
popular and the most fascinating of all legends behind Onam. ONAM comes in the month of
"Chingam" according to...

Keralas traditional festival onam and onam recipes


Onam is one of the important festival of kerala.The celebration of festival extends 10
days.Every home is embellished with floral decorations called pookkalam. Onam, also known
as Thiruonam, is celebrated

3.2 VISHNU FESTIVALS


One of the most popular festivals of Kerala is Vishu. Vishu falls on the first of Medam (MarchApril), which is the Malayali New Year's Day. Since it is considered propitious to view good things
on this day for year round good fortune, Vishu morning is an important time. The heart of this
festival of Kerala is the preparation of the kani (the lucky sight or gift). The custom of preparing the
kani has been followed for generations. The women take a large dish made of bell-metal (uruli),
arrange in it a grantha (palm-leaf manuscript), a gold ornament, a new cloth, some flowers from the
konna tree (Cassia fistula), some coins in a silver cup, a split coconut, a cucumber, some mangoes,
and a jack-fruit. On either side of the dish are placed two burning lamps with a chair facing it.
Family members are taken blindfolded, and then their blindfolds are removed and they view the
Page
58

vishu kani. As in other Indian festivals, a great feast at home is the high point of celebrating Vishu
in Kerala.

3.3 THISSUR POORAM FESTIVALS


The most spectacular festival of Kerala is Thrissur Pooram. Sakthan Thampuran, the Maharaja of
erstwhile Kochi state, introduced this festival. Celebrated in Medom (April-May) this festival of
Kerala parades the fulgent faces of Kerala culture. With every passing year Thrissur Pooram, the
temple festival, attracts large masses of devotees and spectators to Kerala.Of the groups displaying
their artistic prowess in the Pooram, the prominent are Paramekkavu and Thiruvambadi. When
Paremekkavu and Thiruvambadi vie each other for their best performance, the connoisseurs of
festivals are blessed with the rare chance to enjoy Kerala's art and culture.
These temples organise impressive, awe-inspiring processions starting from Krishna temple and
Devi temple. On the day before the closing of the pooram the groups enter the Vadakumnatha
temple through the western gate and come out through the southern gate to parade, face to face.
Caparisoned elephants and the exchange of parasols are the other virtual feasts to eyes.
The hours-long dazzling fire works submerge the Thrissur city of Kerala in an ocean of colour.
What unfurls in the dark sky will be a rich tapestry.
The marvellous as well as magical effect of the Panchavadyam, a combination of five percussion
and wind instruments, is to be felt and enjoyed. Although this grand festival is known as Thrissur
Pooram, it is in fact the conclusion of the eight-day Utsavam of nine temples. The commissioning
of elephants and parasols is done in the utmost secrecy by each party to excel the other.
Commencing in the early hours of the morning, the celebrations last till the break of dawn, the next
day.

3.4 KERALA BOAT FESTIVALS

On the great waterways of Kerala, fierce Vallom Kallies (boat races) and water carnivals erupt
every year in a dramatic spectacle and hold tens of thousands of people spell-bound, cheering the
action,
laying
bets,
goading
the
boatmen
to
row
faster.
At Aranmula on the Pamba River in the Kuttanad region, at Papiyad near Quilon, at Thayathangadi
near Kottayam, the water carnivals and snake boat races herald the week of the great harvest
festival of Onam. It is Kerala's most important celebration and in scores of villages spread across
central Kerala,

Page
59

Fig 3.3 Kerala Boat Festivals

competitive races featuring the smaller churulans, oadis, and irrutukuthies provide expression to the
spirit of an intrepid, athletic people, born and bread near water. Over the years, roads, railways and
aircraft have stifled the romance of river traffic and inland water warfare has passed into the annals
of history. But for the boatmen of Kerala, the romance of the boat races during the boat festivals is
still alive and they think innostalgic term as their boats glide to some favorite shrine in the soft,
muted light of themorning.
The stately snake boats of Aranmula form part of a hoary temple ritual. In days gone by, it is said,
bandits once plundered a small boat carrying offerings to a Krishna temple. Lord Krishna, the
legend, appeared before the distraught devotee in a dream and advised him to build larger boats
which, when rowed by a hundred to hundred and fifty oarsmen, could glide swiftly and outstrip any
pirate, and so the speedy chundan or snake boat was designed.
This legend forms the basis for the snake boat races and boat festivals of Kerala. The snake boats
take shape in the skilled hands of inspired shipwrights or master boat builders - proud guardians of
time honored boat-building techniques conscientiously passed on from father to son.
Everything is handmade and crafted with great care by the shipwrights. Volunteers from the
community are willing assistants and thousands throng the water's edge to watch the first critical
trial run of a new boat.

Page
60

UNIT 4. KERALA WILDLIFE


4.1 PERIYAR NATIONAL PARK
4.1.1 Periyar National Park - Facts & Figures

Area
Languages
Best time to go

778 sq km
English, Malayalam
October to June

Fig 4.1 Periyar National Park

4.1.2 About Periyar National Park


Situated within the confines of the Western Ghats in the southern Indian state of Kerala, Periyar
National Park and Tiger Reserve is one of the most captivating wildlife parks in the world.
Page
61

In 1895, the British undertook water resource management plans for the area and started work on a
dam and an artificial lake under the auspices of Col. J. Pennycuick. The picturesque lake in the
heart of the sanctuary was originally 26 sq km but now spans an area of 55 sq km. This perennial
source of water, which initially led to the submersion of large tracts of forestland, slowly attracted
wild animals. It eventually resulted in the adjoining forests being granted protection by the
Maharaja of Travancore. Post-1975 Periyar finds itself in the enviable position of being a national
park as well as a protected tiger reserve. Periyar (also known as Thekkady) is a park where one can
witness playful pachyderms,
Whose population is currently around 800. The population of tigers is also increasing appreciably.
The terrain ranges from hilly to flat grassland areas at the edges of the lakes. The vegetation is of
moist deciduous type.

4.1.3 Periyar National Park Climate


The temperature during summers (April-June) ranges from 21C to 24C. During the monsoon
(July-August), it ranges from 19C to 21C. Winter season lasts from October to March and is cool
and pleasant.

4.1.4 Best time to visit Periyar National Park


The months of March and April constitute the driest part of the year, because of which the animals
spend a lot of time near the lake in the Periyar National Park. Even the tiger may be spotted
approaching the waters in the Periyar National Park. Animals may be seen from motorboats on the
lake or from watchtowers set up in the Periyar National Park. A special permission is required to
travel by boat to the source of the artificial lake, the River Periyar. This area is generally not open
for tourists, but is the favourite haunt of the sloth bear. There is a good chance of spotting an
occasional tiger in this relatively peaceful corner of the Periyar National Park. One can also form a
group and go on a walking tour in the Periyar National Park with locally available guides.

4.2 WILDLIFE IN PERIYAR NATIONAL PARK

Periyar National Park is a veritable paradise of elephants. Herds of playful wild elephants have
made Periyar Lake their favourite haunt for frolicking in the water. Scores of them can be witnessed
bathing and swimming here. The Indian female elephants do not posses tusks like their African
relatives. They are also not as swarthy as their African counterparts. Other inhabitants of Periyar
National Park include the leopard, wild dog, barking deer, mouse deer, Nilgiri langur(a primate),
bonnet macaque, sambhar, porcupines, squirrels, gaur (Indian bison), wild boar and sloth bear.
There are approximately 40 tigers in the Periyar National Park as per the latest reports. Amidst the
rocky hinges along the lake, of the Periyar National Park, monitor lizards may be spotted. Trekkers
in Periyar National Park have also sighted pythons, king cobras and flying lizards. Some 260
species of birds are found at Periyar National Park. These include darters, cormorants, ibises, gray
Page
62

herons, mynas, flycatchers, orioles, wood pigeons, kingfishers, kites, ospreys, thrushes, and an
appreciable number of blue-winged parakeets.

4.2.1 Excursions from Periyar National Park


There are some tribal villages around Periyar National Park, which are worth a visit. The tribal
people are expert fishermen and farmers. Some are still engaged in the traditional practice of
collecting honey of dangerous hill bees. They have built interesting tree dwellings. These dwellings
do not signify a 'perched' existence.
Quite the contrary, they are comfortable watchtowers for taking note of any wild pig or elephant in
the area that might ruin the cultivated fields. Other destinations near Periyar National Park are
Kottayam (117 km) and the temple town of Madurai (140) km).

4.2.2 Periyar Packages


Planning a trip to Periyar National Park? Enjoy the best of tour packages to Periyar National Park
with TourismofKerala. For many tourists, Periyar National Park is one of the most captivating
wildlife parks in the world. You may tell us your needs for the tour of Periyar National Park. We
will create the best package for Periyar National Park according to your needs and interest.
We offer all inclusive tour packages for Periyar National Park besides other National Parks in
India.TourismofKerala is a leading tour operator operating in Periyar. It offers a variety of packages
for Periyar including Periyar tour packages, Periyar travel packages, Periyar holiday packages,
Periyar adventure package, Periyar wildlife packages, Periyar vacation packages, Periyar
customized packages, Periyar fixed packages, Periyar group packages, Periyar wildlife sanctuary
packages, Periyar national park packages, Periyar Tiger Reserve packages, excursion packages from
Periyar, Periyar extended packages, Periyar luxury packages, Periyar budget packages, Periyar
economy packages, Periyar bird watching packages, Periyar nature packages, Periyar safari
packages, cheap Periyar packages, discounted Periyar packages, Periyar tiger tour packages,
specialized Periyar packages, guided Periyar packages, and escorted Periyar packages.

