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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PARKINSON GEAR

TESTER

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by
J.KIRUBASON EDWIN
A.KANNAN
S.JAYAPRAKASH
S.IYYAPPAN

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


Of
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
GOVERNMENT COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TIRUNELVELI-07

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Our first and foremost thanks to THE ALMIGHTY for presenting


this opportunity to complete this project.
We also wish to express our sincere thanks to our beloved principal
Dr.D.SHALINIPUNITHAVATHANI,M.E.,Ph.D.,MISTE., for her kind
patronage.
With great pride and pleasure we express our deep sense of gratitude
and profound thanks to Dr.T.CHRISTOPHER,M.E.,Ph.D., Professor &
Head of the Department, Mechanical Engineering, Government College of
Engineering, Tirunelveli for encouraging us to undertake this project.
We
are
indebted
to
our
project
supervisor,
Dr.T.CHRISTOPHER,M.E.,Ph.D., Assistant Professor in Mechanical
Engineering Department for her kind guidance, advice and encouragement
throughout the project.
Our special

thanks

to

our

faculty

adviser,

Mr. T. PREM SINGH INBARAJ. ME., Assistant Professor in


Mechanical Engineering for his profound and valuable insight and
comments on our project.
We express our sincere thanks to all the faculty & staff members of
the Department of Mechanical Engineering for helping and guiding us to
complete this project with great success.
We also express our special thanks to our parents who have sacrificed
greatly in our education and welfare. We thank all those who have helped
directly and indirectly in this doing project and bringing out this successful
report.

ABSTRACT
Parkinson gear tester is used to test the error in the gear. Here
the carriage has two spindle. One main gear is fixed in one spindle and
another testing gear is fixed in the second spindle. The can slide both side
and these gears are mounted in mesh by spring pressure. When the gear are

rotated, the moment of sliding carriage can be measured by the dial


indicator. This values are recorded in the recorder. The spindles can be
adjusted so that axial distance is equal and scale is attached to one side and
vernier to the other side for measure the centre distance. If errors occur in
the tooth form moment of carriage due to the error in the pitch and tooth
thickness. This moment is indicated in the dial gauge. The maximum gear
diameter 150 mm can be tested.

CONTENTS
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1

Parkinson gear tester

1.2

Gear

1.3

Shaft

1.4

Ball bearing

Chapter 2: Construction & working

2.1

Construction

2.2
Working
Chapter 3: Design & Calculations
3.1
3.2

Helical gear calculation


Bevel gear calculation

3.3

Spring calculation

3.4

Bearing calculation

Chapter 4: Fabrication process


4.1

Bevel gear

4.2

Helical gear

4.3

Shaft

4.4

Ball bearing

4.5

Rail setup and assembly

Chapter 5: Cost Estimation


Chapter 6: Conclusion

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 PARKINSON GEAR TESTER
Parkinson gear tester is used to test the error in the gear. principle of this
gear tester is to mount a standard gear on a fixed vertical spindle and gear to
be tested on another similar spindle mounted on a sliding carriage,
maintaining the gears in mesh by spring pressure. Movement of the sliding
carriage as the gear rotated are indicated by a dial indicator. This dial
indicator gives the reading of
movement of gears or it may be said that dial gauge gives the measurement
of gear variations. These variations are a measure of any irregularities in the
gear under test.
Here the carriage has two spindle. One main gear is fixed in one
spindle and another testing gear is fixed in the second spindle.The can slide
both side and these gears are maintained in mesh by spring pressure. When
the gear are rotated, the moment of sliding carriage can be measured by the
dial indicator. This values are recorded in the recorder. The spindles can be
adjusted so that axial distance is equal and scale is attached to one side and
vernier to the other side for measure the centre distance. If errors occur in
the tooth form moment of carriage due to the error in the pitch and tooth
thickness. This moment is indicated in the dial gauge. The maximum gear
diameter 150mm can be tested

1.2 GEAR
Power transmission is the movement of energy from its place of
generation to a location where it is applied to performing useful work

A gear is a component within a transmission device that transmits


rotational force to another gear or device .
1.2.1 TYPES OF GEAR
1. According to the position of axes of the shafts.
Parallel
1.Spur Gear
2.Helical Gear
3.Rack and Pinion
b. Intersecting
Bevel Gear
c. Non-intersecting and Non-parallel
worm and worm gears

1.2.2 Spur
Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear. They
consist of a cylinder or disk with the teeth projecting radically, and although
they are not straight-sided in form(they are usually of special form to
achieve constant drive ratio, mainly involute), the edge of each tooth is
straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation.

