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SUMMARY

Preventing Dust Explosions


 Share current events that involve dust related explosions
 Share knowledge, with effective safety training relevant to:
- explosive properties of the materials used in your operation
- conditions to avoid for mitigation and control of accumulating
dust
 Perform routine inspection and monitor potential ignition sources via safety
hazard inspection and preventative maintenance activities
 Emphasize Safe Work Practices by strictly enforcing and adhering to
safety procedures aimed at dust prevention and control.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Ignition Control

Loss Control (administrative) Measures:




When non-routine work is performed ensure pre-job planning is completed to


identify hazards and mitigate/control all potential ignition sources
BEFORE THE WORK BEGINS!

Provide employee safety training and guidance in safe work practices that
emphasize ignition control

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Ignition Control
Loss Control (administrative) Measures:
 Ensure safety procedures are in place and actively enforced to address
ignition control
 Ensure a hazard assessment has been performed for the operation
 Periodically review the hazard assessment to make certain it is
up-to-date and current with existing operations & processes

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Ignition Control

 Avoid contact between heated surfaces and dusts


 Separate heating systems from dusts
 Ensure the proper Type of industrial trucks are in use
 Ensure the proper Type of cartridge-activated tools are in use

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Ignition Control

 Use approved electrical equipment and wiring methods


 Keep static electricity under control; this includes bonding of equipment to
ground
 Prevent smoking, open flames, and sparks, mechanical sparks and friction
 Use separator devices to remove foreign materials capable of igniting
combustibles from process materials

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Dust Control
 Use cleaning methods that do not generate dust clouds, vacuum rather
than blow or dry sweep
 Only use vacuum cleaners approved for dust collection
 Locate relief valves away from dust hazard areas
 Develop and implement a program for hazardous dust inspection,
testing, housekeeping, and control program that establishes, in writing,
the method and frequency of these steps

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices Reduce Risk


Dust Control

 Minimize the escape of dust from process equipment or ventilation systems


 Use dust collection systems and filters
 Try to use surfaces that minimize dust accumulation and are easy to clean
 Inspect for dust residues in open and hidden areas, and clean them at
regular intervals

PNEAC, PNEAC Forum, Gary Jones Health & Safety Alerts, Dust Safety Fact Sheet

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Safe Work Practices


Reduce Your Risk

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


Example Control Techniques
Many More
@
www.OSHA.Gov
Chapter 2: Preventing Dust Formation

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


Example Control Techniques
Transfer Chutes:
 The chute should be big enough to avoid jamming of material.
 The chute should be designed so the material falls on the sloping bottom
of the chute and not on the succeeding equipment.

Source: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/silicacrystalline/dust/chapter_2.html

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


Example Control Techniques
Belt Conveyor:
 The amount of dust generated at belt conveyor transfer points depends
on the way the material is loaded onto the belt.
 To reduce dust generation the material should be loaded onto the center
of the belt.
Impact at Loading Point:
 A momentary deflection of the belt between two adjacent idlers may result
when ore strikes the belt. Tighten center to center spacing between idler
rollers to reduce dust.

Source: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/silicacrystalline/dust/chapter_2.html

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


 Direct Spouting - Pile Loading:
Dust control is achieved by minimizing point-to-point product transfer

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


 Direct Spouting Container Loading:
Dust control is attained by way of point-to-point transfer.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


 Enclosed Conveyor:
Dust control is achieved and sustained by the enclosure itself.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


 Pneumatic Dust Control:
Conveyance air is removed (vacuum) from the product stream
and filtered to the atmosphere without the use of moving
parts or electricity. Simple installation, efficient operation,
and portability result in a clean and safe working environment.
 Liquid Additives:
Addition of small quantities of mineral oil, vegetable oil or lecithin
is a common practice for grain dust control. The method has other
applications with use of liquids compatible with the base material.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


Common Engineering Strategies For Dust Concentration Reduction
Are Aimed At Elimination of FUEL!

 Pneumatic Dust Control


 Liquid Additives
 Enclosed Conveyors
 Direct Spouting

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust Explosions


Dust explosion prevention relies on elimination of one or
more of the conditions (ingredients), other than oxygen,
associated with such an event.
Fuel

!!Destruction!!

Confinement

Oxygen

Ignition
Dispersion

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Preventing/Controlling Dust
Explosions

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Other Unplanned Events


Choked Leg : Possible Causes.Auger Design or Maintenance???