Page
63

Fig 4.2 Periyar Packages

4.3 ELEPHANT SAFARI IN PERIYAR


Situated within the confines
southern Indian state of
one of the most captivating
Periyar National park is also
witness playful elephants in
currently around 800.

of the Western Ghats in the


Kerala, Periyar Tiger Reserve is
wildlife parks in the world.
known as Thekkady. One can
Periyar, whose population is

Fig 4.3 Elephant Safari In Periyar

4.3.1 Wildlife in Periyar


Periyar is a veritable paradise of wildlife. Herds of playful wild elephants in Periyar can be easily
spotted in Periyar.
The elephants in Periyar have made the Periyar Lake their favourite haunt for frolicking in the
water. Scores of elephants in Periyar can be witnessed bathing and swimming here. The Indian
female elephants in Periyar do not posses tusks like their African relatives. The elephants in Periyar
are also not as swarthy as their African counterparts. Besides the elephants in Periyar there are
leopard, wild dog, barking deer, mouse deer, Nilgiri langur (a primate), bonnet macaque, sambhar,
porcupines, squirrels, gaur (Indian bison), wild boar and sloth bear.There are approximately 40
tigers in the Periyar as per the latest reports. The tigers, along with the Nilgiri tahrs (a kind of a wild
goat), are elusive creatures that may be spotted at the Periyar. Besides watching the elephants in
Periyar, you may even enjoy riding elephants in Periyar. For all the animal lovers, the elephants in
Periyar are a major attraction. The herds of elephants in Peiyar can be watched easily. Even for the
photographers capturing the elephants in Periyar is a delight.
Page
64

4.3.2 About Periyar Tiger Reserve


Situated within the confines of the Western Ghats in the southern Indian state of Kerala, Periyar
Tiger Reserve and National Park is one of the most captivating wildlife parks in the world. In 1895,
the British undertook water resource management plans for the area and started work on a dam and
an artificial lake under the auspices of Col. J. Pennycuick. The picturesque lake in the heart of the
Periyar Tiger Reserve was originally 26 sq km but now spans an area of 55 sq km. This perennial
source of water, which initially led to the submersion of large tracts of forestland, slowly attracted
wild animalsIt eventually resulted in the adjoining forests being granted protection by the Maharaja
of Travancore. Post-1975 Periyar finds itself in the enviable position of being a Tiger Reserve as
well as a protected tiger reserve. Periyar Tiger Reserve (also known as Thekkady) is a park where
one can witness playful pachyderms, whose population is currently around 800. The population of
tigers is also increasing appreciably in the Periyar Tiger Reserve. The terrain in Periyar Tiger
Reserve ranges from hilly to flat grassland areas at the edges of the lakes.

4.3.3 Best time to visit Periyar Tiger Reserve


The months of March and April constitute the driest part of the year, because of which the animals
spend a lot of time near the lake in the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Even the tiger may be spotted
approaching the waters in the Periyar Tiger Reserve. Animals may be seen from motorboats on the
lake or from watchtowers set up in the Periyar Tiger Reserve. A special permission is required to
travel by boat to the source of the artificial lake, the River Periyar.This area is generally not open
for tourists, but is the favourite haunt of the sloth bear. There is a good chance of spotting an
occasional tiger in this relatively peaceful corner of the Periyar Tiger Reserve.

4.3.4 Attractions in and around the Periyar Tiger Reserve

Periyar Tiger Reserve is a veritable paradise of elephants. Herds of playful wild elephants have
made Periyar Lake their favourite haunt for frolicking in the water. Scores of them can be witnessed
bathing and swimming here. The Indian female elephants do not posses tusks like their African
relatives. They are also not as swarthy as their African counterparts. Other inhabitants of Periyar
Tiger Reserve include the leopard, wild dog, barking deer, mouse deer, Nilgiri langur (a primate),
bonnet macaque, sambhar, porcupines, squirrels, gaur (Indian bison), wild boar and sloth bear.
There are approximately 40 tigers in the Periyar Tiger Reserve as per the latest reports. Amidst the
rocky hinges along the lake, of the Periyar Tiger Reserve, monitor lizards may be spotted. Trekkers
in Periyar Tiger Reserve have also sighted pythons, king cobras and flying lizards. Some 260
species of birds are found at Periyar Tiger Reserve.

Page
65

UNIT 5. TOUR PACKAGES FOR KERALA


TourismofKerala is a leading tour operator in India that offers travel services for tourists to India
including tour packages. A
must visit tourist attraction in India is that
of the Kerala. We offer a wide
range of tour packages to make your
holidays in Kerala - the God's
own country memorable. The most
popular tour packages for
Kerala include leisure tour packages for
Kerala,
backwaters
and
beaches tour packages for Kerala,
honeymoon
packages
for
Kerala.

Page
66

Fig 5.1 Tour Packages For Kerala

Then there are the Business tour packages for Kerala including corporate Tour Packages Kerala,
incentive Tour Packages Kerala, conference Tour Packages Kerala, et al. For the budget travellers
there are budget Tour Packages for Kerala, and economical Tour Packages for Kerala. For the
foreign tourists, escorted and guided tour packages are also available. For educational institutes and
other special interest group special tour packages are in the offering. We cater to your tour needs for
any of the tourist destinations in Kerala. Be backwater destinations like Alleppey, beaches like
Kovalam, heritage destinations like Cochin or pilgrimage attractions like Sabarimalai, we have tour
packages for Kerala. In case our tour packages do not suit your requirements, we can come up with
customized tour packages Kerala, designed especially for you.

5.1 ITENARARIES
Coast to Mountain takes you on a trip, which offers you a diversity of Indian physiography, i.e.,
from the western coastline to the hill stations of the south.

5.1.1 Coast to Mountain Day - 01


Arrival Mumbai
Arrival at Mumbai. Our representative will meet you and transfer you to the hotel. The rooms at
the hotel are booked for you on ready occupancy basis. Check in into the hotel. A traditional
welcome will be given to you at the hotel. Overnight is spent at the hotel.

5.2.2 Coast to Mountain Day - 02


Sightseeing Mumbai
Today we will take you on a half-day sight seeing tour of Mumbai. You will be taken to the majestic
Gateway of India and the marvelous Elephanta Caves. The Gateway of India was built between
1915-1919 and designed by George Wittet. The gateway was built to welcome King George V and
Queen Mary. The Elephanta Caves are 9 km by the sea over the top of the hill. The Caves were built
in the 7th century AD and are dedicated to Lord Shiva

5.1.3 Coast to Mountain Day - 03


Mumbai-Trivandrum
Today, you will be transferred from the hotel to airport for a connecting flight to Trivandrum. On
arrival at Trivandrum, check in at the hotel. Pamper yourself with Herbal Body-Toning Massages at
any of the centers of your choice. Night stay at the hotel.

5.1.4 Coast to Mountain Day 04


Trivandrum-Kovalam
Page
67

A same day trip return trip to Cape Camorin. You will visit Padmanabhapuram Palace and the
Archaeological Museum. A drive to Kovalam and the night stay at the hotel.

5.1.5 Coast to Mountain Day 05


Kovalam-Varkala
After the breakfast, we will take you to Varkala. Varkala is an unspoilt and less crowded beach
resort in India. The Hindu pilgrims have visited it since the 12th Century AD and have the
Janardhana Temple built during this period. Overnight stay at the hotel.

5.1.6 Coast to Mountain Day - 06


Varkala-Kumarakom
Today, you will be taken on ride from Varkala to Kumarakom by the speedboat or a luxury cruiser.
Feel absolutely at home in this small town.

5.1.7 Coast to Mountain Day 07


Sightseeing Kumarakom
You will go on the sightseeing tour of Kumarakom. The places to visit are the Water Bird
Sanctuary and the Backwater Cruise. More adventurous types can try their hands at Windsailing,
Water-Skiing and Canoeing. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.1.8 Coast to Mountain Day 08


Kumarakom-Thekkady
Today you will go to Thekkady. The journey to Thekkady is a full of natural beauty of mist-capped
mountains, spice plantations, wide grasslands, cascading waterfalls and trekking trails. Check in
into the hotel on arrival. Night stay at the hotel.

5.1.9 Coast to Mountain Day 09


Sightseeing Thekkady
You will visit the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Sanctuary Watch Tower, Kumily, Murikkady and
Pandikuzhi. The local guide will inform you about the rare bird, animal and plant species. You can
walk through the plantation of the spices and take the natural fragrance. A boat safari on the Periyar
Lake gives you chance of a lifetime to spot the exotic wildlife in their natural habitat. Night stay at
the hotel.

5.1.10 Coast to Mountain Day 10


Thekkady-Munnar
Page
68

In the morning, we will go to Munnar, also referred as 'the Nature Lover's Paradise'. Check in into
the hotel after the arrival at Munnar. The winding lanes, sprawling tea estates, odor of fresh
tealeaves are bound to make you relax. Night stay at the hotel.

5.1.11 Coast to Mountain Day - 11


Sightseeing Munnar
Today you will go on sightseeing tour of Munnar. The places to visit are Mattupetty, Pothamedu,
Devikulam, Pallivasal and Attukal. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.1.12 Coast to Mountain Day 12


Munnar-Cochin
Today we will drive you to Cochin also known as the 'Queen of the Arabian Sea'. You are free in the
afternoon to unwind yourself. Enjoy the Kathakali Dance Show in the evening.

5.1.13 Coast to Mountain Day 13


Sightseeing Cochin
We will take you on the sightseeing tour of one of the beautiful natural ports of India. You can enjoy
the Backwater Canal Tour in the local ferries. The Jewish Synagogue, built in 1568, is the oldest
among all the Commonwealth Countries.The synagogue has beautiful hand painted tilesand Belgian
Chandeliers. The St. Franchis Church is the first European church in India. The site not to be missed
in Cochin is the huge and elegant Chinese Fishing Nets. Overnight at the hotel.

5.1.14 Coast to Mountain Day 14


Cochin-Mumbai
Today is the last day of the tour. Transfer from the hotel to the airport to board a flight to Mumbai.
Here a few rooms will be provided to you for wash and change and then a late dinner. Transfer to
the international airport for the flight back home.

5.2 ITENARIES
An Exotic Journey Down South will take you to exotic locations in Chennai > Trichy > Madurai >
Periyar > Cochin > Bangalore> Mysore > Hospet > Badami > Goa > Mumbai.

5.2.1 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 01


Arrival at Chennai

Page
69

On your arrival, you will be received by our representative and transferred to the hotel. The rooms
at the hotel are booked for you on ready occupancy basis. Check in into the hotel. A traditional
welcome will be given to you at the hotel. Overnight is spent at the hotel.

5.2.2 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 02


Sightseeing Chennai
Full day sightseeing tour of Mahabalipuram and Kanchipuram. The Mahabalipuram was the main
seaport of Pallava dynasty. It has exquisite rock-cut monuments, monolithic structures and basreliefs. It is also a beach resort. Kanchipuram, one of the seven sacred cities of India and referred as
'the golden city'. Once upon a time, it had 1000 temples. Kanchipuram is also famous for its handwoven cottons and Kanjivaram silk. Transfer in the evening to the railway station for the night train
to Trichy. Overnight in the train.

5.2.3 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 03


Sightseeing Trichy
Arrival at Trichy. Transfer to the hotel and check-in. after a short rest, you will be taken for the tour
of the city. You will visit the temples of Trichy including the Venkatasalapathi Temple,
Koranganatha Temple, Venkatesa Perumal, Neellivaneshwrar Temple. Overnight at the hotel.

Fig 5.2 Exotic Journey Down South

5.2.4 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 04


Trichy - Madurai

Page
70

A bus drive to Madurai in the morning. Enroute you will visit the famous Brihadeshwara Temple at
Tanjore built during the 9th century AD by the Cholas. Check in at the hotel. Rest of the day is free
for you. Overnight at the hotel.