1.2.3 Helical
Helical or dry fixed gears offer a refinement over spur gears. The
leading edges of the teeth are not parallel to the axis of rotation, but are set at
an angle.
The teeth on helical gears are cut at an angle to the face of the gear
This gradual engagement makes helical gears operate much more
smoothly and quietly than spur gears
ne interesting thing about helical gears is that if the angles of the gear
teeth are correct, they can be mounted on perpendicular shafts,
adjusting the rotation angle by 90 degrees

1.2.4 Double helical


Double helical gears, or herringbone gears, overcome the problem of axial
thrust presented by "single" helical gears, by having two sets of teeth that are
set in a V shape. A double helical gear can be thought of as two mirrored
helical gears joined together. This arrangement cancels out the net axial
thrust, since each half of the gear thrusts in the opposite direction resulting
in a net axial force of zero. This arrangement can remove the need for thrust

bearings. However, double helical gears are more difficult to manufacture


due to their more complicated shape.

For both possible rotational directions, there exist two possible arrangements
for the oppositely-oriented helical gears or gear faces. One arrangement is
stable, and the other is unstable. In a stable orientation, the helical gear faces
are oriented so that each axial force is directed toward the center of the gear.
In an unstable orientation, both axial forces are directed away from the
center of the gear. In both arrangements, the total (or net) axial force on each
gear is zero when the gears are aligned correctly. If the gears become
misaligned in the axial direction, the unstable arrangement generates a net
force that may lead to disassembly of the gear train, while the stable
arrangement generates a net corrective force. If the direction of rotation is
reversed, the direction of the axial

thrusts is also reversed, so a stable configuration becomes unstable, and vice


versa.
Stable double helical gears can be directly interchanged with spur gears
without any need for different bearings.

1.2.5 Bevel gear


A bevel gear is shaped like a right circular cone with most of its tip
cut off. When two bevel gears mesh, their imaginary vertices must occupy
the same point. Their shaft axes also intersect at this point, forming an
arbitrary non-straight angle between the shafts. The angle between the
shafts can be anything except zero or 180 degrees. Bevel gears with equal
numbers of teeth and shaft axes at 90 degrees are called miter gears.
Types of Bevel Gears

Bevel gears are classified in different types according to geometry:

Straight bevel gears have conical pitch surface and teeth are
straight and tapering towards apex. Straight bevel gears are shown in
Figure 1.6.

Figure 1.6. Straight Bevel gears


Spiral bevel gears have curved teeth at an angle allowing tooth
contact to be gradual and smooth. Spiral bevel gears are illustrated in
Figure 1.7.

Figure. Spiral Bevel gears


Zero bevel gears are very similar to a bevel gear only exception is
the teeth are curved: the ends of each tooth are coplanar with the axis, but
the middle of each tooth is swept circumferentially around the gear. Zero
bevel gears can be thought of as spiral bevel gears (which also have curved
teeth) but with a spiral angle of zero (so the ends of the teeth align with the
axis).
Hypoid bevel gears are similar to spiral bevel but the pitch surfaces
are hyperbolic and not conical. Pinion can be offset above, or below, the
gear centre, thus allowing larger pinion diameter, and longer life and
smoother mesh, with additional ratios

1.2.7 Worm gear


The worm gears are widely used for transmitting power at high
velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts that are generally, but not
necessarily, at right angles. It can give velocity ratios as high as 300:1 or
more in a single step in a minimum of space, but it has lower efficiency. The
worm gear is widely used to speed reducer and a worm wheel or gear. The
worm(which is the driving member) is usually of a cylindrical form having
threads of the same shape as that of an involute rack. The threads of the
worm may be left handed or right handed and single or multiple threads.
Worm wheel or gear (which is the driven member) is similar to a
helical gear with a face curved to conform to the shape of the worm gear is
made of bronze or cast iron for light service.
The worm gearing is classified as non-interchangeable, because a
worm wheel cut with a hop of one diameter will not operate satisfactorily
with a worm of different diameter, even if the thread pitch is same.

