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PROJECT REPORT ON

FIRE ALARM USING 555 TIMER IC


Submitted by
XYZ

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

PROJECT CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that, the project title,
FIRE ALARM USING 555 TIMER IC
.

IS SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED BY

In partial fulfillment of degree course in TE. ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING as


Prescribed by MUMBAI UNIVERSITY DURING ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
PROF .

DATE OF SUBMISSION _______________________________________

PROJECT GUIDE
(

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

PRINCIPAL
(

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

PREFACE
We take an opportunity to present this project report on
FIRE ALARM USING 555 TIMER IC & put before readers some
information regarding our project.
We have made sincere attempts & taken every care to present
this matter in precise & compact form, the language being as simple as
possible.

We are sure that the information contained in this volume


would certainly prove useful for better insight in the scope and dimension of
this project in its true perspective.

The task of completion of this project through being difficult was


made quite simple, interesting & successful due to deep involvement &
complete dedication of our group members.

CONTENTS
.

Sr.No

Topics
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Page No.
.

Acknowledgement
Introduction To The Project
Block diagram
Working
Components Required
Methodology
PCB Layout
Troubleshooting
Advantages
Disadvantages
Application
Conclusion
Bibliography

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6
8
13
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is indeed a matter of great pleasure and proud privilege to be
able to present this project on FIRE ALARM USING 555 TIMER IC.

The completion of this project work is a milestone in students life


and its execution is inevitable in the hands of guide. We are highly indebted
the project guide
for her invaluable guidance & appreciation for
giving form and substance to this report. It is due to her enduring efforts,
patience & enthusiasm, which has given a sense of direction and
purposefulness to this project and ultimately made it success.

We would like to tender our sincere thanks to the staff members


for their co-operation.

We would also like to express our deep regards and gratitude to


the Principle Prof.
.

We would wish to thank the non-teaching staff and our friends who
have helped us all the time in one way or other.

Really it is highly impossible to repay the debt of all the people


who have directly or indirectly helped us for performing the project.

INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT


This is a simple fire alarm circuit using Germanium Diode and
555 timer. In this circuit Germanium Diode play very important role in
detecting the fire.

This circuit is very easy to construct, cost effective and


implementable. An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect
the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes
associated with combustion.

In general, a fire alarm system is either classified as automatic,


manually activated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems can be
used to notify people to evacuate in the event of a fire or other
emergency, to summon emergency services, and to prepare the
structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and
smoke.

Fire alarm systems have become increasingly sophisticated and


functionally more capable and reliable in recent years. They are
designed to fulfil two general requirements: protection of property and
assets and protection of life. As a result of state and local codes, the
life-safety aspect of fire protection has become a major factor in the
last two decades
.

There are a number of reasons for the substantial increases in the


life- safety form of fire protection during recent years, foremost of
which are :

1. The proliferation of high-rise construction and the concern for


life safety within these buildings.

2. A growing awareness of the life-safety hazard in residential,


institutional, and educational occupancies.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

GERMANIUM DIODE

The 1N4148 is a standard silicon switching diode. It is one of the most


popular and long-lived switching diodes because of its dependable
specifications and low cost.

Its name follows the JEDEC nomenclature. The 1N4148 is useful in


switching applications up to about 100 MHz with a reverse-recovery time of
no more than 4 ns.The 1N4148 comes in a DO-35 glass package for thruhole mounting. This is useful forbreadboarding of circuits. A surface
mount device, 1N4148WS, is available in a plastic SOD package.

SPECIFICATIONS

VRRM = 100 V maximum repetitive reverse voltage

IO = 200 mA average rectified forward current

IF = 300 mA maximum direct forward current

VF = 1.0 V at 10 mA.[7]

IFSM = 1.0 A (pulse width = 1 s), 4.0 A (pulse width = 1 s) nonrepetitive peak forward surge current

PD = 500 mW power dissipation

TRR < 4 ns reverse-recovery time


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555 TIMER IC

Pi
Name
n
1

Purpose

GND

Ground reference voltage, low level (0 V)

TRIG

The OUT pin goes high and a timing interval starts when this
input falls below 1/2 of CTRL voltage (hence TRIG is typically
1/3 VCC, CTRL being 2/3 VCC by default, if CTRL is left open).

OUT

This output is driven to approximately 1.7 V below +VCC or


GND.

A timing interval may be reset by driving this input to GND, but


RESE
the timing does not begin again until RESET rises above
T
approximately 0.7 volts. Overrides TRIG which overrides THR.

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CTRL

Provides "control" access to the internal voltage divider (by


default, 2/3 VCC).

THR

The timing (OUT high) interval ends when the voltage at THR is
greater than that at CTRL (2/3 VCC if CTRL is open).

DIS

Open collector output which may discharge a capacitor


between intervals. In phase with output.