5.2.5 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 05


Sightseeing Madurai
Half-day sightseeing tour of the city of Madurai in the morning. Visit the great Meenakshi Temple
dedicated to Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva worshipped here as goddess Meenakshi. The temple
is remarkable for its towering gopuras. After the visit of the temple, you will be takento the
Tirumala Nayak Palace. It a graceful palace built in the Indo-Sarcenic style of architecture and is
renowned for the stuccowork on its domes and arches.

5.2.6 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 06


Madurai Periyar
In the morning you will be driven to Periyar National Park. Overnight in Periyar.

5.2.7 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 07


Periyar - Cochin
You will be driven to Cochin in the morning. Check in at hotel. You are free for the rest of the day
to relax, shop around or go for sightseeing. Overnight in Hotel.

5.2.8 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 08


Sightseeing Cochin
Today we will take you on the visit to the city of Cochin known as the 'Queen of the Arabian Sea'.
It is among the beautiful natural ports of India. You can enjoy the Backwater Canal Tour in the local
ferries.
The Jewish Synagogue, built in 1568, is the oldest among all the Commonwealth Countries. The
synagogue has beautiful hand painted tiles and Belgian Chandeliers. The St. Franchis Church is the
first European church in India. The site not to be missed in Cochin is the huge and elegant Chinese
Fishing Nets. Overnight at the hotel.

5.2.9 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 09


Cochin - Bangalore Mysore. In the morning, transfer to airport for a flight to Bangalore. On
arrival at Bangalore, you will be directly driven to Mysore. Night stay at the hotel at Mysore.

Page
71

5.2.10 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 10


Mysore - Bangalore
The morning will be devoted to the sightseeing tour of Mysore including the Mysore Palace, one of
the largest palaces in India and the Brindavan Gardens, a place with colorful musical and dancing
fountains. Drive back to Bangalore in the afternoon. Overnight at the hotel in Bangalore.

5.2.11 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 11


Sightseeing Bangalore
In the morning, we will take you on excursion to the ancient cities of Belur and Halebid. See the
architectural marvels of the Hoysala period. The Chenakeshava temple is the finest example of the
Hoysala architecture. The Veerapan temple and other smaller shrines will also be visited. Overnight
at the hotel in Bangalore.

5.2.12 An Exotic Journey Down South Day -12


Bangalore Hospet
Today we will drive you to Hospet. Check in at the hotel after the arrival. Overnight at the hotel.

5.2.13 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 13


Sightseeing Hospet
In the morning, you will visit the ruins of the ancient city of Hampi. It was once the capital of the
great Vijaynagara Empire. Some of the interesting ruins worth watching are the Virupaksha temple,
Vitathala temple and Hazara Rama Temples, huge Ganesha and Narasimha images, the elephant
stables.

5.2.14 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 14


Hospet Badami
In the morning, we will drive you to Badami. Enroute you will see the famous temples at Aihole
and Pattadakal. Aihole has the famous rock-cut temple of Ravanaphadi and Kontigudi and
Galaganatha group of temples while Pattadakal is known for the Virupaksha temple. Night stay at
hotel in Badami.

5.2.15 An Exotic Journey Down South Day 15


Sightseeing Badami
Page
72

In the morning, we will visit the Badami caves. Badami is also known as Vatapi and is crowded
with Hindu and Jain temples carved out from the hills of sandstone. The rock-cut temples date back
to the 6th century AD. Overnight stay at the hotel in Badami.

5.2.16 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 16


Badami - Goa
From Badami, you will be driven to Goa. You can laze at the beaches, shop around for souvenirs
or eat the local delicacies at Goa. Overnight stay at the hotel in Goa.

5.2.17 An Exotic Journey Down South Day - 17


Goa - Mumbai
Transfer from the hotel to the airport to board a flight to Mumbai. Here a few rooms will be
provided to you for wash and change and then a late dinner. Transfer to the international airport for
the flight back home.

5.3 ITENARIES
Kerala Curry and Culture offers you an opportunity to visit and taste the cuisine and culture of
Cochin - Periyar - Mararikulam - Cochin.

5.3.1 Kerala Curry and Culture Day 01


Arrival Cochin
On your arrival, you will be received by our representative and transferred to the Casino Hotel at
Willington Island
The rooms at the hotel are booked for you on ready occupancy basis. Check in into the hotel. A
traditional welcome will be given to you at the hotel. Enjoy the harbor Cruise later in the evening.
Overnight is spent at the hotel.

5.3.2 Kerala Curry and Culture Day 02


Sightseeing Cochin
Page
73

After the breakfast, we will take you to the Spice and the fish Market. The afternoon would be for
the introduction to the cooking followed by the demonstration and hands on experience in cooking
various Indian dishes made from Seafood. Overnight stay at the hotel.

5.3.3 Kerala Curry and Culture Day - 03


Cochin-Periyar
After the breakfast, you will be driven to Periyar. Periyar lies in the shades of Cardamom hills and
is a place with peace and tranquility. You can inhale the aroma of the rubber estates, spice
plantations and rubber estates. Check in at the Spice Village. Enjoy the boat Safari in the Periyar
Lake in the Periyar national Park late in the afternoon

5.3.4 Kerala Curry and Culture Day - 04


Sightseeing Periyar
After the breakfast, you will be taken on the walking excursion of the Spice Village accompanied
by the hotel staff, which will give an introduction to the spices. You can see the spices grown in
their natural habitat. You can also learn to make a few easy and simple recipes of Kerala. .

5.3.5 Kerala Curry and Culture Day - 05


Periyar- Kumarakom
After the breakfast, you will be driven to Kumarakom. You will have to cross the Lake Vembanadi
on a boat to reach Coconut Lagoon. It is an eco-friendly resort built from the old Kerala homes
called Tharwad. Here you will get a demonstration on "Conquering the Coconut" like plucking, dehusking, breaking, grating and finally making use of the grated coconut in the recipes. After this,
you ill go on the Sun Set Cruise on a Rice Boat.

5.3.6 Kerala Curry and Culture Day 06


Sightseeing Kumarakom
After the breakfast, you will be taken on a cruise to a farm and can enjoy watching the local fishing,
if lucky. In the mid-afternoon you will get live hands on lessons on preparing few dishes of Kerala
using the seafood. Overnight stay at the hotel.

5.3.7 Kerala Curry and Culture Day 07


Page
74

Kumarakom-Mararikulam
After the breakfast, a boat transfers you across the Lake Vembanadi to Puthenangadi. Then a drive
to the Marari Beach. Spend the day on the beach resort at leisure.

5.3.8 Kerala Curry and Culture Day 08


Maraikulam-Cochin
Today is the final day of the trip. Transfer from the hotel to the airport at Cochin.

5.4 TOUR ITENARIES OF KERALA


5.4.1 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 01 - Cochin / Munnar
On the first day, you will meet our tour guide who will take you on a visit to the port city of
CochinThe places to see are the Fort Cochin; St. Francis Church, the oldest European Church
built in 1503; a Jewish Synagogue; the Dutch Palace now called Mattancherry Palace. You can
check into the hotel after the sightseeing tour of Cochin. The rest of the day is free for you.
Overnight stay at hotel.

5.4.2 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 02 Munnar


Today you will go on sightseeing tour of Munnar. The places to visit are Mattupetty,
Pothamedu,Devikulam, Pallivasal and Attukal. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.4.3 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 03 - Munnar / Kumarakom


Toady you be driven from Munnar to Kumarakom. Check into hotel upon arrival in Kumarakom.
The entire day is free to relax and explore the local areas of the town. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.4.4 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 04 - Kumarakom


Today you will be taken on the sightseeing tour of Kumarakom. The places to visit are the Water
Bird Sanctuary and the Backwater Cruise. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.4.5 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 05 - Kumarakom / Kovalam

Page
75

Today you will be driven from Kumarakom to Kovalam. Check into hotel upon arrival in
Kumarakom. The rest of the day is free for you to enjoy the beach activities at Kovalam. Overnight
stay at Hotel.

5.4.6 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day - 06 - Kovalam


Fig 5.3 Kumarakom/Kovalam

Today you will be taken on a sightseeing tour of Kovalam.


The places to visit are the Light House Beach, Chalai Market
and Napier Museum. Overnight stay at hotel.

5.4.7 Tour Itinerary of Kerala Day 07 - Kovalam / Trivandrum


Today you will be transfer to Trivandrum Airport or Railway Station to catch the train or flight
connecting to your own destination

5.5 ITENARIES
The temple Tour of Southern India Covers Chennai > Trichy > Madurai > Periyar > Cochin >
Bangalore > Mysore > Chennai

5.5.1 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 01


Arrival at Chennai. On your arrival, you will be welcomed by our representative and transferred to
the hotel. Overnight at the hotel.

Fig 5.4 Southern Temple

5.5.2 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 02


Full day sightseeing tour of Mahabalipuram and Kanchipuram. The Mahabalipuram was the main
seaport of Pallava dynasty. It has exquisite rock-cut monuments, monolithic structures and basreliefs. It is also a beach resort. Kanchipuram, one of the seven sacred cities of India and referred as
'the golden city'. Once upon a time, it had 1000 temples. Kanchipuram is also famous for its handwoven cottons and Kanjivaram silk.
Page
76

5.5.3 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 03


Arrival at Trichy. Transfer to the hotel and check-in. after a short rest, you will be taken for the
tour of the city. You will visit the temples of Trichy including the Venkatasalapathi Temple,
Koranganatha Temple, Venkatesa Perumal, Neellivaneshwrar Temple. Overnight at the hotel.

5.5.4 Temple Tour of Southern India Day 04


A bus drive to Madurai in the morning. Enroute you will visit the famous Brihadeshwara Temple at
Tanjore built during the 9th century AD by the Cholas. Check in at the hotel. Rest of the day is free
for you. Overnight at the hotel.

5.5.5 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 05


Half-day sightseeing tour of the city of Madurai in the morning. Visit the great Meenakshi Temple
dedicated to Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva worshipped here as goddess Meenakshi. The temple
is remarkable for its towering gopuras. After the visit of the temple, you will be taken to the
Tirumala Nayak Palace.
It a graceful palace built in the Indo-Sarcenic style of architecture and is renowned for the
stuccowork on its domes and arches. The afternoon is free for you to relax or shop around.
Overnight at the hotel.

5.5.6 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 06


In the morning you will be driven to Periyar National Park. Overnight in Periyar.

Fig 5.5 Southern Tour

5.5.7 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 07

Page
77

You will be driven to Cochin in the morning. Check in at hotel. You will be taken on the tour of the
city where you will visit the Dutch Palace, Jewish Synagogue, Chinese fishing nets, & St. Francis
Church. Overnight in Hotel.

