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AREMA

PART 6
LOCOMOTIVE SANDING FACILITIES
2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
6.1.1
General
6.1.2
Safety Provisions

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6.2

Sanding Facility
6.2.1
Capacity
6.2.2
General Platform Layout
6.2.3
Storage
6.2.4
Unloading
6.2.5
Transfer from Storage to Servicing Tanks
6.2.6.1 General
6.2.6.2 Gravity Transfer
6.2.6.3 Pneumatic Transfer
6.2.6.4 Mechanical Transfer

6.3

Sanding System Types


6.3.1
Gravity Overhead Systems
6.3.1.1 General
6.3.1.2 Sand Tower System
6.3.1.3 Design Considerations
6.3.2
Gantry Crane System
6.3.2.1 General
6.3.2.2 Design Considerations
6.3.3
Pneumatic Conveying Systems
6.3.3.1 General
6.3.3.2 Types of Flow
6.3.3.3 Design Considerations

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6.4

Sanding Components
6.4.1
Air Supply System
6.4.1.1 Air Requirements
6.4.1.2 Air Pressure
6.4.1.3 Compressor Systems
6.4.1.4 Compressor Building Considerations
6.4.2
Air Dryers
6.4.3
Piping System

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6.1

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6.4.4
6.4.5
6.4.6
6.4.7
6.4.8

Sand Cocks
Nozzles
Electrical
Lighting
Automation and Instrumentation

Environmental Considerations
6.5.1
Waste Sand
6.5.2
Air Quality
6.5.2.1 General
6.5.2.2 Tank/Silo Venting
6.5.2.3 System Venting
6.5.2.4 Bag House Venting

6.6

References
6.6.1
Codes
6.6.2
Publications

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6.5

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LIST OF FIGURES

Typical Sanding Tower System Diagram


Overhead Gravity Sand Tower System
Gravity Crane Sanding System
Pneumatic Conveying Sanding System

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SECTION 6.1 INTRODUCTION


6.1
GENERAL
A.

The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) requires that locomotives have


sanders that deposit sand on each rail in front of the first power operated wheel
(49CFR229.131). Locomotive sand storage boxes are usually filled in the
locomotive service areas of a yard. Sand dispensing systems are often integrated
with the fueling facility or diesel repair facility. Many types of systems are
available for storing and dispensing sand to the locomotive. Location and
capacity requirements for sanding facilities should be considered along with
safety and environmental factors when selecting or designing new or
reconditioned sanding facilities.

B.

In general, sand is received and stored, then transported to the dispensing point by
gravity or pneumatic conveying methods. Three types of systems available to
accomplish this: 1) sanding tower, 2) gantry crane, and 3) pneumatic conveying
system. Combinations of these three systems are also possible.

C.

The type of sand used will dictate, to a point, the type of sand facility to be
installed (1975). The type of sand used is specified by the individual railroads,
and usually depends on local availability. The designer should verify the type of
sand used. Recycled materials, including glass, as well as dust suppression
chemicals may be in use, and the system must be designed to accommodate them.
Delivery time and availability are important and must be determined
independently for each yard.

D.

Locomotive sand storage boxes vary in capacity. Sand boxes for freight
locomotives range from 40 60 cubic feet. Passenger and commuter locomotives
range from 20 50 cubic feet. Switcher locomotives typically range from 10 30
cubic feet in capacity. The capacity required should be determined based on the
type of equipment used at each location.

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ENGINEERED SAFETY PROVISIONS


A.

Sand systems should be designed and built in accordance with all applicable
workplace safety requirements as well as any requirements of the owner that are
more stringent than applicable codes.

B.

General issues that should be considered in sanding system installations include


fall protection, safe access, electrical hazards, and platform slip, trip, and fall
hazards.

6.1.2

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6.1.1

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Many sanding systems require the operator to climb on top of the locomotive sand
tank for inspection and filling. In all cases, the operator must climb onto the
locomotive to inspect the level of sand in the sand tank. With some systems, the
operator must also climb onto the locomotive sand tank to connect the fill hose.
This can be complicated by adverse weather conditions.

D.

Access to towers and silos should be provided with caged ladders equipped with a
lockout device on the bottom of the cage to prevent unauthorized access.
Platforms on towers and silos should be framed of steel or aluminum with open
grating used for a slip-resistant walk surface. Platforms should include handrails
that, as a minimum, comply with OSHA requirements. On the tops of towers and
silos where the installation of grating may be impractical, slip-resistant coatings
should be applied.

E.

All systems should be designed with either integral fall protection or a platform
with railing to access the locomotive sand chambers.

F.

Pits used to unload sand from rail cars or trucks present unique hazards.
Designers should consider pits to be confined spaces and accommodate them as
such. Amenities that can minimize the hazard include adequately sized access
points. Pits should be watertight, but they should also include a generous drain to
a grit chamber and industrial wastewater treatment system. Pits inevitably fill
with runoff from groundwater, storm water, wash water, or snowmelt. Pits should
also include adequate lighting with multiple fixtures as well as proper venting to
minimize the buildup of hazardous fumes.

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C.

SECTION 6.2 SANDING FACILITY

6.2.1

CAPACITY

The number of locomotives serviced per day, the amount of sand required for an
average locomotive fill operation, and historical data on the amounts of sand used,
will help determine the amount of storage required as well as the capacity of the
distribution points. Locomotives in mountainous areas generally require more
sand at servicing facilities. Some yards only need to fill the lead locomotive sand
box, while other facilities service all locomotives in a consist.

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A.

Other issues that can determine required capacity include delivery distance, cost,
quantity of sand deliveries, lead time for delivery after an order is placed, delivery
methods (truck or railcar), and unload methods (mechanical, gravity, pneumatic).

B.

6.2.2

GENERAL PLATFORM LAYOUT


A.

Knowledge of common consist arrangements in a yard can help determine the


configuration and size of a system. Multiple spot sanding systems should provide

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full coverage of all anticipated consist configurations without the need to re-spot a
consist.

C.

Single sand tower installations can be located at one end of the service platform or
on a separate track. If the tower is located at the end of a service track, care
should be taken to position the tower so that consists do not require re-spotting for
sand filling after receiving fuel and other services.

D.

Gantry crane systems can be located along a service platform if space permits, or
inside a locomotive servicing shop.

E.

Pneumatic systems include distribution stations, which are generally arranged on


the platform between other services such as fueling, lube oil, and water.
Distribution stations should be spaced out adequately to provide full coverage of
the sanding platform.

F.

Storage silos can be located away from the distribution points if a conveyance
method is in place to move the sand from storage to distribution.

G.

