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1398

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 3, JULY 2006

Design and Performance Evaluation


of Subsynchronous Damping Controller
With STATCOM
K. R. Padiyar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Nagesh Prabhu

AbstractA long transmission line needs controllable series as


well as shunt compensation for power flow control and voltage
regulation. This can be achieved by suitable combination of passive elements and active FACTS controllers. In this paper, series
passive compensation and shunt active compensation provided
by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) connected at
the electrical center of the transmission line are considered. It
is possible to damp subsynchronous resonance (SSR) caused by
series capacitors with the help of an auxiliary subsynchronous
damping controller (SSDC) on STATCOM. The objective of this
paper is to investigate the SSR characteristics of the system and
propose a new design procedure for SSDC based on nonlinear
optimization to meet the specifications on the damping torque
in the range of critical torsional frequencies. The SSDC uses the
Thevenin voltage signal to modulate the reactive current reference
of STATCOM. The Thevenin voltage signal is derived from the
locally available STATCOM bus voltage and reactive current
signals. The STATCOM configurations considered in this paper
are 12 pulse, two- and three-level voltage source converter with
Type-2 and Type-1 control, respectively. The controller regulates
either reactive current (supplied by the STATCOM) or the bus
voltage. The 3-phase model of the STATCOM is based on switching
functions. By neglecting harmonics in the switching function, D-Q
model is derived which is combined with similar models of the
other system components for linear analysis. The results of the
linear analysis are validated by carrying out transient simulation
based on the detailed nonlinear models. The study is performed
on the system adapted from the IEEE First Benchmark Model.
Index TermsDamping torque, eigenvalue, FACTS, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), subsynchronous damping
controller (SSDC), subsynchronous resonance (SSR), torsional
interaction (TI), voltage source converter (VSC).

I. INTRODUCTION

HE increase of power transfer capability of long transmission lines can be achieved by reducing the effective line
reactance, providing dynamic voltage support by static var compensators and by static phase shifters. Series compensation of
long lines is an economic solution to the problem of enhancing
power transfer and improving system stability. However, series-compensated transmission lines connected to turbogenerators can result in subsynchronous resonance (SSR), leading to
adverse torsional interactions [1][4].
Manuscript received January 19, 2005; revised July 1, 2005. Paper no.
TPWRD-00028-2005.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian
Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India (e-mail: prabhunagesh@
rediffmail.com).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2005.861332

The power transfer capability enhancement can also be


achieved by suitable combination of passive elements and
active FACTS controllers. In this paper, series passive compensation and shunt active compensation provided by static
synchronous compensator (STATCOM) connected at the
electrical center of the transmission line are considered for
the analysis. Both two-level and three-level, 12-pulse voltage
source converters (VSCs) are considered for STATCOM configuration with Type-2 and Type-1 controllers, respectively
[5], [6]. The controller can regulate either bus voltage or the
reactive current output of STATCOM. The reactive current can
also be modulated by the output of a subsynchronous damping
controller (SSDC) which uses the Thevenin voltage signal. The
Thevenin voltage signal is derived from the locally available
STATCOM bus voltage and reactive current signals.
The IEEE FBM is considered for the analysis of SSR. The
study is carried out based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and transient simulation. The paper is organized
as follows. Section II describes the modeling of STATCOM.
The different methods of analysis of SSR are discussed in Section III. Section IV describes a case study and highlights the
need of a SSDC for damping of SSR. The design of SSDC and
the evaluation of its performance is presented in Section V. The
major conclusions of the paper are given in Section VI.

II. MODELLING OF STATCOM WITH TWO- AND


THREE-LEVEL VSC
In the power circuit of a STATCOM, the converter has
either a multi-pulse and/or a multilevel configuration. Here
the STATCOM is realized by a combination of 12-pulse and
two-/three-level configuration. When the dc voltage is constant,
the magnitude of ac output voltage of the converter can be
changed by pulsewidth modulation (PWM) with two-level
topology which demands higher switching frequency and
leads to increased losses. The three-level converter topology
with fundacan achieve the goal by varying dead angle
mental switching frequency [7], [8]. The time period in a cycle
. The
during which the converter pole voltage is zero is
three-level converter topology greatly reduces the harmonic
distortion on the ac side [6], [8][10].
The detailed three-phase model of a STATCOM is developed
by modeling the converter operation by switching functions [7],
[11]. The modeling of two- and three-level VSC are discussed
in detail in [12] and [7], respectively, and is not repeated here.

