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Experiment no.

Object:-To study the characteristics of JFET (Junction field effect transistor) in common source configuration
and to evaluate:
1. AC drain resistance
2. Transconductance
3. Amplification factor
4. Drain Resistance
Apparatus required: - Analog board, Digital multimeter, power supplies+12V,-5V, 2mm patch cords.

Theory:-FET is a voltage controlled device so its characteristics are the curves which represent relationship
between different dc current and voltages. These are helpful in studying different region of operation of a field
effect transistor when connected in a circuit. The two important characteristics of a field effect transistor are:
1. Output/Drain characteristics
2. Transfer characteristics.

Output/drain characteristics can be subdivided into following our regions:


Ohmic region OA:
This part of the characteristics is liner indicating that for low value of VDS, current varies directly with voltage
following Ohm’s law. It means that JFET behaves like an ordinary resistor till point A(called knee)is reached.
Curve AB:
In this region,ID increases at inverse square law rate upto point B which is called pinch-off point. This
progressive fall in the rate of increase of increase of ID is caused by the square law increases in the depletion
region at each gate up to point B where the two regions are closest without touching each other. The drain
source voltage VDS corresponding to point B is called pinch-off voltage VPO.
Pinch-off region BC:
It is also known as saturation region or “amplifier” region.here, JFET operates as a constant-current device
because ID is relatively independent of increases proportionally thereby keeping ID practically constant at IDSS.
Drain current in this region is given by Shockley’s equation
It is normal operating region of the JFET when used as an amplifier.

ID=IDSS[1-(VGS/VPO)2]=IDSS[1-(VGS/VGS(Off))2]
Breakdown region:
If VDS is increased beyond its value corresponding to point C (called avalanche breakdown voltage),JFET enters
the breakdown region where ID increases to an extensive value. This happens because the reversed biased gate
channel PN junction undergoes avalanche breakdown when small change in VDS produce very large change in
ID.

Transfer characteristics:
It is the curve plotted between output drain current v/s input gate to source voltage for constant values of output
drain to source voltage as shown in figure

The main parameters of a JFET when connected in common source mode are,
1. A.C Drain resistance,rd:

It is the ac resistance between drain and source terminals when JFET is operating in the pinch-off region. it
is given by

rd = change in VDS / change in ID at VGS constant


2. Transconductance,gm:

It is simply the slope of transfer characteristics

gm=change in ID /change in VGS at VDS constant

Its unit is siemens(s)/mho.

3. Amplification factor, µ :

It is given by
µ = change in VDS / change inVGS at constant ID
It can be proved from above that µ =gm* rd=gfs * rd

4. DC drain rasistance,RDS:

It is also called the static o ohmic resistance of the channel. It is given by

RDS= VDS /ID

Circuit diagram:-
Procedure:-
• Connect -5V and +12V dc power supplies at there indicated position from external source.
• To plot Drain characteristics proceed as follows:

1. Rotate both the potentiometer P1 and P2 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).
2. Connect Ammeter between test point 3 and 4 to measure output drain current ID(mA).
3. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and ground to measure input voltage V GS other
voltmeter between test point 2 and ground to measure output voltage VDS.
4. Switch ON the power supply.
5. Vary the potentiometer P2 so as to increase the value of output voltage VDS from zero to 10V in step
and measure the corresponding values of output current ID for different constant value of output
voltage VDS in an observation Table 1.
6. Rotate potentiometer P2 fully in CCW direction.
7. Vary potentiometer P1 and set a value of input gate to source voltage at some constant value (-1V,
--2V -3V.......)
8. Repeat the procedure from step 6 for different sets of input voltage VGS.
9. Plot a curve between output voltages VDS and output current ID at different constant value of input
voltage
Observation table:

Output drain current ID(mA) at


Output
constant value of
S.no. voltage
input voltage
VDS
VGS = -1V VGS = -2V VCE =-3V
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

• To plot transfer characteristics proceed as follows:


1. Switch OFF the power supply.
2. Rotate both the potentiometer P1 and P2 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).
3. Connect voltmeter between test point 4 and ground to measure output voltage VDS.
4. Connect one Ammeter between test point 3 and 4 to measure output current ID (mA).
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Vary potentiometer P2 and set a value of output voltage VDS at some constant value(1V, 2V
3V.......)
7. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of input voltage VGS from zero to
maximum value in step and measure the corresponding values of output current ID.
8. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW direction.
9. Repeat the procedure from step 5 for different sets of output voltage VDS.
10. Plot a curve between input voltage VGS and output current ID.

Observation table:

Output Drain current ID (mA) at constant


Output value of
S.no. voltage input voltage
VGS
VDS = 1V VDS = 2V VDS = 3V VDS = 4V VDS = 5V
1. 0.0V
2. -0.5V
3. -1.0V
4. -2.0V
5. -3.0V
6. -4.0V
7. -5.0V
8. -6.0V
9. -7.0V
10. -8.0V
Calculation:

1. A.C Drain resistance,rd:


It is the ac resistance between drain and source terminals when JFET is operating in the
pinch-off region. it is given by

rd = change in VDS / change in ID at VGS constant

2. Transconductance,gm:
It is simply the slope of transfer characteristics

gm=change in ID /change in VGS at VDS constant

Its unit is siemens(s)/mho.