Storage silos should be located adjacent to the delivery track if sand is delivered
by rail. If sand is delivered by truck, access into and out of the silo area should be
considered. Minimize the crossing of tracks by delivery trucks and avoid fouling
of track by the truck or operator during the unload process. Consider the truck
turning radius when designing access to the silo.

H.

For railcar unloading, the unload track should be arranged to cause minimal
interference with the movement of trains and locomotives through the yard. It
should be an independent track used only for that purpose (1975).

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If space is available, the sanding and fueling spots should be on the same track,
but no closer than 50 feet. This configuration allows operations to be performed
quickly and in sequence without fouling one another (1975).

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6.2.3

B.

STORAGE

The sand requirement at a location is an important factor affecting storage


capacity. Availability of the material should also be considered when determining
storage capacity (1975).

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A.

Condensation can be a potential problem when bulk dry sand is stored in large
quantities where turnover is slow and humidity is high. Under such conditions,
the sand tends to take up moisture, resulting in an unsatisfactory condition for
flowing. Where sand turnover is frequent, absorption of moisture is not a serious
problem (1975). Consider installation of a dry air purge system in humid climates.

B.

C.

For truck-fed gravity silo systems (delivered sand blown up to the silo in dilute
phase by truck) the silo should have at least two weeks capacity when the sand
order is placed. Preferably, the silo should be at least 25% larger than the volume

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of a delivery truck and trailer (740 cubic feet), but orders should be based on peak
usage and delivery time. Silo capacity should include at least one week buffer
time in case complications arise with sand delivery.
Concrete or steel storage tanks render satisfactory service for dry sand. (1975)

E.

The service tank at track side is generally constructed of steel and mounted on a
steel column or is an integral part of the sand storage silo, at a suitable elevation
to permit loading sand into locomotive sand boxes by gravity through pipe and
hose connections. Capacities of 5 to 10 tons are satisfactory for these latter tanks,
with the size determined by the quantity of sand handled (1975).

F.

The tank should be equipped with approved signals to indicate when the tank is
full and when the point of depletion is approaching (1975). Storage tanks should
include level sensors to indicate full and empty states. Low alarm points should
be placed to allow ample time for sand delivery to the site. High alarm points
should be placed to allow time for the fill process to be shut down.

G.

Equipment is available to transfer sand automatically from the dry storage tank to
the overhead smaller servicing tank. This eliminates the necessity to assign labor
to keep sufficient sand in the servicing tank or to delay locomotive sanding
because of insufficient sand in the servicing tank. The importance of the
operation should determine whether such a refinement is justifiable (1975).

H.

Transfer from storage to service tanks is handled by installing the dry sand
storage tank at an elevation sufficient to permit the sand to discharge by gravity
into an elevating tank for distribution to the servicing tanks. This operation can
be handled automatically, thus reducing labor costs (1975).

I.

Dry sand storage tanks can be fitted with dry air purge systems to maintain sand
integrity, where appropriate. These systems bleed dry air (to a dew point of 40F) into the headspace of the tank to keep the moisture level down.

J.

Storage tanks should contain manways and internal ladders for tank maintenance.
Manways should be hinged and provide access if sand begins to clump.

K.

Below grade storage vaults and pits are not generally used for storage but rather
for railcar unloading and placement of transfer equipment.

L.

Storage tanks should provide proper air venting during fill procedures, as well as
air intake during sand discharge. Tank airspace inbreathing and outbreathing
should be considered during temperature changes.

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D.

M.

The movement of sand from the storage silo may be impeded by common bulk
material storage problems including arching, bridging, clinging, and rat-holing.
Storage tanks with cone bottoms and bottom discharge points could include a
means to get the sand flowing should any of these problems occur. Methods may
include mechanical ramming devices that impact the side of the tank, sonic

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devices, and air sweep or air infusion devices that inject air between the tank
sidewall and the stored material.
UNLOADING
Sand is delivered by truck or railcar. Verify the requirements of each location.

B.

If air is used to elevate the dry sand, the elevated tank used in such an
arrangement should be equipped with an appropriately sized air release at its top
to relieve the air as the tank fills with sand (1975). Service tanks into which sand
is loaded by air should be equipped with approved dust arrestors to release the air
and retain the dust within the tank (1975).

C.

Sand should not be unloaded in the open environment during wet weather (1975).

D.

Dilute phase conveyance systems are generally used by delivery trucks to blow
sand into elevated storage tanks by means of on-board blowers. Verify the
maximum conveyance distance and height with local delivery companies.
Distance from the truck to the silo tower determines unload time. Unload time is
crucial, because the delivery truck and/or hose may foul a track during delivery. If
neither track may be fouled for the delivery time, the fill pipe may be routed to
the outside of the sanding tracks.

E.

Fill alarms must give the truck operator enough time to shut off the sand supply.
If a control valve shuts off sand flow to the tower, as opposed to the operator
shutting off the sand supply, the operator must manually remove the sand
remaining in the delivery hose. Therefore, operators prefer alarms that notify the
truck operator when the silo is nearly full.

F.

The availability of sand delivery trucks and distance to the source must be
considered when determining whether sand delivery trucks are the proper method
of sand delivery and what volume of sand silo to specify.

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A.

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6.2.4

6.2.5

TRANSFER FROM STORAGE TO SERVICING TANKS

6.2.5.1

General

Because sand is generally stored in a storage silo away from the dispensing tower
or tank, a method must be employed to transfer the sand from storage to the point
of use.

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A.

B.

If a sanding facility consists of a single gravity sand tower, direct fill lines can be
used to transfer sand from the vendors truck directly to the storage tank on the
sand tower. A transporter can also be used to convey sand from storage to a
single gravity sand tower.

C.

If a sanding facility consists of multiple gravity sand towers, a convenient method


must be employed to fill the towers with sand. Where space and geometry allow,

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direct fill lines can be used to transfer sand from the vendors truck directly to the
storage tank on each sand tower. More commonly, a storage silo and transporter
are required to transfer sand to each tower on the platform. The storage silo feeds
by gravity into a pressurized transporter. Level controls in the individual sand
towers determine when the transporter should convey sand.
D.

A.

If gravity is used to transfer sand from storage to the distribution point, then the
storage silo must be higher than the receiving tank. Care should be taken to
design the pipe that conveys the sand at a slope greater than the angle of repose
for the type of sand being used.

Pneumatic Transfer
A.

Sand can be transferred from storage to distribution pneumatically. A common


arrangement is a transfer or transport tank (also known as a blow tank or sand
pump) located underneath the storage silo. Sand enters the transport tank from
the silo by gravity. The transport tank is pressurized, and the sand is conveyed to
the distribution point(s).

B.