5.5.8 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 08


Morning transfer to airport for the flight for Bangalore. On arrival at Bangalore, you will check in
at hotel. Overnight in Hotel.

5.5.9 Temple Tour of Southern India Day 09


Full day excursion tour of Belur and Halebid. The Chenna Kesava Temple of Belur was built 900
years ago and is an beautiful example of Hoysala art. The 12th century AD temples of
Hoysaleswara and Kedareswara at Halebid are a masterpieces of Hindu art. Overnight in Bangalore.

5.5.10 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 10


A drive to Mysore in the morning. On arrival, check in into the hotel. You will be taken on the city
tour. Overnight in hotel.

5.5.11 Temple Tour of Southern India Day 11


Transfer to railway

station for train to Chennai. Arrive

at Chennai and transfer

to hotel. Overnight in Chennai.

Fig 5.6 Southern Temple

5.5.12 Temple Tour of Southern India Day - 12


In the morning you can visit the local shops for souvenirs, gift items, metal figures and ethnic
Indian products. Check out at 1200 hrs. Transfer to airport for the return flight
Page
78

5.6 BEAUTIFUL NEST AND THE BACKWATERS


Backwaters are one of the unique attractions of Kerala they are a chain of canals extending from
about 1500 km with a network of 44 rivers, lagoons and lakes. Most of the backwater is formed
naturally. Here we have combined Backwater along with Canals made for continuous traffic of men
and materials.

5.6.1 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 01


Arrival at Mumbai
Arrival at Mumbai. Our representative will meet you and transfer you to the hotel. The rooms at
the hotel are booked for you on ready occupancy basis. Check in into the hotel. A traditional
welcome will be given to you at the hotel. Overnight is spent at the hotel.

5.6.2 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 02


Sightseeing Mumbai
Today we will take you on a half-day sight seeing tour of Mumbai. You will be taken to the
majestic Gateway of India and the marvelous Elephanta Caves. The Gateway of India was built
between 1915-1919 and designed by George Wittet. The gateway was built to welcome King
George V and Queen Mary. The Elephanta Caves are 9 km by the sea over the top of the hill. The
Page
79

Caves were built in the 7th century AD and are dedicated to Lord Shiva. After a memorable tour,
spend your night at the hotel.

5.6.3 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 03


Mumbai-Trivandrum
Today, you will be transferred from the hotel to airport for a connecting flight to Trivandrum. On
arrival at Trivandrum, check in at the hotel. Pamper yourself with Herbal Body-Toning

5.6.4 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 04


Trivandrum- Cape Camorin-KovalamA same day trip return trip to Cape Camorin. You will
visitPadmanabhapuramPalace and the Archaeological Museum.

5.6.5 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 05


Kovalam-Varkala
After the breakfast, we will take you to Varkala. Varkala is an unspoilt and less crowded beach
resort in India. The Hindu pilgrims have visited it since the 12th Century AD and have the
Janardhana Temple built during this period. Overnight stay at the hotel.

5.6.6 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day 06


Varkala-Kumarakom
Today, you will be taken on ride from Varkala to Kumarakom by the speedboat or a luxury cruiser.
Feel absolutely at home in this small town.

5.6.7 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 07


Sightseeing Kumarakom
You will go on the sightseeing tour of Kumarakom. The places to visit are the Water Bird
Sanctuary and the Backwater Cruise. More adventurous types can try their hands at Windsailing,
Water-Skiing and Canoeing. Overnight stay at hotel.
Page
80

5.6.8 Beautiful Nest

and the Backwaters Day

08

Fig 5.7 Nest & Backwaters

After the breakfast, you will be driven to Periyar. Periyar lies in the shades of Cardamom hills and
is a place with peace and tranquility. You can inhale the aroma of the rubber estates, spice
plantations and rubber estates. Night stay at the hotel in Periyar.

5.6.9 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 09


Sightseeing Periyar
You will visit the Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Sanctuary Watch Tower, Kumily, Murikkady and
Pandikuzhi. The local guide will inform you about the rare bird, animal and plant species.
You can walk through the plantation of the spices and take the natural fragrance. A boat safari on
the Periyar Lake gives you chance of a lifetime to spot the exotic wildlife in their natural habitat.
Night stay at the hotel.

5..6.10 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 10


Periyar-Kottayam-Backwater
In the morning, you will be driven to Kottayam where you will board the traditionally decorated
houseboats. On the night of the 11th day, the water cruise will start and end on the morning of the
12th day at Alllepey.

5.6.11 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 12


Page
81

Allepey-Cochin
The pickup at Allepey will be ready to transfer you to the hotel in Cochin. In the afternoon, we
will take you on the visit to the city of Cochin known as the 'Queen of the Arabian Sea'. It is among
the beautiful natural ports of India. You can enjoy the Backwater Canal Tour in the local ferries. The
Jewish Synagogue, built in 1568, is the oldest among all the Commonwealth Countries. The
synagogue has beautiful hand painted tiles and Belgian Chandeliers. The St. Franchis Church is the
first European church in India.

5.6.12 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day 13


Cochin-Calicut
In the morning, you will be driven to Calicut. On arrival at Calicut, check in into hotel. Afternoon
will be for the half-day city tour covering Pazhassiraja Museum, the Art Gallery and the Krishna Art
Museum. Overnight at the hotel.

5.6.13 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day -14


Calicut-Tree house
The Tree house is situated in Vythiri at an altitude of 3750 ft above sea level. It is in the Western
Ghats among the Wayanad Hills in North Kerala at a distance of 65 km from Calicut enroute to
Ooty - Mysore. The tree house is the biggest kept secret of Kerala. The access to the Tree house
located 86 ft is from ground is through an indigenous cane elevator. Spend your time at the beautiful
accommodation of the Tree house.

5.6.14 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day 15


The entire day is free to explore the surrounding area. Overnight at the hotel.

5.6.15 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 16


Tree House-Ooty Sightseeing Tree Housewe will drive to Ooty. On arrival at Ooty, check in into
the hotel. Overnight at the hotel.

5.6.16 Backwaters Day - 17


Sightseeing Ooty
Page
82

You can bask in the natural beauty of the hill resort of Ooty. There are mountains, streams and tea
plantations to visit. You can have fun in the toy train, Udagamandalam. Overnight at the hotel.

5.6.17 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 18


Ooty-Mysore
In the morning, a drive will take you Mysore. On arrival at Mysore, check in into the hotel.
Afternoon city tour of the city. You will visit the Jewish Synagogue, built in 1568, is the oldest
among all the Commonwealth Countries. The synagogue has beautiful hand painted tiles and
Belgian Chandeliers. The St. Franchis Church is the first European church in India. The site not to
be missed in Cochin is the huge and elegant Chinese Fishing Nets. Overnight at the hotel.

Fig 5.8 Beautiful Nest Backwater

5.6.18 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day - 19


Mysore-Bangalore
In the morning, you will take the city tour. Then you will be driven to Bangalore. On arrival at
Bangalore, check in into the hotel. Overnight at the hotel.

5.6.19 Beautiful Nest and the Backwaters Day 20


Bangalore-Mumbai-Departure
We will take you on exploration to 'the Garden City' in the morning. You will see the Vidhan
Soudha; Nandi Temple or the Bull Temple, one of the oldest temples in Bangalore and the Lal Bagh
Botanical Garden. Then you will be driven to the airport at Bangalore from where you will catch a
flight to Mumbai. Here will be taken to the hotel where we have kept a few rooms will be provided
Page
83

to you fro wash and change and then a late dinner. Transfer to the international airport for the flight
back home.

UNIT 6. VACATION & WEDDING IN KERALA


6.1 DESTINATIONS FOR VACATION
Duration: 13 Nights/14 Days
Destinations Covered: Mumbai - Calicut - Kappad - Vythri - Cochin - Kumarakom - Kovalam Neyyar - Kovalam - Trivandrum
Tour Id: KIT-015
If lolling on the beaches, living in houseboats, sailing down endless stretches of still waterways,
and at the same time exploring long lost temples makes you feel like holidaying then read on. This
tour promises all this and more. Art galleries, museums, waterfalls, gardens and fountains... and
with all this is a taste of the life in Mumbai, the busy bustling commercial of India. Its going to be
the most exciting of holidays you've had. Have a great timeArrive at Mumbai (Bombay), the
commercial capital of India. Upon arrival, transfer and check into the hotel.

Fig 6.1 Kerala Destination

Page
84

Proceed for an afternoon city tour of Mumbai. Visit the Gateway of India, built to commemorate the
royal visit of George V and Queen Mary in 1911. Stop by the Dhobi Ghat, the Flora Fountain and
the Hanging Gardens. Drive by the Marine Drive, the Chowpaty Beach and the Parsi ''Towers of
Silence''. Also visit the Indo-Saracenic Prince of Wales Museum. Stay overnight at the hotel.In the
morning, board the connecting flight for Calicut, now known as
Kozhikode where Vasco da Gama landed. Upon arrival transfer and check into the hotel. In the
afternoon, city tour of Calicut, visiting the Pazhassiraja Museum, the Art Gallery, the Krishna
Memon Museum and the market. Stay overnight at the hotel.In the morning, drive to Kappad. This
historic beach is locally known as Kappakadavu. This is the place where the Portuguese Navigator
Vasco da Gama landed in 1498. Upon arrival check into the hotel. In the afternoon, visit Beypur,
one of the ancient ports of Kerala.

The boat-building yard here is famous for the construction of Uru or Country Craft, which used to
sail to Gulf countries with heavy luggage.
The technique of this boat building is now available with few families. It is also a major fishing
harbor. The rest of the day would be spent at leisure. Stay overnight at the hotel.
In the morning, drive to Vythiri and check into a hotel. The rest of the day would be spent at leisure.
Stay overnight at the hotel.The day would be spent at leisure to enjoy the Eco-Friendly nature at its
best. The hotel is situated close to the Pookode Lake, evergreen forests with perennial steams
In the morning, drive to Calicut to board a train for Cochin. The city is now known as Kochi
which with its wealth of historic associations and its setting of a cluster of islands and narrow
peninsulas perfectly reflects the eclecticism of Kerala. Upon arrival transfer and check into the
hotel. The evening would be spent at leisure. Stay overnight at the hotel.In the morning, enjoy a city
tour. Visit the Mattancheery Dutch Palace where the superb series of murals painted on the wooden
walls are its main attraction.