3. Amplification factor, µ :
It is given by
µ = change in VDS / change inVGS at constant ID
It can be proved from above that µ =gm* rd=gfs * rd

4. DC drain rasistance,RDS:

It is also called the static or ohmic resistance of the channel. It is given by

RDS= VDS /ID


Results:

AC drain resistance, rd = ---------------

Transconductance, gm = ----------------

Amplification factor µ = ---------------

DC drain resistance,RDS=-----------------

Precautions:
Sanghvi Institute of Management & Science, Indore
Experiment no.
Object:-To study the characteristics of NPN transistor in common emitter configuration and to
evaluate:
1. Input resistance
2. Output resistance
3. Current gain

Apparatus Required:
1. Analog board
2. DC power supplies +12V, +5V from external source
3. Digital Multimeter (3 numbers).
4. 2 mm patch cords.
Fig. 4
Theory:-
Transistor characteristics are the curves, which represent relationship between different dc currents
and voltages of a transistor. These are helpful in studying the operation of a transistor when connected
in a circuit. The three important characteristics of a transistor are:
1. Input characteristic.
2. Output characteristic.
3. Constant current transfer characteristic.
Input Characteristic:
In common emitter configuration, it is the curve plotted between the input current (IB) verses input
voltage (VBE) for various constant values of output voltage (VCE).
The approximated plot for input characteristic is shown in fig. 1. This characteristic reveal that for
fixed value of output voltage VCE, as the base to emitter voltage increases, the emitter current
increases in a manner that closely resembles the diode characteristics.
Fig. 1
Output Characteristic :
This is the curve plotted between the output current IC verses output voltage VCE for various constant
values of input current IB.
The output characteristic has three basic region of interest as indicated in fig.2 the active region, cutoff
region and saturation region.
In active region the collector base junction is reverse biased while the base emitter junction if forward
biased. This region is normally employed for linear (undistorted) amplifier.
In cutoff region the collector base junction and base emitter junction of the transistor both are reverse
biased. In this region transistor acts as an OFF switch.
In saturation region the collector base junction and base emitter junction of the transistor both are
forward biased. In this region transistor acts as an ON switch.

Fig. 2
Constant current transfer Characteristics:
This is the curve plotted between output collector current IC verses input base current IB for constant
value of output voltage VCE.
The approximated plot for this characteristic is shown in Fig 3.
Circuit Diagram:
Circuit used to plot different characteristics of transistor is shown in
Procedure:
• Connect +5V and +12V dc power supplies at their indicated position from external source
• To plot input characteristics proceed as follows :
1. Rotate both the potentiometer P1 and P2 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).
2. Connect Ammeter between test point 2 and 3 to measure input base current IB(uA).
3. Short or connect a 2mm patch cord between test point 4 and 5
4. Connect one voltmeter between test point 1 and ground to measure input voltage VBE other
voltmeter between test point 6 and ground to measure output voltage VCE.
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Vary potentiometer P2 and set a value of output voltage VCE at some constant value (1V, 3V...)
7. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of input voltage VBE from zero to 0.8V in
step and measure the corresponding values of input current IB for different constant value of
output voltage VCE in an observation Table 1.
8. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in CCW direction.
9. Repeat the procedure from step 6 for different sets of output voltage VCE.
10. Plot a curve between input voltage VBE and input current IB as shown in Fig 1 using suitable scale
with the help of observation Table l. This curve is the required input characteristic.
Observation Table 1:

Input current IB(uA) at constant


Input value of
S.no. voltage output voltage
VBE
VCE = 1V VCE = 3V VCE =5V
1. 0.0V
2. 0.1V
3. 0.2V
4. 0.3V
5. 0.4V
6. 0.5V
7. 0.6V
8. 0.7V
9. 0.8V
• To plot output characteristics proceed as follows:

1. Switch OFF the power supply.


2. Rotate both the potentiometer P1 and P2 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).
3. Connect voltmeter between test point 6 and ground to measure output voltage VCE.
4. Connect one Ammeter between test point 2 and 3 to measure input current I B(uA) and other
Ammeter between test point 4 and 5 to measure output current IC(mA).
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Vary potentiometer P1 and set a value of input current IB at some constant value (0uA,
10uA......100uA)
7. Vary the potentiometer P2 so as to increase the value of output voltage VCE from zero to
maximum value in step and measure the corresponding values of output current I C for different
constant value of input current IB in an observation table 2.
8. Rotate potentiometer P2 fully in CCW direction.
9. Repeat the procedure from step 6 for different sets of input current IB.
10. Plot a curve between output voltage VCE and output current IC as shown in Fig 2 using suitable
scale with the help of observation table2. This curve is the required output characteristic.

Observation Table 2:

Outpu Output current IC (mA) at constant value


t of
S.no. voltag input current
e IB IB IB IB
IB = 0uA
VCE =10uA =20uA =30uA =40uA
1. 0.0V
2. 0.5V
3. 1.0V
4. 2.0V
5. 3.0V
6. 4.0V
7. 5.0V
8. 6.0V
9. 7.0V
10. 8.0V

• To plot constant current transfer characteristics proceed as follows:


1. Switch OFF the power supply.
2. Rotate both the potentiometer P1 and P2 fully in CCW (counter clockwise direction).
3. Connect voltmeter between test point 6 and ground to measure output voltage VCE.
4. Connect one Ammeter between test point 2 and 3 to measure input current IB (mA) and other
Ammeter between test point 4 and 5 to measure output current IC (mA).
5. Switch ON the power supply.
6. Vary potentiometer P2 and set a value of output voltage VCE at maximum value.
7. Vary the potentiometer P1 so as to increase the value of input current IB from zero to 10 mA in
step and measure the corresponding values of output current IC in an observation Table 3.
8. Plot a curve between output current IC and input current IB as shown in Fig 3 using suitable scale
with the help of observation Table 3. This curve is the required Transfer characteristic.

Observation Table 3:

Input Output current IC (mA) at


S.no. current constant output voltage
IB (uA) VCE = MAX
1. 00.0 uA
2. 10.0 uA
3. 20.0 uA
4. 30.0 uA
5. 40.0 uA
6. 50.0 uA
7. 60.0 uA
8. 70.0 uA
9. 80.0 uA
10. 90.0 uA
11. 100.0uA
Calculations:
1. Input resistance: It is the ratio of change in the input voltage VBE to change in the input current
IB at constant value of output voltage VCE or it is the reciprocal of the slope obtained from the
input characteristic.
Mathematically
Rin = 1 = 1 = ΔVBE
Slope from input ΔIB / ΔVBE ΔIB at constant VCB
Characteristics

To calculate input resistance determine the slope from the input characteristic curve obtained
from observation Table 1. Reciprocal of this slope will give the required input resistance.
2. Output resistance: It is the ratio of change in the output voltage VCE to change in the output
current IC at constant value of input current IB or it is the reciprocal of the slope obtained from
the output characteristic.
Mathematically
Rin = 1 = 1 = ΔVCE
Slope from output ΔIC / ΔVCE ΔIC at constant IB
Characteristics