The nozzles for a simple transfer tank arrangement include a sand inlet, vent,
pressurization and sand outlet. The inlet and vent valves are opened and the outlet
and pressurization valves are closed during filling. The valve positions are
reversed to transfer sand. A valve is usually not needed on the sand outlet because
sand flow can be stopped by simply isolating the pressure.

C.

Due mainly to differences in sand flow velocities, dilute phase systems generate
more wear on system components. Dilute phase velocities range from 1,000 to
3,000 feet per minute and dense phase velocity is nearly 100 feet per minute.
Dilute phase systems are typically more complex, but dense phase flow can be
difficult to control and is susceptible to clogging. Dense phase flow typically
requires higher pressure and may require varied pressure if multiple receiving
tanks and varying distances are used.

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6.2.5.3

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Gravity Transfer

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6.2.5.2

In gantry crane systems, the storage silo is generally placed near the platform so
that the gantry crane can travel to the storage silo. The gantry crane hopper
receives sand from the storage silo by gravity. This necessitates storing the sand
at an elevation higher than the gantry crane.

6.2.5.4

Mechanical Transfer
A.

Mechanical means such as bucket elevators and conveyors can be used to elevate
sand from lower storage points to higher distribution or storage silos. Mechanical
systems generally require more maintenance due to the movement of parts.

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SECTION 6.3 SYSTEM TYPES


6.3.1

GRAVITY OVERHEAD SYSTEMS

6.3.1.1

General

B.

Height is the primary distinguishing attribute of gravity overhead systems. Care


must be taken while maintaining equipment on top of the towers. Hoists or
winches may be located outside the handrail. In order to provide a safe working
environment for maintenance workers, thought should be given to mounting
equipment outside the handrail on retractable arms that can be rotated back inside
the handrail for inspection and maintenance.

C.

Gravity sand towers should be equipped with load arrest systems to prevent the
uncontrolled descent of a dispensing arm in case of a broken arm support. The
load arrest system should be sized for the load of the arm plus any impact load.
Care should be taken to design the entire load arrest system for a similar capacity.
This could include the mounting brackets, load arrestor, and any additional cables
or connections.

D.

Occasionally moisture causes the sand in towers to clump, and maintenance


personnel must climb the sand tower to clear the blockage. This usually requires
the personnel to climb 20 to 30 feet up the tower and break the sand loose through
an access port.

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Gravity sand systems utilize gravity to transfer sand from an elevated distribution
point to the locomotive sand box. These include single spot towers located
between two tracks, single spot towers that straddle a single track, systems that
employ multiple towers along a platform, and gantry crane type systems.

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6.3.1.2

A.

Sand Tower System

Sanding towers are a common method of filling locomotive sand tanks. Sand is
delivered to the tower and fed to a storage silo above and adjacent to the tracks.
An arm is lowered, a valve opened, and sand flows by gravity down the inclined
arm to the locomotive tank. When the tank reaches the full level, the valve is
closed and the arm retracted.

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A.

Single spot towers located between the tracks generally consist of a lower support
constructed of rolled steel topped by a storage tank constructed of rolled steel.
Because the tower is located between the tracks, care must be taken to minimize
the exposure to the clearance envelope for each track. This results in a tall and
relatively narrow storage tank.

C.

Single spot towers that straddle a single track generally consist of a structural
steel support frame erected to hold a large storage tank constructed of rolled steel.

B.

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Because the tower straddles the track, the tank can be much wider and shorter to
achieve the same capacities provided by a tower located between the tracks. Care
must be taken to minimize the exposure to the clearance envelope for the track
being served as well as any adjacent tracks.
Design Considerations
Gravity dispensing lines should be not less than 2!-inch pipe leading at an angle
of 45 degrees from the overhead servicing tank to the sanding platform. These
pipes should not encroach on the clearance lines. These delivery pipes are
generally supported on posts above the platform or from the tower (1975).

B.

Valves should be placed in the gravity dispensing lines at the service tank
connection so that sand can be shut off when necessary to work on the delivery
pipe, hose or nozzle. Suitable lines should be provided for reaching top sand
boxes on certain types of switcher locomotives (1975).

C.

The flow of the sand must be controlled to prevent spillage at the sand box where
it is loaded. Various types of nozzles are available. Care should be exercised to
obtain a weatherproof unit. The size of the nozzle should be given consideration
to be sure it will fit into the sand box (1975).

D.

Swivel connections should be used at the transition from the fixed dispensing pipe
extending from the storage tank to the dispensing line that feeds the locomotive.
The connection used is typically a swivel valve or bucket valve. These valves
allow the upper pipe to remain fixed while allowing the lower pipe to move both
vertically and horizontally.

E.

Directional changes of pipe should be accomplished with wye or tee connections


to permit cleaning or rodding of the line in case of stoppage.

F.

Level controls should be included on the sand tower or storage tank. At a


minimum, the levels to be monitored include high level, low level, and low-low
level. The most reliable controls are generally diaphragm switches energized by
the pressure of the sand or paddle switches that are raised or lowered by the
changing sand level. At the location of the level controls, deflector plates should
be installed on the interior of the tank above the flanges to minimize the effect of
the sand overhead load on the controls themselves.

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A.

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6.3.1.3

A cleanout hatch, generally 24 inches in diameter, should be located in the cone


of the tank. This will allow the removal of the entire tank of sand if it gets wet.

H.

The swivel valve or bucket valve can be a susceptible point for moisture to
infiltrate the tank. Consideration should be given to shrouding the valve in a
flexible impermeable boot that will prevent the introduction of moisture into the
valve.

G.

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A manway should be located on top of the storage tank to allow access to the
interior of the tank for maintenance of equipment and troubleshooting. The tank
should be equipped with a fixed ladder on the inside shell of the tank directly
below the access point.

J.

The fill pipe for the storage tank should be routed through the underside of the
cone core and to the top of the storage tank. At the underside of the top of the
storage tank, a replaceable wear plate should be installed to minimize wear on the
tank.

K.

Where the dispensing arms are raised and lowered, a yoke should be employed to
limit the arms horizontal movement. The yoke also serves to guide the arm back
up into the final at-rest position.

L.

The vertical position of the arm can be adjusted with cable winches, chain hoists,
hydraulics, pneumatics, or counter weights. Counterweights are considered the
least safe of all options and are rarely used in new installations. Hydraulics and
pneumatics provide maximum control over the arms movements but can be
expensive and require more maintenance. The most common method to raise and
lower arms is the use of cable wire winches or chain hoists. Where chain hoists
are used, a receptacle should be included to accept the chain as the arm is
retracted. The receptacle will prevent the retracted chain from being blown by the
wind and becoming entangled with or damaging other equipment. The receptacle
should have a perforated bottom that is strong enough to hold the chain but also to
allow rain or snow to drain out.