VCC

Positive supply voltage, which is usually between 3 and 15 V


depending on the variation.

Modes Of Operation

The 555 has three operating modes:

Monostable mode: In this mode, the 555 functions as a "one-shot"


pulse generator. Applications include timers, missing pulse detection,
bouncefree switches, touch switches, frequency divider, capacitance
measurement, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on.

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Astable (free-running) mode: The 555 can operate as an oscillator.


Uses include LED and lamp flashers, pulse generation, logic clocks,
tone generation, security alarms,pulse position modulation and so on.
The 555 can be used as a simple ADC, converting an analog value to a
pulse length. E.g. selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use
of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is
determined by the temperature. The use of a microprocessor based
circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature, linearize it and
even provide calibration means.

Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: The 555 can operate as a flip-flop,


if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. Uses include
bounce-free latched switches.

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WORKING

The fire alarm circuit here is designed with the principle of working of
an astablemultivibrator using IC 555. An astable multivibrator is a
circuit which generates continuous pulses atthe output terminal for
the designed frequency. The generated frequency produces sound
when it isconnected to a loudspeaker.
In the above circuit the sensor used is a germanium diode 1N4148
which is reverse biased inthe circuit. The reverse resistance of the
diode is very high and current cannot pass through thediode at room
temperature.
In the astable multivibrator of our circuit, the reset pin is connected
ground. At thiscondition the astable multivibrator cannot produce
frequency. At room temperature transistor T1 onsince the base of the
transistor T1 gets enough potential since the diode is not conducting
and offering a high resistance.
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When temperature of the diode increases in case of fire, the junction


of the diode breakdowns and start conducting. At about 70c its
resistance drop to a value below 1K. This stops T1 conducting since
base of t1 is now connected directly to ground through diode D1 and
ground connection to the pin 4of IC 555 is now removed and is now
connected to the Vcc through R2. Now astable multivibrator is
activated and starts generating frequency which produces the alarm
sound
2010
IC 555
The 8-pin 555 timer must be one of the most useful ICs ever made
and it is used in many projects. With just a few external components it
can be used to build many circuits, not all of them involve timing!
A popular version is the NE555 and this is suitable in most cases
where a '555 timer' is specified. The 556 is a dual version of the 555
housed in a 14-pin package, the two timers (A and B) share the same
power supply pins. The circuit diagrams on this page show a 555, but
they could all be adapted to use one half of a 556.
Low power versions of the 555 are made, such as theICM7555, but
these should only be used when pecified (to increase battery life)
because their maximum output current of about 20mA (with a
9Vsupply) is too low for many standard 555 circuits. TheICM7555 has
the same pin arrangement as a standard555

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Inputs of 555

Trigger input:
when <1/3Vs ('active low') this makes the output high (+Vs). It
monitors the discharging of the timing capacitor in an astable circuit.
It has a high input impedance >2M.

Threshold input:
when >2/3Vs ('active high') this makes the output low (0V)*. It
monitors the charging of the timing capacitor in astable and
monostable circuits. It has a high
i n p u t i m p e d a n c e > 1 0 M . * providing the trigger input is
>1/3Vs, otherwise the trigger input will override the threshold input
and hold the output high (+Vs).
Reset input:
when less than about 0.7V ('active low') this makes the output low
(0V), overridingother inputs. When not required it should be
connected to +Vs. It has an input impedance of about1
0
k
.
Control input:
This can be used to adjust the threshold voltage which is set
internally to be2/3Vs.Usually this function is not required and the
control input is connected to 0V with a 0.01F capacitor to eliminate
electrical noise. It can be left unconnected if noise is not a problem.
Discharge pin
It is not an input, but it is listed here for convenience. It is connected
to 0V when the timer output is low and is used to discharge the timing
capacitor in astable and monostable circuits.

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Output of 555
The output of a standard 555 or 556 can sink and source up to200mA. This
is more than most ICs and it is sufficient to supply many output transducers
directly, including LEDs (with a resistor in series),low current lamps, piezo
transducers, loudspeakers (with a capacitor in series), relay coils (with
diode protection) and some motors (with diode protection). The output
voltage does not quite reach 0V and +Vs, especially if a large current is
flowing.
To switch larger currents you can connect a transistor.
The ability to both sink and source current means that two devices can be
connected to the output so that one is on when the output is low and the
other is on when the output is high. The top diagram shows two LEDs
connected in this way. This arrangement is used in the Level Crossing
project to make the red LEDs flash alternately.

Loudspeakers
A loudspeaker (minimum resistance 64) may be connected to the
output of a 555 or 556 astable circuit but a capacitor (about 100F)must be
connected in series. The output is equivalent to a steady DC of about Vs
combined with a square wave AC (audio) signal. The capacitor blocks the
DC, but allows the AC to pass as explained in capacitor coupling.
Piezo transducers may be connected directly to the output and do not
require a capacitor in series.