To calculate output resistance determine the slope from the output characteristic curve obtained
from observation Table 2. Reciprocal of this slope will give the required output resistance.
3. Current gain: It is the ratio of change in the output current I C to change in the input current IB at
constant value of output voltage VCE or it is the slope obtained from the constant current transfer
characteristic. It is denoted by β ac

Mathematically
β ac = Slope of constant current transfer characteristic = ∆ IC
∆ IB
To calculate current gain, determine the slope from the constant current transfer characteristic curve
obtained from observation Table 3. This slope is the required current gain.
Results:
Input resistance Rin = ____________
Output resistance Rout __________=
Current Gain β ac = _____________

Precautions:
Sanghvi Institute of Management & Science, Indore
Experiment no.
Object:
To study differential Amplifier.
Apparatus Required:
1. Analog board
2. DC power supplies +12V, -12V and +5V from external source
3. Oscilloscope
4. Digital multi-meter.
5. 2 mm. patch cords.

Theory:-
Differential amplifier is one of the best direct-coupled stages. This amplifier is widely used as the
input stage of an Operational amplifier

Fig. 1
Above figure shows the most general form of a differential amplifier. It has two inputs, V 1 and V2.
Because of the direct coupling, the input signals can have frequencies all the way down to zero,
equivalent to DC. The output voltage Vout is the voltage between the collectors. Ideally, the circuit is
symmetrical, with identical transistors and collector resistors. As a result, the output voltage is zero
when the two inputs are equal. When V1 is greater than V2, the output voltage with the polarity shown
appears. When V1 is less than V2, the output voltage has the opposite polarity.
The differential amplifier of fig.1 has a double-ended input. Input V1 is called the non-inverting input
because the output voltage is in phase with V1. On the other hand, V2 is the inverting input because the
output is 180° out of phase with V2. A differential amplifier amplifies the difference between the two
input voltages, producing an output of
Vout = A (V1 - V2)
Where,
Vout = voltage between collectors, A = Rc / Re
V1= Non-inverting input voltage,
V2 = Inverting input voltage.
Circuit diagram:-

Circuit used to study Differential amplifier circuit is shown in Fig


Procedure:

• Connect +12V, -12V, +5V DC power supplies at their indicated position from external source
• To study the Differential amplifier with DC inputs proceed as follows

1. Set the value of DC out 1 equals to 0.8V with the help of potentiometer P2.
2. Set the value of DC out 2 equals to 0.7V with the help of potentiometer P3.
3. Connect AC / DC input 1 and AC / DC input 2 to ground.
4. Measure the output offset voltage at test point output 2.
5. Vary potentiometer P1 and observe its effect on output offset voltage.
6. Connect DC out 1 to AC / DC input 1 and DC out 2 to AC / DC input 2.
7. Measure the output voltage at output 2 and output 1.
8. Vary pot P3 and observe its effect on output 2 and output 1.
9. Vary potentiometer P1 and observe its effect on both of the outputs.

• To study the Differential amplifier with single AC inputs proceed as follows :


1. Connect input voltage of 1 KHz -50mV to AC / DC Input 1 and connect other input i.e. AC / DC
input 2 to ground.
2. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in counter clockwise direction.
3. Measure and trace the outputs waveform at test points output 1 and output 2.
4. Connect input voltage of 1 KHz-50mV to AC / DC input 2 and other input i.e. AC / DC input 1
to ground.
5. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in counter clockwise direction.
6. Measure and trace the outputs waveform at test points output 1 and output 2.
7. To remove any DC offset voltage output may be measured with a 0.01uF capacitor provided on
the board.

• To study the Differential amplifier with double AC inputs proceed as follows :


1. Connect input voltage of 1 KHz-50m V to AC / DC input 1 and same signal i.e. in phase signal
to AC / DC input 2.
2. Rotate potentiometer P1 fully in counter clockwise direction.
3. Measure and trace the outputs waveform at test points output 1 and output 2.
4. Connect input voltage of 1 KHz-50m V to AC / DC input 1 and 180° out of phase signal to AC /
DC input 2.
5. Adjust potentiometer P1 in case of distorted signal measure and trace the outputs waveform at
test points output 1 and output 2.
Result:-

Precautions:
Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope

OBJECTIVE: To learn how to operate a cathode-ray oscilloscope.

APPARATUS: Cathode-ray oscilloscope, multimeter, and oscillator.

INTRODUCTION: The cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a common laboratory instrument that


provides accurate time and amplitude measurements of voltage signals over a wide range of
frequencies. Its reliability, stability, and ease of operation make it suitable as a general purpose
laboratory instrument. The heart of the CRO is a cathode-ray tube shown schematically in Fig. 1.

The cathode ray is a beam of electrons which are emitted by the heated cathode (negative
electrode) and accelerated toward the fluorescent screen. The assembly of the cathode, intensity grid,
focus grid, and accelerating anode (positive electrode) is called an electron gun. Its purpose is to
generate the electron beam and control its intensity and focus. Between the electron gun and the
fluorescent screen are two pair of metal plates - one oriented to provide horizontal deflection of the
beam and one pair oriented ot give vertical deflection to the beam. These plates are thus referred to as
the horizontal and vertical deflection plates. The combination of these two deflections allows the beam
to reach any portion of the fluorescent screen. Wherever the electron beam hits the screen, the
phosphor is excited and light is emitted from that point. This conversion of electron energy into light
allows us to write with points or lines of light on an otherwise darkened screen.

In the most common use of the oscilloscope the signal to be studied is first amplified and then
applied to the vertical (deflection) plates to deflect the beam vertically and at the same time a voltage
that increases linearly with time is applied to the horizontal (deflection) plates thus causing the beam
to be deflected horizontally at a uniform (constant> rate. The signal applied to the verical plates is thus
displayed on the screen as a function of time. The horizontal axis serves as a uniform time scale.