+
Possible CausesUnassigned Work Practice (method)
or Unsafe Act

FATALITY

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Other Unplanned Events


Factors That Lead to Removal of The Floor Guard
Possible Explanations!
 Grain fed too fast it piled up on the floor which required extra cleaning
 Kernels bounced off the floor guard making it necessary to sweep
 Moisture of the corn is high and the grating may cause clogging
 A small amount of residue corn may be impacted at the U-joint area of the augers,
which may need to be cleaned by reaching in to this area.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Other Unplanned Events


CASE IN POINT

Iowa Farmer/Grain Elevator Operator


Lost A Large Amount of Blood, This Lead To A Fatality

Source: public-health.uiowa.edu/FACE/Reports/REPORT-016.html

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
A CHOKED CONVEYENCE LEG MAY LEAD
TO FIRE, OR AN EXPLOSION CAUSED BY FRICTION/HEAT INGNITION

HOWEVER , IT CAN LEAD TO OTHER UNPLANNED


NON-EXPLOSIVE EVENTS!

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
Yes !
And Not Always in Grain Applications!
Fire At Missouri Diamond Pet Food Plant
Saturday, October 11, 2008 at 6:51 p.m.
Fire Fighter Statement:
"It got clogged up and basically with the heat and pressure, there was kind
of a smoldering fire in there, said Meta firefighter JD Schroeder. That we kind
of had to tear things apart and get into and basically knock it all out, clean it
up, make sure it didn't expand any further than it did."

Source: KRCG-TV Jefferson City, MO Colleen Hogan

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
Choked Leg Friction Is A Grain Transfer Term

 Conveyors, grain augers, and bucket legs move grain


 When a feed valve drops too much grain into a conveyance system
then
 Material will choke the leg

Choked Leg Friction, CAN IT OCCUR IN OTHER


SECTORS or INDUSTRIES?

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources

Similarities ?

Georgia, Imperial Sugar Plant

Hindenburg Burning

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
The Hindenburg disaster has been attributed to spark discharge igniting
flammable panels which led to the ignition of hydrogen gas held in or
leaking from the airship at the time.
The ship had just passed through a thunderstorm and probably
picked up a large charge. Discharge occurred when mooring ropes
were dropped as it came in to land in New Jersey in 1937.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
Types of ESD:

 The most spectacular form of ESD is the spark which occurs when
a strong electric field creates an ionized conductive channel in air.
 This can cause minor discomfort to people and fires and explosions
if the air contains combustible gases or particles.
 Sparks can cause serious explosions because of the high temperatures
reached in a spark. Dust and grain dust explosions are suspected
as being caused by electrostatic discharges.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
 The sudden and momentary electric current that flows between two objects
at different electrical potentials.
 The term is usually used in the electronics and other industries to describe
momentary unwanted currents that may cause damage to electronic
equipment.

Ignition Sources
Common Ignition Sources Include
Welding

Electrostatic Discharge

Sparks from machinery


Electrical
Failure

Hot Bearings/
Surfaces

Company XYZ

Choked
Leg Friction

Tramp
Metal

Fire Besides
Welding
Foreign Object Debris

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Ignition Sources

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


Dynamics of a DOUBLE WHAMMY.

1) A dust explosion occurs within the equipment.


2) Internal dust is dispersed into the air.
3) The additional dust ignites due to primary explosion.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


The worst dust explosion is known as a:

DOUBLE WHAMMY !

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


Fuel

!!Destruction!!
Oxygen

Confinement

Dispersion

Ignition

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


Concentration:
 Below a certain value, the lower explosive limit (LEL),
there is simply insufficient dust to support the combustion at the rate
required for an explosion. A concentration 20% lower than the LEL is
considered safe.
 Similarly, if the fuel/air ratio increases above the upper explosive limit
there is insufficient oxidant to permit combustion to continue at the
necessary rate.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


Dispersion
Grain Dust Minimum Explosion Concentration Characteristics:
 Most experts use 50 grams/m as the minimum explosion concentration
for grain dust
 A person standing in a 50 (g/m) cubed of grain dust will not be able to
see their fingers one foot away.
 Even if all conditions are present for a dust explosion, concentrations
below 50 (g/m) of grain dust at a transfer point generally speaking
will not lead to ignition
 Note other dusts have their own MEC

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions


What Factors Are Present For A Dust Explosion To Occur?
1) Fuel - Dust has to be combustible
1) Oxygen Air will work
3) Confinement - Dust may be confined but not always
4) Dispersion Particles form a cloud exceeding minimum explosion
concentrations (MEC)
5) Ignition - Source is present

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Conditions For Dust Explosions

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


NO
It is small enough to be considered a dust, but it
is chemically noncombustible!

