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NOTES : TRIGONOMETRY

The trigonometric functions sinx and cosx are periodic of period 2; and in addition they are
bounded so that
sin x 1 1 sin x 1
cos x 1 1 cos x 1

Generally a b a cos x b sin x a b .


tanx and cotx whenever they are defined are periodic of period radians.
2

Q 1:

The maximum value of


(A) 3
(C) 5



2 cos

4
4
for real value of is

1 sin

(B) 4
(D) 2

x 3
be 1, then the value of a is
If maximum value of asinx + 2cos
(A) 2
(B) 3

Q 2:

(C) 1
sin n = 0 and cos n = (- 1)n (n N)
n 1
sin

2 0

n 1
2

sin 75 cos15
cos 75 sin15
tan 75 cot 15

n odd int eger.


n even int eger.

(D)2

3 1
2 2
3 1

2 2

2
3 1

3 1

cot 75 tan15 2 3

Q 3:

The value of cosec 150 + 3 sec 150 is equal to


(A) 4

(B) 2 2

(C) 4 2

(D) 2

sin 2 A
cos2 A

Q 4:

1 cos 2A
2

1 cos 2A

2
3
If < 2 < 2 , then

2 2 2 cos 4 equals to

(A) 2cos
(C) 2cos
sin 3A = 3 sinA 4 sin3A
cos 3A = 4 cos3A 3 cosA

(B) 2sin
(D) 2sin

3 tan A tan A
tan 3A
1 3 tan A
3

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cos A cos B
sin A sin B

cos A B cos A B
2
cos A B cos A B

2
sin A B sin A B sin 2 A sin 2 B
cos A B cos A B cos2 A sin 2 B

5 1

sin18 cos 72

5 1

cos 36 sin 54

sin 36 cos 54

Q 5:

2

tan

5
15

tan

10 2 5

2
3 tan tan
15 is equal to
5
1

(A) 3

(B)

(C) 1
(D) 3
Properties of a triangle :
The following results with respect to a triangle ABC may be noted.
a
b
c

2R
a) sin A sin B sin C
b) a b cos C c cos B
b c cos A a cos C
c a cos B b cos A

Q 6.: In a triangle ABC. The value of a2 sin B cos B + b2 sin A cos A


(A)
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4
2
2
2
c) a b c 2bc cos A

b2 c 2 a 2 2ca cos B
c 2 a 2 b 2 2ab cos C
b2 c2 a 2
cos A
2bc
and hence
and two similar results.

d) , taken to denote the area of the triangle, is

Q 7:

1
1
1
abc
bc sin A ca sin B ab sin C
2R 2 sin A sin Bsin C
2
2
2
4R

If = a2 (b c)2 where is the area of triangle ABC, then tan A is equal to


15
(A) 16
8
(C) 17
sin

e)

8
(B) 15
1
(D) 2
A

s b s c
bc

; cos

s s a
A
A

; tan
2
bc
2

s b s c
s s a

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B
C
and
2 .
and similar results for 2

Q 8:

bc
A
sin
2 is equal to
If the bisection of angles A of ABC makes an angle with BC, then a

(A) cos

(B) sin

(C) sin 2

(D) cos 2

f) For the pedal triangle PQR


i) angles are P = 180 - 2A ; Q = 180 - 2B and R = 180 - 2C
R
ii) the circum radius is 2 .

Q 9:

iii) the sides are QR = R sin 2A ; RP = R sin 2B ; PQ = R sin 2C.


If H is the orthocentre of a triangle ABC, then AH equals
(A) a cot B
(B) a cot A
(C) b cot A
(D) c cot A
g) In a triangle ABC, the following inequalities may be noted equality holding in each case in
the
case of an equilateral triangle.
i)
ii)

sin A sin B sin C

3 3
2

cos A cos B cos C

3
2

iii) tan A tan B tan C 3 3


iv) cot A cot B cot C 3
A
B
C
tan 2 tan 2 1
2
2
2
v)
A
B
C 1
sin sin sin
2
2
2 8
vi)
tan 2

vii)

cos

A
B
C 3 3
cos cos
2
2
2
8

A
B
C
1 R
sin sin 4R
2
2
2
8 2 giving R 2r in an equilateral triangle R = 2r.
and
A
B
C
cot cot cot
2
2
2 is
Q 10: The minimum value of
(A) 3
(B) 2 3
r 4R sin

(C) 3 3

(D) 3

h) Formulae for in radius r


i)

A
B
C
s b tan s c tan
2
2
2
ii)
A
B
C
r 4R sin sin sin
2
2
2
iii)
r s a tan

Q 11: If incircle of ABL touches the sides AB, BC and AC in F, D and E respectively the DFE is
equal to
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A
(A) 2
C
(C) 2

A
(B) 2
C
(D) 2

i) Formulae for ex-radii r1, r2, r3

; r2
; r3
sa
sb
sc
i)
A
B
C
r1 s tan s c cot s b cot
2
2
2
ii)
C
C
A
r2 s tan s b cot s c cot
2
2
2
C
A
B
r3 s tan s b cot s a cot
2
2
2
r1

Q 12: The value of r2r3 + r3r1 + r1r2 is equal to (all notation has their usual meaning)
(A) s
(B) 2s
2
(C) s
(D) 2s2
Q 13: The value of (r1 r)(r2 + r3) is
(A) c2
(B) b2
(C) a2
(D) a
Inverse Function

The following may be noted in respect of inverse trigonometric functions


1
1
a) sin x sin x for x 1

1
1
b) cos x cos x for x 1

1
cot 1 x tan 1 for 0 x
x
c)
1
cot 1 x tan 1 for x 0
x

sin 1 x cos 1 x for x 1


2
d)
1
2
1
e) cos 1 x sin x for 0 x 1

cos 1 1 x 2 sin 1 x for 1 x 0

f)

x y
for xy 1
1 xy

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

x y
for xy 1
1 xy

tan 1 x tan 1 y tan 1

Q 14: The number of roots of the equation x + 2 tan x = 2 in the interval [0, 2] is

(A) 1
(C) 3
Q 15: The value of

(A) 6

(C) 3

tan 1 2 sin sec 1 2

(B) 2
(D) infinite
is

(B) 4

(D) 2

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2
Q 16: 2sin1 x = sin1(2x 1 x ) holds good for all
(A) |x| 1
(B) 1 x 0

1
(C) |x| 2

(D) 0 x -1
1

Q 17: The value of cos (cos 8/7) is


(A) 6/7
(B) 3/7
Q 18: If -1 < x < 0 , then sin-1x equals
(A) - cos-1

1 x2

1 x 2

(C) 8/7
x

(C) - cot
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES :

(D) 2/7

2
(B) tan-1 1 x

(D) cosec-1x

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

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