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# EXAM #4 Review FALL 2010

Name: __________________________

1. A researcher selects a random sample. A 90% confidence interval for a population mean

## A) is an interval with margin of error 90%.

B) has the property that if we repeatedly selected our random sample in exactly the same way,
each time constructing a different 90% confidence interval for , then in the long run 90% of those
intervals would contain .
C) (a) and (b) are both true.
D) is an interval that has width .90.
2. The critical value, z*, used for constructing a 96% confidence interval for a population mean is
A) 1.645.
B) 2.054.
C) 2.326
D) 2.576.
3. A 99% confidence interval for the average weight of a population is computed from a random sample
and found to be 6 2, or 4 to 8. We may conclude that
A) there is a 99% probability that is between 4 and 8.
B) there is a 99% probability that the true mean is 6, and there is a 99% chance that the true
margin of error is 2.
C) if we took many, many additional random samples, and from each computed a 99%
confidence interval for , approximately 99% of these intervals would contain .
D) all of the above.
Use the following to answer questions 4-5:
The population of the scores of all high school seniors that took the SAT-M test (mathematics component of
the SAT test) last year followed a Normal distribution, with mean and standard deviation = 100. You
read a report that says, On the basis of a simple random sample of 500 high school seniors that took the
SAT-M test this year, a confidence interval for is 512.00 11.52.
4.

## The confidence level for this confidence interval is

A) 90%.
B)
95%.
C) 99%. D) unable to be determined

5.

## A 95% confidence interval for would be

A) 503.24 to 520.77
B) 500.48 to 523.52.
C) 316 to 708.
D) none of the above.

The scores of a certain population on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) are thought to be
Normally distributed with mean and standard deviation = 10. A simple random sample of 25 children
from this population is taken and each is given the WISC. The mean of the 25 scores is x = 104.32
6.

## Based on these data, a 95% confidence interval for is

A)
104.32 0.78
B)
104.32 3.29
C)
104.32 3.92
D)
104.32 19.60

7.

In formulating hypotheses for a statistical test of significance, the null hypothesis is often
A) a statement about the population the researcher suspects is true and for which he/she is trying to
find evidence.
B) a statement of no effect or no difference.
C) a statement about the sample mean.
D) 0.05.

8.

In formulating hypotheses for a statistical test of significance, the alternative hypothesis is often
A) a statement about the population the researcher suspects is true and for which he/she is trying to
find evidence.
B) a statement of no effect or no difference.
C) a statement about the sample mean.
D) 0.05.

9.

## In a test of hypotheses, the P-value is

A) the probability, assuming the null hypothesis is true, that the test statistic will take a value at
least as extreme as that actually observed.
B) the probability, assuming the null hypothesis is false, that the test statistic will take a value at
least as extreme as that actually observed.
C) the probability the null hypothesis is true.
D) the probability the null hypothesis is false.

## Use the following to answer questions 10-12:

The Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes (SSHA) is a psychological test that measures the motivation,
attitudes, and study habits of college students. Scores range from 0 to 200 and follow (approximately) a
Normal distribution, with mean of 115 and standard deviation 25. A researcher suspects that incoming
freshmen have a mean , which is different from 115, because they are often excited yet anxious about
entering college. To verify her suspicion, she tests the hypotheses
H0: = 115 Ha: 115.
The researcher gives the SSHA to 100 incoming freshmen and observes a mean score of 119. Assume that
the scores of all incoming freshmen are approximately Normal with the same standard deviation as the
scores of all college students.
10.

11.

A)
0.0082.
B) 0.0164

## Based on the P-value computed in problem 21 above,

A) the data are not statistically significant at level = .05 and not statistically significant at level
= .01.
B) the data are statistically significant at level = .05 and at level = .01.
C) the data are statistically significant at level = .05, but not at level = .01.
D) the data are statistically significant at level = .01, but not at level = .05.

