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1.0 definition
2.0 characteristics
3.0 passive fire protection required in UBBL
3.1 definition
3.2 purpose group
3.3 free appliances access
3.4 construction used for passive fire protection


The success and final outcome of this assignment required a lot of guidance and assistance
from many people and we extremely fortunate to have got this all along the completion of our
assignment work. Whatever we have done is only due to such guidance and assistance and
we would not forget to thank them. I respect and thank Mr. Mohd Khairi bin Kurdi for giving

we and opportunity to do this assignment work and providing us all support and guidance
which made we complete the assignment on time . We extremely grateful to her for providing
such a nice support and guidance.
We are really grateful because we managed to complete this assignment within the timen
given by Mr Mohd Khairi bin Kurdi. This assignment cannot be completed without the effort
and co-operation from our group members. Group members Zulhilmi, Aizuddin , Tasnim ,
Nurusman , Fahmi and Aizat. Last but not least, we would like to express our gratitude to our
friends and respondents for support and willingness to spend time with us.

Why do we need fire protection?
The fundamental purpose of fire protection systems whether active or passive is to firstly,
prevent the passage and spread of smoke and fire, from one area of the building to another, to
allow for the safe escape of the building occupants. Secondly to prevent / reduce the amount

of damage to the building structure, neighbouring structures and reduce the risk of collapse
for the emergency services.
A number of the fundamental requirements of fire protection are specified in approved
document B of the Building Regulations:

Means of escape

Internal surface spread of flame to linings

Structural integrity of the building

Fire compartmentation

Access and facilities for emergency services

Other more commercial reasons for the use of fire protection systems, is to reduce the amount
of damage and prevent collapse of the building. This intern can help to:

Reduce the rising cost of insurance polices

Protect capital investment

Reduce the possible risk to the fire fighters

So what is fire protection?

A buildings fire protection comes in 2 specific forms, active and passive systems:
Active systems in the form of, suppression, extinguishers, sprinkler, alarm and extract
The overall aim of active systems is to extinguish the fire by:

Detecting the fire early and evacuating the building

Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire

Control the movement of smoke and fire

Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel

Passive systems in the form of fire rated doors, barrier, ceilings and structural fire protection.
The overall aim of passive systems is to contain the fire by:

Use of fire rated partitions and doors to prevent the fire and smoke from moving from
one compartment to another

Delaying the collapse of the building structure

Delaying the growth of the fire



Passive fire protection can provide an effective alternative to active systems

for protecting against vessel failure. This generally consists of a coating of fire
resistant insulating media applied to a vessel or steel surface. It is often used where
water or other active protection media supplies are inadequate, such as in remote
locations, or where there are difficulties with handling fire water run-off. Fire walls
are another form of passive fire protection that are used to prevent the spread of fire
and the exposure of adjacent equipment to thermal radiation. An important criterion in
deciding which system is most appropriate for fire exposure protection is the likely
duration of the exposure to fire as passive fire protection is only effective for short
duration exposure (1-2 hours).

Choice Of Passive Fire Protection

For the protection of vessels from fire exposure there are a number of types of
passive fire protection that can be applied.
mortar based coating
intumescent coating
sublimation coating
mineral fibre matting
earth mounds
The protective systems based on coatings are normally sprayed onto the surface
following mixing of the required components. A reinforcing glass fibre scrim or steel
wire gauze is applied to prevent cracking and peeling of the coating under fire
conditions and to provide additional strength to resist the impact of high pressure
water jets. The fire protective coating is further protected by a weather protective top
layer. The fire resistant performance of the coatings is dependent on the thickness of
the coating. Fibre matting systems consist of fireproof mineral fibre matting clad with
a protective galvanised steel sheet. The protective capability of the system is provided
by the poor heat conductivity of the system.
Earth mounds are commonly used in the LPG industry, where vessels are either
fully or partially buried in an earth mound. The presence of the earth mound
effectively prevents a fire from developing around the vessel.
Fire walls are sometimes employed in process and storage areas to prevent the
spread of fire and protect adjacent equipment from thermal radiation. These may be
an integral part of a process building or warehouse structure or may consist of a freestanding wall specifically built for the purpose. Firewalls are normally built of brick,

concrete or masonry and the number and size of openings should be kept to a

Performance And Maintenance Of Passive Fire Protection

Passive fire protection systems the operator should have supplier or
manufacturer information demonstrating that the fire protective system employed
meets defined performance criteria based on standard tests that replicate the fire
conditions likely to be encountered in the work place. Typically the criteria will be
that a protected surface will not reach a certain temperature in a defined time period
during a standard test. The protective system should meet the requirements of a pool
fire test such as that detailed in BS 476 'Fire tests on building materials and structures'
or a jet fire test such as that described in the HSE Technology Report 'Jet Fire
resistance for Passive Fire Protection Materials'.
The performance of passive fire protection systems can deteriorate in time due
to weathering and corrosion. Plant operational and maintenance activities may
damage or remove the fire protection. Additionally the protected surface itself can
corrode beneath the fire protection. Procedures should be in place to ensure that both
the passive fire protective system and the protected surface are regularly inspected
and repaired as appropriate.