Fig 6.2 Kerala Vacation

Also visit the 16th century Jewish Synagogue and the Church of St. Francis. Vasco da Gama was
originally buried in the Church''s cemetery. Walk around the Fort Cochin area and admire the
Chinese Fishing Nets. Chinese traders are believed to have introduced them in the late 14th century.
The afternoon would be spent at leisure. In the evening, there would be a Kathakali Dance show.
In the morning, drive to Kumarakom and check into the hotel. The rest of the day can be spent at
leisure or one can visit the villages, the Bird Sanctuary, the Country Boat Cruise, or go for an
Page
85

Ayurvedic Massage. Stay overnight at the hotel. The morning would be spent at leisure. In the
afternoon, check into a Houseboat and depart for a cruise through the scenic backwater towards
Alleppey. Enjoy the endless stretch of water running miles to nowhere; its banks lined with swaying
palms fanning the lush green rice fields below dancing in rhythm with the gentle sea breeze
carrying a medley of flavors of fish, coconut and spice.
In the morning transfer to Alleppey by road. Later, drive to Kovalam. Upon arrival, check into a
hotel. The rest of the day would be spent at leisure on the beach. Stay overnight at the hotel.
In the morning, drive to Neyyar situated in the base of the forest, Agastyarkoodam, where the Hindu
Saint Agastya spent his life in meditation. This area has rich in flora and fauna with lots of
medicinal plants and orchids. Upon arrival, check into the hotel. The rest of the day would be spent
at leisure, enjoying nature and trekking. Stay overnight at the hotel.Early in the morning, attend
Yoga and meditation sessions. The rest of the day would be spent at leisure enjoying nature and
mild trekking. Stay overnight at the hotel.
Early in the morning, attend Yoga and meditation sessions. Later, drive to Kovalam visiting
Aruvikkara en route. Upon arrival, check into the hotel. In the afternoon, enjoy a city tour of
Trivandrum, visiting the Padmanabhaswamy Temple where the corridors are lined with 368
sculpted stone pillars and adorned with murals and ornamentation, the Museum, the Handicrafts
Institute and the Art Gallery. Return to Kovalam and stay overnight at the hotel.In the morning,
transfer to the Trivandrum airport for your onward connection.

6.2 WEDDING IN KERALA


As per traditional Hindu culture, Kerala wedding also starts with the exchange of horoscopes by
the parents of the boy and the girl. If the horoscope matches, an auspicious date of the marriage is
then finalized in consultation with the astrologers. The day before the wedding,after
receiving,blessing,the groom must dine with the elder of his family and relatives.The bride
too.observes the same ritual in her own house,the wedding in Kerala is so much attractive.

Fig 6.3 Wedding In Kerala

6.2.1 : Day Of Marriage


The marriage takes place during the day. On the day of marriage and before proceeding to the
venue of the wedding, the groom first visits a temple and seeks his parents' and elders' blessings.

6.2.2 : Wedding Ceremony


Page
86

The Groom arrives at the bride's house in a traditional "dhoti" and "angavastram". He is seated in a
northwestern room where the bride's father washes the groom's feet and welcomes him. The groom
then gives him the off white sari that has to be worn by the bride for the nuptials.

6.2.3 : Wedding Process


The the nuptial ceremony is performed around the "agni" (fire). The bride and the groom circle the
sacred fire thrice, after which the bride's father ties the "Taali", which is strung on a yellow

thread around the neck of the bride. Thereafter the bride's father gives her hand to the groom in a
ceremony called "Kanyadaanam". After the Kanyadaanam, the groom sits in front of the bride and
tilts his head backwards, to touch her forehead. After this the girl offers puffed rice to the fire to the
chant of various mantras. Her palms are placed in her husband's hands and she performs.

6.2.4 : Post Wedding Ceremony


After the wedding a feast is arranged and thereafter the bride leaves for her husband's home. The
vidai from the place of wedding takes place at an appointed time, according to the muhoortam.
The bride, after receiving aashirwadam or blessings of the parents and the elders present, takes her
leave. "Grihapravesh" ceremony is performed at her new home to welcome their guest intn home.

6.2.5 : Groom's House


The first event at the groom's house after marriage is called Kudiveypu or making a new
home/family. At the threshold of the groom's home, aarthi of the couple with deep (lamp) is
performed. While entering the house, the bride first places her right foot into it. She holds a
traditional lamp in her hand while entering the house. Ganpathi pooja is now performed. The bride
then boils milk in the kitchen to herald her inclusion in her new family.

6.3 PRE-KERALA WEDDING RITUALS

Fig 6.4 Nischayam

Page
87

6.3.1 Nischayam - Once the groom is chosen, the elders of both the families decide about
engagement known as "Nischayam". They seek the help of Astrologer for an auspicious date and
time called "Muhurtham". A function is arranged for this announcement of marriage, during which
the wedding rings are exchanged. (If this cannot be done during this function, it can be done at the
wedding time.) Immediately after a Hindu marriage ceremony, food is served to the guests.

6.3.2 Ayana (Prenuptial blessing of the bride) - A function is held at the bride's residence
on the previous day of the wedding where the bride takes the blessings of her elders. Her close
familymembers and friends are invited for this function, and a grand feast is arranged for them. In
the same way, in the groom's house too, such a function is arranged, for his relatives and friends.

6.3.3 Marriage ceremony in a Kerala Wedding - Marriages are conducted either in the
temple or in the KalyanaMantapa of the wedding hall. Both the bride and the groom, with their
parents and relatives arrive at the venue, separately. If it is in the temple, the priest performs the
marriage in a very simple way. In a kalyanamantapa, the bride groom is received ceremoniously,
and made to sit in a wooden plank on the right side of the canopy, which is decorated with flowers,
fabric, palm fronds and banana stalks. The bride is escorted by her aunt to the mantapam, and made
her sit next to the groom, amidst the special music of the 'nadaswaram' and the 'thakil'.At the
auspicious moment, the family priest performs the nuptial ceremony by chanting vedic mantras and
the couple walks around the agni, the fire God thrice, after which the groom ties the 'Mangalsutra'
or 'tali'around the neck of the bride to the beating of drums.
The bridegroom gifts the bride a sari and a blouse on a platter, conveying to her that he will now
assume the responsibility of providing for her life. This ritual is called Pudamuri.The couple
exchange garlands accepting each other as life partners. The bride's father places her right hand in
the right hand of the bridegroom, symbolically transferring the responsibility of taking care of his
daughter, in holy matrimony. This ritual is called Kanyadan. Then they are escorted to a room by
their older relatives, who bless them. The guests too follow them and bless them with gifts.After
witnessing the Kerala wedding rituals, the guests are requested to have food. Sadhya or typical
Kerala meal including rice, three varieties of pickle, curries and sweets, Sambhar, Avial, toran, olan,
kalan, pacchadi, payasam, pappads is served on plantain leaves to the guests along
with payasam likepaladaaprathaman or chaka prathaman as a dessert. The newly wedded
couple,after receiving and taking the blessings of all the relatives and friends, too join them, along
with their parents and close relatives.

Page
88

Fig 6.5 Marriage Ceremony

6.4.4 Post Kerala wedding Rituals


Once the guests are disbursed, the bridegroom takes
wife,with his parents and family members to his house for the welcome of marriage. This ceremony
is called Kudivepu or Gruhapravesha. This is the bride's first visit to her husband's house and she is
expected to wear the sari gifted by her husband at the wedding time.

Page
89

Fig 6.7 Wedding Photo


Fig 6.6 Wedding Ritual

UNIT 7. KERALA GUIDE AND PHOTO GALLERY


7.1 Kerala Guide
Capital
Area
Climate

Trivandrum
38,863 sq km
Summer (March to June) - Warm
Monsoon (August to Semtember) - Warm
Page
90

Clothing

Winter (October to February) - Mildly Warm and Pleasant


Summer - Light Cottons

Population
Language
Literacy Ratio
No. of Districts
Cities
No. of Bank Branches
Major Ports
Airports

Winter Woollens
30,070,000 approx.
Malayalam
99%
14
Kozhikode, Ernakulan, Quilon, Trivandrum, Cochin
2,825
Cochin
Kozhikode, Ernakulan, Trivandrum

GETTING THERE
By Air

Thiruvananthapuram is connected to Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi,


Mumbai, Colombo by Indian Airlines, Air India, and Jet Airways.

By Rail

Thiruvananthapuram is directly connected by rail with Calcutta


(Howrah) as well as all the major cities in India.

By Road

Good motorable roads as well as regular bus-services connect


Thiruvananthapuram to Calicut-448 kms, Cochin-220

Pin Code

PROVISION
ABDURAHIMAN NAGAR

676305

ADAKKAKUNDU

676526

ADUR

670548

AGALI

678581

AGATHI (LAK)

673553

ALAKODE

670571

ALANALLUR

678601
Page
91

ALANKODE

679585

ALATUR H O

678541

ALATUR H O

678500

ALAVIL

670008

ALIYUR

673309

AMAKKARA

679551

AMARAMBALAM

679341

AMAYUR

679310

AMBALAPARA PGT

679512

AMBALAVAYAL

673593

AMBIKAPURAM

678011

AMINI (LAK)

673552

ANAMANGAD

679357

ANANDA SHRAMA

670531

ANANTHAVUR

676321

ANCHACHAVADI

676527

ANCHAMPEETIKA

670359

ANDATHODE

679564

ANDROTH (LAK)

673551

ANJARAKANDY

670612

ANJUMOORTHY

678682

ANNUR

670332

ARAKINAR

673028

AREACODE

673639

ARIKULAM

673322

ARIYALLUR

676312

ARIYUR

678590

AROLI

670566

ASOKAPURAM

673001

ATHAVANAD

676310

ATHIYODI

673527

ATHOLI

673315

AVITANALLUR

673618

AYALUR

678510
Page
92

AYANCHERI

673544

AYANKALAM

679594

AYIKKARA

670017

AZHIKODE CNR

670009

AZHINILAM

673654

BADAGARA BAZAR

673103

BADAGARA BEACH

673103

BADAGARA H O

673100

BADAGARA H O

673101

BALUSSERI

673612

Fig 7.1 People & Lifestyle

7.2 PEOPLE AND LIFESTYLE

Page
93

The people of Kerala are the most simple and down to earth people.They like to live in their own
world of simplicity and originality. They are known as "keralites", since they are natives of
Kerala.The people of Kerala are very protective about their religion and ancient practices,rituals
and traditions. They are proud of their culture and will go to any lengths to preserve them. The
lifestyle of Keralites is uncomplicated and they seem happy and content with the simple pleasures
of life.The people of Kerala speak Malayalam. These people emphasize much on education and
make it a point to ensure that the younger generation knows the religious teachings of their
culture.
The Keralites also are very progressive in terms of cleanliness,healthcare and physical
quality of life.Most people are conversant in English and make it a point that their kids receive
education at least till the primary level.
The people of Kerala dress very ordinarily. They do not believe in showing off. The Malayaly
way of life is unassuming.They are content with the quality of life they lead.Regarding food,they
are very particular about their health and are conscious about sticking to a balanced diet. They
seek mental satisfaction more than materialistic pleasures. The women dress up in the traditional
unique attire called Set Mundu, which requires draping skillfully two pieces of long cloth on
oneself,the dress being somewhat similar to a sari,worn over a blouse.The men mostly wear white
mundu (dhoti) with a shirt or a cotton "lungi" (a sarong like dress) with a towel on top. The men
in cities wear pants and shirts,and the women,saris. The younger generation follows fashion and
wear anything from jeans to salwar kameez.