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COMPONENTS REQUIRED

RESISTORS (+5% CARBON,1/4W)


R1
R2
R3
R4
VR1
(PRESET) H

1K
4.7K
10K
47K
100K

1NOS
1NOS
1NOS
1NOS
1NOS

0.01F
100 F/
16V

2NOS
1NOS

1C555
BC548
2 8E
SPK/.
1N4148
GER DIODE

1NOS
1NOS

CAPACITORS
C1,2
C3

MISC
IC1
T1
LS
D1

1NOS
1NOS

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METHODOLOGY

Design your circuit board. Use PCB Wizard software to draw your
circuit board. You can also use a perforated board that has pre-drilled
holes in it to help you see how your circuit board's components would
be placed and work in reality.
Buy a plain board that is coated with a fine layer of copper on one
side from a retailer.
Scrub the board with a scouring pad and water to make sure the
copper is clean. Let the board dry.
Print your circuit board's design onto the dull side of a sheet of blue
transfer paper. Make sure the design is oriented correctly for transfer.
Place the blue transfer paper on the board with the circuit board's
printed design against the copper.
Lay a sheet of ordinary white paper over the blue paper. Following
the transfer paper's instructions, iron over the white and blue paper to
transfer the design onto the copper board. Iron every design detail
that appears near an edge or corner of the board with the tip of the
iron.
Let the board and blue paper cool. Peel the blue paper slowly away
from the board to see the transferred design.

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Examine the transfer paper to check for any black toner from the
printed design that failed to transfer to the copper board. Make sure
the board's design is oriented correctly.
Replace any missing toner on the board with ink from a black
permanent marker. Allow the ink to dry for a few hours.
Remove exposed parts of the copper from the board using ferric
chloride in a process called etching.

Wash all the etching equipment and the circuit board thoroughly with
plenty of running water.
Drill 0.03 inch (0.8 mm) lead component holes into your circuit board
with high-speed steel or carbide drill bits. Wear safety goggles and a
protective mask to protect your eyes and lungs while you drill.
Scrub the board clean with a scouring pad and running water. Add
your board's electrical components and solder them into place.

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PCB LAYOUT

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TROUBLESHOOTING
After building up the entire project we came to know that our project was
not working, this condition was havoc for us.

After Troubleshooting the circuit we came across following faults:-

Two of the IC pins were short circuited.


This problem was solved by desoldering those pins, & again soldering them
back to the PCB with care.
A wrong diode was installed instead of 1n4148 germanium diode.
This time we replaced that diode with a 1n4148 germanium diode and
observed whether the circuit is working or not.
Transistor was faulty.

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After checking the hfe of the transistor we came to a conclusion that we


have to change the transistor as it was damage due to use of improper
soldering techniques.ADVANTAGES

1. Early Warning
Many fires occur at night or in a room or section that no one may
be in at the time. The audible alert from the fire alarm can wake
individuals up who may otherwise sleep while inhaling smoke. The
alert can also provide an early signal during the day to individuals
who, if not for the alarm, would not have the time needed to
escape the home or building before the fire spreads out of control.
2. Flexibility to place them in specific rooms and areas of your
choice.
3. Low Cost
A fire system that is remotely monitored on a continuous basis is
normally part of an agreement with an alarm company that also
includes burglar alarms.

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DISADVANTAGES

1. Susceptible to nuisance alarms if placed too close to cooking.

2. May be slow to respond slow smoldering fires.

3. None what so ever!!! They are there to save lives- whatever they
do. Although they could be a nuisance if they do cause false
activations by themselves.

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APPLICATION
1. Fire alarms can be used in any place like parks,
theaters, HOTELS, restaurants, boats, ships, etc.
2. Fire alarms can be also used as temperature sensors in some
applications, when the temperature goes up abruptly it can inform.

3. Fire alarm can be used in our home for safety purpose and it is a
very good precautionary measure.

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CONCLUSION

A fire alarm is a device that detects the presence of fire and atmospheric
changes relating tosmoke. In some cases, a firm alarm is a part of a
complete security system, in addition to aburglary protection system. The
fire alarm operates to alert people to evacuate a location inwhich a fire
or smoke accumulation is present.

When functioning properly, a fire alarm will sound to notify people of an


immediate fireemergency. Fire alarms can be found in homes, schools,
churches and businesses, andfunction as the catalyst to saving lives. For
most fire alarms, when sounded, a beep, bell orhorn noise is made. This
distinct sound exists to allow the notification to be heard The fire alarm
constructed by this project work is reliable at low cost.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

CIRCUITS AND NETWORKS


A SUDHAKAR, SHYAMMOHAN.PILLAI
OP-AMPS AND LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
RAMAKANT A.GAYAKWAD
www.nfpa.org
en.wikipedia.org
www.ask.com

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