0885-8977/$20.00 2006 IEEE

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

1399

Fig. 2.

Type-2 controller for 2-level VSC-based STATCOM.

Fig. 3.

Type-1 controller for STATCOM.

Fig. 1. STATCOM as a shunt FACTS controller.

A. Mathematical Model of STATCOM in D-Q Frame of [11]


and [12]
When switching functions are approximated by their
fundamental frequency components neglecting harmonics,
STATCOM can be modeled by transforming the three-phase
voltages and currents to D-Q variables using Krons transformation [13]. The STATCOM can be represented functionally,
as shown in Fig. 1.
is
The magnitude control of converter output voltage
achieved by modulating the conduction period affected by
dead angle of a converter while the dc voltage is maintained
constant.
The converter output voltage can be represented in the D-Q
frame of reference as
(1)
(2)
(3)
The following equations in the D-Q variables can be given for
describing STATCOM:
(4)
(5)
(6)
where
,
D-Q components of STATCOM current.
is modulation index and for a two-level converter,
(a constant),
for a 12 pulse converter. is the
angle by which the fundamental component of converter output
voltage leads the STATCOM bus voltage . For a three-level
converter, the modulation index is a function of dead angle
and is given as
.

not regulated but depends upon the phase difference between


the converter output voltage and the bus voltage. The reactive
current control is effected by converter output voltage magnitude(which is a function of dc voltage control) and achieved by
phase angle control [5]. This causes the variation of capacitor
voltage over a small range with change in operating point.
C. STATCOM Current Control (Three-Level VSC)
The real current drawn by the VSC is controlled by phase
angle and reactive current by modulating the converter output
voltage magnitude as a function of . The Fig. 3 shows the
schematic representation of TYPE-1 controller for STATCOM
current control. The reactive current reference of STATCOM
can be kept constant or regulated to maintain bus voltage magnitude at the specified value.
In Fig. 3, real and reactive currents are defined as
(7)
(8)
and

and

are calculated as
(9)

(10)

B. STATCOM Current Control (Two-Level VSC)


With a 2-level VSC, the reactive current control can be
achieved by varying alone (refer Fig. 2). In this controller,
the modulation index is constant. The capacitor voltage is

Equations (7) and (8) result in positive values when the


STATCOM is absorbing power and reactive power. It is to be

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1400

Fig. 4.

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 3, JULY 2006

Interaction between mechanical and electrical system.

noted that
SSDC.

is the output of the auxiliary controller such as

III. ANALYSIS OF SSR


The two aspects of SSR are [4]: 1) steady state SSR [(induction generator effect (IGE) and torsional interaction(TI)] and
2) transient torques. The analysis of steady-state SSR can be
done by linearized models at the operating point and include
damping torque analysis and eigenvalue analysis. The analysis
of transient SSR requires transient simulation of the nonlinear
model of the system. For the analysis of SSR, it is adequate to
model the transmission line by lumped resistance and inductance where the line transients are also considered. The generator stator transients are also considered by using detailed (2.2)
model of the generator [13].
The analysis of SSR with STATCOM is carried out based
on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and transient
simulation.
A. Damping Torque Analysis
Damping torque analysis is a frequency domain method
which can be used to screen the system conditions that give rise
to potential SSR problems. The significance of this approach is
that it enables the planners to decide upon a suitable countermeasure for the mitigation of the detrimental effects of SSR.
Damping torque method gives a quick check to determine the
torsional mode stability. The system is assumed to be stable if
the net damping torque at any of the torsional mode frequency
is positive [14].
The interaction between the electrical and mechanical system
can be represented by the block diagram shown in Fig. 4.
At any given oscillation frequency of the generator rotor, the
) in phase with the rotor
component of electrical torque (
speed (
) is termed as damping torque. When the IGE is
neglected (as it does not have significant effect on the prediction
of torsional mode stability), the generator can be represented by
the classical model [15].
B. Eigenvalue Analysis
In this analysis, the detailed generator model (2.2) [13] is considered. The electromechanical system consists the multi-mass
mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, power
system stabilizer (PSS), torsional filter, and the transmission line