7.3 PEOPLE IN KERALA


The people of Kerala are the most simple people and very down to earth. They
like to live in their own world of simplicity and originality. They are known as
"keralites", since they are natives of Kerala. Kerala people are very fiercely
protective about their religion and ancient practices. They are proud of their
culture and will go to any lengths to preserve them. The lifestyle of Kerala
people is uncomplicated and they seem happy and content with simple
pleasures of life.

Fig 7.2 People In Kerala

These people emphasize much on education and make it a point that the
younger generation knows the religious teachings of their culture. Kerala was
Page
94

the only state in India that had 100% literacy rate at one point of time.
Unfortunately, they have not been able to maintain it and the literacy rate has
reduced a bit. Yet, most people are conversant in English and make it a point
that their kids receive education at least till the primary level.
The people of Kerala dress very ordinarily. They do not believe in showing off. They are content
with the quality of life. They seek mental satisfaction more than materialistic pleasures. The women
dress up in a traditional dress called Sari, which requires draping skillfully a six-meter long cloth on
oneself. The men mostly wear cotton "lungi" (a sarong like dress) with a towel on top. The men in
cities wear pants and shirts. The younger generation follows fashion and wears anything from jeans
to salwar kameez.

7.4 KERALA HOMESTYLE


The people of Kerala believe in treating guests like Gods. The age-old phrase that Indians follow
which goes "Atithi Devo Bhava" means that a guest is equal to God. You will find a unique type of
accommodation in Kerala. People living away from the city, in quieter villages, offer a part of their
home for tourists to stay. Home stay in Kerala is quite common and you will get all modern
facilities with a traditional touch. In Kerala, homestays are an ideal way to get in touch with the
locals and learn more about Kerala and India. You will truly feel relaxed in a home stay
accommodation in Kerala.Home stays give you an opportunity to know Kerala from a closer point
of view. You will get to know how people in Kerala live their daily lives, you can pick up some
commonly used phrases in the native language and hear the amazing folklores of Kerala. What's
more, you will get to eat home cooked food traditional Kerala style. The aroma is enough to send
you scurrying to the kitchen! A homestay vacation in Kerala will ensure that you experience home
away from home.
You can tour nearby local areas with ample of directions provided by the locals. You can also ask
them to tag along with you. A homestay in Kerala is an experience in itself. The warm and
caringattitude of people of Kerala is enough to make you fall in love with Kerala! So pack your
bags and come to Kerala for an experience that will leave you asking for more!

7.5
TREE
KERALA

HOUSES

Fig 7.3 Tree Houses In Kerala

Page
95

IN

If the beauty and serenity of Kerala mesmerizes you, you will be amazed at the innovative thinking
of people there. To make tourists feel one with nature, the people came up with the idea of tree
houses of Kerala. These unique treehouses in Kerala are an ideal way to break off from the bustling
city and surrender to nature. Local craftsmen build these tree houses from eco-friendly material on
the top of tall, strong trees. Some tree houses can go upto heights of 100 feet from ground level.
Make it a point that you experience tree house stay in Kerala while in India The tree houses are
built in such a way that one feels one with nature and at the same time, isn't devoid of modern
amenities like electricity, attached bathrooms, telephones, etc. The energy for electricity and other
modern amenities is produced using a unique combination of solar energy
and "gobar gas" (energy from processed cow dung). This prevents air pollution and noise pollution,
thus keeping the environment clean and noise free. A uniquely built crane is used to transport
people onto the tree houses. Some tree houses also have a hanging bridge to reach the ground.
The people who manage these tree houses take extra care of those who have come to take a break
from the busy and stressful city life. You will be treated no less than Gods and every need of yours
will be taken care of. You will be served authentic Kerala cuisine in the traditional style.
Instead of plates, you shall have banana leaves and you will have to eat with your hands for a truly
finger licking experience. The pleasure of eating with your fingers is no comparison to forks!

7.6 YOGA AND MEDITATION


In Kerala, yoga & meditation are practiced and taught by experts to promote healthy living among
people. When it comes to rejuvenating yourself, going to meditation and yoga centers at Kerala
amidst the serene environment is the best option. Just take a deep breath, close your eyes and sit
comfortably in a meditative position. Don't let you mind wander and concentrate on your breathing.
After 10 minutes, when you open up your eyes, a new calm would have taken over. Along with
Ayurveda,
yoga
and
meditation in Kerala is the
most sought after way of
living.

Fig 7.4 Yoga & Meditation

In fact, it is said that only in Kerala you can find dedicated professionals who devote their entire
lives for the well being of others.
Yoga is an ancient science that has existed through time till this day. Many people are taking up this
ancient practice of attaining calm and peace to be relieved off their tension and frustration of fast
paced life. However, there is no instant recipe for attaining the benefits of yoga. In order to benefit
Page
96

from this practice, one needs to put in sincere efforts. The sages in ancient India used to meditate
for years together, oblivious to their surroundings.
These exercises if done the right way, are very helpful in honing up concentration levels and help
in the attainment of peace and tranquility. You can see results almost immediately if you put in
sincere efforts. Just the mere glow on your face will pull people towards you like a magnet. Not just
the glow, your body will be free of most ailments and will be more flexible than ever before.
Meditation is not just about concentration, it is concentrating while freeing your mind off
unwanted thoughts and finally reaching a stage where there is just silence, total emptiness.
It cannot be reached immediately. It may take days or even months to attain full concentration and
free your mind off disturbing thoughts. Once your mind is alone and clear, you will find yourself
reaching a higher level of tranquility.
In Kerala, trained meditation experts try to take you to that higher level of consciousness and make
sure when you go back home, you are a different person. Anyone going for an Ayurvedic treatment
is prescribed certain yogic exercises and meditation. This is to ensure that along with body and
mind, the soul is also cleansed. So get set to be cleansed thoroughly and see life from a whole new
perspective

7.7 HEALTH CARE IN KERALA


Kerala is reputed for its high quality health care infrastructure and renowned medical personnel,
some of whom are guest faculty at medical schools like Harvard and Sloan Kettering. Alongside the
modern medical facilities are equally reputed facilities for Homoeopathy and Ayurveda ( An age-old
Indian system of medicine based on herbs, oils and other natural ingredients). Little wonder, Kerala
enjoys India's highest life expectancy and lowest infant mortality and birth rates.
Kerala has achieved remarkable progress in human development, as reflected in the high levels of
education and health of its population. The level of literacy among Keralites is far higher than the
national average. Crude death rate, infant mortality rate, and life expectancy at birth in Kerala are
comparable even to those in the developed countries. However, the question whether low mortality
rates signal better health has generated heated debate in the light of the sequence of changes in the
health profile, termed as "health transition, which the developed countries have experienced.
Apparently, Kerala also has been passing through an advanced phase of health transition, despite
remaining economically backward". In this paper, we shall attempt a survey of the sources and the
stages of Keralas health transition and discuss its policy implications.Health is a multi-dimensional
and multi-causal variable. It is defined as a "state of complete physical, mental, and social well
being" (World Health Organisation). Being a holistic concept, it is beyond measurability in terms of
mortality and morbidity prevalence rates (Basch; 1978, pp. 204-206). The health status of a
community depends on its socio-economic, environmental, biological, and political factors.
Health transition is a complex process comprising demographic (mortality), epidemiological, and
health care transitions. It is manifested in rising life expectancy at birth due to changes in the
fertility, mortality, and morbidity profile of a population. Demographic (mortality) transition brings
Page
97

down birth and death rates and changes the age structure; epidemiological transition reflects
changes in the causes of death, from infectious (pandemic) diseases to non-communicable
(degenerative, human-made) diseases (Caldwell: 1990; Mc Namera; 1982, p.147). However, the
causal mechanisms of demographic changes are unclear and distinct variations in patterns, places,
determinants, and consequence of population changes are observed in the case of epidemiological
transition (Omran: 1982, p.172). Three fundamental changes in the configuration of a populations
health profile take place during epidemiological transition: (i) mortality decline due to infectious
diseases, injuries, and mental illness; (ii) shift of the burden of death and diseases
from the younger to the older groups; and (iii) change in health profile from one dominated by
death to one dominated by morbidity. Epidemiological transition implies change in the morbidity
profile from acute, infectious, and parasitic diseases (eg plague, smallpox, and cholera) to noncommunicable, degenerative, and chronic diseases (eg cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and
neoplasms) (Mercer: 1990, p.262; Albala, 1995; Prata: 1992; Crews: 1987; Reis: 1978).
A third component of health transition is health care transition brought about through changes in
the patterns of the organised social response to health condition.
Kerala has apparently entered the third or final phase of the demographic transition characterised
by low death rate and declining birth rate leading to a slow down in the growth rate of population.
Thus, as of 1991, the birth rate in Kerala was estimated as a little over 18 (per 1000 population), as
against 30 for all-India and an average of 28 for low-income and 24 for middle-income
countries.The crude death rate of Kerala in 1991 was 6 (per 1000 population), compared to the
national average of 11, and an average of 10 for low-income and 8 for middle-income countries. It
is significant to note that the crude birth rates and death rates in a low-income country like China
and a middle-income country like the Philippines exceeded the corresponding rates in the least
developed region of Kerala. Keralas demographic experience has attracted wide research attention
(eg (i) Zachariah, 1983; (ii) Zachariah & Irudaya Rajan, 1994; (iii) Bhat and Irudaya Rajan, 1990;
(iv) Ratcliffe, 1984; (v) Zachariah & Irudaya Rajan, 1997).
The period during 1971-81 witnessed the most rapid growth of medical care institutions,
especially government hospitals and dispensaries under the Allopathic system; the total number of
public sector medical care institutions registered steady increase at the rate of 17.5 per cent during
1955-1960, 58.2 per cent during the 1960s, and 74.3 per cent during the 1970s. The number of
medical care institutions and the populationtion coverage of health care facility in the major States
is given in Table 4.10.
One important feature emerging from table Table 4.10 is that of the total number of hospitals in
India, about two-thirds are in the private sector. The share of private hospitals in Kerala works out
to be about 93 per cent. Of the total number of private hospitals among the States, one-fifth is
located in Kerala.
Page
98

The population coverage of health care facilities, ie the ratio of population to total number of
medical care institutions, is far better for Kerala than in all the other States. That is, the number of
persons per hospital works out to be 14,264 here as compared to the all-States average of 61,810.
Except in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, and Punjab the ratio exceeded one lakh people per
hospital. The high growth rate of medical care institutions in Kerala has naturally claimed an
increasing share of the State Governments budget. The total expenditure of this sector rose by
around three-and half times between 1969 and 1971 and by over four times during the 1970s. The
trends in the State government expenditure on medical and public health in Kerala in recent periods
may be observed.
Health transition comprises three components, viz demographic transition, epidemiological
transition, and health care transition. Kerala has apparently made significant advances in all the
three components. Thus, the State has entered the final phase of demographic transition as
exemplified by the low death and infant mortality rates
Kerala has also been going through an epidemiological transition as reflected in its morbidity
profile.The picture emerging from a scrutiny of available data on morbidity pattern is a mixed one.
On the one hand, the dominant disease group comprises acute infectious diseases including fever,
diarrhoea, and worm infestation, resembling the morbidity profile of a typical underdeveloped
country. On the other hand, the emergence of chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus, blood
pressure, heart disease, and cancer as the major causes of death of the adult population, resembles
the situation in developed countries which have gone through the epidemiological transition.of
developed countries. The fall in death rates has resulted in a rise in expectation of life at birth, and
increase in the proportion of the elderly-persons above 60 years - in the total population.