The aim for Passive Fire Protection systems is typically demonstrated in fire testing the
ability to maintain the item or the side to be protected at or below either 140 C (for walls,
floors and electrical circuits required to have a fire-resistance rating) or ca. 550 C, which is
considered the critical temperature for structural steel, above which it is in jeopardy of losing
its strength, leading to collapse. This is based, in most countries, on the basic test standards
for walls and floors, such as BS 476: Part 22: 1987, BS EN 1364-1: 1999 & BS EN 1364-2:
1999 or ASTM E119. Smaller components, such as fire dampers, fire doors, etc., follow suit
in the main intentions of the basic standard for walls and floors. Fire testing involves live fire

exposures upwards of 1100 C, depending on the fire-resistance rating and duration one is
after. More items than just fire exposures are typically required to be tested to ensure the
survivability of the system under realistic conditions.
To accomplish these aims, many different types of materials are employed in the design and
construction of systems. For instance, common endothermic building materials include
calcium silicate board, concrete and gypsum wallboard. During fire testing of concrete floor
slabs, water can be seen to boil out of a slab. Gypsum wall board typically loses all its
strength during a fire. The use of endothermic materials is established and proven to be sound
engineering practice. The chemically bound water inside these materials sublimes. During
this process, the unexposed side cannot exceed the boiling point of water. Once the hydrates
are spent, the temperature on the unexposed side of an endothermic fire barrier tends to rise
rapidly. Too much water can be a problem, however. Concrete slabs that are too wet, will
literally explode in a fire, which is why test laboratories insist on measuring water content of
concrete and mortar in fire test specimens, before running any fire tests. PFP measures can
also include intumescents and ablative materials. The point is, however, that whatever the
nature of the materials, they on their own bear no rating. They must be organised into
systems, which bear a rating when installed in accordance with certification listings or
established catalogues, such as DIN 4102 Part 4 or the Canadian National Building Code.
Passive Fire Protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of
origin, thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time, as determined
the local building code and fire code. Passive fire protection measures, such as firestops, fire
walls, and fire doors, are tested to determine the fire resistance rating of the final assembly,
usually expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance (e.g., , , 1, 1, 2, 3, 4 hour). A
certification listing provides the limitations of the rating.
Contrary to active fire protection measures, Passive Fire Protection means do not typically
require electric or electronic activation or a degree of motion. Exceptions to that particular
rule of thumb are fire dampers (fire-resistive closures within air ducts, excluding grease
ducts) and fire door closers, which must move, open and shut in order to work, as well as all
intumescent products, which swell, thus move, in order to function.
As the name suggests, Passive Fire Protection (PFP) remains silent in your coating system till
the eventuality of a fire. There are mainly two types of PFP : intumescent fire protection and
vermiculite fire protection. In vermiculite fire protection, the structural steel members are
covered with vermiculite materials, mostly a very thick layer. This is a cheaper option as
compared to an intumescent one, but is very crude and aesthetically unpleasant. Moreover if
the environment is corrosive in nature, then the vermiculite option is not advisable, as there is
the possibility of water seeping into it (because of the porous nature of vermiculite), and there
it is difficult to monitor for corrosion. Intumescent fireproofing is a layer of paint which is
applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members. The thickness of this
intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used. For calculation of DFT (dry film
thickness) a factor called Hp/A (heated perimeter divided by cross sectional area), referred to

as "section factor" and expressed in m-1, is used. Intumescent coatings are applied as an
intermediate coat in a coating system (primer, intermediate, and top/finish coat). Because of
the relatively low thickness of this intumescent coating (usually in the 350- to 700micrometer range), nice finish, and anti-corrosive nature, intumescent coatings are preferred
aesthetically and performance-wise.
It should be noted that in the eventuality of a fire, the steel structure will eventually collapse
once the steel attains the critical core temperature (around 550 degrees Celsius or 850 degrees
Fahrenheit). The PFP system will only delay this by creating a layer of char between the steel
and fire. Depending upon the requirement, PFP systems can provide fire ratings in excess of
120 minutes. PFP systems are highly recommended in infrastructure projects as they can save
lives and property.
PFP in a building can be described as a group of systems within systems. An installed
firestop, for instance, is a system that is based upon a product certification listing. It forms
part of a fire-resistance rated wall or floor, and this wall or floor forms part of a fire
compartment which forms an integral part of the overall fire safety plan of the building. The
building itself, as a whole, can also be seen as a system.