Fig. 5. Modified IEEE first benchmark model with STATCOM.

with STATCOM. The STATCOM (1)(10) along with the equations representing electromechanical system [4], [13] (in D-Q
variables), are linearized at the operating point and eigenvalues
of system matrix are computed. The stability of the system is
determined by the location of the eigenvalues of system matrix.
The system is stable if the eigenvalues have negative real parts.
C. Transient Simulation
The eigenvalue analysis uses equations in D-Q variables
where the switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components (converter switchings are
neglected). To validate the results obtained from damping
torque and eigenvalue analysis, the transient simulation should
be carried out using detailed nonlinear three-phase model of
STATCOM which considers the switching in the three-phase
converters.
IV. A CASE STUDY
The system considered is a modified IEEE FBM [16]. The
system is represented schematically in Fig. 5, which consists
of a generator, turbine, series compensated long transmission
line and STATCOM connected at the electrical center of the
transmission line.
The modeling aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator, the mass-spring mechanical system, the
excitation system, power system stabilizer (PSS) with torsional
filter, the transmission line containing the conventional series
capacitor are discussed in [4].
The Analysis is carried out based on the following initial operating condition and assumptions.
1) The generator delivers 0.9 p.u. power to the transmission
system.
2) The dynamics of the turbine-governor systems are neglected and the input mechanical power to the turbine is
assumed constant.
3) The compensation level provided by the series capacitor
is set at 0.6 p.u.
4) The dynamic voltage support at the mid point of the transmission line is provided by STATCOM. The results of
load flow indicated that, the reactive power requirement
at the mid point of transmission varies from 75 to 375
Mvar from light to full load conditions of the generator.
In order to effectively utilize the symmetric capability of
STATCOM in both inductive as well as capacitive range,

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

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TABLE I
TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH TWO-LEVEL VSC-BASED STATCOM

TABLE II
TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH
THREE-LEVEL VSC-BASED STATCOM

a fixed shunt capacitor is also used at the STATCOM bus


which provides a reactive power of 225 Mvar. The rating
. At the operating
of STATCOM is selected as
point considered, the STATCOM supplies 99 Mvar and
the fixed capacitor supplies 225 Mvar to maintain a bus
voltage of 1.015 p.u.
5) For the case studies without STATCOM, the value of fixed
shunt capacitor is selected such that, the midpoint voltage
is set at 1.015 p.u. in steady state.

Fig. 6. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (D-Q model of three-level VSC-based STATCOM
(with voltage control)).

is due to the fact that, the frequency of the network mode (subsynchronous) does not exactly match with that of the torsional
mode-2. There is no significant difference between the damping
of torsional modes with two-level and three-level converters.
B. Transient Simulation

A. Eigenvalue Analysis
In this analysis, the turbine-generator mechanical damping
is considered and generator is modeled with the (2.2) model
(as indicated in Section III-B). The overall system is linearized
about an operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matrix [A] are given in Tables I and II for two-level and three-level
VSC-based STATCOM, respectively.
Table II shows that mode-2 is unstable at the operating point
considered. The voltage control reduces the undamping of critical torsional mode-2 and improves the damping of swing mode.
Mode-5 is not affected with the inclusion of STATCOM as its
modal inertia is very high. In general, voltage controller reduces
the damping of torsional modes except the critical mode-2. The
damping of subsynchronous network mode is increased with
marginal increase in the frequency for voltage control. Comparing the results of Tables I and II, it is observed that, the
damping of critical torsional mode-2 is improved with a threelevel VSC-based STATCOM while it is reduced marginally for
other torsional modes. The improvement in the damping of critical torsional mode-2 with three-level VSC-based STATCOM

