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DESIGN PROCEDURE BLOCK DIAGRAM

FIELD DATA
A,

CONDUCTOR SIZE
ts,d,Io

TOUCH & STEP


CRITERIA
Etouch70, Estep70

INITIAL DESIGN
D,n,LT,h

GRID RESISTANCE
Rg,LT
MODIFY DESIGN
D,n,LT,LR

GRID CURRENT
IG

YES
GPR < Etouch

NO
MESH & STEP
VOLTAGES
Em,Es,Km,Ks,Ki,Kii

NO
Em<Etouch

YES
NO
Es<Estep

YES
DETAIL
DESIGN

EARTHING CALCULATION

GENERAL DESIGN DATA

Soil Resistivity,

Gravel Resistivity,

Symmetrical Short Circuit Current, Iefs

Duration of Earth Fault Current, ts

0.3 Sec

Design Ambient Temperature

50 C

Thickness of Crushed Gravel, hs

0.3 m

Depth of Earth Grid, h

0.8 m

Reference depth of the Grid, ho

Standard Used

SIZE OF EARTHING CONDUCTOR :

Amm 2 =

Where

600 Ohm-M

2000 Ohm-M
50000 A

1m
IEEE - 80 : 2000

TCAP10
t c r r

)(
ln

K 0 +T m
K 0 +T a

Eqn.: 40 Page : 43
IEEE Std. 80 - 2000

Material Proposed

Zinc-coated steel rod

= Resistivity of Conductor Material

= Thermal co-efficient of resistivity at reference temperature Tr in 1/C

20.1

Tm

= Max. allowable temperature in C

419 C

Ta

= Ambient temperature in C

Ko

r 1/r - Tr in C

Iefs

= rms current in Ka

50 KA

= Duration of Current in s

0.3 Sec.

tc

0.0032 Ohm - M

40 C
293

TCAP

= thermal capacity per unit volume from Table 1

3.93 J/(cmC)

Amm

= Conductor cross section in mm

402 mm

SELECTED CONDUCTOR (GI Strip)


Diameter of equivalent Grid Conductor ,d

= 75 mm x 6 mm =
=

450.0 mm
0.03 m

EARTHING CALCULATION
TOUCH & STEP CRITERIA

K=

+ s

0 . 09 1
C s=

Eqn. 21, Page 21, IEEE 80 2000

Eqn. 27, Page 23, IEEE 80 2000

2 hs+ 0. 09

= Reflection factor between different material resistivities

= Resistivity of the earth beneath the surface material in .m

= Surface material resistivity in .m

hs

= Thickness of the surface material in m

Cs

= Surface layer derating factor

Estep70 (1000 6Cs s )

0.157
ts

-0.54

Cs

0.91

Eqn. 30, Page 27, IEEE 80 2000

Where

Estep 70

= Step Voltage for body weight of 70 kg

Estep 70

Where

Etouch70

Eto u c h7 0 (1 0 0 0 1.5Cs s )

3412.28 Volts

Eqn. 33, Page 27, IEEE 80 2000

0 .1 5 7
ts

= Touch Voltage for body weight of 70 kg

Etouch70

1068.05 Volts

EARTHING CALCULATION
C

INITIAL DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS


Length
450

Breadth
250

Preliminary Layout of Grid

= Number of parallel conductors

15

= Conductor Spacing

30 m

= Depth of grid burial

0.8 m

LT =2 Na L
Lp

= Length of the conductor across perimeter

1800 m

Nr

= No. of Ground Rods

33

Lr

= Length of Ground Rods

3m

LR

= Total length of Ground Rods

99 m

LC

= Total length of buried condcutor

8200 m

LT

= Total length of buried conductors & rods

8299 m

Lx

= Maximum length of conductor in X-Axis

450

Ly

= Maximum length of conductor in Y-Axis

250

GRID RESISTANCE

112500 m

R g =

1
1
1
+
1+
LT 20 A
1+h 20/ A

)]

Where
A

= Area of the Grid

Rg

= Grid Resistance
=

Rg

0.87

MAXIMUM GRID CURRENT

IG D f I g
Where
Ig
Df

= Maximum grid current in A

50000 A

= Decrement factor for the entire duration of fault, given in s

IG

0.6

30000 A

GROUND POTENTIAL RISE

GPR=I GR g
GPR

26042.3 V

EARTHING CALCULATION
GPR
VERIFICATION FOR HUMAN SAFETY
The safety to personnel is specified by IEEE 80, which requires to limit the development of
electrical potential to dangerous value during earth fault current.
The regulation stipulates the following parameters to be within the permissible limit
a)

