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Linda is a regular employee.

SUs contention that Linda is a domestic helper

is without basis because the latter did not
minister to the personal comfort of the
members of any household. Although a cook,
hence listed, she cannot be classified as a
Kasambahay because she rendered services for
resident religious teachers in a university which
was not a household.
2. Lucy was one of approximately 500 call
center agents at Hambergis, Inc. She was
hired as a contractual employee four years
ago. Her contracts would be for a duration
of five (5) months at a time, usually after a
one month interval. Her re-hiring was
contingent on her performance for the
immediately preceding contract. Six (6)
months after the expiration of her last
personnel department to inquire why she
was not yet being recalled to work. She
was told that her performance during her
last contract was "below average." Lucy
seeks your legal advice about her chances
of getting her job back. What will your
advice be?
I will advise Lucy to file a complaint for
reinstatement, because her floating status has
exceeded six (6) months.
By virtue of the nature of her job, Lucy attained
tenure on the first day of her employment. As
a regular employee, therefore, she could only
be dismissed for a just or authorized cause.
Expiration of her last contract was neither a just
nor authorized cause. Hence, she was illegally
dismissed. Moreover, her term employment
contracts were contracts of adhesion; hence,
they should be taken against Hambergis Inc.
because of its obvious intent to use periods to
bar her regularization.
3. Liwayway Glass had 600 rank-and-file
employees. Three rival unions A, B, and C
participated in the certification elections
employees voted. The unions obtained the
following votes: A-200; B-150; C-50; 90
employees voted "no union"; and 10 were
segregated votes. Out of the segregated
votes, four (4) were cast by probationary
employees and six (6) were cast by
dismissed employees whose respective
cases are still on appeal.


1. Linda was employed by Sectarian

University (SU) to cook for the members of
a religious order who teach and live inside
assigned task, Linda accidentally burned
herself. Because of the extent of her
injuries, she went on medical leave.
Meanwhile, SU engaged a replacement
cook. Linda filed a complaint for illegal
dismissal, but her employer SU contended
that Linda was not a regular employee but
a domestic househelp. Decide.

(A) Should the votes of the probationary

and dismissed employees be counted in
the total votes cast for the purpose of
determining the winning labor union?
(B) Was there a valid election?
(C) Should Union A be declared the
(D) Suppose the election is declared
invalid, which of the contending unions
(E) Suppose that in the election, the
unions obtained the following votes: A250; B-150; C-50; 40 voted "no union"; and
10 were segregated votes. Should Union A
(A). Yes. The segregated votes should be
counted as valid votes. Probationary employees
are not among the employees who are ineligible
to vote. Likewise, the pendency of the appeal of
the six dismissed employees indicates that they
have contested their dismissal before a forum of
appropriate jurisdiction; hence, they continue to
be employees for purposes of voting in a
certification election (D.O. 40-03).
(B). Yes. The certification election is valid
because it is not a barred election and majority
of the eligible voters cast their votes.
(C). No. Union A should not be declared the
winner because it failed to garner majority of
the valid votes. The majority of 500 votes,
representing valid votes, is 251 votes. Since
Union A received 200 votes only, it did not win
the election.
(D) None of the participating unions can
represent the rank-and-file employees for
purposes of collective bargaining because none
of them enjoys majority representative status.
(E) If the 10 votes were segregated on the same
grounds, Union A cannot still be certified as the
bargaining representative because its vote of
250 is still short of the majority vote of 251.
However, if the 10 votes were validly
segregated, majority vote would be 246 votes.
Since Union a received more than majority vote
then it won the election.
4. Lina has been working as a steward
with a Miami, U.S.A.-based Loyal Cruise
Lines for the past 15 years. She was
recruited by a local manning agency,
Macapagal Shipping, and was made to sign
everytime she left for Miami. Macapagal
Shipping paid for Linas round-trip travel
expenses from Manila to Miami. Because
of a food poisoning incident which
assignment, Lina was not re-hired. Lina
claims she has been illegally terminated
and seeks separation pay. If you were the
Labor Arbiter handling the case, how
would you decide?
I will dismiss the complaint for illegal dismissal.