The transient simulation of the combined nonlinear system


including STATCOM (with voltage control) is carried out using
both D-Q and 3-phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK [17].
The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applied at 0.5 s and removed at 1 s with D-Q model
of three-level STATCOM is shown in Fig. 6.
The simulation results with 3-phase model of a three-level
STATCOM is shown in Fig. 7.
It is clear from Figs. 6 and 7 that, the system is unstable as
the oscillations in rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque grow
with time. The results for two-level VSC-based STATCOM are
similar and not shown here.
The FFT analysis of the LPA-LPB section torque (variation
are obtained with 3-phase model of three-level STATCOM) is
performed between 610 s with the time spread of 1 s. The
results of fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis are shown in
Fig. 8.
Referring to Fig. 8, it is observed that as the time progresses,
mode-2 component increases while all other torsional mode
components (particularly mode-1) decay. The decrement factor

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Fig. 7. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse
change in input mechanical torque [3-phase model of three-level VSC-based
STATCOM (with voltage control)].

Fig. 8. FFT analysis of LPA-LPB section torque (3-phase model of three-level


VSC-based STATCOM (with voltage control)).

of mode-2 calculated from FFT analysis is found to be


0.2787 and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (0.28)
corresponding to mode-2 given in Table II. Accuracy of the
D-Q model is also obvious from comparing Figs. 6 and 7.
It is observed that, the STATCOM requires a SSDC for
damping of the unstable torsional mode.
C. Discussion
The damping torque method involves less computational
burden and is a convenient tool for analyzing the SSR characteristics of the electrical network. Damping torque analysis can
be used to predict the potential SSR problems under various
system operating conditions.
1) Damping Torque Analysis With Detailed D-Q Model of
STATCOM: The damping torque is evaluated in the range of
frequency of 0300 rad/s for the following cases
1) With STATCOM reactive current control.
2) With STATCOM reactive current reference obtained from
voltage controller.
and compared with the damping torque results without
STATCOM (Here, the fixed shunt capacitor value is selected

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 3, JULY 2006

Fig. 9. Variation of damping torque with detailed D-Q model of three-level


VSC-based STATCOM.

such that the midpoint voltage is 1.015 p.u.). The variation of


damping torque with frequency with detailed D-Q model of
three-level VSC-based STATCOM (Type-1 controller is used
for reactive power control) is shown in Fig. 9.
The voltage control reduces the peak negative damping and
marginally increases the resonance frequency. It is interesting to
note that, the reactive current control marginally increases the
undamping compared to the case without STATCOM. This is
not surprising, as the contribution of positive supersynchronous
damping torque due to shunt capacitor has reduced with the
lesser value of shunt capacitor used. It is also observed that the
voltage control increases the negative damping of the torsional
modes particularly in the range of frequencies greater than 130
rad/s.
It should be noted that the inclusion of STATCOM with reactive current control does not change the damping characteristics
of the network significantly. Although the voltage control reduces the peak negative damping at the critical torsional mode
frequency, the system is unstable as there is a sharp dip near
about 127 rad/s, which matches with mode-2 of IEEE FBM.
It is reported in [4] and [18] that, SVC and STATCOM can
destabilize the torsional mode with voltage control. Such a behavior is also observed in the present analysis. The reduction
of damping of torsional modes with voltage control in the frequency range of 130300 rad/s can be observed in Fig. 9.
Although the damping torque analysis is approximate, it can
be used as a fast screening tool. A systematic method for the
design of SSDC based on damping torque method is presented
in Section V.
V. DESIGN OF SSDC
Improvement of the damping of SSR modes can be achieved
) deby SSDC. The Thevenin voltage signal (
rived from the locally available STATCOM bus voltage ( ) and
the reactive current ( ) is used for damping of power swings
in [19], [20]. Here the SSDC (represented by a transfer func) which takes the Thevenin voltage signal as input is
tion
used to modulate the reactive current reference to improve the

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

Fig. 10.

