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of Subsynchronous Damping Controller

With STATCOM

K. R. Padiyar, Senior Member, IEEE, and Nagesh Prabhu

well as shunt compensation for power flow control and voltage

regulation. This can be achieved by suitable combination of passive elements and active FACTS controllers. In this paper, series

passive compensation and shunt active compensation provided

by a static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) connected at

the electrical center of the transmission line are considered. It

is possible to damp subsynchronous resonance (SSR) caused by

series capacitors with the help of an auxiliary subsynchronous

damping controller (SSDC) on STATCOM. The objective of this

paper is to investigate the SSR characteristics of the system and

propose a new design procedure for SSDC based on nonlinear

optimization to meet the specifications on the damping torque

in the range of critical torsional frequencies. The SSDC uses the

Thevenin voltage signal to modulate the reactive current reference

of STATCOM. The Thevenin voltage signal is derived from the

locally available STATCOM bus voltage and reactive current

signals. The STATCOM configurations considered in this paper

are 12 pulse, two- and three-level voltage source converter with

Type-2 and Type-1 control, respectively. The controller regulates

either reactive current (supplied by the STATCOM) or the bus

voltage. The 3-phase model of the STATCOM is based on switching

functions. By neglecting harmonics in the switching function, D-Q

model is derived which is combined with similar models of the

other system components for linear analysis. The results of the

linear analysis are validated by carrying out transient simulation

based on the detailed nonlinear models. The study is performed

on the system adapted from the IEEE First Benchmark Model.

Index TermsDamping torque, eigenvalue, FACTS, static synchronous compensator (STATCOM), subsynchronous damping

controller (SSDC), subsynchronous resonance (SSR), torsional

interaction (TI), voltage source converter (VSC).

I. INTRODUCTION

HE increase of power transfer capability of long transmission lines can be achieved by reducing the effective line

reactance, providing dynamic voltage support by static var compensators and by static phase shifters. Series compensation of

long lines is an economic solution to the problem of enhancing

power transfer and improving system stability. However, series-compensated transmission lines connected to turbogenerators can result in subsynchronous resonance (SSR), leading to

adverse torsional interactions [1][4].

Manuscript received January 19, 2005; revised July 1, 2005. Paper no.

TPWRD-00028-2005.

The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian

Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India (e-mail: prabhunagesh@

rediffmail.com).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2005.861332

achieved by suitable combination of passive elements and

active FACTS controllers. In this paper, series passive compensation and shunt active compensation provided by static

synchronous compensator (STATCOM) connected at the

electrical center of the transmission line are considered for

the analysis. Both two-level and three-level, 12-pulse voltage

source converters (VSCs) are considered for STATCOM configuration with Type-2 and Type-1 controllers, respectively

[5], [6]. The controller can regulate either bus voltage or the

reactive current output of STATCOM. The reactive current can

also be modulated by the output of a subsynchronous damping

controller (SSDC) which uses the Thevenin voltage signal. The

Thevenin voltage signal is derived from the locally available

STATCOM bus voltage and reactive current signals.

The IEEE FBM is considered for the analysis of SSR. The

study is carried out based on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and transient simulation. The paper is organized

as follows. Section II describes the modeling of STATCOM.

The different methods of analysis of SSR are discussed in Section III. Section IV describes a case study and highlights the

need of a SSDC for damping of SSR. The design of SSDC and

the evaluation of its performance is presented in Section V. The

major conclusions of the paper are given in Section VI.

THREE-LEVEL VSC

In the power circuit of a STATCOM, the converter has

either a multi-pulse and/or a multilevel configuration. Here

the STATCOM is realized by a combination of 12-pulse and

two-/three-level configuration. When the dc voltage is constant,

the magnitude of ac output voltage of the converter can be

changed by pulsewidth modulation (PWM) with two-level

topology which demands higher switching frequency and

leads to increased losses. The three-level converter topology

with fundacan achieve the goal by varying dead angle

mental switching frequency [7], [8]. The time period in a cycle

. The

during which the converter pole voltage is zero is

three-level converter topology greatly reduces the harmonic

distortion on the ac side [6], [8][10].

The detailed three-phase model of a STATCOM is developed

by modeling the converter operation by switching functions [7],

[11]. The modeling of two- and three-level VSC are discussed

in detail in [12] and [7], respectively, and is not repeated here.

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

1399

Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

and [12]

When switching functions are approximated by their

fundamental frequency components neglecting harmonics,

STATCOM can be modeled by transforming the three-phase

voltages and currents to D-Q variables using Krons transformation [13]. The STATCOM can be represented functionally,

as shown in Fig. 1.

is

The magnitude control of converter output voltage

achieved by modulating the conduction period affected by

dead angle of a converter while the dc voltage is maintained

constant.