The linear deflection or sweep of the beam horizontally is accomplished by use of a sweep
generator that is incorporated in the oscilloscope circuitry. The voltage output of such a generator is
that of a saw tooth wave as shown in Fig. 2. Application of one cycle of this voltage difference, which
increases linearly with time, to the horizontal plates causes the beam to be deflected linearly with time
across the tube face. When the voltage suddenly falls to zero, as at points (a) (b) (c), etc...., the end of
each sweep - the beam flies back to its initial position. The horizontal deflection of the beam is
repeated periodically, the frequency of this periodicity is adjustable by external controls.

To obtain steady traces on the tube face, an internal number of cycles of the unknown signal that
is applied to the vertical plates must be associated with each cycle of the sweep generator. Thus, with
such a matching of synchronization of the two deflections, the pattern on the tube face repeats itself
and hence appears to remain stationary. The persistence of vision in the human eye and of the glow of
the fluorescent screen aids in producing a stationary pattern. In addition, the electron beam is cut off
(blanked) during fly back so that the retrace sweep is not observed.

CRO Operation: A simplified block diagram of a typical oscilloscope is shown in Fig. 3. In general,
the instrument is operated in the following manner. The signal to be displayed is amplified by the
vertical amplifier and applied to the vertical deflection plates of the CRT. A portion of the signal in the
vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then
generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal. This pulse turns
on the sweep generator, initiating the saw tooth wave form. The saw tooth wave is amplified by the
horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates. Usually, additional provisions
signal are made for applying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering.
Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal
amplifier.

CRO Controls

The controls available on most oscilloscopes provide a wide range of operating conditions and
thus make the instrument especially versatile. Since many of these controls are common to most
oscilloscopes a brief description of them follows.
CATHODE-RAY TUBE

Power and Scale Illumination: Turns instrument on and controls illumination of the graticule.

Focus: Focus the spot or trace on the screen.

Intensity: Regulates the brightness of the spot or trace.

VERTICAL AMPLIFIER SECTION

Position: Controls vertical positioning of oscilloscope display.

Sensitivity: Selects the sensitivity of the vertical amplifier in calibrated steps.

Variable Sensitivity: Provides a continuous range of sensitivities between the calibrated steps.
Normally the sensitivity is calibrated only when the variable knob is in the fully clockwise position.

AC-DC-GND: Selects desired coupling (ac or dc) for incoming signal applied to vertical amplifier, or
grounds the amplifier input. Selecting dc couples the input directly to the amplifier; selecting ac send
the signal through a capacitor before going to the amplifier thus blocking any constant component.

HORIZONTAL-SWEEP SECTION

Sweep time/cm: Selects desired sweep rate from calibrated steps or admits external signal to
horizontal amplifier.
Sweep time/cm Variable: Provides continuously variable sweep rates. Calibrated position is fully
clockwise.

Position: Controls horizontal position of trace on screen.

Horizontal Variable: Controls the attenuation (reduction) of signal applied to horizontal aplifier
through Ext. Horiz. Connector.

TRIGGER

The trigger selects the timing of the beginning of the horizontal sweep.

Slope: Selects whether triggering occurs on an increasing (+) or decreasing (-) portion of trigger
signal.

Coupling: Selects whether triggering occurs at a specific dc or ac level.

Source: Selects the source of the triggering signal.

INT - (internal) - from signal on vertical amplifier


EXT - (external) - from an external signal inserted at the EXT. TRIG. INPUT.
LINE - 60 cycle triger

Level: Selects the voltage point on the triggering signal at which sweep is triggered. It also allows
automatic (auto) triggering of allows sweep to run free (free run).

CONNECTIONS FOR THE OSCILLOSCOPE

Vertical Input: A pair of jacks for connecting the signal under study to the Y (or vertical) amplifier.
The lower jack is grounded to the case.

Horizontal Input: A pair of jacks for connecting an external signal to the horizontal amplifier. The
lower terminal is graounted to the case of the oscilloscope.

External Trigger Input: Input connector for external trigger signal.

Cal. Out: Provides amplitude calibrated square waves of 25 and 500 millivolts for use in calibrating
the gain of the amplifiers.

Accuracy of the vertical deflection is + 3%. Sensitivity is variable.

Horizontal sweep should be accurate to within 3%. Range of sweep is variable.

Operating Instructions: Before plugging the oscilloscope into a wall receptacle, set the controls as
follows:

(a) Power switch at off


(b) Intensity fully counter clockwise
(c) Vertical centering in the center of range
(d) Horizontal centering in the center of range
(e) Vertical at 0.2
(f) Sweep times 1

Plug line cord into a standard ac wall receptacle (nominally 118 V). Turn power on. Do not advance
the Intensity Control.

Allow the scope to warm up for approximately two minutes, then turn the Intensity Control until the
beam is visible on the screen.

WARNING: Never advance the Intensity Control so far that an excessively bright spot appears.
Bright spots imply burning of the screen. A sharp focused spot of high intensity (great brightness)
should never be allowed to remain fixed in one position on the screen for any length of time as damage
to the screen may occur.

Adjust Horizontal and Vertical Centering Controls. Adjust the focus to give a sharp trace. Set trigger
to internal, level to auto.

PROCEDURE:

I. Set the signal generator to a frequency of 1000 cycles per second. Connect the output from the
gererator to the vertical input of the oscilloscope. Establish a steady trace of this input signal on the
scope. Adjust (play with) all of the scope and signal generator controls until you become familiar with
the functionof each. The purpose fo such "playing" is to allow the student to become so familiar with
the oscilloscope that it becomes an aid (tool) in making measurements in other experiments and not as
a formidable obstacle. Note: If the vertical gain is set too low, it may not be possible to obtain a steady
trace.

II. Measurements of Voltage: Consider the circuit in Fig. 4(a). The signal generator is used to produce
a 1000 hertz sine wave. The AC voltmeter and the leads to the verticle input of the oscilloscope are
connected across the generator's output. By adjusting the Horizontal Sweep time/cm and trigger, a
steady trace of the sine wave may be displayed on the screen. The trace represents a plot of voltage vs.
time, where the vertical deflection of the trace about the line of symmetry CD is proportional to the
magnitude of the voltage at any instant of time.
To determine the size of the voltage signal appearing at the output of terminals of the signal
generator, an AC (Alternating Current) voltmeter is connected in parallel across these terminals (Fig.
4a). The AC voltmeter is designed to read the dc "effective value" of the voltage. This effective value
is also known as the "Root Mean Square value" (RMS) value of the voltage.