5. Non-lawyers can appear before the

Labor Arbiter if:
(A) they represent themselves
(B) they are properly authorized to represent
their legitimate labor organization or member
(C) they are duly-accredited members of the
legal aid office recognized by the DOJ or IBP
(D) they appear in cases involving an amount of
less than Php5,000
6. As a result of a bargaining deadlock
between Lazo Corporation and Lazo
Employees Union, the latter staged a
Eventually, its members informed the
company of their intention to return to
(A) Can Lazo Corporation refuse to admit
the strikers?
(B) Assuming the company admits the
strikers, can it later on dismiss those
employees who committed illegal acts?
(C) If due to prolonged strike, Lazo
Corporation hired replacements, can it
refuse to admit the replaced strikers?
(A) No. A strike is a temporary stoppage of work
only. Therefore, strikers can go back to their
work in the event of a voluntary abandonment
of their strike.
(B) After admission, the company can hold the
strikers behind the illegalities accountable for
their acts. If found to have committed acts
justifying a dismissal, said employees can be
terminated after due process.
(C) No. The positions left behind by strikers are
deemed legally unoccupied. Moreover, the
hiring of replacement workers does not
because a strike is a temporary stoppage of
work only. Finally, replacement workers are
deemed to have accepted their engagement
subject to the outcome of the strike.
7. Luisa Court is a popular chain of motels.
It employs over 30 chambermaids who,
among others, help clean and maintain the
rooms. These chambermaids are part of
the union rank-and-file employees which
has an existing collective bargaining
agreement (CBA) with the company. While
the CBA was in force, Luisa Court decided
to abolish the position of chambermaids
and outsource the cleaning of the rooms to
Malinis Janitorial Services, a bona fide


Lina is a seafarer. As such, she is a contractual

employee who cannot require her employer to
enter into another contract of employment with
her under the Principle of Freedom of Contracts.
In effect, Lina cannot be awarded separation
pay. As an alternative relief, separation pay is
proper only when there is a finding of illegal

invested in substantial equipment and

sufficient manpower. The chambermaids
filed a case of illegal dismissal against
Luisa Court. In response, the company
argued that the decision to outsource
resulted from the new managements
directive to streamline operations and
save on costs. If you were the Labor
Arbiter assigned to the case, how would
you decide?
I would declare the chambermaids to have been
illegally dismissed.
The chambermaids are regular employees for
performing work necessary or desirable to the
main trade of the Luisa Court. As such, they
enjoy security of tenure. The job contracting
arrangement between Luisa Court and Malinis
Janitorial Services is prohibited by D.O. 18-A
because it has the effect of introducing workers
to displace Luisa Courts regular workers.
8. Luisa was hired as a secretary by the
Asian Development Bank (ADB) in Manila.
Luisas first boss was a Japanese national
whom she got along with. But after two
years, the latter was replaced by an
arrogant Indian national who did not
believe her work output was in accordance
with international standards. One day,
Luisa submitted a draft report filled with
typographical errors to her boss. The
latter scolded her, but Luisa verbally
fought back. The Indian boss decided to
terminate her services right then and
there. Luisa filed a case for illegal
dismissal with the Labor Arbiter claiming
arbitrariness and denial of due process. If
you were the Labor Arbiter, how would you
decide the case?
I will dismiss the complaint for illegal dismissal.
Luisa committed serious misconduct. Her Indian
boss, regardless of his arrogant nature, had the
clear right to reprimand her for her poor
performance. Absent justification for verbally
fighting back, Luisas act amounted to serious
misconduct. Therefore, her dismissal was valid.
However, she was not accorded statutory due
For this reason, I will award her
nominal damages of Php 30,000.
9. Lionel, an American citizen whose
parents migrated to the U.S. from the
Philippines, was hired by JP Morgan in New
York as a call center specialist. Hearing
about the phenomenal growth of the call
center industry in his parents native land,
Lionel sought and was granted a transfer
as a call center manager for JP Morgans
employment contract did not specify a
period for his stay in the Philippines. After
three years of working in the Philippines,
Lionel was advised that he was being
recalled to New York and being promoted
to the position of director of international
call center operations. However, because
of certain "family reasons," Lionel advised
the company of his preference to stay in