TYPES OF WORMS
The following are the two types of worms:
Cylinder or straight worm, and
Cone or double enveloping worm.
The cylinder or straight worm is most commonly used. The shape of the
thread is involute helicoid of pressure angle 14 0 for single and double
threaded worms and 200 for single and double threaded worms and 200 for
triple and quadruple threaded worms. The worm thread are cut by a straight
sided milling cutter having its diameter not less then the outside diameter of
worm or greater than 1.25 times the outside diameter of worm.
The cone or double enveloping worm is used to some extent, but it
requires extremely accurate alignment.

TYPES OF WORM GEARS


The following three types of worm gears are important from the

subject point of view:


Straight face worm gear,
Hobbed straight face,
Concave face worm gear.
The Straight face worm gear is like a helical gear in which the
straight teeth are cut with a form cutter. Since it has only point contact with
the worm thread, therefore it is used for light service.
The Hobbed straightt face worm gear is also used for light service
but its teeth are cut with a hob, after which the outer surface is turned.

The Concave face worm gear is the accepted standard form and is used for
all heavy service and general industrial uses. The teeth of this gear are cut

Fig:worm gear

1.2.8 Rack and pinion


A rack is a toothed bar or rod that can be thought of as a sector gear with an
infinitely large radius of curvature. Torque can be converted to linear force
by meshing a rack with a pinion: the pinion turns; the rack moves in a
straight line. Such a mechanism is used in automobiles to convert the
rotation of the steering wheel into the left-to-right motion of the tie rod(s).
Racks also feature in the theory of gear geometry, where, for instance, the
tooth shape of an interchangeable set of gears may be specified for the rack
(infinite radius), and the tooth shapes for gears of particular actual radii are
then derived from that. The rack and pinion gear type is employed in a rack
railway.

1.3 Terminology

1.2.9 NOMENCLATURE
Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a right
section of the gear.
Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between
the teeth, in a right section of the gear.
Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the
addendum circle.
Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root
circle.
Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear and the
addendum of the mating gear.
Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the pitch
surface.
Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch
surface.
Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The thickness of
the tooth measured on the pitch circle. It is the length of an arc and not
the length of a straight line.
Circular pitch (Pc) : The width of a tooth and a space, measured on
the pitch circle.

Diametral pitch (Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit pitch


diameter. The diametral pitch is, by definition, the number of teeth
divided by the pitch diameter. That is,
Where

Pd = diametral pitch
N = number of teeth
D = pitch diameter
Module (m): Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch
diameter is usually specified in inches or millimeters; in the former
case the module is the inverse of diametral pitch.
m = D/N

1.3 SHAFT
A shaft is a rotating machine element which is used to transmit
power from one place to other place.
Carbon steels of grade 40C8, 45C8, 50C4, 50C12 are normally used
as shaft materials.
Material properties
It should have high strength
It should have good machinability.
It should have low notch sensitivity factor. iv. It should have
good heat treatment properties.
v. It should have high wear resistance.

1.3.1 TYPES OF SHAFT


Transmission shaft:
These shafts transmit power between the source and machines
absorbing power. The counter shafts, line shafts, overhead shafts all shafts
are transmission shafts.
Machine shafts:

These shafts from an integral part of the machine itself.

1.4 BALL BEARING


The purpose of a ball bearing is to reduce rotational friction and
support radial and axial loads. It achieves this by using at least two races to
contain the balls and transmit the loads through the balls. In most
applications, one race is stationary and the other is attached to the rotating
assembly (e.g., a hub or shaft). As one of the bearing races rotates it causes
the balls to rotate as well. Because the balls are rolling they have a much
lower coefficient of friction than if two flat surfaces were sliding against
each other.
Ball bearings tend to have lower load capacity for their size than other kinds
of rolling-element bearings due to the smaller contact area between the balls
and races. However, they can tolerate some misalignment of the inner and
outer races.