M.

The horizontal position of the arms is generally adjusted manually by the operator
on the locomotive. Hydraulic and pneumatic systems are available to adjust the
arms horizontally.

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I.

6.3.2

GANTRY CRANE SYSTEMS

6.3.2.1

General

Power supply is an area of concern for gantry crane systems. Inside a shop or
covered service area, the gantry rides on an overhead rail and is powered using
bridge conductors routed along the crane runway. Outdoor gantry systems that
travel on a rail installed at grade are powered by a cable mounted on a retractable
cable drum. Care should be taken to not run over the cable when relocating the
gantry.

ot

A.

B.

Gantry crane sand system operators must be aware of the activities in the shop or
on the floor below them. Designers should consider the inclusion of a gantry
movement warning system that would consist of an enunciator and light to warn
shop or platform employees of the potential hazard.

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D.

Sand is delivered to a bulk storage silo that may be some distance from the
track(s) where the locomotive sanding is to take place. Sand is delivered to the
storage silo mechanically or pneumatically. When the storage silo has sufficient
sand available, it is pneumatically conveyed from the base of the storage silo to a
surge hopper located above the gantry system at one end of the track. Sand from
the surge hopper is fed by gravity to a transfer hopper on the gantry system. An
operator travels and controls operations from a control station on the overhead
system.

E.

When the transfer hopper on the gantry is full from the surge hopper, the operator
moves the unit to a position above a fill hatch. The gantry system has movement
in the longitudinal and transverse axes, which allows the operator to position the
fill spout above any of the sand boxes on a locomotive. The hatch is opened and
the fill hose is inserted. The fill valve opens and the hopper fills. When the
hopper is full, the fill hose is retracted and the gantry moved to the next location.

ed

Sand gantries can consist of freestanding structures that traverse a set of rails
embedded in a platform or floor. More commonly, a superstructure is constructed
along the length of the shop or servicing platform. A set of crane rails is installed
on top of the superstructure and the sand gantry traverses this rail.

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6.3.2.2

C.

Design Considerations
A.

The connection between the surge hopper and the transfer hopper should be as
waterproof as possible. If rainwater and snowmelt infiltrate the transfer hopper, it
can cause the sand to clump and clog.

6.3.3

PNEUMATIC CONVEYING SYSTEMS

6.3.3.1

General

Pneumatic systems use compressed air to transfer sand from storage to


distribution and then to the locomotive sand box. Compared to gravity flow
systems, pneumatic sand conveying systems introduce increased system
pressures, potentially higher sand velocities from dispensing systems, increased
wear on system components, periodic venting, and modified dispensing
equipment.

ot

A.

Common arrangements include a storage silo with a transport tank below it,
multiple distribution stations along the service platform, and sand dispensing
wands. Compressed air and a venting system are also required.

B.

C.

Sand is initially stored in an elevated sand storage silo directly above a transfer
tank. When the transfer tank is empty, the valve between the silo and the transfer
tank opens. The vent line valve also opens, and the transfer tank is allowed to
vent while sand is gravity fed to the transfer tank. The transfer tank is at

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atmospheric pressure during the fill process. The silo is allowed to vent through a
filter located directly on top of the silo or is hard piped to the venting system.
When the transfer tank is full, the valve between the silo and transfer tank closes.
The transfer tank is then pressurized. The material being conveyed is extruded
from the bottom of the tank into the conveying line. Some transfer tank systems
add supplemental air at the exit of the transfer tank to break the extrusion into
discrete plugs or pistons. The conveying mode in these systems is known as
pulsed-piston or plug flow.

E.

Sand is conveyed to distribution tanks located on the service platform. Single- or


multiple-tank arrangements can be used. When the distribution tank is full, it is
isolated from the system and pressurized.

F.

Sand is dispensed from the distribution tanks to the locomotive sand box through
a hose and sand fill wand. The operator lifts the wand into position and places the
end of the wand into the sand fill nozzle. A valve at the base of the wand is
opened and sand is dispensed into the sand box.

G.

In some systems, sand is stored in a silo and then conveyed by a transfer tank to
other smaller dispensing silos located along the service track. Each dispensing
silo is equipped with a filter vent and a proprietary transfer tank beneath. Sand is
conveyed from the transfer tanks to the locomotive sand boxes. Multiple
dispensing silos, transfer tanks, and filters may drive up capital and maintenance
costs.

H.

Venting air from the storage silo, transfer tank, and distribution tanks is generally
piped to a bag house.

I.

Boosters are commonly used to inject air into the conveying line at regular
intervals to help move the sand along.

J.

Safety considerations related to pressure are similar to other industrial processes


and include noise, system leakage or failure, and isolation during maintenance.

K.

The amount and source of pressure required for a pneumatic conveying system
depends upon the type and phase of sand flow: dilute, plug, or dense phase.
Generally, pressure requirements range from 10 psig for disbursed phase up to
150 psig for long-range dense phase flow. Pipe runs in long-range systems
typically do not exceed 1000 feet.

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D.

L.

Sources of noise in pressurized systems include air compressor and air drier
mechanical noise, air flow associated with high velocities, possible vibrations or
harmonics, venting operations, and leaks. Hearing protection notices should be
posted near such sources.

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N.

Dispensing and venting cycles typically release dust that must be captured and
collected. If the dispensing method requires close monitoring by the operator,
respiratory protective equipment should be considered. Increased dispensing
velocities can increase the amount of dust generated at the end of the nozzle.

O.

Dispensing equipment such as nozzles and hoses are handled differently than in
gravity systems. Wands, nozzles and hoses are usually filled with sand, and liftassisting devices such as pulleys, booms or balancers should be considered.

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Due to the inherent abrasion associated with sand flow, wear of internal
components may be exacerbated. Aggressive system inspection and maintenance
is warranted. Thicker pipe walls (schedule 80 or greater) can minimize wear.
System design should include manual valves to isolate maintenance areas from
pressurized parts of the system. The process should be designed to allow for
periods of complete depressurization while minimizing the impact on dispensing
schedules.

Types of Flow
A.

Pneumatic transfer systems use pressure as the motive force to move sand from
one tank to another. The mode of sand flow can be characterized by defining sand
phases as dilute, dense or intermediate. In the dilute phase, sand grains behave
independently of each other and are dispersed in air. In the dense phase, sand
grains are relatively compact and remain in contact with and experience little
motion relative to each other. In the intermediate phase, grains remain mostly in
contact but relative flow between grains exists. The mode of flow is determined
by the amount of motive pressure applied in the transfer tank and the point of
application of the pressurized air.

B.