12. If the researcher deems the data to be statistically significant, which of the following is true with
respect to a conclusion reached?
A) The researcher has strong enough evidence to conclude that the average freshmen SSHA score
differs from that of the average SSHA score for all college students.
B) The researcher does not have strong enough evidence to conclude that the average freshmen
SSHA score differs from that of the average SSHA score for all college students.
C) The researcher has proven that the mean SSHA score for freshmen is, in fact, 115.
D) The researcher has proven that the mean SSHA score for freshmen is not 115.
13.
Suppose in a test of hypotheses, the researcher observes data and computes a P-value of P =
0.0001. He then decides that these data are statistically significant. Since the P-value is so small,
A) the researcher has proven that the null hypothesis is false.
B) the researcher has strong evidence that the claim as stated in the alternative hypothesis is true,
but there is no indication of how big the effect is.
C) the researcher may now conclude that not only is there an effect, but the effect must be very
large.
D) the researcher should conclude that terrible errors were made in collecting data. After all, a Pvalue such as P = 0.0001 means that if the null hypothesis is true, a sample like this one was
virtually impossible to occur by chance.
Use the following to answer questions 14-15:
The amount of time customers at a Quick-Change motor oil store spend waiting for their cars to be
serviced has the Normal distribution with mean and standard deviation = 4 minutes. It is company
policy that the customer wait time should be 20 minutes (or less). The manager of a particular store selects
a random sample of 150 customer wait times and observes a mean wait time of 21 minutes.
14.

A 95% confidence interval for the mean waiting time for customers is about
A) 21 0.05 minutes.
B)
21 7.84 minutes.
C) 21 0.54 minutes.
D)
21 0.64 minutes

15.
If the manager had selected more customers for her sample, the margin of error in the 95%
confidence interval computed in question 3 above would
A) become larger. B)
not change.
C) become smaller. D) become larger or smaller, depending on the sample taken.
Use the following to answer question 16:
The time (in number of days) until maturity of a certain variety of tomato plant is Normally distributed with
mean and standard deviation = 2.4. A simple random sample of four plants of this variety is selected.
The number of days until maturity for each plant is given below
63
16.

69

62

66

## Based on these data, a 99% confidence interval for , in days, is

A) 65.00 1.55.
B) 65.00 2.35.
C) 65.00 3.09.
D) 65.00 4.07.

17.
Suppose we want a 90% confidence interval for the average amount of time (in minutes) spent per
week on homework by the students in a large introductory statistics course at a large university. The
interval is to have a margin of error of 2 minutes, and the amount spent has a Normal distribution with a
standard deviation = 30 minutes. The number of observations required is closest to
A) 25
B) 30
C) 609
D) 865
Use the following to answer questions 18-20:
An SRS of 20 recent birth records at the local hospital were selected. In the sample, the average birth
weight was 121.4 ounces and the standard deviation was 7.5 ounces. Assume that in the population of all
babies born in this hospital, the birth weights follow a Normal distribution, with some mean .
18.
The standard error of the mean is
A) 27.1 B) 6.1
C) 1.7 D) 0.4
19.
We are interested in a 99% confidence interval for the population mean birth weight. The margin
of error associated with the confidence interval is
A) 21.46 ounces
B) 4.80 ounces
C) 1.07 ounce.
D) 0.84 ounces.
20.

A 90% confidence interval for the population mean birth weight based on these data is
A) 121.4 5.63 ounces B) 121.4 4.80 ounces.
C) 121.4 3.29 ounces D) 121.4 2.89 ounces.

21.
The one sample t statistic from a sample of n = 25 observations for the two-sided test of
H0: = 9, Ha: > 9
has the value t = 1.84. Based on this information
A) P-value > 0.10.
B) 0.025 < P-value < 0.05.
C) we would reject the null hypothesis at = 0.025.
D) both (b) and (c) are correct.
22. Scores on the SAT Mathematics test (SAT-M) are believed to be Normally distributed, with mean .
The scores of a random sample of three students who recently took the exam are 550, 620, and 480. A 95%
confidence interval for based on these data is
A) 550.00 173.88 B)550.00 142.00 C) 550.00 128.58 D) 550.00 105.01.
50 Patients were treated with a new drug thought to reduce cholesterol levels. The average for their age
group is 200. The average after the test was 192, with a std deviation of 21. Is there Evidence that the
drug reduced cholesterol levels?
23.

## The appropriate hypotheses are

A) H0: = 200, Ha: < 200
C) H0: = 192, Ha: 192

24.

## The appropriate degrees of freedom for this test are

A) 21 B) 49 C) 51 D) 200

## B) H0: = 200, Ha: > 200.

D) H0: = 200, Ha: 200.

25.

## Based on the data, the value of the one-sample t statistic is

A) 3.42 B) 2.89 C) 2.69 D) 2.89.

26.

