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Lab Report for CSE 109

East West University


Lab Experiment Number: 02

Experiment Title: Series-Parallel DC Circuit and


Verification of Kirchhoffs Law
Prepared By:
Kazi Hasibul Kabir
2014-1-60-042
Date of Experiment: 16.10.2014
Date of Report: 23.10.2014
Course Code: CSE 109
Instructor Name: Fahmida Azmi
Group Information
Group Number: 03
Md. Nazmul Hasan (2014-1-60-041)
Kazi Hasibul Kabir (2014-1-60-042)
Md. Zahiruddin Aqib (2014-1-60-047)

Introduction:
.Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL) states that the sum of the voltage rises
around a closed path is equal to the sum of the voltage drops. The KVL can be
written in the following mathematical form:

V rises = V drops
The sum of the voltage rises and the sum of the voltage drops are to be calculated
in a given direction (normally in the clockwise direction). For example, in the
simple series circuit of figure, there are two voltages sources (E 1 and E2) and two
resistors (R1 and R2). The voltage drops across the two resistors are V1 and V2,
respectively. If we write KVL equation for the clockwise direction, then the KVL
equation will be
E1E 2=V 1+ V 2

Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL) states that the sum of the currents entering a node
of a circuit is equal to the sum of the currents leaving the node. The KCL can be
written in the following mathematical form:

I i = I o
For example, in the simple parallel circuit of figure, there is a voltage source (E)
and two resistors (R1 and R2). The source current drawn from the voltage is I s. The
currents through resistors R1 and R2 are I1 and I2, respectively. If we consider the
node a of the circuit, the I s is entering the node and I1 and I2 are leaving the node.
Then, the KCL equation for the node a is
I s=I 1+ I 2

A series- parallel circuit is one that is formed by a combination of series and


parallel resistors. For solving series-parallel circuit, parallel combinations of
resistors and series combination of resistors are clearly identified. Then seriesparallel reduction method is used to determine the values of the circuit variables.
For example, in the simple series-parallel circuit of figure, the resistors R 2 and R3
are in parallel combination is in series with the resistor R 1. As the resistors R2 and

R3 are in parallel, V2=V3. Let

R p=R 2 R3

. Then, te equivalent resistance of te

series-parallel combination is

Req =R1 + R2

. Now, the circuit variables can be

calculated using the formulas


I1 =

E
R eq

V 1=I 1 R1
V 2=V 3=I 1 R p

I2 =

V2
R2

I3 =

V3
R3

The KVL equations for the circuit of figure can be written as


E=V 1+V 2
E=V 1+V 3

The KCL equations for the circuit of figure can be written as


I 1 =I 2 + I 3

Figure: A simple series-parallel dc circuit.

Circuit Diagram:

Figure: Circuit for experiment.

Experimental Procedure:
1. Measure the resistance of the resistor supplied and record in datasheet.
2. Construct the circuit of Figure. Set the value of E at 10 V and measure the
values of E, V1, V2, V3, I1, I2, I3 and record them in datasheet.
3. From experimental data (i) show that V2=V3, (ii) verify KVL, that is
E=V1+V2, and (iii) verify KCL, that is, I1=I2+I3.
4. Have the datasheet signed by instructor.

Answer to the Post-Lab Question:


1. Calculations:
After calculating theoretically we got,
I1=23 mA
I2=15 mA

I3=7 mA
V1=2.3 V
V2=0.7 V
V3=0.7 V

Measure
d Value
of E (V)

Measure
d Value
of V1 (V)

2.3

Measure Measured Measured Measured Measured Measured


d Value
Value of Value of Value of Value of
Value of
of V2 (V)
V3 (V)
I1 (mA)
I2 (mA)
I3 (mA) Resistances
()

0.7

0.7

23

14

Comments:
By comparing both the measured and theoretical values it is seen that there are
some variations in the values but the readings were taken according to the
instruments. So, there are some errors in the instruments.

2. Calculations:
i. Apply KVL at loop 2,
V2=V3
0.7 V-V3=0
V3=0.7 V
So, V2=V3 [Showed]

ii.

From, V1+V2=(2.3+0.7) V
=3 V
=E

R1=100
R2=50
R3=101.42

So, V1+V2=E [Showed]

iii.

From, I2+I3=(14+7) mA
=23 mA
=I1
So, I1=I2+I3 [Showed]

Result:
After comparing the theoretical & measured values of V1, V2, V3, I1, I2, I3, R1, R2,
R3 we found that there some change with the values. This change is occurred by
instruments.

Conclusion:
While doing the experiment, utmost care was taken in order to take the readings
very carefully. The circuit was connected very carefully to prevent short circuit.
Lastly by doing the experiment, we have gained practical knowledge about how to
work with circuits.