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MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE

Exercise 1: The Language of Anatomy


Body Orientation & Direction
(Posterior)
Anatomical Position
Superior / Inferior
Anterior / Posterior
Medial / Lateral
Dorsal / Ventral
Proximal / Distal
Superficial / Deep

Surface Anatomy (Anterior)


Oral
Orbital
Buccal
Cervical
Thoracic
Axillary
Brachial
Antecubita
l

Surface Anatomy

Umbilical
Abdominal
Inguinal
Femoral
Pubic
Patellar
Digital
Crural

Occipital
Acromial
Scapular
Lumbar
Gluteal
Popliteal
Sural
Calcaneal

Body Plane & Sections


Sagittal Plane
Frontal / Coronal Plane
Transverse Plane
If definition is given, then be able to identify the corresponding vocabulary word.
Be able to identify and/or know the function from figures 1.6: Body Cavities, 1.7: Abdominopelvic
surface (a & b)
& 1.8: Other body cavities.

Exercise 2: Organ Systems


Organ Systems
Heart

Trachea

Lungs

Pancreas

Liver

Ureter

Spleen

Esophagus

Kidney

Gall bladder

Diaphragm

Small intestine

Stomach

Large intestine

Know the function of each organ.


Be able to identify the different organs using a human torso model and a dissected cat.
Know which system each organ belong to (ex. Urinary system, digestive system, lymphatic system,
etc).

Exercise 3: The Microscope


Microscope
Arm
Base

Revolving nosepiece
Iris diaphragm lever

Stage
Condenser

Light source
Ocular lens or eyepiece

Fine adjustment knob


Coarse adjustment
knob
Objective lens

Know the magnification and total magnification of scanning, low and high power.
Know what the word resolution means.

Exercise 4: The Cell and Mitosis


Animal Cell Model
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm
Nucleus
Nuclear pore
Nuclear plasma
Nuclear envelope
Vacuole
Lysosome
Centriole

Ribosomes
Nucleolus
Chromatin
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Mitochondria
Pinocytic vesicle
Golgi apparatus

Be able to identify each from cell model and know its function
Cell Division (Mitosis)
Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase

Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis

Know the order of the cell cycle and what is occurring at each phase.
Know when cytokinesis occurs.
Be able to identify the different stages of mitosis with the models and the microscope slides.

Define:
Osmosis
Diffusion
Isotonic
Hypertonic

Exercise 5: Osmosis and Diffusion

Hypotonic
Passive Transport
Active Transport
Lyse
Crenation
Be able to identify the microscopic slides of blood in different solutions: Hypertonic, Isotonic, and
Hypotonic.
Which substances was the dialysis tubing used in lab permeable to? Impermeable to? Which way did
the water move? Which way did the iodine move? Did the starch move?

Exercise 6 : Histology
Tissues
EPITHELIUM
Simple squamous

CONNETIVE
Bone

MUSCLE
Skeletal

Neurons
Simple cuboidal

Blood

Cardiac

Neuroglia
Simple columnar

Adipose

Stratified squamous

Areolar

Stratified cuboidal

Reticular

Stratified columnar

Hyaline cartilage

Transitional epithelium

Elastic cartilage

Smooth

NERVOUS

Pseudostratified columnar

Fibrocartilage
Dense regular
Dense irregular
Mesenchyme

Be able to identify the major and specific classifications of each tissue type.
Be able to give an example of where each of these tissues can be found.

Exercise 7: Integumentary System


Integumentary System
Know the function of these 4 types of epidermal cells: Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Langerhans cells
& Merkel cells
Layers: epidermis, dermis (2 layerspapillary layer & reticular layer), & hypodermis or superficial
fascia
Know the 5 epidermal stratum layer types: corneum, lucidum, granulosum, spinosum & basale
Skin Model & Figure 7.1
Hair follicle
Eccrine sweat gland
Arrector pili muscle
Sebaceous (oil) gland

Hair root
Pacinian corpuscles
Meissners corpuscles
Free nerve endings

Pore
Adipose
Artery
Vein

Know the Accessory Organs of the Skin.

Exercise 9: Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones


and Cartilages

Be able to list the five functions of the skeletal system.


Be able to locate and identify the three cartilage tissue types.
How many bones are in the adult skeleton?
What is the difference between a compact bone and a spongy (or cancellous) bone?
Where is a compact bone and spongy bone found in the skeletal system?