LAW (UBBL) 1984



The Uniform Building By Law (UBBL) 1984 requires all buildings to have
minimum structural integrity based on its usage. Elements of construction can

only be effective as fire breaks if they have the necessary degree of fire resistance.

The three criteria of fire resistance:

a. Insulation
b. Integrity
c. Stability
Good building design with fire safety measures:
a. Provide adequate fire appliances, fire hydrants & other facilities to assist fire
& rescue personnel
b. Provide adequate fixed installation, where appropriate, for quick & effective
detection & extinguishment of fires
c. Designing & installing building services so that they do no assist the spread of
fire, smoke or toxic fumes
d. Designing & providing adequate and safe escape routes for the occupants of
the building
e. Selecting materials for the construction which will not promote the rapid
spread of fire or generate dangerous smoke
f. Subdividing buildings into compartments of reasonable sizes by means of fire
resisting walls & floors, providing fire stops to protect openings between
floors & compartments
g. Designing & constructing the exterior of a building so that fire is unlikely to
spread to it from another burning building.


Purpose Group

Where a building contains usage falling under different purpose groups and
each is contained within compartment, by-law 215 of the UBBL 1984 allows
the height of each part of the building housing a different purpose group, if
they are vertically separated, to be considered separately for compliance with
Schedule 6, 7, 9 in the UBBL 1984



Fire Appliance Access


Vehicular access to the exterior of a buildingis needed to enable high reach

appliances to be used & to enable pumping appliances to supply water &
equipment for fire fighting & rescue activities
Access requirement increase with building size & height

The table in By-law 140 (above) shows the proportion of the building
perimeter that must be accessible to fire fighting appliances.





Island site




Away from obstructions such as street furniture, phone booths, etc

Not less than 2m from adjacent buildings & overhangs
Between 0.61m to 2.4m from Fire Appliance Access
Away from risks vehicular
Not more than 90m apart from each other (in new buildings adjacent to
existing developments, a new hydrant or hydrants will have to be provided if
there is no hydrant within 45m radius of the new building)




Fire Rated Door


A fire door is a type of door or movable barrier used as part of a passive fire
protection system within buildings to prevent the spread of fire or smoke between
separate sections. It is usually the only means of allowing people to pass through a
fire-resistant wall
Fire doors are designed to withstand fire, heat and smoke for a period of 20minutes to 3 hours. Fire Doors are required to:-Be Self Closing: fire doors should
have a door closure that pulls doors completely shut after the door has been openedHave Positive latching: a positive latch locks a door in place so it can swing open.

Important of Fire Rated Door


Provides an effective barrier for the passage of fire and/or smoke

Provide safe egress and increase protection for first responders
Also serves for safety, security, accessibility, control, privacy & isolation
Can also serve as environmental weather seal for heat, cold, moisture, dust and

Fire Barrier
Passive fire protection products prevent the passage of fire, smoke and hot
gases. Prevent the spread of fire, smoke and hot gases through a building by
containing it in the compartment of origin.

Maintain the integrity of escape routes from a building. Reduce loss or

damage to property from the effect of fire and smoke. Maintain pressure differential
between compartments and ventilation channels.
Fire Barriers are probably one of the most critical and often overlooked areas
of Fire protection. There are many forms of fire barriers some are the elements of the
building itself such as the walls, floors, ceilings, etc., others may be nonstructural
enclosures or partitions. Any barrier is only as good as its weakest link and it is
critical that barriers are effective particularly during the evacuation phase of a fire.
There are many different requirements for Fire Barriers, with a variety of
failure criterion. The effectiveness of a barrier can make the difference between a
small localized fire to full scale disaster. The principal functions of a fire barrier are to
prevent or reduce the spread of fire and or smoke spread. Fire barriers are often found
on primary escape routes and are vital for the safe evacuation of a building or
It is particularly important to consider the implications on fire barriers during
building or plant modifications. It is not unknown for entire fire walls to have been
totally negated by the apparently slight modification of, a shop frontage in a shopping
mall, or even airport. Sometimes with tragically fatal consequences.