(A) Whether he has a cause of action

(B) Whether he can file a case in the
(C) What are his chances of winning
(A) Lionel has a cause of action. He has a right
to be secure in his job; his employer has the
correlative obligation to respect that right; his
dismissal constitutes a violation of his tenurial
right; and said violation caused him legal injury.
(B) Lionel can file an illegal dismissal case in the
Philippines. Being a resident corporation, J P
Morgan is subject to Philippine Labor Laws.
And, although hired abroad, Lionels place of
work is Taguig. Hence, he can lodge his
complaint with the NLRC-NCR which has
territorial jurisdiction over his workplace (Sec. 1,
Rule IV, NLRC Rules of Procedure, as amended).
(C) Lionel has reasonable chances of winning.
His recall to the USA was not a lawful lateral
transfer that he could not refuse. On the
contrary, it was a scalar transfer amounting to a
promotion which he could validly refuse. Absent
willful disobedience, therefore, his termination is
10. Which of the following groups does not
enjoy the right to self-organization?
(A) Those who work in a non-profit charitable
(B) Those who are paid on a piece-rate basis
(C) Those who work in a corporation with less
than 10 employees
(D) Those who work as legal secretaries Legal secretaries are confidential employees.
11. Our Lady of Peace Catholic School
Teachers and Employees Labor Union
organization composed of vice principals,
department heads, coordinators, teachers,
and non-teaching personnel of Our Lady of
Peace Catholic School (OLPCS).
OLPCS-TELU subsequently filed a petition
for certification election among the
teaching and non-teaching personnel of
OLPCS before the Bureau of Labor
Relations (BLR) of the Department of
Labor and Employment (DOLE). The MedArbiter subsequently granted the petition
and ordered the conduct of a joint
certification election for the teaching and
non-teaching personnel of OLPCS.
legitimate labor organization?

OLPCS-TELU is a legitimate labor
organization. Its mixed-membership which
includes supervisors and rank-and-filers does
not affect its legitimacy. The only effect of such
membership is that the supervisors in the
persons of vice-principals and department


the Philippines. He was dismissed by the

company. Lionel now seeks your legal
advice on:

heads are deemed automatically removed (RA

Comment: Another tricky question. The body of
the problem leads one to appropriateness of a
CBU. Hence, he might apply the Substantial
Mutuality of Interest Principle based on his
observation that the employees perform
separate but interdependent tasks. Actually, the
question is legitimacy of status only (LLO
status). So the fact to tackle is mixedmembership.
12. Samahang East Gate Enterprises
(SEGE) is a labor organization composed of
the rank-and-file employees of East Gate
manufacturer of all types of gloves and
EGE was later requested by SEGE to
bargain collectively for better terms and
conditions of employment of all the rank
-and-file employees of EGE. Consequently,
EGE filed a petition for certification
election before the Bureau of Labor
Relations (BLR).
During the proceedings, EGE insisted that
it should participate in the certification
process. EGE reasoned that since it was
the one who filed the petition and
considering that the employees concerned
were its own rank-and-file employees, it
should be allowed to take an active part in
the certification process.
Is the contention of EGE proper? Explain.
EGE could file the petition for certification
election because it was requested to collectively
bargain and it could not do so because SEGE
was not the EBR. After it filed the petition,
however, it reverted to its standby status.
Therefore, it could not interfere with the
selection process which was the exclusive
prerogative of its workers.
It could only
proceedings, and nowhere else.
13. Philhealth is a government-owned and
thousands of Filipinos. Because of the
desire of the employees of Philhealth to
obtain better terms and conditions of
employment from the government, they
Philhealth to enter into negotiations with
PEA regarding terms and conditions of
employment which are not fixed by law.
(A) Are the employees of Philhealth
allowed to self-organize and form PEA and
thereafter demand Philhealth to enter into
negotiations with PEA for better terms and
conditions of employment?
(B) In case of unresolved grievances, can
PEA resort to strikes, walkouts, and other
temporary work stoppages to pressure the
government to accede to their demands?