Step Voltage (Foot to Foot Contact)

b)

Touch Voltage(Hand to Foot Contact)

CALCULATION FOR ACTUAL DERIVED STEP & MESH VOLTAGE

Mesh Voltage

I G K m K i

Emesh( Design )=

LC + 1. 55+1 . 22

Ki

Lr
L2x +l 2Ly

Eqn. 80, Page 91,


IEEE 80, 2000

)]

LR

= Corrective factor for current irregularity

K i= 0. 644 +0 . 148 n
Where

n =na nb n c nd
na =

2 LT
LP
na

9.1

nb

= 1 for square grids

nc

= 1 for square and rectangular grids

nd

= 1 for square, rectangular and L-shaped grids

Km

9.11

Ki

1.99

= Spacing factor for Mesh Voltage

Eqn. 68 Page 113 IEEE 80


2

( D +2 h )
1
D2
h
Kii
8
Km=
ln
+

+
ln
2
16 hd
8 Dd
4d
Kh
( 2 n1 )

Where

Kii

= Corrective wieghting factor that adjusts the effect of inner conductors on the corner mesh

K ii=

1
( 2n )

2
n

Eqn. 81, Page 93


IEEE 80, 2000

K ii=

EARTHING CALCULATION

1
( 2n )

2
n

EARTHING CALCULATION

Kh

0.64

Kii

1.00 With Rods

h
1+
(
)
ho

Where

= Corrective weighting factor that empasising the grid depth

ho

Kii

= Reference depth of grid

= Depth of the ground grid conductor

0.8

Kh

1.34

Km

0.96

Emesh (Design )

4104.44 Volts

Calculated Mesh Voltage is Greater than the Tolerable Touch Voltage. MODIFY DESIGN
B

Step Voltage
Voltage developed for step as per the earthing system proposed during full Earth fault current

Estep ( Design )=

Eqn. 92, Page 94


IEEE 80, 2000

[ ( Ks Ki I G ) ]
[ 0 . 75 LC +0 . 85 LR ]

Where

Ks

= Spacing factor for Step voltage

Ks=

1
1
1 0 .5 n2
+
+
2 h D +h
D

)]

Ks

Eqn. 94, Page 94, IEEE 80, 2000

0.220

1.992444444

K i= 0 . 644 +0 .148 n
Ki

Estep (Design )

Estep (Design )
Err:502

1265.62 Volts

Err:502 Volts

EARTHING CALCULATION
SUMMARY

EARTH GRID CONDUCTOR


Type of Conductor

Zinc-coated steel rod

Size of Conductor

450

mm

Length of Conductor

8200

mtr

Depth of Conductor

0.8

m below GL

Total Length of Ground Rods

99

mtr

Length of Individual Ground Rods

mtr

No. of Ground Rods

33

No.

GROUND RODS

HUMAN SAFETY

Step Voltage
Mesh Voltage

UNIT

Designed Value

Permissible Value

Volt

3412

Err:502

Volt

1068.05

4104

TABLE 1 - MATERIAL CONSTANTS


Material
Conductivity
(%)

Description

Copper annealed
1 soft - drawn

Copper, commercial
hard - drawn

Copper-clad steel
3 wire
Copper-clad steel
4 wire
Copper-clad steel
5 rod
Aluminium EC
6 Grade
Aluminium 5005
7 alloy
Aluminium 6201
8 alloy
Aluminium-clad steel
9 wire
10

Steel, 1020

r factor

Fusing
Temperature
Tm (C)

K0 at
(0C)

at 20C

100

0.00393

234

1083

97

0.00381

242

1084

40

0.00378

245

1084

30

0.00378

245

700

20

0.00378

245

1084

61

0.00403

228

657

53.5

0.00353

263

652

52.5

0.00347

268

654

20.3

0.0036

258

657

10

Stainless - clad steel


11 rod
11
Zinc-coated steel
12 rod
12
13 Stanless steel, 304 13

10.8 10

0.0016 10

605 10

1510 10

9.8 11

0.0016 11

605 11

1400 11

8.6 12
2.4 13

0.0032 12
0.0013 13

293 12
749 13

419 12
1400 13

TCAP
Thermal
Capacity [J/
(cm.C]

r
20C(
cm)

1.72

3.42

1.78

3.42

4.4

3.85

5.86

3.85

8.62

3.85

2.86

2.56

3.22

2.6

3.28

2.6

8.48

3.58

15.9 10

3.28

17.5 11

4.44

20.1 12
72 13

3.93
4.03