The converter output voltage can be represented in the D-Q

frame of reference as

(1)

(2)

(3)

The following equations in the D-Q variables can be given for

describing STATCOM:

(4)

(5)

(6)

where

,

D-Q components of STATCOM current.

is modulation index and for a two-level converter,

(a constant),

for a 12 pulse converter. is the

angle by which the fundamental component of converter output

voltage leads the STATCOM bus voltage . For a three-level

converter, the modulation index is a function of dead angle

and is given as

.

the converter output voltage and the bus voltage. The reactive

current control is effected by converter output voltage magnitude(which is a function of dc voltage control) and achieved by

phase angle control [5]. This causes the variation of capacitor

voltage over a small range with change in operating point.

C. STATCOM Current Control (Three-Level VSC)

The real current drawn by the VSC is controlled by phase

angle and reactive current by modulating the converter output

voltage magnitude as a function of . The Fig. 3 shows the

schematic representation of TYPE-1 controller for STATCOM

current control. The reactive current reference of STATCOM

can be kept constant or regulated to maintain bus voltage magnitude at the specified value.

In Fig. 3, real and reactive currents are defined as

(7)

(8)

and

and

are calculated as

(9)

(10)

With a 2-level VSC, the reactive current control can be

achieved by varying alone (refer Fig. 2). In this controller,

the modulation index is constant. The capacitor voltage is

STATCOM is absorbing power and reactive power. It is to be

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1400

Fig. 4.

noted that

SSDC.

The two aspects of SSR are [4]: 1) steady state SSR [(induction generator effect (IGE) and torsional interaction(TI)] and

2) transient torques. The analysis of steady-state SSR can be

done by linearized models at the operating point and include

damping torque analysis and eigenvalue analysis. The analysis

of transient SSR requires transient simulation of the nonlinear

model of the system. For the analysis of SSR, it is adequate to

model the transmission line by lumped resistance and inductance where the line transients are also considered. The generator stator transients are also considered by using detailed (2.2)

model of the generator [13].

The analysis of SSR with STATCOM is carried out based

on damping torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis, and transient

simulation.

A. Damping Torque Analysis

Damping torque analysis is a frequency domain method

which can be used to screen the system conditions that give rise

to potential SSR problems. The significance of this approach is

that it enables the planners to decide upon a suitable countermeasure for the mitigation of the detrimental effects of SSR.

Damping torque method gives a quick check to determine the

torsional mode stability. The system is assumed to be stable if

the net damping torque at any of the torsional mode frequency

is positive [14].

The interaction between the electrical and mechanical system

can be represented by the block diagram shown in Fig. 4.

At any given oscillation frequency of the generator rotor, the

) in phase with the rotor

component of electrical torque (

speed (

) is termed as damping torque. When the IGE is

neglected (as it does not have significant effect on the prediction

of torsional mode stability), the generator can be represented by

the classical model [15].

B. Eigenvalue Analysis

In this analysis, the detailed generator model (2.2) [13] is considered. The electromechanical system consists the multi-mass

mechanical system, the generator, the excitation system, power

system stabilizer (PSS), torsional filter, and the transmission line

with STATCOM. The STATCOM (1)(10) along with the equations representing electromechanical system [4], [13] (in D-Q

variables), are linearized at the operating point and eigenvalues

of system matrix are computed. The stability of the system is

determined by the location of the eigenvalues of system matrix.

The system is stable if the eigenvalues have negative real parts.

C. Transient Simulation

The eigenvalue analysis uses equations in D-Q variables

where the switching functions are approximated by their fundamental frequency components (converter switchings are

neglected). To validate the results obtained from damping

torque and eigenvalue analysis, the transient simulation should

be carried out using detailed nonlinear three-phase model of

STATCOM which considers the switching in the three-phase

converters.

IV. A CASE STUDY

The system considered is a modified IEEE FBM [16]. The

system is represented schematically in Fig. 5, which consists

of a generator, turbine, series compensated long transmission

line and STATCOM connected at the electrical center of the

transmission line.

The modeling aspects of the electromechanical system comprising the generator, the mass-spring mechanical system, the

excitation system, power system stabilizer (PSS) with torsional

filter, the transmission line containing the conventional series

capacitor are discussed in [4].

The Analysis is carried out based on the following initial operating condition and assumptions.

1) The generator delivers 0.9 p.u. power to the transmission

system.

2) The dynamics of the turbine-governor systems are neglected and the input mechanical power to the turbine is

assumed constant.