The peak or maximum voltage seen on the scope face (Fig. 4b) is Vm volts and is represented by
the distance from the symmetry line CD to the maximum deflection. The relationship between the
magnitude of the peak voltage displayed on the scope and the effective or RMS voltage (VRMS) read on
the AC voltmeter is

VRMS = 0.707 Vm (for a sine or cosine wave).

Thus

Agreement is expected between the voltage reading of the multimeter and that of the
oscilloscope. For a symmetric wave (sine or cosine) the value of Vm may be taken as 1/2 the peak to
peak signal Vpp

The variable sensitivity control a signal may be used to adjust the display to fill a concenient range of
the scope face. In this position, the trace is no longer calibrated so that you can not just read the size of
the signal by counting the number of divisions and multiplying by the scale factor. However, you can
figure out what the new calibration is an use it as long as the variable control remains unchanged.

Caution: The mathematical prescription given for RMS signals is valid only for sinusoidal signals.
The meter will not indicate the correct voltage when used to measure non-sinusoidal signals.

III. Frequency Measurements: When the horizontal sweep voltage is applied, voltage measurements
can still be taken from the vertical deflection. Moreover, the signal is displayed as a function of time.
If the time base (i.e. sweep) is calibrated, such measurements as pulse duration or signal period can be
made. Frequencies can then be determined as reciprocal of the periods.

Set the oscillator to 1000 Hz. Display the signal on the CRO and measure the period of the
oscillations. Use the horizontal distance between two points such as C to D in Fig. 4b.

Set the horizontal gain so that only one complete wave form is displayed.

Then reset the horizontal until 5 waves are seen. Keep the time base control in a calibrated
position. Measure the distance (and hence time) for 5 complete cycles and calculate the frequency
from this measurement. Compare you result with the value determined above.

Repeat your measurements for other frequencies of 150 Hz, 5 kHz, 50 kHz as set on the signal
generator.

IV. Lissajous Figures: When sine-wave signals of different frequencies are input to the horizontal and
vertical amplifiers a stationary pattern is formed on the CRT when the ratio of the two frequencies is
an intergral fraction such as 1/2, 2/3, 4/3, 1/5, etc. These stationary patterns are known as Lissajous
figures and can be used for comparison measurement of frequencies.

Use two oscillators to generate some simple Lissajous figures like those shown in Fig. 5. You
will find it difficult to maintain the Lissajous figures in a fixed configuration because the two
oscillators are not phase and frequency locked. Their frequencies and phase drift slowly causing the
two different signals to change slightly with respect to each other.

V. Testing what you have learned: Your instructor will provide you with a small oscillator circuit.
Examine the input to the circuit and output of the circuit using your oscilloscope. Measure such
quantities as the voltage and frequence of the signals. Specify if they are sinusoidal or of some other
wave character. If square wave, measure the frequency of the wave. Also, for square waves, measure
the on time (when the voltage is high) and off time (when it is low).
.
sing an oscilloscope

The practical work supporting introduces you to using an oscilloscope to display V/t graphs. This is a
very powerful technique for investigating and understanding circuit behaviour and for correcting circuit
faults.

What does an oscilloscope do? How does an oscilloscope work?


Setting up Other oscilloscope controls
Connecting a function generator
Microphones audio signals
and amplifiers

What does an oscilloscope do?


An oscilloscope is easily the most useful instrument available for testing circuits because it allows you
to see the signals at different points in the circuit. The best way of investigating an electronic system is
to monitor signals at the input and output of each system block, checking that each block is operating
as expected and is correctly linked to the next. With a little practice, you will be able to find and
correct faults quickly and accurately.

An oscilloscope is an impressive piece of kit:

The diagram shows a Hameg HM 203-6 oscilloscope, a popular instrument in UK schools. Your
oscilloscope may look different but will have similar controls.

Faced with an instrument like this, students typically respond either by twiddling every knob and
pressing every button in sight, or by adopting a glazed expression. Neither approach is specially
helpful. Following the systematic description below will give you a clear idea of what an oscilloscope
is and what it can do.

The function of an oscilloscope is extremely simple: it draws a V/t graph, a graph of voltage against
time, voltage on the vertical or Y-axis, and time on the horizontal or X-axis.As you can see, the screen
of this oscilloscope has 8 squares or divisions on the vertical axis, and 10 squares or divisions on the
horizontal axis. Usually, these squares are 1 cm in each direction:

Many of the controls of the oscilloscope allow you to change the vertical or horizontal scales of the
V/t graph, so that you can display a clear picture of the signal you want to investigate. 'Dual trace'
oscilloscopes display two V/t graphs at the same time, so that simultaneous signals from different parts
of an electronic system can be compared.
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Setting up

1. Someone else may have been twiddling knobs and pressing buttons before you. Before you switch
the oscilloscope on, check that all the controls are in their 'normal' positions. For the Hameg HM 203-
6, this means that:

• all push button switches are in the OUT position


• all slide switches are in the UP position
• all rotating controls are CENTRED
• the central TIME/DIV and VOLTS/DIV and the HOLD OFF controls are in the calibrated, or
CAL position

Check through all the controls and put them in these positions:

2. Set both VOLTS/DIV controls to 1 V/DIV and the TIME/DIV control to 2 s/DIV, its slowest
setting:

VOLTS/DIV TIME/DIV
3. Switch ON, red button, top centre:

The green LED illuminates and, after a few moments, you should see a small bright spot, or trace,
moving fairly slowly across the screen.

4. Find the Y-POS 1 control:

What happens when you twiddle this?

The Y-POS 1 allows you to move the spot up and down the screen. For the present, adjust the trace so
that it runs horizontally across the centre of the screen.