## The P-value for the one-sample t test is

A) larger than 0.10
B) between 0.10 and 0.05.
C) between 0.05 and 0.01.
D) below 0.01.

27.
Suppose the mean and standard deviation obtained were based on a sample of 100 patients rather
than 50. The P-value would be
A) larger
B) smaller.
C) unchanged, because the difference between x and the hypothesized value = 200 is
unchanged.
D) unchanged, because the variability measured by the standard deviation stays the same.
28.
Do students tend to improve their math SAT scores the second time they take the test? A random
sample of four students who took the test twice received the following scores:
Student
First score
Second score

1
450
440

2
520
600

3
720
720

4
600
630

Assume that the change in math SAT score (second score first score) for the population of all students
taking the test twice is Normally distributed, with mean . A 90% confidence interval for is
A) 25.0 64.29 B) 25.0 47.54 C) 25.0 43.08 D) 25.0 33.24
29.
You are thinking of employing a t-procedure to test hypotheses about the mean of a population
using a significance level of 0.05. You suspect the distribution of the population is not Normal and may be
moderately skewed. Which of the following statements is correct?
A) You should not use the t-procedure, because the population does not have a normal
distribution.
B) You may use the t-procedure, provided your sample size is large, say, at least 50.
C) You may use the t-procedure, but you should probably claim the significance level is only
0.10.
D) You may not use the t-procedure, because t-procedures are robust to non-Normality for
confidence intervals but not for tests of hypotheses.
30.

## Which of the following is an example of a matched pairs design?

A) A teacher compares the pretest and posttest scores of students.
B) A teacher compares the scores of students using a computer-based method of instruction, with
the scores of other students using a traditional method of instruction.
C) A teacher compares the scores of students in her class on a standardized test with the national
average score.
D) A teacher calculates the average of scores of students on a pair of tests and wishes to see if this
average is larger than 80%.

31.
Do SAT coaching classes work? Do they help students to improve their test scores? Four students
were selected randomly from all of the students that completed an SAT coaching class. For each student,
we recorded their first SAT score (before the class) and their second SAT score (after the coaching class).
Student
1
2
3
4
First SAT score
920 830
960
910
Second SAT score 1010 800
1000
980
To analyze this data, we should use
A) the one-sample t test.
B) the matched pairs t test.
C) the two-sample t test.
D) Any of the above are valid. It just needs to be some type of t test since is unknown.
Use the following to answer questions 32-34:
A psychologist has developed a set of activities which she hopes will help children develop better reading
skills. In a study of the effectiveness of these activities, one class of second grade children learns with the
activities. Another class of second grade children serves as the control and learned without the activities.
After some period of time, the reading skills of all of these children were assessed. A summary of these
data is:
x
n
s
Activities class:
21
51.48
11.01
No Activities class:
23
41.52
17.15
32.
A 95% confidence interval for the difference in mean reading skill score between children that
learned with activities and children that learned without activities is (use Option 2, the conservative
method for degrees of freedom)
A) 0.97 to 18.95 points.
B) 2.53 to 17.39 points.
C) 8.83 to 11.09 points.
D) 6.45 to 13.47 points.
33.
The psychologist suspects that children who learn with activities have higher mean reading skill
test scores than children that don't learn with activities. Based on these data, the computed two-sample t
statistic is
A) 1.84.
B) 2.02.
C) 2.31.
D) 4.70.
34.

The P-value for the test described in question 5 (again, using Option 2 for degrees of freedom) is
A) larger than 0.05.
B) between 0.025 and 0.05.
C) between 0.02 and 0.025.
D) between 0.01 and 0.02.

## Use the following to answer questions 35-38:

Each person in a random sample of 1100 likely voters (as defined by a professional polling organization)
was questioned about his or her political views. Of those surveyed, 708 felt that the economy's state was
the most urgent national concern.
35.

The sample proportion p that felt the economy's state was the most urgent national concern is
A) 0.357.
B) 0.500.
C) 0.473.
D) 0.643.

36.

The standard error SE of p , the sample proportion viewing the economy's state as most urgent, is
A) 0.0144.
B) 0.0241.
C) 0.4790.
D) 0.5184.

