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NASAAlternativeFuelResearch

CAAFI2011GeneralMeeting
November30 December1,2011
Washington,DC
DanBulzan
NASAGlennResearchCenter

Research to Support Alternative Fuel Development


C
Combustion
b ti
CFD M
Mode
d D
Development
l
t and
dV
Validation
lid ti
Experiments
E
i
t
to allow development of fuel flexible low emissions combustors for future
engines
Alternative Fuels Research Lab fuel thermal stability measurements
and experiments to optimize Fischer-Tropsch process for jet fuel
production
Low Emissions Fuel Flexible Combustor Concept Development to
develop low emissions combustion concepts capable of operating on a
variety of fuels
Ground-based Engine Tests to evaluate alternative fuel effects on
performance and emissions under real operating conditions
Altitude Simulation Laboratory (PAL) Tests to examine fuel effects
on contrail ice formation
Airborne, Cruise Altitude Experiments to evaluate fuel effects on
emissions
i i
and
d contrail
t il formation
f
ti

NASA Subsonic Transport System Level Metrics


. technology for dramatically improving noise, emissions, & performance

Low Emissions Combustors for N+2


Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project

Development of fuel flexible low emissions combustor concepts


to meet 75% LTO NOx below CAEP 6

Contracts with General Electric and Pratt and Whitney to develop sector rig
concepts for testing in the NASA High-Pressure Combustor Facility
P&W: Working on both Rich Burn (Talon-X based) and Lean Burn Concepts
GE:
GE W
Working
ki on advanced
d
d Lean
L
Burn
B
TAPS Concepts
C
t

NASA also working collaboratively with several companies on alternative


concepts for flametube testing and optional sector rig development and testing
of various
a io s M
Multipoint
ltipoint Lean Direct
Di ect Injection Concepts
Goodrich/Delevan
Woodward FST
Parker Hannifin Corporation

Full Annular Rig testing of at least one concept

Proposed core engine test in 2015

Low Emissions Combustors for N+3


Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

Combustion CFD Model Development and


A li ti
Application
Validation Experiments
Low Emissions Combustion Concepts
N+3 Goals (Subsonics Fixed Wing and
Supersonic Projects)

Active Combustion Control


Alternative Fuels
5

CE-5 Flame Tube Medium Pressure Testing for


Evaluating Fuel Performance and Emissions
NOx Emissions

9-Point LDI

20

20

10
9
8
7

EINOx, g/kg

EINOx, g/kg

15

6
5
1030 F, 350 psia, JP8
1030 F, 350 psia, FT1
1030 F, 250 psia, JP8
1030 F, 250 psia, FT1
850 F,
F 250 psia,
psia JP8
850 F, 250 psia, FT1
650 F, 250 psia, JP8
650 F, 250 psia, FT1

4
3

10
9
8
7
6
5
4

1030F,250psia,JP8
1030F,250psia,Biojet
1030F,150psia,JP8
1030F,150psia,Biojet
850F,150psia,JP8
850F,150psia,Biojet

2
0.02

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.02

FAR, sample

0.025

0.03

0.035

0.04

0.045

FAR

F-T Fuel

Biojet Fuel
5x1014

Flame Images
Number EI ((dEInumdlogDP)

1030 F, 250 psia, FAR~0.033


JP8
BioJet

4x1014

3x1014

2x1014

1014

0
8

JP 8
JP-8

F T/JP 8 Blend
F-T/JP-8
Bl d

F-T
F T

10

20

30

40

50

60

70 80 90100

200

Diameter (nm)

Biojet Particle
Emissions

Planned testing of Tallow, Camelina and Fermentable Sugar based fuels

Engine Fuel Test Summary


Pratt and Whitney Geared Turbofan Engine DemoJanuary 2008
JP-8, 50:50 F-T/JP-8 blend
Test stand mounted engine
Performance + emissions measurements

Pratt and Whitney 308 Alternative Fuel TestMarch 2008


JP-8, 50:50 F-T/JP-8/blend and F-T
Test stand mounted engine
g
Performance + emissions measurements

Alternative Aviation Fuel ExperimentJanuary 2009


FT, blends, and JP-8
CFM-56 on NASA DC-8
Performance and complete emissions

Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment IIJanuary 2011

Biofuel, FT, blends, and JP-8


CFM-56 on NASA DC-8
Performance and complete emissions
Additional tests to support SAE E-31 Particle Measurement Standard
Subcommittee

AAFEX-II: HRJ Fuel Emission Characterization


Location:
Dates:

NASADrydenAircraftOperationsFacility(DAOF)
Palmdale,California
March20 April2,2011

