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CORE

Define the terms relative atomic mass


(Ar) and relative molecular mass (Mr).

relative atomic mass weighted mean mass of all the naturally occuring isotopes of
an element relative to the mass of an atom of 12C
6

relative molecular mass average mass of the molecules in a sample of pure substance
relative to the mass of an atom of carbon 12
Define the terms first ionization energy
and electronegativity.

The first ionization energy minimum energy required to remove the outermost
electron from each atom in a mole of gaseous atoms
Electronegativity measure of the ability of an atom to attract a pair of electrons in a
covalent bond
The standard enthalpy change of a reaction is the enthalpy change when one mole
of reactants is transformed into products at 298K and 101.3 KPa (1atm)
The average bond enthalpy is the average energy change when 1 mole of a particular
covalent bond is broken to give atoms; reactants and products being in the gaseous
state.

e.g. HCl (g) --> H(g) + Cl(g)


The rate of a chemical reaction is the rate of disappearance of reactants or the
rate of appearance of products. (can be a rate of concentration change, pressure
change, volume change)
N.B. colour change is an indirect measurement of concentration change
Activation energy (Ea) is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to
occur
Oxidising agent is a substance which will usually easily remove electrons from other
substances in a redox reaction (eg halogens, O2, Ag + --> Ag (s) ).
Reducing agent is a substance which will usually easily lose electrons to other
substances in a redox reaction (eg Al in : 2Al(s) + Fe2O3 (s) ---> 2Al 2O3 + 2Fe
HL

A ligand is an molecule or ion capable of donating a pair of electrons to a central


metal atom or ion
Standard state is the accepted form of the substance at 298K and 101.3KPa
(1atm) (eg graphite for carbon and not diamond, O2 for oxygen and not O3)

Standard enthalpy change of formation is the enthalpy change when one mole of a
substance is formed from its elements in their standard states. Reactants and
products at 298K and 101.3 Kpa (1 atm)
e.g. Hfo C(graphite) =0 KJ mol-1, Hfo S8 = 0 KJ mol-1,

Hfo SO2 = -296.84 KJ mol-1

Standard enthalpy change of combustion is the enthalpy change when one mole of
a substance is completely burned in oxygen. Reactants and products at 298K and
101.3 Kpa (1 atm)
S(s) + O2 (g) --> SO2(g)

Hco = -296.84 KJ mol-1

N.B. for reactions of elements with oxygen Hco equals Hfo

Define and apply the terms lattice


enthalpy and electron affinity.

The lattice enthalpy is the energy evolved when one mole of an ionic
compound is formed from gaseous ions under standard conditions
Electron affinity is the energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a
gaseous atom or ion
Define the term standard electrode
o
potential (E )

The standard electrode potential is the potential of a half cell compared to the
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) at 298K and 101.3 KPa (1atm). All solutions at
a concentration of 1M
Stereoisomerism same struct. Form, diff arrange. in space.