In brief, Kerala has made significant advances in health transition in terms of the rate of mortality
and pattern of morbidity. True, high morbidity rates still persist. What are the causes of this
apparently paradoxical phenomenon? Of the different factors governing the health status, spread of
education, especially female education, and of medical care facilities have emerged as the most
important. The role of the State government as the principal agent in the promotion of education,
universal literacy, and expansion of medical care facilities aimed at health for all, has to be duly
acknowledged. The high rate of prevalence of acute communicative diseases, despite these
advances is a cause for concern. The causes for the persistence of infectious diseases - the diseases
of poverty - are not far to seek. They are unfavourable environment, lack of access to safe drinking
water, and sanitary facilities for the majority of the households in the State.
The health of a nation is a sum- total of the health of its citizens, communities and settlements as
well as the overall climate within which the citizen and communities live. A healthy nation,
therefore, is possible only if there is total participation of its citizens, communities and the
government in this goal.
Page
99

In the last five decades, there has been a significant progress in various aspects of health in the
country. But sadly, this advancement has been uneven and restricted to few selected states. A very
large part of Hindi speaking areas of the country as well as the states of Orissa and Assam remain
under shadows. Interestingly, even in the better off states like Kerala, Maharashtra, Punjab, etc.,
there are pockets where health status of the people has remained stagnant over the years. The
Malabar Coast and the High-ranges of Kerala are examples of this situation.
We have also noticed with considerable dismay the rising incidence of communicable diseases like
malaria over the last few years. It is also doubtful whether the health services of most of the country
are geared up sufficiently to meet the health problems due to modernization like heart diseases,
accidents, traumas, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.
Given the above situation, it is imperative that in the coming Five Year Plan, sufficient emphasis is
given to health care needs of the people living in vulnerable regions, by ensuring that the pockets of
darkness in the advanced states are adequately taken care of and the systems and infrastructure
available in the country are totally revitalized to competently deal with the newer challenges in the
health care. This task cannot be done just by the government and its functionaries alone. It requires
enthusiastic and sustained participation of all the citizens of the country in taking responsibility for
their own health as well as that of their communities. We also need to ensure active and responsible
participation of the private and voluntary sectors.
There is a considerable challenge for optimising the existing rural health infrastructure throughout
the country. Keeping in view the potentiality of the Panchayati Raj, it is proposed that health
infrastructure in the rural areas are gradually but surely made accountable to village panchayats,
panchayat samities and Zila Parishads at their respective levels. There are good examples of this
approach from Maharashtra, West Bengal and few other states. This will considerably improve the
functioning of the infrastructure and will ensure participation of the people.

The Best and the Worst Three States


Best

IMR

LE

CDR

Kerala

13

69.6

6.0

Maharashtra

50

62.4

7.2

Punjab

55

65.8

7.9

Madhya Pradesh

106

53.4

12.6

Orissa

110

54.3

12.2

Uttat Pradesh

94

53.4

11.4

Worst

IMR- Infant Mortality Rate. LE- Life Expectancy. CDR- Crude Death Rate
Page
100

Table No- 7.1 Health Care In India

7.7.1 Infrastructure
The current outlay for the health sector, which is somewhere between 2 to 3 per cent, needs to be
enhanced to at least 5 per cent to ensure adequate supply of equipments, drugs and other
wherewithal to help District Hospitals, Primary Health Centres and Sub-Centres to attain optimum
levels of efficiency.
If we do not urgently improve the situation, we will end up as a nation full of sick people, requiring
extraordinary amount of resources to cure them from various ailments. One of the chronic
complaints of the people about government health functionaries is their non-availability in the place
of duty. This problem need to be tackled effectively. The problem of non-availability of MBBS
doctors at the Primary Health Centre level can be tackled by recruiting Ayurvedic doctors and
giving them eight month orientation and training on health management and appointing them at the
PHC. This orientation and training should be designed with proper emphasis on the social
development and management aspects of community health.
A similar short-term orientation should also be mandatory for other staff at the PHC before they
assume duty. Another idea is to make two years of rural service mandatory for all medical graduates
before they can seek admission for post graduation. It is also necessary that all PHCs are equipped
with modest lab facilities for doing simple tests. We should ensure that every PHC, CHC and Subcentre of the country is properly equipped and manned.
To encourage motivated and bright young professionals to join Primary Health Care Services, it is
proposed to introduce an Indian Health Services, so that health care management of the country if
left with competent people who would also be assured of an attractive career in medical services.
Modalities of this should be worked out keeping in view the experiences from other Indian
Administrative Services. A regulatory mechanism to assess the professional competence of doctors
during their service should be introduced. Like in the other Indian Administrative Services, health
personnel, including nurses, should be given adequate orientation and training before they join the
services. This should be further strengthened with compulsory continuing education for health
personnel of all levels.
To avoid duplication of efforts, all health, population, and women and children related welfare
programmes at the rural level should be converged to ensure optimum resource utilisation. This will
mean that uni-purpose workers will be gradually converted into multi-purpose workers with smaller
a population to take care of. It is expected that with adequate supply of wherewithal at the primary
level, enforcement of strict referral services will be possible. This will help avoid overcrowding at
the sub-divisional and district hospitals.The current unfortunate growth of various vertical
intervention programmes like TB, Malaria or special programme on Sexually Transmitted Diseases
and AIDS should be gradually curtailed and brought under the Primary Health Care, in order to stop
the lopsided management of health problems. A more rational and practical health management
information system should be introduced for the country to ensure good quality, uniform national
health data, based on epidemiological findings.
Page
101

7.7 ART AND CULTURE


There are about 35 different types of tribal people in Kerala, tribal dances like Elelakkaradi,
Paniyarkali and Mankali still survive. Of over 50 folk dances in Kerala, the popular ones are
Kaliyattom, Kolam Thullal, Kolkali, Velakali and Kaikottikal. All these are performed in
accompaniment of songs and drumming and often in colourful ornamental costumes. From these
arose Kerala's classical dances like Koothu, Kathakali, Mohiniattam and Patokom. Kathakali uses
vivid and eloquent mudras (hand signs). A visually powerful art form, the Kathakali dance dramas
are based on stories from the two great indian epics - the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. It is said
to have evolved from a rivalry between two princely families.

Fig 7.6 Art & Culture

One had written a story cycle revolving around the life of Krishna, called Krishnattam, the other
around the life of Rama called Ramattam. Mohiniattam, which literally means "the dance of the
enchantress", is sensuous and lyrical. Dancers display grace as well as passion.
Martial Arts of Kerala - Kalaripayattu - consists of a series of intricate movements that train the
body and mind. The discipline is continually practised and complemented by the Kerala's famous
ayurvedic and nature cure techniques.These are believed to have travelled to eastern China, where
they inspired the evolution of other martial art forms. 'Verumkai' is the final and most difficult of
lessons taught in the kalari. The others are Maithozhil - combat through kicks, Kolathiri - combat
using sticks and Angathiri - the use of metal weapons.

7.7.1 Thullal
Thullal, the dance form of Kerala is yet another gem in the vast repertoire of Kerala's performing
arts. It has from its very inception, enjoyed a ready appeal with both the commoner and the
connoisseur for unlike forms such as Koodiyattam, Krishnanattam, Kathakali and Mohiniyattam, it
requires no initiation to intelligently respond to it. One can easily react and enjoy Thullal without

Page
102

any prior exposure or sophisticated understanding. As this is composed in the language of the
layman, it is known as the 'poorman's Kathakali'
The word Thullal belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and literally means 'jumping', this
however can be extended to mean 'to leap about' or to 'cut a caper'.Belief prevails that Thullal, both
as a form of dance and as an evolved literary expression, owes itself to the genius of one man.

7.8 SPORTS IN KERALA


Kunchan Nambiar. The poet, social critic and humorist who lived two centuries ago was the
pioneer behind this dance form and he wrote the text of Thullal and choreographed the play. He
tried to bring out through this dance form, the social conditions of his time, the distinctions of class
and weaknesses and whims of the rich and the great. Thullal often reflects the literary, artistic and
cultural life of the medieval Kerala. Here, the stories from Epics are retold in Malayalam poetry
with the sylised singing of the lines depicting the beauty of the Dravidian metres.
In its presentation, Thullal is conceived as a solo dance. The dance is supported by two musicians,
who stand a little behind them. One of them plays the Maddalam, a drum and the other small
cymbals. Both musicians are also expected to sing along with the dancer. No stage or any other
formal arrangement is required for the performance. Unlike Kathakali or Koodiyattam, Thullal uses
no curtain for entries, exits or scenes, nor is there a formal seating arrangement. As is the practise
with all the Kerala's performing arts, a lighted brass lamp is installed in front of the danceKerala
Sports Council at Trivandrum holds a number of sports events including acquatic sports. In all
important towns , facilities for Tennis to the sportsman are available.Cricket, Hockey, Football,
Baseball and Tennis are the popular games played.
Alleppey The best place in the world for backwater cruises and boat races. It is from here that the
backwater cruises take off through a network of canals, on the shores of which, there are villages
against the backdrop of thousands of coconut trees. The landscape is fantastic, befitting its official
dub of being 'God's own country'. There are the fantastic boat races, with 30 metre-long snakeshaped boats, and hundreds of oarsmen singing loudly as they tug at the oars, competing for the
highest prize in these parts. If the boat races are pure adrenalin, the backwater cruises are no less.