Aircraft:

NASADFRCDC8,CFM562Cengines

Fuels:

*StandardJP8
Tallow basedHRJ&50%Blendw/JP
HRJ & 50% Blend w/JP8
8
*Tallowbased
*CoalbasedFT&CoalbasedFTw/1000ppmSadded

Runtime:

11separateEmissionsTests,30.5hrstotalruntime

Measurements: Certificationgases,smoke,HAPS,PMnumber,size,mass,
composition,blackcarboncontent,andmorphology
S
Sponsors:

NASA S b i FixedWingProject,FAA,AirForce
NASASubsonics
Fi d Wi P j t FAA Ai F

Participants:

AEDC,AESO,AFRL,ARI,GRC,LaRC,MIT,MST,MSU,PSU

E31Group:

UTRC,EPA,Rolls,GE,TSI,NRCCanada,P&W

Fuel Characteristics
Test

JP8(1) ShellFT SasolFT

HRJ

Sulfur Content (ppm Mass)


SulfurContent(ppm

100

Aromatics(%vol)

21.8

~0

0.4

~0

E d P i t (C) 300
EndPoint(C)300

268

206

225

254

FlashPoint(degC)

46

41

43

52

Density(kg/L)
(k / )

0.811

0.738

0.761

0.759

FreezingPoint(degC)

53

54

78.5

49

HydrogenContent(%mass)

13.5

15.5

15.0

15.3

Heat ofCombustion

43.3

44.4

44.1

44.1

AvailableAlternativeFuelComposition
Alternative Fuels contain < 0 5% Aromatics and < 20 ppm Sulfur
AlternativeFuelscontain<0.5%Aromaticsand<20ppm
FTSasol
12.0%

0.4%

FTShell

~60%C
% 10 &C11

87.6%

iparaffins

~35%C10 &C11

~48%C9 &C10

46.7%
53.3%

cycloparaffins

iparaffins

aromatics

JP8

nparaffins

5%

HRJ
15%

18.7%
31.0%

19.0%

nparaffins

n-paraffins

iparaffins
31.3%

i-paraffins

cycloparaffins
aromatics

80%

FuelsVaryConsiderablyinHydrocarbonComposition

cycloparaffins

AAFEXIIProjectObjectives
1) Evaluatealtfueleffectsonengineperformanceand
fuelhandlingequipment
2) DeterminetheeffectsofaltfuelsonengineandAPU
PMandgasphaseemissions
3) Investigatetheroleofsulfurinregulatingvolatile
aerosolformationinengineexhaustplumes
4) Examinetheeffectsofsamplelinechemistryand
particlelossesonemissionmeasurements
5)ConductteststosupportSAEE31developmentof
standardexhaustsamplingmethods
p g

AAFEX-II replicated AAFEX-I Test Plan

Left1mRake

Right1mRake

Right30mInlet
143m
143
mInstrumentTrailers
Instrument Trailers
Instrument
Enclosure

ARIMobileLab

4,7,30,65,85,and100%ThrustRuns;Testsconductedincoldestandwarmestparts
ofdaytoexaminetemperaturedependencies;haddedicatedE31probes

1E15

1E14

N b
Number

Blend
HRJ
JP-8

1E13

Nonvolatile Numb
ber EI Reduction (%)

Nonvolatile Particle Number EI (m


mg/kg)

HRJ Fuels Reduce PM Number Emissions

1E12
0

20

40

60

80

HRJ
Blend

100

80

60

40

20

100

20

Engine Power (%)

60

80

HRJ
Blend

10

Blend
HRJ
JP-8

20

40

60

Engine Power (%)

80

100

Mass

Black Carbon M
Mass EI Reduction
n (%)

100

100

Engine Power (%)

100

Black C
Carbon EI (mg/kg)

40

80

60

40

20

0
0

20

40

60

Engine Power (%)

HRJandFTFuelPMEmissionReductionsComparable

80

100

HRJ also Reduces Volatiles in Downstream Plume


HRJ
Blend

Numberat
N
b
t
30m

JP-8
HRJ
Blend

1E16

1E15

To
otal Aerosol Number EI Reduction (%
%)

Number EI (#/kg)
Total Aerosol N

100

80

60

40

20

-20

1E14
0

20

40

60

80

100

20

JP-8
HRJ
Blend

Massat30m
10

ss EI Reduction (%
%)
Total Aerosol Mas

Total Aerosol Ma
ass EI (mg/kg)

60

80

100

Engine Power (%)

Engine Power (%)

100

40

HRJ
Blend

100

80

60

40

20

1
0

20

40

60

Engine Power (%)