3) The compensation level provided by the series capacitor

is set at 0.6 p.u.

4) The dynamic voltage support at the mid point of the transmission line is provided by STATCOM. The results of

load flow indicated that, the reactive power requirement

at the mid point of transmission varies from 75 to 375

Mvar from light to full load conditions of the generator.

In order to effectively utilize the symmetric capability of

STATCOM in both inductive as well as capacitive range,

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PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

1401

TABLE I

TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH TWO-LEVEL VSC-BASED STATCOM

TABLE II

TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH

THREE-LEVEL VSC-BASED STATCOM

which provides a reactive power of 225 Mvar. The rating

. At the operating

of STATCOM is selected as

point considered, the STATCOM supplies 99 Mvar and

the fixed capacitor supplies 225 Mvar to maintain a bus

voltage of 1.015 p.u.

5) For the case studies without STATCOM, the value of fixed

shunt capacitor is selected such that, the midpoint voltage

is set at 1.015 p.u. in steady state.

Fig. 6. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change

in input mechanical torque (D-Q model of three-level VSC-based STATCOM

(with voltage control)).

is due to the fact that, the frequency of the network mode (subsynchronous) does not exactly match with that of the torsional

mode-2. There is no significant difference between the damping

of torsional modes with two-level and three-level converters.

B. Transient Simulation

A. Eigenvalue Analysis

In this analysis, the turbine-generator mechanical damping

is considered and generator is modeled with the (2.2) model

(as indicated in Section III-B). The overall system is linearized

about an operating point and the eigenvalues of the system matrix [A] are given in Tables I and II for two-level and three-level

VSC-based STATCOM, respectively.

Table II shows that mode-2 is unstable at the operating point

considered. The voltage control reduces the undamping of critical torsional mode-2 and improves the damping of swing mode.

Mode-5 is not affected with the inclusion of STATCOM as its

modal inertia is very high. In general, voltage controller reduces

the damping of torsional modes except the critical mode-2. The

damping of subsynchronous network mode is increased with

marginal increase in the frequency for voltage control. Comparing the results of Tables I and II, it is observed that, the

damping of critical torsional mode-2 is improved with a threelevel VSC-based STATCOM while it is reduced marginally for

other torsional modes. The improvement in the damping of critical torsional mode-2 with three-level VSC-based STATCOM

including STATCOM (with voltage control) is carried out using

both D-Q and 3-phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK [17].

The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applied at 0.5 s and removed at 1 s with D-Q model

of three-level STATCOM is shown in Fig. 6.

The simulation results with 3-phase model of a three-level

STATCOM is shown in Fig. 7.

It is clear from Figs. 6 and 7 that, the system is unstable as

the oscillations in rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque grow

with time. The results for two-level VSC-based STATCOM are

similar and not shown here.

The FFT analysis of the LPA-LPB section torque (variation

are obtained with 3-phase model of three-level STATCOM) is

performed between 610 s with the time spread of 1 s. The

results of fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis are shown in

Fig. 8.

Referring to Fig. 8, it is observed that as the time progresses,

mode-2 component increases while all other torsional mode

components (particularly mode-1) decay. The decrement factor

1402

Fig. 7. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse

change in input mechanical torque [3-phase model of three-level VSC-based

STATCOM (with voltage control)].

VSC-based STATCOM (with voltage control)).

0.2787 and is comparable to the real part of eigenvalue (0.28)

corresponding to mode-2 given in Table II. Accuracy of the

D-Q model is also obvious from comparing Figs. 6 and 7.

It is observed that, the STATCOM requires a SSDC for

damping of the unstable torsional mode.

C. Discussion

The damping torque method involves less computational

burden and is a convenient tool for analyzing the SSR characteristics of the electrical network. Damping torque analysis can

be used to predict the potential SSR problems under various

system operating conditions.

1) Damping Torque Analysis With Detailed D-Q Model of

STATCOM: The damping torque is evaluated in the range of

frequency of 0300 rad/s for the following cases

1) With STATCOM reactive current control.

2) With STATCOM reactive current reference obtained from

voltage controller.

and compared with the damping torque results without

STATCOM (Here, the fixed shunt capacitor value is selected

VSC-based STATCOM.

damping torque with frequency with detailed D-Q model of

three-level VSC-based STATCOM (Type-1 controller is used

for reactive power control) is shown in Fig. 9.

The voltage control reduces the peak negative damping and

marginally increases the resonance frequency. It is interesting to

note that, the reactive current control marginally increases the

undamping compared to the case without STATCOM. This is

not surprising, as the contribution of positive supersynchronous

damping torque due to shunt capacitor has reduced with the

lesser value of shunt capacitor used. It is also observed that the

voltage control increases the negative damping of the torsional

modes particularly in the range of frequencies greater than 130

rad/s.