7.9 LANGUAGE
Malayalam is the language of Kerala, the southern most state in India. Over 35,000,000 people
speak this language. Malayalam, one of the Dravidian languages in India, has its own alphabet and
grammar. It originally developed from Tamil and uses many Tamil words. It also has adapted many
words from Sanskrit, other India languages and English. Malayalam is extraordinarily rich in every
genre of literature. Every year numerous books and publications are produced in Malayalam. In
Kerala alone 170 daily papers, 235 weekly and 560 monthly periodicals are published in
Page
103

Malayalam. The most circulated daily paper in India is in Malyalam. This language is presently
taught in many Universities outside Kerala including some in the United States.
Malayalam Language also spelled MALAYALAM, language of the Dravidian family, spoken in
southwestern India; it is the official language of the state of Kerala. Malayalam has three important
regional dialects and a number of smaller ones.
There is also some difference in dialect along caste lines and a distinction, called diglossia, between
the formal, literary language and the colloquial tongue. Both the literary and colloquial languages
use many words borrowed from Sanskrit. Closely related to Tamil, Malayalam differs from it in
such aspects as the absence of personal endings on verbs.
Like the Dravidian languages generally, Malayalam has a series of retroflex consonants (e.g., t, d,
n; sounds pronounced with the tongue tip curled back against the roof of the mouth), and it indicates
such grammatical categories as tense, number, person, and case with suffixes. Malayalam has a
written tradition dating from the late 9th century, and the earliest literary work dates from the early
13th century. The language uses a script called Koleluttu (Rod script), which is derived from the
Tamil writing system. The Tamil Grantha script also is used.
The history of Malayalam literature dates to the 13th century. Indigenous ballads and folk songs
belong to the earliest times. Later literature was long influenced by Sanskrit, the language of
scholarship, and by Tamil, the language of administration. All the branches of literature known in
the West are cultivated today.Malayalam (/malayALam/) is the principal language of the South
Indian state of Kerala and also of the Lakshadweep Islands (Laccadives) of the west coast of India.
Thunchath Ramanujan Ezhuthassan, is considered as the father of malayalam literature. Thunchan
Parambu is highly venerated and it's sand is believed to be sacred. The sand is used in
'Vidyarambham', especially on ,'Vijaya Dashmi' day. Malayalis, (those who speak Malayalam)
males and females alike - are almost totally literate, constitute 4 percent of the population of India
and 96 percent of the population of Kerala. In terms of the number of speakers Malayalam ranks
eighth among the fifteen major languages of India. The word /malayALam/ originally meant
mountainous country) (/mala/- mountain + /aLam/-place). Tamil is its neighbour on the south and
east and Kannada on the north and east. Malayalam belongs to the southern group of Dravidian
languages like Tamil, Kota, Kodagu and Kannada .
Its affinity to Tamil is the most striking. Tamil - Malayalam, the common stock of Tamil and
Malayalam apparently disintegrated over a period of fourth to fifth centuries, resulting in the
emergence of Malayalam as a language distinct from Tamil. As the language of scholarship and
administration Tamil greatly influenced the early development of Malayalam. Later irresistable
inroads by the Brahmins made into the cultural life of Kerala accelerated the assimilation of many
Indo-Aryan features into Malayalam at different levels.
Page
104

The earliest written record of Malayalam is the Vazhappally inscription (ca. 830 AD). Malayalam
prose of different periods exibit degree of influence of different languages such as Tamil, Sanskrit,
Prakrits, Pali, Hindi, Urdu, Arabi, Persian, Syriac, Portuguese, Dutch, French and English. Modern
literature is rich in poetry, fiction, drama, biography, and literary criticism. In the early thirteenth
century /vattezhuthu/ (round writing) traceable to the pan-Indian brahmi script, gave rise to the
Malayalam writing system,
Which is syllabic in the sense that the sequence of graphic elements means that syllables have to be
read as units, though in this system the elements representing individual vowels and consonants are
for the most part readily identifiable.
In the 1960s Malayalam dispensed off many special letters representing less frequent conjunct
consonants and combinations of the vowel with different consonants. Malayalam now consists of 53
letters including 20 long and short vowels and the rest consonants. The earlier style of writing is
now substituted with a new style from 1981. This new script reduces the different letters for typeset
from 900 to less than 90. This was mainly done to include Malayalam in the keyboards of
typewriters and computers.
Variations in intonation patterns, vocabulary, and distribution of grammatical and phonological
elements are observable along the parameters of region, community, occupation, social stratum,
style and register. Influence of Sanskrit is most prominent in the Brahimin dialects and least in the
Harijan dialects. Loaned words from English, Syrian, Latin, and Portuguese abound in the Christian
dialects and those from Arabic and Urdu in the Muslim dialects. Malayalam has borrowed from
Sanskrit thousands of nouns and hundreds of verbs. Some items of basic vocabulary (eg. mukhum face, nakham - nail, bharya - wife, bharthavu - husband) also have found their way into Malayalam
from Sanskrit.
English stands only second to Sanskrit in its influence in Malayalam. Hundreds of individual
lexical items and many idiomatic expressions in modern Malayalam are of English origin. As the
language of administration and as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, Malayalam is
coming into its own. A scientific register in the language is slowly evolving. Remarkably liberal in
their attitudes, Malayalis have always welcomed other languages to co-exist with their own and the
interaction of these with Malayalam has helped its development in different respects.

Page
105

UNIT 8. PHOTO GALLERY

Page
106

Fig 8.1 Kerala Tour

Page
107

Page
108

Fig 8.2 Kerala Girls

Fig 8.3 Lifestyle of Kerala

Page
109

Page
110

Fig 8.11 Kerala Waterfall

Page
111

Fig 8.12 Kerala Cruise

Page
112

Fig 8.13 Kerala Hillstation

CONCLUSION
Page
113

Kerala has emerged as one of the prime tourism destinations on the national and international map
and is considered as the tourism trendsetter in the country. The availability of plenty of natural
resources, skilled manpower, supportive entrepreneurial community, strong local-self-governments,
civil society organizations, multitude of micro enterprises, streams of professionals and
academicians, responsible media and responsive tourism industry, provide the state an ideal setting
implement and practice 'Responsible Tourism.' The Department of Tourism,Government of Kerala
organized a state-level consultation on responsible tourism in associate with the International Centre
for Responsible Tourism - India (ICRT India) and EQUATIONS (Equitable Tourism Options) at
Thiruvanathapuram on the 2nd and 3rd of February, 2007. The two-day workshop was attended by a
wide range of stakeholders, including representatives from government, local-self-governments,
tourism industry, civil society organizations, academicians, media and also members of the
Legislative Assembly. At the end of the workshop, a state-level committee was constituted, namely,
State Level Responsible Tourism Committee (SLRTC) with representatives from various sectors to
take forward the discussions that emerged during the workshop and to move towards a responsible
tourism destination.
The State Level Responsible Tourism Committee met on 20th April 2007 and decided to take up
the implementation of responsible tourism initiative in phases. Kumarakom, Wayanad, Kovalam,
and Thekkady were identified for the implementation of responsible tourism initiative in the first
phase. The Government also selected Great India Tourism Planners and Consultants (GITPAC)
through competitive bidding, to provide technical assistance and co-ordination for the initiative in
the selected centers. The actual implementation process started in March, 2008.
There is no other state in the country that can present so much enthusiasm for life as it is visible in
Kerala. Despite high population, the economic condition in Kerala is in much better shape than
most of the other Indian states. Basic civic facilities available to the common people are well in
place and people know what there rights are. Industrialization (specially related to Information
Technology) is taking place in Kerala in its true spirit and much faster than most of the states in the
country. Influence from other countries has not eroded the cultural values of the people and they
celebrate all the festivals with much enthusiasm. Combine all these factors and you would know
why Keralites consider their state as God's Own Country.
Tourism in Kerala is going through a significant phase of growth and development. The sustained
efforts of the Department of Tourism over a period of several years have played a crucial role in
achieving this momentum and direction. The Department of Tourism is committed to preserving
this trend and working towards long-term goals of establishing tourism as a major development
factor in the State. With improved infrastructure and better publicity, the Department of Tourism
hopes to receive more tourists, both domestic as well as international in the seasons to come. Better
hotels, restaurants and other facilities alone will not develop tourism. Along with the Department of
Tourisms efforts to facilitate adequate infrastructure for the same, it is equally important that steps
be taken to create and maintain a collective mind-set among the people of the State with a positive
orientation towards tourism and hospitality. We have to re-establish the traditional Indian concept of
atithi devo bhava in the tourism industry. Our motto should be to receive a guest and to send back
a friend. Tourism and the hospitality industry can develop only with the cooperation and
wholehearted patronage of a friendly and hospitable host community. It is with this objective that
the Department of Tourism is envisaging a massive awareness campaign in the State. Setting up of
Page
114

Tourism Clubs in the colleges and schools is aimed at creating proper awarenes about tourism
among the youth.Kerala is one of the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from
around the world. And beautiful and attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can
be more tourist heavy fall in love. Well, if you are looking for a destination blessed with nature,
then the state of Kerala is the place for you. Visit and this condition is to make sure I would love to
come b Kerala is one of the best tourist destinations in India. It is visited by tourists from around the
world. And beautiful and attractive, with exceptional beauty of nature that the plant can be more
tourist heavy fall in love. Well, if you are looking for a destination blessed with nature, then the
state of Kerala is the place for you. Visit and this condition is to make sure I would love to come.
Kathakali is one of the world-renowned dance forms of Kerala. Kathakali literally means, "storyplay". Kathakali is some 300 years old but its roots go back almost 1500 years. Kathakali draws
from almost every type of formalized dance, drama and martial arts. A number of its elements and
choreography have been influenced by the 9th century art of Kuttiyattam, the only surviving form
of Sanskrit theatre. Despite the inroads of modern theatre, cinema and television,Kathakali,
continues to attract enthusiastic audiences in and outside Kerala. This dance-drama of Kerala has
also been able to retain much of its original stylized form, rich in its theatrical traditions and unique
values.

BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Page
115

1.Parayil, Govindan (2000). "Introduction: Is Kerala's Development Experience a Model?"


2.In Govindan Parayi London: Zed Books.
3. Franke, Richard W.; Barbara H. Chasin (1999). "Is t
4.Douthwaite R (1999).New Society Publishers. . Retrieved 2007-11-11.
5.Heinberg R (2004). New Society Publishers. p. 105.. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
6. (McKibben 2006).

Page
116