Fire Stopper


Fire Stop Strip is made from high density Rockwool stone wool and is
permanently held in place by compression without the need for adhesive or
intumescent mastic. It prevents the passage of flame and smoke through the
void being fire stopped. For gaps greater than 100mm above masonry walls
and partitions use AIM Partition Head Barrier.

Up to 4 hours fire rating

No mastics or sealants required
Reduces flanking transmission of sound by 9dB
Non-combustible to EN15301-1 and classified A1
Complies with performance requirements of Class O of the Building
Ozone depletion potential of zero, no CFCs or HCFCs used in manufacture
Specification :


Lengths: 1200m
Voids: 10 - 100mm
(For voids 100mm to 600mm use AIM Partition Head Barrier)

Partition Fire Barrier


Also known as fire rated partitions, fire partitions are freestanding walls or
structures within a building that have the specific purpose of retarding the progress of
a fire. While not the same as a fire barrier, a properly constructed fire partition can
provide valuable time that increases the chances of evacuating the space before
anyone is injured. In many jurisdictions, local building codes include specific criteria
that a fire partition must meet in order to be included in a building design.
One of the major differences between a fire partition and a fire barrier is that
the barrier is typically more stable than the partition. A barrier will normally extend
through ceilings and floors, effectively creating another wall that the fire must work
through before reaching the next section of the building. In contrast, a fire partition
does not extend through a ceiling or floor and is not connected to the roof. In some
cases, a partition may not even touch the ceiling within a given chamber, a factor that
also tends to decrease the overall stability of the structure.
It is important to note that a fire partition is usually not expected to completely
stop a fire from spreading. The idea is to slow down the progress of the fire so that
anyone in the burning structure has a small amount of additional time to escape. The
presence of the partition also means that the overall damage to the building is
minimized, assuming that the fire is brought under control before the protective
construction is breached.
Most jurisdictions that allow the inclusion of a fire partition in a new building
design will require that the construction meet specific safety requirements that are
found in local building codes. Those requirements may be specific in terms of the
types of building materials used to construct the partition, as well as the thickness of
the safety device and how it is anchored to the flooring. The idea is to make sure the
materials do in fact aid in slowing down the progress of a fire, and that the partition is
stable enough to avoid weakening the overall soundness of the structure.
There is some difference of opinion when it comes to determining if a fire
partition is more effective than a fire barrier. Supporters tend to claim the partition
offers protection that is at least as effective as the barrier, but will cost less to
construct. Detractors note that the decrease in stability associated with a fire partition
is not really worth the difference in construction costs, and could mean the loss of a
few valuable seconds of time in the event that a fire does break out.



Over time, an increased understanding of the many factors that contribute to the risk of
fire has led to positive developments in the fire protection of commercial structures.
Improvements in public fire protection systems and services, as well as increased use of
private active or passive systems through fire-protection and loss-control engineering,
has meant an overall decrease in the cost of fire. A discussion of the factors affecting
insurance premium rate demonstrates that, although building construction type is one factor
used, there are many other equally important considerations when determining a property's
level, fire risk, and hence its insurance premium. A similar level of fire safety can be achieved
by various means. The sum effect of all fire safety factors should be weighed, and a variety of
active and passivefire-protection measures can be assessed and market factors considered,
optimizing both fire safetyand overall costfor a commercialbuilding. Wood construction has
benefited from all that has been learned regarding good design and appropriate active and
passive fire-protection measures. The evolution of methods of construction has resulted in an
enhanced level of fire protection, as reflected in the presented fire-loss statistics. Those
statistics show that wood-frame construction can result in low fire-loss costs and that
presence of sprinklers can further reduce that low cost by almost half. Consequently,
well-designed wood construction is a costeffective means of protecting commercial
endeavors from theriskof fire loss.

Preventing fire losses has always been more important to the insured than to the insurer.
Although a particular fire loss may not be statistically significant to an insurance company,
to the owner involved such a loss is not only a direct financial issue but it also impacts
many other important business aspects, such as employee moral, access to suppliers and
the economic health of the community. important business aspects, such as employee
moral, access to suppliers and the economic health of the community.


John Knight , W.P. Jones , (2004) Building Services Pocket Book (Newnes Pocket Book),
Routledge 2nd Edition (3 July 2004)
Fred Hall , Roger Greeno (2009) Building Services Handbook (illustrated), ButterworthHeinnenman