In a typical dilute phase system, pressure is applied on the transfer tank and air is
injected into the outlet nozzle of the tank. The required transfer tank pressure is
that which will cause flow into the outlet nozzle. Once in the outlet nozzle, the
sand becomes entrained by the air injected into the nozzle. The sand travels in
dilute phase at a relatively high velocity in the transfer piping. The required
injection pressure needs to generate a sufficiently high velocity in the transfer
piping to keep the sand entrained.

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6.3.3.2

M.

In a typical dense phase system, the transfer tank pressure provides the sole
motive force to push the sand through the transfer piping. Sand is essentially
extruded through the transfer tank outlet nozzle and a dense phase is maintained.
The required transfer tank pressure needs to overcome the friction of the sand
against the pipe walls. In dense phase flow, the air flow rate is roughly
proportional to the sand flow rate.

C.

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To reduce friction, air can be cyclically pulsed into the sand to create shorter
plugs of sand. The pressurized air gap between each plug generated by the pulse
provides motive force to the upstream plug.

E.

Intermediate phase flow is caused by conditions that allow sand to settle along the
bottom of the transfer piping while air flows at a higher velocity above the sand.
The air interacts with the surface of the settled sand to create a rippled flow. This
condition can be developed using air velocities below that required for dilute
phase so that sand settles. It can also be developed near the downstream end of a
dense phase system as the motive air expands into the vented receiving tank.

ed

Design Considerations
Elevating tanks should be of the approved unfired pressure type with suitable
valves for admitting sand and air. The tank should be fitted with a relief cock to
release pressure after the elevating operation when the sand handling is controlled
manually (1975).

B.

All pressure tanks, including transport tanks and distribution tanks, should be
designed and fabricated in accordance with ASME Section VIII, Pressure Vessels.
All pressure tanks should include appropriate overpressure relief and protection.

C.

If transport tanks contain internal pipe, consider a flanged connection inside the
tank for easier replacement of worn internal piping.

D.

Consider using oversized threaded connections at points where valves connect


sand wand hoses to the distribution tanks. Small valves require replacement as
they wear out. If oversized connections are used, the reducing bushing will wear
out before the tank fitting. It is generally easier to replace the bushing than to
repair the tank.

E.

Where necessary to use sand shutoff cocks in an elevating line to change the flow
of sand from one servicing tank to another, cocks that are rugged in design and
material should be selected to prevent rapid wear by the sand (1975).

F.

Items to consider when selecting valve operators include personnel needs, level of
desired automation, durability in an abrasive environment, cycle times, and the
availability of power or compressed air for automated valves. Manual valves are
adequate for small, non-complex systems. As complexity increases, automation
can improve efficiency.

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A.

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6.3.3.3

D.

G.

Evaluate actuator size or bulkiness to ease overhead installation and maintenance


in areas with interfering piping and equipment. Select valve and actuator
combinations that minimize the intrusion of sand and dust into moving parts.

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Do not tie pneumatic operator supply lines into the distribution tank air supply
lines. The pressure fluctuations in the system will cause valve operator drift and
can lead to failure.

I.

To reduce wear on system components, the minimum air pressure that can be used
to move sand is desirable. Therefore, it is desirable to place an air-reducing valve
in the air supply line (1975). Selection of the operating pressure for a sand
transfer or distribution tank should be based primarily on producing the optimum
sand flow rate.

J.

Dry sand can be moved through 2! inches of pipe for horizontal distances up to
300 feet at 70 lb air pressure (1975). Sand can be transferred several hundred feet
in 2!-in pipe using transfer tank pressures between 50 and 100 psi.

K.

Sand dispensing rates from distribution tanks should support the shortest onstation time for a consist with nearly empty sanding bins. Thirty minutes is a
typical time for a rapid turnaround of locomotive servicing. In this case, each bin
would need to be filled at a rate of approximately 1.5 cfm of sand. If one
dispensing hose cannot provide this flow, the platform should be arranged so that
multiple hoses can reach one bin. Equipment handling should not inhibit the
efficient filling of bins.

L.

Sand transfer rates to distribution tanks should support the successive arrival of
consists onto a service platform.

M.

In dilute phase systems, pressures are generally less than 30 psi. In dense phase
systems, pressures range from 25 to more than 100 psi. System design should
allow for a range of possible pressure control set points so that field calibration
can be used.

N.

Depending upon dispensing hose configuration at the distribution tank, a small


pressure increase can significantly increase flow due to the transition from
restricted dense phase flow to intermediate phase flow. Further moderate
increases in pressure can cause a transition to dilute phase, generating significant
air flow from the hose and causing handling problems. Thus, a narrow range of
operating pressures can occur.

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H.

The pressurized air supply to a transfer or distribution tank can be controlled


based on pressure or volumetric flow rate. Constant-value control (i.e., constant
pressure or flow) is usually applied. Variable pressure or flow control is
uncommon.

O.

P.

Constant pressure control should be applied to tanks from which the discharge
configuration is constant. For example, a distribution tank with multiple, identical
distribution hoses would produce a nearly constant sand flow rate for a given
pressure regardless of the number of hoses being used at one time.

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Pressure can be controlled manually using a globe or other type of manual valve,
a pressure regulating valve, or an automatic valve that responds to a pressure
switch or pressure gauge.

R.

A critical flow orifice can be used to create constant flow. For a given inlet
pressure and orifice diameter, there is an associated outlet pressure below which
flow is constant. This type of control should be considered where the discharge
configuration varies, such as a transfer tank that provides sand to distribution
tanks at different distances. The closer tank would require less pressure than the
more distant tank. The critical flow orifice would allow for increased pressure to
generate the same air and sand flow rate.

S.

Distribution tanks and sand silos should contain level instruments. The type
depends on the level of system automation. Paddle-wheel and tuning-fork bulk
material sensors are generally used.

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Q.

SECTION 6.4 SANDING COMPONENTS

6.4.1

AIR SUPPLY SYSTEM

6.4.1.1

Air Requirements

Dry Air Bleed System: Dry air (to a dewpoint of 40F) can be continuously bled
into sand storage tanks and gravity silos at a rate of 1-2 SCFM as appropriate.
This should keep the headspace in the tank dry preventing condensation on the
inside walls of the tank which leads to clumping.

B.

Bag House Air: Bag houses for sand towers can be the rapper (mechanical
shaker) or reverse pulse jet type. The reverse pulse jet cleans the bags better than
the rapper type but requires air to clear the bags. Air used for bag houses should
also be dry air.

Air Pressure

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6.4.1.2

A.

The minimum air pressure that can be used to move sand is desirable, as lower
pressures materially reduce the wear in the pipe. Therefore, it is desirable to place
an air reducing valve in the air supply line and cut the pressure to the minimum
required to move the sand.

A.