Single-direction thrust ball bearings are separable and the mounting


is simple as the components can be mounted individually. There are three
separable parts of this bearing known as shaft washer, a housing washer
and the ball and cage assembly. The mounting of thrust bearing is shown in
the Figure 1.8.

Figure 1.8. Thrust Bearing


The inner diameter of the shaft washer is press fitted in the screw
body. The outer diameter of the housing washer is press fitted in the cup.
These two components are separately mounted before final assembly. The
life of thrust bearing is assumed to be 3000 hours.

CHAPTER 2

CONSTRUCTION AND WORKING

2.1 PRINCIPLE:
The principle of this is to mount a standard gear on a
fixed vertical spindle and the gear to be tested on another similar spindle
mounted on a sliding carriage,maintaining the gears in mesh by spring
pressure.
2.2 PARTS:
1)

Master gear

2)

Gear under test

3)

Fixed part

4)

Movable part

5)

Railing arrangement

6)

Hub

7)

Bearing

8)

Spur gear

9)

Bevel gear

10) spring

11) dial indicator

2.3 CONSTRUCTION OF PARKINSON:


It consists of gears, dial indicator, fixed and movable part, bearing and
spring. The gears are mounted on the two mandrels so that they are free to
rotate without measurable clearance. The left spindle can be moved along
the table clamped in any desired position.
The right mandrel slide is free to move running on steel balls
,against spring pressure and it has a limited movement.The two mandrels
can be adjusted so that their axial distance is equal to the designed gear
center distance.
The spring pressure can be regulated.There are also screws for
limiting the movement of the sliding carriage. A scale is attached to one
carriage and a vernier to the othor.This enable center distance to be
measured to with in 0.025 mm.
The dial indicator on the right contacts the right end of the sliding
and therefore indicates any radial viriations of the gear under test as the
gears are rotated.The waxed paper recorder is fitted ,the chart makes a
revolution for each one of the gears mounted on the sliding carriage.As the
chart moves or rotates,the line traced records the movement of the floating
carriage a circle is drawn at the same time as the record.
The fig is reproduction of a few typical charts with a reduced scale
and radial errors magnified about 50 times.The gear shown by No.1 record
is a fully satisfactory one,that at No.2 is a moderate gear at No.3 is an
unsatisfactory one.

2.4 WORKING OF A PARKINSON:


The working of the Parkinson gear tester is the movement of the
sliding carriage as the gears are rotated are indicated by a dial indicator and
these variations are a measure of any irregularities in the gear under
test;alternatively a recorder can be fitted in the form of a waxed circular
charts and records made of the gear variation in accuracy of mesh.
The correct method of testing is single-flank method in which
instead of measuring center distance variation the angular variation is
measured.The tester is a complex system and more costly.
An indicator is used to measure angular variation between the gear
and disc on this shaft.In use ,the two discs are brought into frictional
contact so that one can drive the other without slip.
This method is not popular because it requires the manufacture of
two very accurate pitch discs for every gear pair of differentsize

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN CALCULATION:

3.1. HELICAL GEAR CALCULATION


DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES

From design data book for material C45 Steel


Ultimate yield stress
Allowable yield stress
Allowable shear stress

= 3600 kg/cm3

[y] = 1800 kg/cm3


[]

= 1080 kg/cm3

Allowable bending stress [b] = 2160 kg/cm3

DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM CENTRE DISTANCE:


Minimum center distance amin
Speed ratio
Youngs Modulus

= (i+1)
i
= 1.58

= 0.1
E
= 2.15 106 kgf/cm2

Design torque

[Mt] = Mt Kd K

Nominal torque

Mt

= 97420 = 36.53 kgfcm

Design torque

[Mt] = Mt Kd K
= 36.531.3 =49 kgfcm
Allowable compressive stress [c] = Cb HB KCl
= 252290.9 =5152.5 kgf/cm2
Compare the above value with allowable [ c] value in step 1 value

and take the least value for further calculations.