5. Now investigate the INTENSITY and FOCUS controls:

When these are correctly set, the spot will be reasonably bright but not glaring, and as sharply focused
as possible. (The TR control is screwdriver adjusted. It is only needed if the spot moves at an angle
rather than horizontally across the screen with no signal connected.)

6. The TIME/DIV control determines the horizontal scale of the graph which appears on the
oscilloscope screen.

With 10 squares across the screen and the spot moving at 0.2 s/DIV, how long does it take for the spot
to cross the screen? The answer is 0.2 x 10 = 2 s. Count seconds. Does the spot take 2 seconds to cross
the screen?
Now rotate the TIME/DIV control clockwise:

With the spot moving at 0.1 s/DIV, it will take 1 second to cross the screen.

Continue to rotate TIME/DIV clockwise. With each new setting, the spot moves faster. At around
10 ms/DIV, the spot is no longer separately visible. Instead, there is a bright line across the screen.
This happens because the screen remains bright for a short time after the spot has passed, an effect
which is known as the persistence of the screen. It is useful to think of the spot as still there, just
moving too fast to be seen.

Keep rotating TIME/DIV. At faster settings, the line becomes fainter because the spot is moving very
quickly indeed. At a setting of 10 µs/DIV how long does it take for the spot to cross the screen?

7. The VOLTS/DIV controls determine the vertical scale of the graph drawn on the oscilloscope
screen.

Check that VOLTS/DIV 1 is set at 1 V/DIV and that the adjacent controls are set correctly:
The Hameg HM 203-6 has a built in source of signals which allow you to check that the oscilloscope
is working properly. A connection to the input of channel 1, CH 1, of the oscilloscope can be made
using a special connector called a BNC plug, as shown below:
The diagram shows a lead with a BNC plug at one end and crocodile clips at the other. When the
crocodile clip from the red wire is clipped to the lower metal terminal, a 2 V square wave is connected
to the input of CH 1.

Adjust VOLTS/DIV and TIME/DIV until you obtain a clear picture of the 2 V signal, which should
look like this:

Check on the effect of Y-POS 1 and X-POS:


What do these controls do?

Y-POS 1 moves the whole trace vertically up and down on the screen, while X-POS moves the whole
trace from side to side on the screen. These control are useful because the trace can be moved so that
more of the picture appears on the screen, or to make measurements easier using the grid which covers
the screen.

You have now learned about and used the most important controls on the oscilloscope.

You know that the function of an oscilloscope is to draw a V/t graph. You know how to put all the
controls into their 'normal' positions, so that a trace should appear when the oscilloscope is switched
on. You know how the change the horizontal scale of the V/t graph, how to change the vertical scale,
and how to connect and display a signal.

What is needed now is practice so that all of these controls become familiar.

.
Connecting a function generator

The diagram shows the appearance of a Thandar TG101 function generator, one of many types used in
UK schools:

Again, your function generator, or signal generator, may look different but is likely to have similar
controls.
The Thandar TG101 has push button controls for On/Off switching and for selecting either sine,
square, or triangular wave shapes. Most often the 600 output is used. This can be connected to the
CH 1 input of the oscilloscope using a BNC-BNC lead, as follows:

Switch on the function generator and adjust the output level to produce a visible signal on the
oscilloscope screen. Adjust TIME/DIV and VOLTS/DIV to obtain a clear display ond investigate the
effects of pressing the waveform shape buttons.

The rotating FREQUENCY control and the RANGE switch are used together to determine the
frequency of the output signal. With the settings shown in the diagram above, the output frequency
will be 1 kHz. How would you change these setting to obtain an output frequency of 50 Hz? This is
done by moving the RANGE switch to '100' and the FREQUENCY control to '.5':
Experiment with these controls to produce other frequencies of output signal, such as 10 Hz, or
15 kHz. Whatever frequency and amplitude of signal you select, you should be able to change the
oscilloscope settings to give a clear V/t graph of the signal on the oscilloscope screen.

The remaining features of the function generator are less often used. For example, it is possible to
change the output frequency by connecting suitable signals to the 'Sweep in' input. The DC Offset
switch and the Offset control allow you to add a DC voltage component to the output signal producing
a complex waveform as described in Chapter 4.

The output level switch is normally set to 0 dB:

This gives an output signal with a peak amplitude which can be easily adjusted up to several volts. In
the -40 dB position, the amplitude of the output signal is reduced to a few millivolts. Such small
signals are used for testing amplifier circuits.

The TTL output produces pulses between 0 V and 5 V at the selected frequency and is used for testing
logic circuits.

.
Microphones audio signals and amplifiers

This part of the Practical is an investigation of microphones, audio signals and amplifiers, intended to
develop your prototype board skills and giving you experience of using the oscilloscope to monitor
signals in a simple circuit. (The operational amplifier circuit used is explained fully in Chapter ?)

The diagram shows an easily available type of microphone, called a cermet microphone:

The microphone has separate + and 0 V connections. Can you see that the 0 V connection is connected
to the metal case? Check these connections on the real component.

To get the microphone to work, you need to provide a voltage across it using a voltage divider circuit:
From the voltage divider formula, the voltage expected across the microphone is:

Substituting:

Build the voltage divider part of the ciruit on prototype boards as follows:
Measure the voltage between the resistors. How closely does the measured value agree with the
calculated one?

Small differences can arise if you have not adjusted the power supply voltage to exactly 9 V and also
because the resistors may not have precisely their marked values. Remember, resistors are
manufactured to a tolerance, usually ±5%, so that their values are not exact.

Now add the microphone to the circuit, taking care to get its + and 0 V connections the right way
round:
Up to previous stage

Usually, this results in a small decrease in the voltage divider voltage, because the microphone is now
in parallel with the 1 resistor. In other words, Rbottom is reduced. Another way of explaining this is
to say that some of the current flows through the microphone, leaving a little less flowing through the
1 .

Check the polarity of a 4.7 µF or 10 µF capacitor (longer leg positive, stripe negative) and connect this
as indicated below:
Up to previous stage

In this circuit, the capacitor blocks DC voltages, but allows AC voltages, including audio signal, to
pass. You will find out more about this in Chapter 5.