37.
A 99% confidence interval for the proportion p of all likely voters that feel the economy's state is
the most urgent national concern is given by (use the plus four confidence interval procedure)
A) 0.624 to 0.663.
B) 0.620 to 0.667.
C) 0.615 to 0.672.
D) 0.606 to 0.680.
38.
If we want to estimate p, the population proportion of likely voters that believe the economy's state
is the most urgent national concern with 99% confidence and a margin of error no greater than 2%, how
many likely voters need to be surveyed? Assume that you have no idea of the value of p.
A) 2401
B) 3484
C) 4148
D) 8256
Use the following to answer questions 39-40:
A local board of education conducted a survey of residents in the community concerning a property tax
levy on the coming local ballot. They randomly selected 850 residents in the community and contacted
them by telephone. Of the 850 residents surveyed, 410 supported the property tax levy. Let p represent the
proportion of residents in the community that support the property tax levy.
39.

## A 90% confidence interval for p is

A) 0.4489 to 0.5159.
B) 0.4543 to 0.5105.
C) 0.4487 to 0.5161.
D) 0.4463 to 0.5185.

40.
How large a sample n would you need to estimate p with margin of error 0.04 with 95%
confidence? Assume that you don't know anything about the value of p.
A) n = 49
B) n = 750
C) n = 2400
D) n = 4802
41.
to

If X and Y are categorical variables, the best way to determine if there is a relation between them is
A)
B)
C)
D)

## calculate the correlation between X and Y.

draw a scatterplot of the X and Y values.
make a two-way table of the X and Y values.
all of the above.

## Use the following to answer questions 42-46:

In the United States, there is a strong relationship between smoking and education, with well-educated
people less likely to smoke. A study in France included a sample of 459 men who were selected at random
from men who had visited a health center for a routine checkup. Education is classified into three
categories corresponding to the highest level of education and smoking status is classified into four
categories.

42.

43.

44.

The proportion of men with a primary school education that are nonsmokers is
A) 0.12.
B) 0.30.
C) 0.38.
D) 0.58.
The proportion of former smokers with a university education is
A) 0.22.
B) 0.17.
C) 0.12.
D) 0.06.
This is an r c table. The number c has value
A) 2.
B) 3.
C) 4.
D) 6.

45.
Suppose we wish to test the null hypothesis that there is no association between education level and
smoking status. Under the null hypothesis, the expected number of nonsmokers with a primary school
education is
A) 42.37.
B) 50.93.
C) 59.48.
D) 62.34.
46.

The degrees of freedom for the chi-square test for this two-way table are
A) 2.
B) 6.
C) 7.
D) 12.

## Use the following to answer questions 47-50:

Do women and men treat female and male children differently? An observational study was conducted
near the primate exhibit at the Columbus Zoo on weekends in 1997. The data are from 39 groups of three
one adult female, one adult male, and one toddler, in which the toddler was being carried. Recorded
below is which adult (male or female) was carrying the toddler by the sex of the toddler.

47.

## The proportion of times a male adult was carrying the toddler is

A) 0.32.
B) 0.36.
C) 0.57.
D) 0.64.

48.

The proportion of all male toddlers that were carried by a male adult is
A) 0.32.
B) 0.36.
C) 0.57.
D) 0.64.

49.
Suppose we wish to test the null hypothesis that the proportion of male adults and the proportion of
female adults carrying a toddler is the same, regardless of the sex of the toddler. Under the null
hypothesis, the expected number of times a male adult would be carrying a male toddler according to the
table is
A) 9.
B) 8.
C) 6.
D) 5.

50.
The numerical value of the chi-square statistic for testing independence of sex of the adult and sex
of the toddler is
A) 0.460.
B) 0.498.
C) 3.94.
D) 39.27.
Use the following to answer questions 51-54:
The level of various substances in the blood is known to influence our health. Below are measurements of
the level of phosphate in the blood of a patient, in milligrams of phosphate per deciliter of blood, made on
nine consecutive visits to a clinic.
5.6

5.2

4.6

4.9

5.7

6.4

5.9

6.7

4.2

51.

What is the mean level of phosphate for the nine clinic visits?
A) 6.15 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
B) 5.6 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
C) 5.47 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
D) 4.8 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter

52.

What is the median level of phosphate for the nine clinic visits?
A) 5.6 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
B) 5.65 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
C) 5.7 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
D) 6.4 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter

53.

## What is the first quartile for these data?

A) 4.4 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
B) 4.6 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
C) 4.75 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
D) 5.6 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter

54.

## What is the standard deviation for these data?

A) 0.82 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
B) 1.41 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
C) 0.68 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter
D) 1.32 milligrams of phosphate per deciliter

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