80

100

20

40

60

Engine Power (%)

80

100

Fuel Effects on PM Emissions very Clear and Profound


AAFEX-2 PM Number Emissions at 1 m, 7% thrust

Relative Particle Numbe


er Emissoin
ns

80

JP-8
60

40

20

Switched
Fuels

Total Particles
Nonvolatile

HRJ
15:36:38 15:38:18 15:39:58 15:41:38 15:43:18 15:44:58

Local Time

Differences in PM ratios due to volatile particles associated with JP-8 Fuel

AAFEXIIGaseousEmissions
20

25
JP-8
HRJ

JP-8
HRJ

20

EIHC (g//kg-fuel)

EINOx (g
g/kg-fuel)

15

10

15

10

5
5

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Engine Power, %

100

EICO (g/kg-fuel)

80

60

40

20

0
20

40

60

Engine Power, %

20

40

60

Engine Power, %
JP-8
HRJ

80

100

80

100

Relatively high ambient


temperature suppressed
volatile formation
formation, but
difference still profound

1E16

1E15
100

20 ppm S
1000 ppm S
1 1
1E14
0

20

40

60

Engine Power (%)

40mg/kg~1%S(IV)
conversiontoS(VI)

80

100

Total A
Aerosol Mass EI (mg/kg)

Total Ae
erosol Number EI (#/kg)

Sulfur Plays Significant Role in Volatile PM Formation

10

20 ppm S
1000 ppm S
1
0

20

40

60

80

Engine Power (%)

AMSmeasurementsindicatevolatilemassmostlysulfate

100

AAFEXIIParticipation

Morethan60individualsparticipated,representing22publicandprivateinstitutions

AAFEX II Workshop

Friday, January 13, 2011


Immediately following the AIAA Aerospace
Sciences Meeting
Gaylord Opryland Resort and Conference
C t
Center
Nashville, Tennessee
8:00 am 2:30 pm
Presentations from participating groups of
data
da
a collected
co ec ed du
during
g the
ee
experiment
pe e
No registration fee
If interested in attending,
g please
p
send an
email to: Dan.L.Bulzan@nasa.gov

Fuel Effects on Contrails being Studied in Altitude


Chamber
Tests examine the links between soot emissions/properties and ice formation
Testsexaminethelinksbetweensootemissions/propertiesandiceformation
Vacuum
Exhaust

Chamber

Liquid
Nitrogen

OPC

Flow
control
valves

OPC
Xenon Source

OPC

Vaporizer/
Heat
Exchanger

Spectrometer

Humidifier
P~1atm,T~673K

Flowthroughchambercansimulateconditionsupto50,000ft
ParticlesmonitoredusingOpticalParticleCountersandLightScattering
Cancontrolsootsize,numberdensity,andsulfateandorganiccoatings

Simulated
Exhaust Emissions

HighPMConcentrationsRequiredforIceFormation
ContrailvisibleforCN>1e6/cm3
Exhaust
Jet

Light
Source

Soot
4%RH

TestsarebeingconductedwithACCRIco
Tests are being conducted with ACCRI cosponsorship
sponsorshipandincollaborationwithAerodyne,
and in collaboration with Aerodyne
whichisusingthedatatovalidatecontrailmodel
Octtestswillexploreparticlesizeandsolubilityeffectsoniceformation
Willconductfuturetestsusinghighpressureburnerandalternativefuels

AlternativeFuelEffectsonContrailsandCruiseEmiSSions

ACCESS

ACCESS Objectives
1. Characterize cruise altitude soot and gas phase
emissions from aircraft as they burn a variety of
fuels, including JP
JP-8,
8, HRJs and possibly FT fuels.
May be limited to blends because of certification
issues.
2. Investigate the role of soot and fuel sulfur in
regulating contrail formation and the
microphysical properties of the ice particles.
particles
3. Measure the soot and gas-phase emissions and
contrail characteristics in exhaust from
commercial aircraft at cruise in air-traffic
corridors

ACCESSStatus
Location:

NASADrydenAircraftOperationalFacility,
Palmdale,California

D
Dates:

S i i 2013
Startingin2013

Sponsors:

NASA,othercollaborationsarewelcome

ChaseAircraft:

Dryden,Glenn,andLangleyaircraftarebeingconsidered

SourceAC:

NASADC8,othersarebeingconsidered

Measurements: Aerosolnumber,size,composition,volatility
Cloudparticlesize,number,images,watercontent
CO2,CO,NOx,O3,watervapor
Fuels:

JP8,Biojet andFTblends,Biojet andFTneatifpossible

Q
Questions?