B.

Dry sand can be moved through 2-1/2 inches pipe for horizontal distances up to
300 feet at 70 lb air pressure (1975).

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Compressor Systems
Several components of a compressed air system are critical to a properly
functioning system. These include the compressor, intercooler, aftercooler,
moisture separator, filters, receivers, and air dryer. The air compressors and their
critical components are available in multiple configurations, including lubricated
or oil-free, single-stage or multi-stage, and air-cooled or water-cooled.

B.

Lubricated systems allow traces of lubricant to enter the air stream, as it is present
in the compression chamber. An air-oil separator should be included on these
units to minimize the oil carryover in the air stream. Oil-free systems should be
used when the system cannot tolerate lubricant, as the lubricant is isolated from
the compression chamber and is used primarily for bearing lubrication.

C.

Single-stage units consisting of one compressing element or multiple compressing


elements acting in parallel are best suited for pressures of 60 psi or less and
airflow below 300 CFM. Large compression ratios in single-stage units may
result in excessive discharge temperatures that result in power loss and decreased
compressor efficiency. These losses may be reduced or eliminated using a multistage unit, which consists of two or more compressing elements working in series,
as the discharge air is cooled by an intercooler between the compression stages.
Multi-stage units are more desirable when pressures and flows exceed 100 psi and
300 CFM.

D.

Air-cooled compressors and oil coolers require ventilation air for proper
operation. Water-cooled compressors require water of an adequate quantity and
pressure.

E.

Reciprocating air compressors are positive-displacement compressors capable of


delivering up to approximately 6,000 CFM. Reciprocating units are appropriate
for base load or partial load applications.

F.

Rotary air compressors are positive-displacement compressors well suited for


high-pressure applications, typically 125-250 psi. Several types of rotary
compressors are available, with the most common being the oil-lubricated helical
screw. This type of compressor may deliver up to 3,000 CFM, and uses air- or
water-cooled oil coolers. The oil-free helical screw may deliver up to 12,000
CFM and is air- or water-cooled. The last type of rotary compressor is the oil-free
rotary lobe, which is available up to 500 CFM and is also air- or water-cooled.
Rotary compressors are best suited for continuous duty applications.

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A.

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6.4.1.3

G.

Centrifugal air compressors are dynamic compressors that use a rotating impeller
to increase the air pressure. They can deliver very high volumes of air at
relatively low pressures up to approximately 125 psi, are water-cooled and oilfree, as the running gear lubrication is sealed off from the air stream. Centrifugal
compressors should be used for continuous duty applications.

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The cooling system is essential to proper system operation. Compressor oil


removes some heat, even more in lubricated compressors because the oil is in the
combustion chamber. Multi-stage air compressors are equipped with intercoolers
to reduce the discharge air temperature between stages of compression.
Compressor systems typically include an aftercooler and moisture separator. The
aftercooler can be air- or water-cooled. The aftercooler lowers the compressed air
temperature to within approximately 20F of the ambient temperature, condensing
the water vapor in the air into liquid. A solenoid-operated moisture separator,
composed of a tank and water trap, should be installed with the aftercooler to
remove this condensate.

I.

Air quality is important to compressor performance as well as downstream


components. Particulates can be abrasive to working parts, resulting in wear on
the compressor, and ultimately poor system performance. Intake filters are
required to prevent these abrasives from entering the compressor. They should be
sized to adequately handle the inlet CFM of the compressor. Dry filters with a
minimum removal efficiency of 99 percent for particles 10 microns and larger are
usually used for reciprocating and rotary compressors. Two-stage dry filters that
provide 99 percent removal efficiency for particles larger than 0.3 microns can be
used for centrifugal compressors.

J.

Moisture and oil carryover can be detrimental to the downstream components,


especially the air dryer. A coalescing filter should be used prior to the air dryer to
prevent these particles from entering. Coalescing filters have efficiencies ranging
from 99.98 percent at 0.1-micron particle size to 99.9999 percent at 0.01 micron.
The maximum pressure drop is normally around 10 psi, with a maximum wetted
pressure drop of 3 to 3.5 psi. Service life for these filters is 6 to 12 months and up
to 5 years for high-performance filters. Coalescing filters should have a highquality automatic condensate drain.

K.

Particulates from the air dryer may be added to the air stream during the air
drying process. Thus, a particulate filter should be installed downstream of the air
dryer. Particulate filters have a nominal efficiency of 99.95 percent at 1-micron
particle size and an initial pressure drop of 1 psi. They should have a differential
pressure indicator to evaluate the condition of the filter element.

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H.

A properly sized air receiver should be installed downstream of the compressor if


the compressor does not run continuously or has constant blow off. The air
receiver helps stabilize system pressure, separates moisture and oil carryover, and
stores pressurized air in high-demand systems, preventing frequent loading and
unloading of the compressor. For compressors using standard induction-duty
motors, the air receiver should be sized to prevent the compressor from cycling
too often.
Compressor manufacturers typically recommend limiting the
compressor from cycling more than seven times per hour to prevent the induction
motor from burning out. The receiver should be provided with an automatic
condensate drain.

L.

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M.

Adequate ventilation should be provided to rooms housing air compressors and


air dryers to prevent room temperatures from exceeding 40C, as well as to
accommodate the air compressor load.

B.

Outside air intakes should be located at least 6 feet above the ground to prevent
intake of outside contaminants. Ideally, exhaust ducts should be located from the
exhaust fans above or in the vicinity of the major heat sources in the building,
including the air compressor, to directly remove the heat from the room. Air from
the air-cooled aftercooler may also be directly ducted from the building to remove
compressor heat during summertime applications. During the winter, the heat
from the aftercooler may be used to provide space heating. This may be
accomplished by locating a control damper in the exhaust duct that will open to
the room when the temperature is low.

ed

A.

AIR DRYERS
A.

Air leaving the compressor is saturated with water, and any further drop in
temperature causes the water vapor in the air to condense. Air dryers are used to
remove the majority of moisture left in the air stream, thus reducing the dewpoint
temperature of the air. Air dryers are rated based on pressure dewpoint
performance for standard conditions, which typically include inlet air flow, 100F
inlet temperature, 100 psi operating pressure, 100F maximum ambient
temperature for air-cooled units, 85F cooling water temperature for water-cooled
units, and 5 psi maximum pressure drop. Dryer sizing should be adjusted for
deviations from the standard rating conditions. Refrigerated and desiccant are the
two main types of air dryers most often used in compressed air systems.

B.