The arrangement outlined below is a very convenient way of setting up an oscilloscope to make
measurements from the prototype circuit:
Once the crocodile clip corresponding to the black lead has been connected to 0 V, it can be ignored.
This leaves the test probe which can be connected to any point in the circuit to monitor the signals
present.

Connect the test probe to the prototpye circuit as indicated. Increase the sensitivity of the VOLTS/DIV
control by rotating it clockwise until you can see changes on the oscilloscope screen when you talk
into the microphone. Adjust TIME/DIV until the shape of the signals is clear. In the space below,
make a drawing to represent the V/t graph of an audio signal:

How large is your signal in mV, peak-to-peak amplitude?

What sort of signal is produced if you clap your hands within range of the microphone?

When you talk into the microphone, the signals you get are small. To make them bigger, you need an
amplifier. One possible circuit is shown below. This uses a 741, one of a large family of integrated
circuits called operational amplifiers, or op-amps:

pin connections of a 741 op-amp

The internal circuit of a 741 is quite complicated but it is easy to use the device simply as an
amplifying subsystem. It is cheap and easily available. As you can see, the 741 is manufactured in a
small plastic package, with 8 connecting pins. These are in a dual in line, or dil arrangement. With the
index mark at the top, pin 1 is on the left and pins are numbered down the left hand side and back up
on the right. Often, there is an additional circular mark next to pin 1. This numbering convention is
followed on other integrated circuits, whether there are 8, 14, 16, or more pins.

Place the 741 across the central gap in the prototype board. Check that pin 1 is correctly located. Now
complete the circuit, as follows:
Up to previous stage

If your power supply does not have dual power supply outputs, the +9 V, 0 V, -9 V required can
easily be made using two PP3 batteries, connected to the prototype board like this:
If you are unfamiliar with this type of power supply, use a multimeter as a voltmeter, with its black
lead connected to 0 V, and touching the positive and negative supply points in turn with the red lead.
In one case, the meter will read approximately +9 V, and in the other, approximately -9 V.

Check back with your prototype board and make sure that you have linked the SENSOR subsystem to
the AMPLIFIER with a wire link. Monitor the final output of the system using the oscilloscope. How
large are your signals now?

The voltage gain of the amplifier is given by:

The way in which this particular op-amp circuit works allows you to choose the voltage gain
according to:
The minus sign appears because this is an inverting amplifier circuit, that is, the output waveform has
the same shape as the input waveform, but is turned upside down, or inverted, compared with the input
waveform. What matters here is that the amplitude of the waveform is increased.

The voltage gain of the circuit is calculated from:

Vout is inverted and the amplitude of the signal is increased by 47 times. Vout after the amplifier should
be 47 times larger than the signal from the microphone subsystem. Do your observations using the
oscilloscope confirm these changes?

Work through your circuit again using the oscilloscope to monitor the audio signal at different points
in the circuit.

You are learning something important here. Devloping a circuit is a progressive process. You start
with simple subsytems on prototype board and investigate the performance of each subsystem before
building the next. There is no point in connecting an amplifier subsystem to a sound sensor which does
not work. You need to know that the sound sensor is working correctly before building the next stage.

Up

.
How does an oscilloscope work?

An outline explanation of how an oscilloscope works can be given using the block diagram shown
below:
Like a televison screen, the screen of an oscilloscope consists of a cathode ray tube. Although the
size and shape are different, the operating principle is the same. Inside the tube is a vacuum. The
electron beam emitted by the heated cathode at the rear end of the tube is accelerated and focused by
one or more anodes, and strikes the front of the tube, producing a bright spot on the phosphorescent
screen.

The electron beam is bent, or deflected, by voltages applied to two sets of plates fixed in the tube. The
horizontal deflection plates, or X-plates produce side to side movement. As you can see, they are
linked to a system block called the time base. This produces a sawtooth waveform. During the rising
phase of the sawtooth, the spot is driven at a uniform rate from left to right across the front of the
screen. During the falling phase, the electron beam returns rapidly from right ot left, but the spot is
'blanked out' so that nothing appears on the screen.

In this way, the time base generates the X-axis of the V/t graph.

The slope of the rising phase varies with the frequency of the sawtooth and can be adjusted, using the
TIME/DIV control, to change the scale of the X-axis. Dividing the oscilloscope screen into squares
allows the horizontal scale to be expressed in seconds, milliseconds or microseconds per division
(s/DIV, ms/DIV, µs/DIV). Alternatively, if the squares are 1 cm apart, the scale may be given as s/cm,
ms/cm or µs/cm.

The signal to be displayed is connected to the input. The AC/DC switch is usually kept in the DC
position (switch closed) so that there is a direct connection to the Y-amplifier. In the AC position
(switch open) a capacitor is placed in the signal path. As will be explained in Chapter 5, the capacitor
blocks DC signals but allows AC signals to pass.
The Y-amplifier is linked in turn to a pair of Y-plates so that it provides the Y-axis of the the V/t
graph. The overall gain of the Y-amplifier can be adjusted, using the VOLTS/DIV control, so that the
resulting display is neither too small or too large, but fits the screen and can be seen clearly. The
vertical scale is usually given in V/DIV or mV/DIV.

The trigger circuit is used to delay the time base waveform so that the same section of the input signal
is displayed on the screen each time the spot moves across. The effect of this is to give a stable picture
on the oscilloscope screen, making it easier to measure and interpret the signal.

Changing the scales of the X-axis and Y-axis allows many different signals to be displayed.
Sometimes, it is also useful to be able to change the positions of the axes. This is possible using the X-
POS and Y-POS controls. For example, with no signal applied, the normal trace is a straight line
across the centre of the screen. Adjusting Y-POS allows the zero level on the Y-axis to be changed,
moving the whole trace up or down on the screen to give an effective display of signlas like pulse
waveforms whihc do not alternate between positive and negative values.

.
Other oscilloscope controls

The diagram below is a clickable image map of the Hameg HM 203-6 oscilloscope. Click on any
control to discover its function. Some controls are more useful than others and one or two are rarely if
ever used in an introductory electronics course. Click on the small diagram of each control to return to
the image map.
.
screen: usually displays a V/t graph, with voltage V on the vertical axis and time t on the horizontal
axis. The scales of both axes can be changed to display a huge variety of signals.