It should be noted that the inclusion of STATCOM with reactive current control does not change the damping characteristics

of the network significantly. Although the voltage control reduces the peak negative damping at the critical torsional mode

frequency, the system is unstable as there is a sharp dip near

about 127 rad/s, which matches with mode-2 of IEEE FBM.

It is reported in [4] and [18] that, SVC and STATCOM can

destabilize the torsional mode with voltage control. Such a behavior is also observed in the present analysis. The reduction

of damping of torsional modes with voltage control in the frequency range of 130300 rad/s can be observed in Fig. 9.

Although the damping torque analysis is approximate, it can

be used as a fast screening tool. A systematic method for the

design of SSDC based on damping torque method is presented

in Section V.

V. DESIGN OF SSDC

Improvement of the damping of SSR modes can be achieved

) deby SSDC. The Thevenin voltage signal (

rived from the locally available STATCOM bus voltage ( ) and

the reactive current ( ) is used for damping of power swings

in [19], [20]. Here the SSDC (represented by a transfer func) which takes the Thevenin voltage signal as input is

tion

used to modulate the reactive current reference to improve the

PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

Fig. 10.

1403

SSDC is shown in Fig. 10.

A. Design of SSDC Based on Parameter Optimization of the

Transfer Function

The objective of SSDC is to enhance the damping torque

at the critical range of torsional frequencies such that the net

damping torque is positive. The critical range of frequencies is

decided by the negative damping introduced by the electrical

system in the absence of SSDC. The SSDC should not significantly affect the synchronizing torque, similar to the action of a

PSS.

The preliminary studies involving curve fitting (in the critical

range of torsional frequencies) by specifying desired values of

the damping torque (without affecting the synchronizing torque)

resulted in a SSDC transfer function of second order. The initial

design of the SSDC based on transfer function fitting improved

the damping of torsional modes however, the performance was

found to be not entirely satisfactory.

Since the synchronizing torque at torsional frequencies

are not significantly affected by the electrical network (with

or without SSDC), it is simpler to design the SSDC transfer

function by parameter optimization with the objective of minimizing the deviations between the desired damping torque

) and the actual damping torque ( ).

(

For the design of SSDC (

) based on parameter optimization, the structure of the transfer function is assumed as

(11)

The objective for optimizing of the parameters ( , , , and

) of the transfer function

is to

Minimize

subjected to

The constraints ensure that the poles of the transfer function

are complex and have negative real parts.

It order that, the SSDC contributes to the positive damping

the

is taken to be positive. However, it was observed

causes the network

that, with large positive value for

mode unstable. In the frequency range of 110135 rad/s, maxis selected without

imum possible positive value for

causing the network mode to become unstable. Here, the deis taken as 1 (p.u.) for

sired damping torque

.

and

are taken to be 110 rad/s and 135

rad/s (the critical frequency range).

Fig. 11. Variation of damping torque with detailed D-Q model of three-level

VSC-based STATCOM and SSDC.

(SSDC) is obtained as

the solution. The designed value of

The

is Thevenin reactance (a tunable parameter) and

selected so as to maximize the damping torque of the overall

.

system computed with the designed transfer function

B. Analysis of SSR With SSDC

The analysis with SSDC is carried out based on damping

torque analysis, eigenvalue analysis and transient simulation.

While damping torque and eigenvalue analysis considers D-Q

model of STATCOM, the transient simulation considers the detailed 3-phase models of STATCOM.

1) Damping Torque Analysis: The damping torque with detailed D-Q model three-level VSC-based STATCOMs is shown

in Fig. 11.

It is seen that, the peak negative damping is significantly reduced with SSDC and occurs at a lower frequency of about 52

rad/s. Since this frequency does not match with any of the torsional modes, the system is expected to be stable. It should be

noted that the damping torque is positive with SSDC in the critical range of torsional mode frequencies.

2) Eigenvalue Analysis: The eigenvalues of the overall

system for two-level and three-level VSC-based STATCOM on

voltage control and SSDC are shown in Table III.

Comparing the eigenvalue results without SSDC (refer

Table II) and with SSDC (Table III), the following observations

can be made.

1) The damping of critical mode-2 has significantly improved with SSDC.

2) The damping of all torsional modes is increased with

SSDC.

3) Mode-5 is not affected as its modal inertia is very high.

4) The damping of subsynchronous network mode is reduced with SSDC.