1403

Block diagram of SSDC for STATCOM.

damping of the unstable torsional mode. The block diagram of


SSDC is shown in Fig. 10.
A. Design of SSDC Based on Parameter Optimization of the
Transfer Function
The objective of SSDC is to enhance the damping torque
at the critical range of torsional frequencies such that the net
damping torque is positive. The critical range of frequencies is
decided by the negative damping introduced by the electrical
system in the absence of SSDC. The SSDC should not significantly affect the synchronizing torque, similar to the action of a
PSS.
The preliminary studies involving curve fitting (in the critical
range of torsional frequencies) by specifying desired values of
the damping torque (without affecting the synchronizing torque)
resulted in a SSDC transfer function of second order. The initial
design of the SSDC based on transfer function fitting improved
the damping of torsional modes however, the performance was
found to be not entirely satisfactory.
Since the synchronizing torque at torsional frequencies
are not significantly affected by the electrical network (with
or without SSDC), it is simpler to design the SSDC transfer
function by parameter optimization with the objective of minimizing the deviations between the desired damping torque
) and the actual damping torque ( ).
(
For the design of SSDC (
) based on parameter optimization, the structure of the transfer function is assumed as
(11)
The objective for optimizing of the parameters ( , , , and
) of the transfer function
is to
Minimize
subjected to
The constraints ensure that the poles of the transfer function
are complex and have negative real parts.
It order that, the SSDC contributes to the positive damping
the
is taken to be positive. However, it was observed
causes the network
that, with large positive value for
mode unstable. In the frequency range of 110135 rad/s, maxis selected without
imum possible positive value for
causing the network mode to become unstable. Here, the deis taken as 1 (p.u.) for
sired damping torque
.
and
are taken to be 110 rad/s and 135
rad/s (the critical frequency range).

Fig. 11. Variation of damping torque with detailed D-Q model of three-level
VSC-based STATCOM and SSDC.

The optimization routine fmincon of MATLAB is used for


(SSDC) is obtained as
the solution. The designed value of

The
is Thevenin reactance (a tunable parameter) and
selected so as to maximize the damping torque of the overall
.
system computed with the designed transfer function
B. Analysis of SSR With SSDC
The analysis with SSDC is carried out based on damping
torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation.
While damping torque and eigenvalue analysis considers D-Q
model of STATCOM, the transient simulation considers the detailed 3-phase models of STATCOM.
1) Damping Torque Analysis: The damping torque with detailed D-Q model three-level VSC-based STATCOMs is shown
in Fig. 11.
It is seen that, the peak negative damping is significantly reduced with SSDC and occurs at a lower frequency of about 52
rad/s. Since this frequency does not match with any of the torsional modes, the system is expected to be stable. It should be
noted that the damping torque is positive with SSDC in the critical range of torsional mode frequencies.
2) Eigenvalue Analysis: The eigenvalues of the overall
system for two-level and three-level VSC-based STATCOM on
voltage control and SSDC are shown in Table III.
Comparing the eigenvalue results without SSDC (refer
Table II) and with SSDC (Table III), the following observations
can be made.
1) The damping of critical mode-2 has significantly improved with SSDC.
2) The damping of all torsional modes is increased with
SSDC.
3) Mode-5 is not affected as its modal inertia is very high.
4) The damping of subsynchronous network mode is reduced with SSDC.

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1404

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 21, NO. 3, JULY 2006

TABLE III
TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH
STATCOM AND SSDC

Fig. 12. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change
in input mechanical torque (with 3-phase model of three-level VSC-based
STATCOM with SSDC).

3) Transient Simulation: The transient simulation of the


overall system including STATCOM with SSDC has been carried out with the 3-phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK
[17].
The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applied at 0.5 s and removed at 1 s with three-level
VSC-based STATCOM along with SSDC are shown in Fig. 12.
The results show that the SSDC is effective in stabilizing the
critical torsional modes.
C. Discussion
While the design of SSDC based on the damping torque analysis is not new [21], we propose a new algorithm for the design
which results in better performance. According to the procedure in [21], the desired transfer function
is specified as a function of frequency. This implies specifying the synchronizing torque in addition to the damping torque. Based on
this ideal transfer function, it is possible to synthesize the frequency response of the SSDC if simplified models of the device
(STATCOM in our case) and the system are employed. However, the practical implementation is problematic for any arbitrary frequency response, and hence curve fitting, by physically