(B) No. Although the right to organize implies

the right to strike, law may withhold said right.
E.O. 180 is that law which withholds from
government employees the right to strike.
Hence, they cannot resort to strikes and similar
concerted activities to compel concessions from
the government.
14. The procedural requirements of a valid
strike include:
(A) A claim of either unfair labor practice
or deadlock in collective bargaining
(B) Notice of strike filed at least 15 days before
a ULP-grounded strike or at least 30 days prior
to the deadlock in a bargaining grounded strike
(C) Majority of the union membership must have
voted to stage the strike with notice thereon
furnished to the National Conciliation and
Mediation Board (NCMB) at least 24 hours
before the strike vote is taken
(D) Strike vote results must be furnished to the
NCMB at least seven (7) days before the
intended strike
15. Lincoln was in the business of trading
broadcast equipment used by television
and radio networks. He employed Lionel as
his agent. Subsequently, Lincoln set up
requested Lionel to be one of the
incorporators and assigned to him 100
Liberty shares. Lionel was also given the
title Assistant Vice-President for Sales and
Head of Technical Coordination. After
several months, there were allegations
that Lionel was engaged in "under the
table dealings" and received "confidential
commissions" from Libertys clients and
suppliers. He was, therefore, charged with
serious misconduct and willful breach of
trust, and was given 48 hours to present
his explanation on the charges. Lionel was
unable to comply with the 48 -hour
deadline and was subsequently barred
from entering company premises. Lionel
then filed a complaint with the Labor
Arbiter claiming constructive dismissal.
Among others, the company sought the
dismissal of the complaint alleging that
the case involved an intra-corporate
jurisdiction of the Regional Trial Court
If you were the Labor Arbiter assigned to
the case, how would you rule on the
companys motion to dismiss?
I will deny the motion to dismiss.
Lionel is not a corporate officer but a corporate
employee only because:


(A) Under E.O. 180, Philhealth employees can

Thru their organization, they can
negotiate with Philhealth over terms and
conditions of employment not fixed by its
charter, Civil Service Law, or applicable salary
standardization law.

(a) His office is not a creation of the

Corporation Code;
(b) It is not shown that his office is a
Articles of Incorporation; and
(c) It is not shown that there is a board
resolution investing his position with the
status of a corporate office.
Absent corporate controversy, the Office of the
Labor Arbiter has jurisdiction to hear and
resolve Lionels complaint for illegal dismissal.

I will decide in favor of the employees.

The fire has not resulted in complete destruction
of employer-employee relationship.
relationship has temporarily ceased only. When
JKL resumed operations, therefore, it became its
obligation to recall its old employees instead of
replacing them with new employees.
Withholding of work beyond six (6) months
amounts to constructive dismissal.
Hence, I
will order J KL to pay the complainants full
backwages, separation pay because their
positions are occupied
already, nominal
damages for non-observance by J KL of
prescribed pre-termination procedure, moral
and exemplary damages for its bad faith (Lynvil
Fishing Enterprises, Inc., et al. vs. Ariola, et al.,
G.R. No. 181974, 1 February 2012), and 10%
attorneys fees for compelling its employees to
litigate against it (Art. 111, LC).
17. Despite a reinstatement order, an
employer may choose not to reinstate an
employee if:
(A) There is a strained employer-employee
(B) The position of the employee no longer
(C) The employers business has been closed
(D) The employee does not wish to be
services of Lamitan Manpower, Inc., a bona
fide independent contractor, to provide
"tasters" that will check on food quality.
Subsequently, these "tasters" joined the
union of rank -and-file employees of
Luningning and demanded that they be
made regular employees of the latter as
they are performing functions necessary
and desirable to operate the companys
business. Luningning rejected the demand
for regularization. On behalf of the
"tasters", the union then filed a notice of
strike with the Department of Labor and
Luningning sought a restraining order
from the Regional Trial Court (RTC)
arguing that the DOLE does not have
jurisdiction over the case since it does not
have an employer-employee relationship
with the employees of an independent
contractor. If you were the RTC judge,
would you issue a restraining order
against the union?
I will not issue a TRO.