1404

TABLE III

TORSIONAL MODE EIGENVALUES OF THE SYSTEM WITH

STATCOM AND SSDC

Fig. 12. Variation of rotor angle and LPA-LPB section torque for pulse change

in input mechanical torque (with 3-phase model of three-level VSC-based

STATCOM with SSDC).

overall system including STATCOM with SSDC has been carried out with the 3-phase model using MATLAB-SIMULINK

[17].

The simulation results for 10% decrease in the input mechanical torque applied at 0.5 s and removed at 1 s with three-level

VSC-based STATCOM along with SSDC are shown in Fig. 12.

The results show that the SSDC is effective in stabilizing the

critical torsional modes.

C. Discussion

While the design of SSDC based on the damping torque analysis is not new [21], we propose a new algorithm for the design

which results in better performance. According to the procedure in [21], the desired transfer function

is specified as a function of frequency. This implies specifying the synchronizing torque in addition to the damping torque. Based on

this ideal transfer function, it is possible to synthesize the frequency response of the SSDC if simplified models of the device

(STATCOM in our case) and the system are employed. However, the practical implementation is problematic for any arbitrary frequency response, and hence curve fitting, by physically

realizable transfer function is required. The approximations introduced by this step can affect considerably the damping torque

in the critical torsional frequency range. A better procedure as

explained in Section V-A ensures that the damping torque is

maintained close to the specification. There is no need to specify

the synchronizing torque (In any case, the electrical system has

very little influence on the frequencies of the torsional modes).

Also, there is no need to simplify the device and system models

to obtain the transfer function of the SSDC.

The results of the SSDC design procedure proposed in Section V-A are compared with those obtained from the curve fitting procedure similar to that outlined in [21]. Fig. 11 shows the

comparison which clearly indicates the improved performance

of the new design procedure. The design is also robust as the

dip in the damping torque is less and frequency at which it occurs is much below the first torsional mode frequency. It is also

interesting to observe that, the swing mode (mode zero) is not

destabilized by SSDC, rather the SSDC marginally improves the

damping.

It is possible to improve the performance of the SSDC by

adjusting the specifications (altering the frequency range of interest). However, this is not investigated here.

Using a lead-lag network for SSDC, [22] investigates the effect of various control signals for damping torsional oscillations.

While the frequency of the synthesized voltage is considered

in [22], this paper considers the magnitude of the synthesized

voltage (termed as Thevenin voltage).

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we have studied the characteristics of a

transmission line compensated by series capacitor with the

STATCOM provided at the electrical center of the transmission line. The modeling of two-level and three-level 12-pulse

VSCs along with their controllers are presented in detail. The

converters are modeled using switching functions. Neglecting

harmonics in the switching functions enables the derivation of

time invariant models based on D-Q variables. The predictions

about the torsional mode stability using the various methods of

analysis show good agreement.

The following points emerge based on the results of the case

study.

1) The inclusion of STATCOM does not change the SSR

characteristics of the network significantly.

2) Although the voltage control reduces the peak negative

damping, a properly designed SSDC is required for

damping of the critical torsional mode.

3) A simple and new technique for the design of SSDC by

parameter tuning based on damping torque method is proposed. The SSDC parameters are tuned to get optimum

performance to provide positive damping in a range of

torsional frequencies. The case study to illustrate the technique indicates that the results are satisfactory.

4) The D-Q model of STATCOM is found quite accurate in

predicting the system performance.

PADIYAR AND PRABHU: DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SSDC WITH STATCOM

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Poona University, Poona, India, in 1962, the M.E. degree from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore, India, in 1964, and the Ph.D. degree from

the University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, in 1972.

He is an Honorary Professor of Electrical Engineering at I.I.Sc. Bangalore. He was with the Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India, from

19761987, prior to joining I.I.Sc. His research interests are in the area of

HVDC and FACTS, system dynamics, and control. He has authored three

books and over 200 papers.

Dr. Padiyar is a Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering.

Nagesh Prabhu received the Dipl. Elect. Eng. from Karnataka Polytechnic,

Mangalore, India, in 1986. He graduated in electrical engineering from the Institution of Engineers, India, in 1991 and received the M.Tech. degree in power

and energy systems from N.I.T. Karnataka, India (formerly Karnataka Regional

Engineering College), in 1995, and the Ph.D. degree from the Indian Institute

of Science, Bangalore, India, in 2005.

He was with N.M.A.M. Institute of Technology, Nitte, India, from 1986 to

1998 prior to joining the J.N.N. College of Engineering, Shimoga, India. His

research interests are in the areas of power system dynamics and control, HVDC

and FACTS.