Refrigerated air dryers are condensation types that use a refrigeration process to
produce dewpoint temperatures in the range of 33 to 39F. Refrigerated air
dryers cannot produce dewpoint temperatures below 33F because the condensed
moisture could freeze on the coils. Thus, they are better served where the entire
air system is located within a warm environment.
Refrigerated dryers are
available as direct expansion (non-cycling) and cycling.

ot

6.4.2

Compressor Building Considerations

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6.4.1.4

All compressor systems should be protected against high temperatures, freezing


temperatures, high pressure, low oil pressure, and excessive vibration. Protection
against these events should be provided by alarms, automatic unloading,
automatic start/shutdown, and a manual reset.

C.

The refrigeration compressor runs continuously on a direct expansion dryer,


regardless of the load on the dryer, and should be used only for constant airflow
applications.

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E.

Desiccant dryers are adsorption-type dryers that use desiccant materials, typically
silica gel or activated alumina, to absorb the moisture in the air until they are
saturated, after which the material is regenerated by purging with dry air or
adding heat. Desiccant dryers typically have two vessels filled with the desiccant
material, one operating in the air drying mode and the other undergoing
regeneration. Desiccant dryers can produce dewpoint temperatures down to 40F, or may extend to -100F when silica gel is combined with activated alumina
desiccant material, making such systems ideal in cold weather environments.

F.

Heatless desiccant dryers use purge air to regenerate the desiccant material. They
provide consistent pressure dewpoints while minimizing maintenance and
maximizing desiccant life. However, the use of purge air requires the compressor
to deliver excess flow, as much as 15% of the inlet flow.

G.

When the compressor cannot supply this excess flow, a heated dryer should be
used. Heated desiccant dryers types available include internally heated, externally
heated, blower purge, and heat of compression. Internally and externally heated
dryers use a heater and low-rate purge to regenerate the desiccant. The blower
purge system uses a heater and small blower rather than the compressed air for
desiccant regeneration. In a heat-of-compression process, the hot compressed air
is used for regeneration; this process is ideal for oil-free systems.

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Cycling dryers use an intermediate fluid to cool the air, which is in turn cooled by
the refrigerant. The refrigeration compressor shuts down until the fluid
temperature reaches a temperature requiring cooling. Cycling dryers are ideal for
systems with varying airflow and temperature.

PIPING SYSTEM
A.

A slide gate valve is generally used between the sand silo and transport tank. The
valve can include an automated operator

B.

Valves and pipelines in pneumatic systems conveying sand are generally 2!


inches in diameter. Pipe is generally schedule 80, ASTM A53, seamless.

C.

Rubber-lined pinch valves should be used at distribution tank isolation points for
both the vent line and the fill line. Use of quarter-turn valves such as ball valves
and plug valves should be discouraged regardless of materials of construction, as
the high wear characteristics of the sand can cause high valve failure rates.
Sand handled under air pressure is abrasive to the pipe carrier. For such lines,
flanged pipe is preferable. The pipe ends should butt at connections so that
absolutely no space exists between them that could permit cutting action to begin
and wear down the pipe to a point where it enters the fitting. (1975)

ot

6.4.3

D.

D.

E.

At points in the line where sharp bends are necessary, either a heavy tee or a wye
connection should be used with a blind flange fastened to the dead end of the
fitting. This forms a pocket that fills with sand for deflection purposes. It has

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been determined that where the direction of flow is changed, the ricochet of sand
just beyond the fitting causes greater wear there than elsewhere in the pipe. It is
good practice to introduce a flanged replacement pipe section not less than 18
inches long immediately beyond the tee or wye fittings. All pipes should be
installed to allow access for replacement (1975).

G.

All pressure components of a system, including tanks and piping, should contain
appropriately ranged pressure indicators. Pressure drops in tanks may indicate a
leaking valve. Pressure increases in the system may indicate a system blockage.

SAND COCKS
A.

6.4.6

Where necessary to use sand shutoff cocks in an elevating line to change the flow
of sand from one servicing tank to another, care should be exercised in selecting a
suitable cock, as these units will quickly be worn by the sand if they are not
rugged enough in design and material.

NOZZLES
A.

Control of flow of sand is desirable to avoid spillage at the sand box where it is
loaded. Various types of nozzles are available. Care should be exercised to obtain
a weather proof unit. The size of the nozzle should be given consideration to be
sure it will fit into the sand box.

B.

Sand wands are generally constructed of aluminum because it is lighter than steel
and has good wear characteristics.

C.

A tool balancer can be used to help lift and store the sand wand and hose
assembly.

ELECTRICAL

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6.4.5

ed

Certain conditions may require placing a section of elevating pipe to offset some
obstacle, or space may permit a long-radius curve in the change of direction.
Specially manufactured hose is available for such locations, and in some
installations such hose has outlasted pipe. If such material is used, the life of the
hose will be extended if it is rotated a quarter turn at regular intervals (1975).

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6.4.4

F.

All equipment and materials and the design, construction, installation, and
application thereof shall comply with all applicable provisions of the National
Electrical Code (NEC), the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), and any
applicable Federal, state, and local ordinances, rules and regulations.

A.

B.

Electrical instruments and sensors shall be connected to 24VDC or 120 VAC as


required by instrument type.

C.

Normal convenience outlets should use 120 VAC.

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E.

Control cabinets where no 480 VAC is required shall at a minimum be fed from a
120 VAC panel board with the capability to provide 120 VAC and/or 24 VDC to
instrumentation.

LIGHTING
Suitable lighting should be provided at the sanding platform if night servicing is
required (1975).

B.

A minimum of 40 foot-candles is required for nighttime work.

C.

General lighting requirements should include enclosures complete with gaskets to


form weatherproof assembly, and low temperature ballasts, with reliable starting
to 0F.

ed

A.

AUTOMATION AND INSTRUMENTATION


A.

Simple, compact manual systems can be controlled and operated with pressure
gauges and manually operated valves. Compact systems allow the operator to
remain in the vicinity of all components to observe and control with little or no
automation.

B.

Where operators need to monitor or control remote system components, limited


automation should be considered. Remote reading gauges and automatic valves
with pushbuttons can assist a limited operating crew. Programmable logic
controllers (PLC) may not be necessary, and conventional relay and contact
control should suffice.

C.

As systems become more complex and cover more facility area, a PLC can
improve efficiency. Because sanding system operation and control is based on
discrete inputs, PLC complexity is based on the absolute number of inputs and
outputs. A multiple distribution tank pneumatic system can have an I/O count of
more than one hundred.

ot

6.4.8

Panel boards shall supply 120 VAC or 480 VAC depending on the loads served.

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6.4.7

D.

Instrumentation and control necessary to support complex sanding systems can


include timing devices, valve position feedback, level detectors, pressure
transmitters and gauges, pressure switches, dew point indicators, and compressed
air system monitoring.

D.

E.