Classification. Be able to identify the four main groups and the two subcategories of bones:
long
irregular
short
sesamoid
flat
wormian (or sutural)
Bone Markings. Be able to identify and/or give a description (function) of the following surface bone
markings from Table 9.1 using the axial and appendicular skeletons:
ramus
fossa
meatus
tuberosity groove
condyle foramen
trochanter
fissure tubercle epicondyle
spine
crest
head
Gross Anatomy Be able to identify the major anatomical areas on a longitudinally cut long bone
using the listed below:
Note: if you are unable to identify from Figure 9.3 then know the definition.
diaphysis
endosteum
epiphysis
epiphyseal line
epiphyseal plate
medullary cavity
perforating (Sharpeys) fibers
osteoblasts
osteoclasts
periosteum
red marrow
adipose tissue, or yellow marrow
trabeculae
structures of an osteon in a histologic and/or diagram (Figure 9.4):
osteon (Haversian system) circumferential lamellae
Microscopic Structure: Be able to identify the major regions and specimen of compact bone using

models
central (Haversian) canal
lacuna (pl. lacunae) osteocyte
perforating (Volkmanns) canal lamella (pl. lamellae)

canaliculus (pl. canaliculi)

Be able to identify the following structures using a microscope slide.


central (Haversian) canal
Perforating (Volkmanns) canal
osteocyte

Canaliculus

Exercise 10: The Axial Skeleton

Be able to identify the bones and the SPECIFIC BONE MARKINGS in the axial skeleton.
SUTURES
Coronal
Squamous
Sagittal
Lambdoid

How many single bones are there in an adult


vertebral column?
Name the two composite, or fused bones that
provide a flexible curvature

SKULL(2 sets of bones)


Cranium (8 bones):
Frontal
Parietal
Temporal
Occipital
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Facial bones (14 bones)
Palatine
Zygomatic
Nasal
Inferior Nasal Conchae
Maxillae
Vomer
Mandible
Hyoid (not counted as a skull bone)

VERTEBRAL COLUMN
Cervical Vertebrae (C1 C7 )
atlas - C1
axis C2
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 T12)
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1 L5)
Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae)
Coccyx (3-5 fused)
Bony Thorax (Thoracic Cage)
Sternum
Ribs (12 pairs)
Vertebrosternal, true ribs, (pairs 1-7)
False ribs (pairs 8-12)
vertebrochondral ribs (8-10th)
Vertebral, or floating ribs (11-12th)

Exercise 11: The Appendicular Skeleton


Be able to identify the bones and the SPECIFIC BONE MARKINGS in the appendicular skeleton.
PECTORAL, or Shoulder, Girdle
Clavicle, or Collarbone
Scapulae, or Shoulder blades
ARM or FOREARM
Humerus
Ulna
Radius
HAND, or MANUS
Carpus (Carpals, 8 bones)
Metacarpals (5 bones)
Phalanges (14 bones)

Pollex thumb, only 2 phalanges


PELVIC GIRDLE, or Hip Girdle
Ilium
Ischium
Pubis
THIGH and LEG
Femur, or Thigh bone
Patella (kneecap)
Tibia
Fibula

FOOT
Tarsus (Tarsals, 7 bones)
Metatarsals (5 bones)

Phalanges (14 bones)


Hallux, (great toe, only 2 phalanges)

Exercise 12: The Fetal Skeleton


Definitions:
fontanel
ossification center
bipartite

Questions for Review:


How many bones are in the human fetal
skeleton?
How many bones are in the adult skeleton?
What is the function of the fontanels?
How does the size of the fetal face compare to
its cranium?

Identify the following bones/structures of the fetal skull:


anterior (frontal) fontanel
mastoid fontanel
sphenoidal fontanel
posterior (occipital) fontanel
frontal suture

frontal bone
ossification center
occipital bone
parietal bone
temporal bone

Exercise 13: Articulations and Body Movements


Name two functions that the joints perform for the body.
What are the two possible classifications for joints?
Name and describe the three functional categories of joints.
3 types based on Structure:

3 types based on Function:

1) Fibrous: sutures, syndesmoses


2) Cartilaginous: symphyses, synchondroses
3) Synovial: plane, hinge, pivot, condyloid,
saddle, ball-and-socket

1) Amphiarthroses
2) Diarthroses
3) Synarthroses

Know the following structures of a synovial joint (see figure 13.3):


joint cavity
articular (hyaline) cartilage
ligament

articular capsule
fibrous capsule
synovial membrane

Know the following synovial joint movements (see figure 13.6):


Flexion
abduction
rotation
pronation

eversion
inversion
dorsiflexion
extension

adduction
circumduction
supination
plantar flexion