16. An accidental fire gutted the JKL

factory in Caloocan. JKL decided to
suspend operations and requested its
employees to stop reporting for work.
After six (6) months, JKL resumed
operations but hired a new set of
employees. The old set of employees filed
a case for illegal dismissal. If you were the
Labor Arbiter, how would you decide the

The dispute brought to the RTC is a labor

dispute despite the fact that the disputants may
not stand in the proximate relation of employer
and employee (Art. 212, LC). Moreover, the
issue of regularization is resolvable solely thru
the application of labor laws. Under both
Reasonable Causal Connection Rule and
Reference to Labor Law Rule, the dispute is for
labor tribunals to resolve.
For lack of jurisdiction, therefore, I will dismiss
the case.
19. Lanz was a strict and unpopular VicePresident for Sales of Lobinsons Land. One
day, Lanz shouted invectives against Lee,
a poor performing sales associate, calling
him, among others, a "brown monkey."
Hurt, Lee decided to file a criminal
complaint for grave defamation against
Lanz. The prosecutor found probable cause
Lobinsons decided to terminate Lanz for
committing a potential crime and other
illegal acts prejudicial to business. Can
Lanz be legally terminated by the company
on these grounds?
As to the first ground, crime to be a just cause
for dismissal must be against the employer,
representative (Article 288, LC, as renumbered).
Since the potential crime of Lanz is not against
Lobinsons or its duly authorized representatives,
it cannot of itself justify his termination.
As to the second ground, Lanzs dysfunctional
conduct has made the work environment at
Lobinsons hostile as to adversely affect other
employees, like Lee. Therefore, he can be
dismissed on the ground of serious misconduct
and loss of trust and confidence.
Comment: There are two separate grounds for
dismissal. One is a just cause, the other is not.
To the question Can Lanz be legally terminated
on these grounds? one should not give an
answer that treats the two as though they were
one and the same. This is because, based on
the crafting of previous questions, it should be
obvious that the examiner has a clinical mind.
Alternative Answer:
As to the first ground, crime to be a just cause
for dismissal must be against the employer,
representative (Article 288, LC, as renumbered).
Since the potential crime of Lanz is not against
Lobinsons or its duly authorized representatives,
it cannot of itself justify his termination.
However, it can be treated as a cause analogous
to serious misconduct or loss of trust and
confidence. Therefore, Lanz can be dismissed on
this ground.
As to the second ground, Lanzs dysfunctional
behavior has made the work environment at
Lobinsons hostile as to adversely affect other
employees, like Lee.
Therefore, he can be

20. Liwanag Corporation is engaged in the

power generation business. A stalemate
following all the requisites provided by
law, the union decided to stage a strike.
The management sought the assistance of
the Secretary of Labor and Employment,
who assumed jurisdiction over the strike
and issued a return-to-work order. The
union defied the latter and continued the
strike. Without providing any notice,
Liwanag Corporation declared everyone
who participated in the strike as having
lost their employment.
(A) Was Liwanag Corporations action
(B) If, before the DOLE Secretary assumed
jurisdiction, the striking union members
communicated in writing their desire to
return to work, which offer Liwanag
Corporation refused to accept, what
remedy, if any, does the union have?
(A) Yes, the action of Liwanag Corporation is
The DOLE Secretary can assume jurisdiction in
the event of a labor dispute likely to result in a
strike in an industry involving national interest,
like energy production (Art. 263(g); D.O. 40-H13). His AJ O, once duly served on the union,
will produce an injunctive effect. Hence, if


dismissed also on the ground of serious

misconduct and loss of trust and confidence.

ignored, the unions strike would be illegal even

if it may have complied with pre-strike
Corporation may declare all the strikers as
having lost their employment as a consequence
of their intransigence (Sarmiento v. Tuico, 27 J
une 1988).
(B) The union may file a complaint for illegal
The refusal of Liwanag
Corporation to admit the strikers back is an
illegal lockout because it is not preceded by
If the lockout is unreasonably
prolonged, the complaint may be amended to
charge constructive dismissal.
21. The jurisdiction of the National Labor
Relations Commission does not include:
(A) Exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all cases
decided by the Labor Arbiter
(B) Exclusive appellate jurisdiction over all cases
decided by Regional Directors or hearing officers
involving the recovery of wages and other
monetary claims and benefits arising from
aggregate money claim of each does not exceed
five thousand pesos (Php5,000)
(C) Original jurisdiction to act as a
compulsory arbitration body over labor
disputes certified to it by the Regional
Directors - Regional Directors do not have
assumption power; hence, they cannot certify
cases to the NLRC.
(D) Power to issue a labor injunction