.
on/off switch: pushed in to switch the oscilloscope on. The green LED illuminates.

.
X-Y control: normally in the OUT position.

When the X-Y button is pressed IN, the oscilloscope does not display a V/t graph. Instead, the vertical
axis is controlled by the input signal to CH II. This allows the oscilloscope to be used to display a V/V
voltage/voltage graph.

The X-Y control is used when you want to display component characteristic curves, or Lissajous
figures. (Links to these topics will be added later.)

.
TV-separation: Oscilloscopes are often used to investigate waveforms inside television systems. This
control allows the display to be synchronised with the televsion system so that the signals from
different points can be compared.
You must not try to investigate television systems because of the dangerously high voltages inside.
The correct postion for this control is OFF.

.
TIME / DIV: Allows the horizontal scale of the V/t graph to be changed.

.
trigger controls: This group of controls allows the oscilloscope display to be synchronised with the
signal you want to investigate.
When the AT/NORM button is in the OUT position, triggering is automatic. This works for most
signals.

If you change the AT/NORM button to its IN position, the most likely result is that the signal will
disappear and the oscilloscope screen will be blank. However, if you now adjust the LEVEL control,
the display will be reinstated. As you adjust the LEVEL control, the display starts from a different
point on the signal waveform. This makes it possible for you to look in detail at any particular part of
the waveform.

The EXT button should normally be in its OUT position. When it is pushed IN, triggering occurs from
a signal connected to the trigger input, TRIG INP, socket.

The slide switch to the left of TIME/DIV gives additional triggering options. AC is the normal postion
and is suitable for most waveforms.

In the DC position, you use the LEVEL control to select a particular DC voltage on the signal
waveform where triggering will occur.

The +/- button gives triggering on the upward slope of the signal waveform in the OUT position, and
triggering on the downward slope in the IN position.

The green TRIG LED illuminates when a trigger point is detected.

HF gives triggering in response to high frequency parts of the signal, LF gives triggering for low
frequency components and indicates that triggering will occur at 50 Hz, corresponding to UK
mains frequency. You are not likely to need any of these slide switch positions.

The HOLD OFF control allows you to introduce a delay relative to the trigger point so that a different
part of the signal can be seen.
Normally, you will want to leave the HOLD OFF control in its minimum position, as illustrated.

With more experience of using the oscilloscope, you will develop a clear understanding of the
functions of the important trigger controls and be able to use them effectively.

.
intensity and focus: Adjusting the INTENSITY control changes the brightness of the oscilloscope
display. The FOCUS should be set to produce a bright clear trace.

If required, TR can be adjusted using a small screwdriver so that the oscilloscope trace is exactly
horizontal when no signal is connected.

.
X-POS: Allows the whole V/t graph to be moved from side to side on the oscilloscope screen.

This is useful when you want to use the grid in front of the screen to make measurements, for example,
to measure the period of a waveform.

.
X-MAG: In the IN position, the horizontal scale of the V/t graph is increased by 10 times. For
example, if TIME/DIV is set for 1 ms per division and X-MAG is pushed IN, the scale is changed to
0.1 ms per division.
.
CAL outputs: The top terminal gives a 0.2 V peak to peak square wave, while the lower terminal
gives a 2 V peak to peak square wave, both at 50 Hz.

The signals from these outputs are used to confirm that the oscilloscope is correctly calibrated.

.
component tester: The output socket provides a changing voltage which allows component
characteristic curves to be displayed on the oscilloscope screen.

When the button is IN, the oscilloscope displays a V/V graph, with the component tester voltage
connected internally to provide the horizontal axis.

To get normal V/t graph operation the component tester button must be in the OUT position.

.
Y-POS I and Y-POS II: These controls allow the corresponding trace to be moved up or down,
changing the position representing 0 V on the oscilloscope screen.
To investigate an alternating signal, you adjust Y-POS so that the 0 V level is close to the centre of the
screen. For a pulse waveform, it is more useful to have 0 V close to the bottom of the screen.

Y-POS I and Y-POS II allow the 0 V levels of the two traces to be adjusted independently.

.
invert: When the INVERT button is pressed IN, the corresponding signal is turned upside down, or
inverted, on the oscilloscope screen.

This feature is sometimes useful when comparing signals.

.
CH I and CH II inputs: Signals are connected to the BNC input sockets using BNC plugs.

The smaller socket next to the BNC input socket provides an additional 0 V, GROUND or EARTH
connection.

.
VOLTS / DIV: Adjust the vertical scale of the V/t graph. The vertical scales for CH I and CH II can
be adjusted independently.
.
DC/AC/GND slide switches: In the DC position, the signal input is connected directly to the Y-
amplifier of the corresponding channel, CH I or CH II. In the AC position, a capacitor is connected
into the signal pathway so that DC voltages are blocked and only changing AC signals are displayed.

In the GND position, the input of the Y-amplfier is connected to 0 V. This allows you to check the
position of 0 V on the oscilloscope screen.

The DC position of these switches is correct for most signals.

.
trace selection switches: The settings of these switches control which traces appear on the
oscilloscope screen.

The effects of different settings are summarised in the table:

CH I/II DUAL ADD effect of setting

normal operation:
OUT OUT OUT
only CH I displayed, triggering from CH I
IN OUT OUT only CH II displayed, triggering from CH II

OUT IN OUT CH I and CH II displayed on alternate sweeps, triggering from CH I

CH I and CH II displayed on alternate sweeps, triggering from CH


IN IN OUT
II

CH I and CH II signals added together to produce a single trace,


OUT OUT IN
triggering from CH I

CH I and CH II signals added together to produce a single trace,


IN OUT IN
triggering from CH II

OUT IN IN CH I and CH II displayed simultaneously, triggering from CH I

IN IN IN CH I and CH II displayed simultaneously, triggering from CH II

Settings highlighted in yellow are used frequently. Experience with the oscilloscope will help you to
decide which setting is best for a particular application.

For normal operation, all three buttons are in the OUT position.