realizable transfer function is required. The approximations introduced by this step can affect considerably the damping torque
in the critical torsional frequency range. A better procedure as
explained in Section V-A ensures that the damping torque is
maintained close to the specification. There is no need to specify
the synchronizing torque (In any case, the electrical system has
very little influence on the frequencies of the torsional modes).
Also, there is no need to simplify the device and system models
to obtain the transfer function of the SSDC.
The results of the SSDC design procedure proposed in Section V-A are compared with those obtained from the curve fitting procedure similar to that outlined in [21]. Fig. 11 shows the
comparison which clearly indicates the improved performance
of the new design procedure. The design is also robust as the
dip in the damping torque is less and frequency at which it occurs is much below the first torsional mode frequency. It is also
interesting to observe that, the swing mode (mode zero) is not
destabilized by SSDC, rather the SSDC marginally improves the
damping.
It is possible to improve the performance of the SSDC by
adjusting the specifications (altering the frequency range of interest). However, this is not investigated here.
Using a lead-lag network for SSDC, [22] investigates the effect of various control signals for damping torsional oscillations.
While the frequency of the synthesized voltage is considered
in [22], this paper considers the magnitude of the synthesized
voltage (termed as Thevenin voltage).

VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of a
transmission line compensated by series capacitor with the
STATCOM provided at the electrical center of the transmission line. The modeling of two-level and three-level 12-pulse
VSCs along with their controllers are presented in detail. The
converters are modeled using switching functions. Neglecting
harmonics in the switching functions enables the derivation of
time invariant models based on D-Q variables. The predictions
about the torsional mode stability using the various methods of
analysis show good agreement.
The following points emerge based on the results of the case
study.
1) The inclusion of STATCOM does not change the SSR
characteristics of the network significantly.
2) Although the voltage control reduces the peak negative
damping, a properly designed SSDC is required for
damping of the critical torsional mode.
3) A simple and new technique for the design of SSDC by
parameter tuning based on damping torque method is proposed. The SSDC parameters are tuned to get optimum
performance to provide positive damping in a range of
torsional frequencies. The case study to illustrate the technique indicates that the results are satisfactory.
4) The D-Q model of STATCOM is found quite accurate in
predicting the system performance.

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

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1405

[16] IEEE committee report, First bench mark model for computer simulation of subsynchronous resonance, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst.,
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[17] Using MATLAB-SIMULINK, The Math Works, Inc., Natick, MA, 1999.
[18] N. Rostomkolai, R. J. Piwko, E. V. Larsen, D. A. Fischer, M. A. Mobarak, and A. E. Poitras, Subsynchronous torsional interactions with
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[19] A. M. Kulkarni and K. R. Padiyar, Damping of power swings using
shunt FACTS controllers, in Proc. 4th Workshop on EHV Technology,
Bangalore, India, Jul. 1998.
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K. R. Padiyar (SM91) received the B.E. degree in electrical engineering from


Poona University, Poona, India, in 1962, the M.E. degree from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore, India, in 1964, and the Ph.D. degree from
the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 1972.
He is an Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering at I.I.Sc. Bangalore. He was with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, from
19761987, prior to joining I.I.Sc. His research interests are in the area of
HVDC and FACTS, system dynamics, and control. He has authored three
books and over 200 papers.
Dr. Padiyar is a Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering.

Nagesh Prabhu received the Dipl. Elect. Eng. from Karnataka Polytechnic,
Mangalore, India, in 1986. He graduated in electrical engineering from the Institution of Engineers, India, in 1991 and received the M.Tech. degree in power
and energy systems from N.I.T. Karnataka, India (formerly Karnataka Regional
Engineering College), in 1995, and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian Institute
of Science, Bangalore, India, in 2005.
He was with N.M.A.M. Institute of Technology, Nitte, India, from 1986 to
1998 prior to joining the J.N.N. College of Engineering, Shimoga, India. His
research interests are in the areas of power system dynamics and control, HVDC
and FACTS.

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