Pressure transmitters and pressure monitoring at multiple locations within the


system should be strongly considered. Pressure is a good overall indication of
system performance. High pressures may indicate system clogging, and low
pressure may reveal rat-holing or an empty tank with a malfunctioning low-level
switch. Because system pressure set points may need adjustment or calibration

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during initial startup, continuously variable pressure signal input to a PLC will
allow for programming set points. Otherwise, manual adjustment of pressure
switches would be required.
SECTION 6.5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
WASTE SAND
Sand spillage is associated with all sanding systems, especially around sand
towers, sand unload points, and sand dispensing points. Facility design should
incorporate ways to minimize the amount of sand spilled. Old equipment that is
prone to leakage should be replaced.

B.

Waste sand can damage or impede the performance of storm water and industrial
wastewater systems; consequently, large amounts of sand should not enter any of
these systems. An adequately sized grit chamber should be installed on industrial
wastewater lines at the platform.

C.

Large amounts of spilled sand should be removed either by shovel or machine.


Sand should not be washed down platform drains. Sand should be cleaned up
promptly to avoid slip and fall hazards.

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A.

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6.5.1

6.5.2

AIR QUALITY

6.5.2.1

General

B.

Typically it is necessary to contact only the local agency to determine whether a


permit is required. Air quality regulations typically exempt certain equipment or
conditions from permit requirements. Before contacting the agency, it is
important to estimate the amount of particulate matter that may be released from
the sources.

ot

Many air pollution agencies require permits for equipment with the potential to
emit particulate matter. Potential sources of particulate matter at a sanding
facility are tank venting points, system venting points such as bughouses, and the
locomotive sand box fill point.

Tank/Silo Venting

6.5.2.2

A.

A.

Tanks should never vent directly to atmosphere.

B.

Tanks can be connected to the system vent piping. Care should be taken to
accurately account for system backpressure on the vent piping and/or the tank
venting device.

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C.

In pneumatic systems, sand is dispensed or transported to other tanks by


pressurizing the dispensing or transporter tank. To refill the tanks, the pressure in
the tank must be reduced so that the upstream, pressurized source of sand can
flow into the tank. To release the pressure, tanks are typically vented to
atmosphere via a dust collecting system. Venting system configurations consist of
a tank nozzle, vent valve, and a length of piping to route the vented air and dust to
the dust collector.

B.

Depressurization rates from pressurized tanks depend upon initial pressure, pipe
diameters, valve size and whether flow control devices are used. The volume of
air released is a function of the initial pressure in the tank, the total volume of the
empty tank, and the volume of sand in the tank when the tank is vented. Sand
volume consists of roughly 50% void space.

C.

Venting pipe is generally subjected to less wear than sand piping, and schedule 40
carbon steel piping is adequate.

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Bag House Venting


A.

Air is vented to the atmosphere during tank depressurization and sand conveyance
and distribution. The vented air contains entrained dust, which may be considered
a polluting particulate. Some methods for capturing and collecting dust include
the use of bin vents, dust collectors or bag houses, or cyclone separators. The
devices can be mounted on top of tanks or silos so that the captured dust falls into
the tank or silo. Alternatively, free-standing devices contain a hopper to collect
the dust, which can be periodically emptied to a roll-off box, drum, or other
container for transport to a dust disposal site.

B.

The characteristics of dust generated in typical railroad sanding systems are


compatible with dust removal processes in a bag house. The main component of a
bag house is the fabric, cloth or membrane used to filter the dust particles from
the stream of air flowing through the fabrics pores. The fabric is typically
assembled into bags to increase the surface area of fabric that can be contained in
the house. Tubular structures (e.g., mesh, cage, or perforated pipe) support the
bags against collapse.

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6.5.2.4

System Venting

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Tanks can utilize individual vent filters or bag houses. The air is filtered as it
leaves the tank. Filters and bin vents are generally located on top of the tank or
bin. Filtering devices on each tank cause less waste, but they can be more
expensive and require more maintenance than centralized venting systems.

C.

Systems that operate at atmospheric or low pressure may require an exhaust fan to
pull the dust from the system. Bag house fans are usually located on the
downstream side of the bags, thus pulling the dust to the fabric.

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D.

As dust is collected, it adheres to and builds up on the bag, clogging the vent
pathway. The dust can be removed using a reverse-flow pulse of air or mechanical
agitation. Pulses are applied cyclically, and agitation can be applied cyclically or
continuously. The dust removed from the outside of the bag falls into a hopper or
the tank or silo onto which the bag house is mounted.
SECTION 6.6 REFERENCES

CODES
ASME B19.1, Safety Standards for Air Compressor Systems, and ASME B19.3,
Safety Standards for Compressors for Process Industries, both discuss safety
standards for the construction, installation, operation and maintenance of air and
gas compression equipment.

B.

ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII address the rules of safety
for design, fabrication and inspection of pressure vessels.

C.

OSHA Standard 1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure.

D.

Atmospheric Storage Tanks: The design of bulk storage tanks is not covered by
any U.S. standards or codes. However, the American Iron and Steel Institute
(AISI) has a useful publication entitled Useful Information on the Design of Steel
Bins and Silos, which suggests potentially relevant design standards and codes.

E.

Pressure Vessels: All pressure tanks, including transport tanks and distribution
tanks, should be designed and fabricated in accordance with ASME Section VIII,
Pressure Vessels.

F.

Tank Venting: Although American Petroleum Institute (API) standards do not


apply to bulk storage tanks, API 2000, Venting Atmospheric and Low Pressure
Storage Tanks, can provide a useful design guide for venting requirements.

G.

ASME B31.1, Power Piping.

H.

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ASHRAE

PUBLICATIONS

6.6.2

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6.6.1

A.

Pneumatic Conveying Design Guide by David Mills, 1990, University Press,


Cambridge. A good source of pneumatic conveying theory, as well as data on the
flow of sand.

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Pneumatic Points to Ponder, by Paul E. Solt, Powder and Bulk Engineering


Magazine, CSC Publishing. Reprints of numerous articles can be purchased. Solt
covers many aspects of pneumatic conveying.

C.

Useful Information on the Design of Steel Bins and Silos, by John R. Buzek, 1989,
the American Iron and Steel Institute. Contains useful design criteria for the
design of bulk storage tanks.

D.

Pressure Vessel Design Handbook, by Henry H. Bednar, 1986, Krieger


Publishing Company. Useful guide for pressure vessel considerations.

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B.

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Figure 6-6-1 Typical Locomotive Sanding System.

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Figure 6-6-2 Overhead Gravity Sand Tower System

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Figure 6-6-3 Gantry Crane Sanding System

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Figure 6-6-4 Dual Pneumatic Conveying Sand System.

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