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties

Table Salt as DUST Can It Burn?

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


The NFPA definition of combustible dust simply means
a solid that can burn, is finely spread out in air, and is ignitable.
COMBUSTIBLE DUST EXAMPLES INCLUDE :
Common Combustible Dusts:
Coal
Sawdust
Magnesium
Mundane Materials:
Grain
Flour
Sugar
Powdered Metals:
Aluminum
Titanium

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


Example Deflagration Applied In A
Controlled State

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


Can Anyone Give An Example of Deflagration Applied In A
Controlled State That Is Truly Amazing ?
Remember the ingredients, lets count them down:

FourFuel
Three..Oxygen
Two.Ignition
One.Confinement
 An exothermic reaction.. A deflagration can have an explosive effect

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


What is A Deflagration Hazard?

A deflagration is defined in Section 2702 of


the International Fire Code (IFC) as follows.

An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid


oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in
which the reaction progresses through the unburned
material at a rate less than the velocity of
sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


The dust must consist of very small particles, where
the surface area is very large, and so will support combustion.

Dust is defined as powders with particles less than about 500 micrometers
in diameter, but finer dust will present a much greater hazard than coarse
particles by virtue of the larger surface area.

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties


NFPA 654 defines combustible dust as.
 A combustible particulate solid that presents a fire or deflagration hazard
 When suspended in air
 Suspended in some other oxidizing medium
 Over a range of concentrations, regardless of particle size or shapes

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Properties

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events


Aerial View of Georgia, Imperial Sugar Plant

Source: Chemical & Engineering News

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events


 February 07, 2008 Georgia, Imperial Sugar Plant - An explosion and fire of
combustible dust at a Georgia sugar refinery killed six workers.
44 workers were injured
20 of them severely enough to merit treatment at burn centers
17 who have been placed in "medically induced comas"
December 31, 2008 12:00 a.m. Maricopa Arizona, grain supply company
explosions left three workers severely burned.
hot metal that fell from a tower where welders were working hit a device
used to scoop grain out of the elevator, igniting corn dust and causing
an explosion.

Source: Astrid Galvan - Dec. 31, 2008 12:00 AM The Arizona Republic,Source: Chemical & Engineering News

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events

 Over 30% of these incidents are repeats of prior fires and explosions that
fire departments responded to.

 Subsequently, reoccurring incidents go unnoticed by OSHA,


unless there are at least three injuries or one fatality.

Source: http://shameonelaine.org/2008/02/19/9-combustible-dust-explosions-so-far-in-2008

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events


Can you spot your industry?

Source: http://oshaunderground.blogspot.com/2009/03/2008-dust-explosions-and-fires-overview.html

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events


The Combustible Dust Policy Institute Summary of 2008 Occurrences
concluded:

Over 150+ combustible dust related fires and explosions occurred.


Manufacturing, non-manufacturing and utility sectors were affected.

Source: http://oshaunderground.blogspot.com/2009/03/2008-dust-explosions-and-fires-overview.html

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events


Nine Combustible Dust Explosion Occurred
In First Two Months of 2008:
Minnesota
Missouri
Illinois
Ohio
Virginia
Kansas
North Carolina
Alabama

So far it hasnt been thoroughly confirmed that dust caused the fire or explosion
only that dust is present in the work space where the unfortunate events occurred.

Source: http://shameonelaine.org/2008/02/19/9-combustible-dust-explosions-so-far-in-2008

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Dust Explosion Locations & Events

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What You Need to Know"

Agenda
Preventing Dust Explosions
 Locations & Events
 Properties
 Conditions for Dust Explosions
 Ignition Sources
 Prevention and Control
 Safe Work Practices - Reduce Risk

"Preventing Dust Explosions - What


You Need to Know"
Jim Puppan
Senior Loss Prevention Consultant
Accident Fund Insurance Company of America
Michigan Safety Conference
April 7, 2009