[c]

= 2160 kgf/cm2

Minimum centre distance = (1+1)


amin = 5.956 cm
DETERMINATION OF MODULE:
Module
Mav = 1.15 cos

Minimum No. of teeth to avoid interference


Z1

= 20

Virtual no. of teeth

Zv

= = = 24

Form factor
8.18

Yv = 0.413 from PSG DDB Pg no.

Life factor for bending Kbl

= 0.7

Endurance stress

-1

= 0.22(u+ y)+500

= 0.22(3600+1600)+500 = 1424
kgf/cm2
Factor of safety

=2

Fillet factor

= 1.2

Allowable bending stress


[b] = 479.5 kgf/cm2
Compare the above value with [ b] value in step 1 and take the least value
for further
mav=1.15 cos25

standard module

mav

= 0.299cm

mav

= 0.3 cm

DETERMINATION OF ACTUAL CENTRE DISTANCE:


Actual centre distance

= =

= 8.6 cm

Compare the above value with a value in step 2 and take the greater
value for further calculations
Actual centre distance a

= 8.6 cm

DETERMINATION OF ACTUAL NUMBER OF TEETH


No. of teeth on pinion Z
Z1
Z2

= 25.14 =29
= 1.4829 =43

DETERMINATION OF DIAMETER OF GEARS


Pitch circle diameter of pinion

d1= z1=

= 6.62 cm

Pitch circle diameter of wheel

d 2 = z2 =

= 14.23 cm

DETERMINATION OF WIDTH OF GEARS

= = 0.1 = 0.86 cm

Width b

= 1.13 cm

m
Width b
b

= 0.310
= 3 cm

Compare the above values and take the greater value as width for
further calculations
b

= 3 cm

CHECKING
CHECK FOR INDUCED COMPRESSIVE STRESS
=
= = 0.19
Load concentration factor
Velocity of drive

K
V

= 1.13 from PSG DDB Pg no.


8.15
=0.1159 m/s

Preferred IS quality

= 6 from PSG DDB Pg no. 8.3

Dynamic load factor

kd= 1.3

[Mt]= 491.131.3 = 71.98 kgf/cm2

Compressive stress c =
= 2071.97 kgf/cm2
For safe design
c

[c]

2071.97

2160

Design Is Safe
CHECK FOR INDUCED BENDING STRESS

[b]

= 39.146 kgf/cm2
For design safe
b
[b] Design Is Safe

3.2. BEVEL GEAR CALCULATION

DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES


From design data book for material C45 Steel

Ultimate yield stress


Allowable yield stress
Allowable shear stress

= 3600 kg/cm3

[y] = 1800 kg/cm3


[]

= 1080 kg/cm3

Allowable bending stress [b] = 2160 kg/cm3

DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM CONE RADIUS


Radius of cone
Speed ratio

R
i
y
E

Youngs Modulus
Design torque
Nominal torque
kgf/cm2

Mt

= y
=1
= =3
= 2.15 106 kgf/cm2

[Mt] = Mt Kd K
= 97420

36.53

Design torque

[Mt] = Mt Kd K
= 36.531.5 =54.79 kgf/cm2
Allowable compressive stress [c] = Cb HB KCl
= 252290.9 =5152.5 kgf/cm2

Compare the above value with allowable [c] value in step 1 value
and take the least value for further calculations.
[c]

= 2160 kgf/cm2

Minimum cone radius R= 3


Rmin = 3.04 cm
DETERMINATION OF MODULE:
Module
Mav = 1.28

Minimum No. of teeth to avoid interference


Z1

= 20
= 14o

Reference angle
Virtual no. of teeth

Zv

= = 21

Form factor
8.18

Yv = 0.396 from PSG DDB Pg no.

Life factor for bending Kbl

= 0.7

Endurance stress

-1

= 0.22(u+ y)+500

= 0.22(3600+1600)+500 = 1424
kgf/cm2
Factor of safety

=2

Fillet factor

= 1.2

Allowable bending stress


[b] = 479.5 kgf/cm2
Compare the above value with [ b] value in step 1 and take the least value
for further
Mav=1.28

standard module

mav

= 0.158cm

mav

= 0.2 cm

DETERMINATION OF ACTUAL CONE RADIUS

Transverse module
Actual cone radius

mt
mt

= 0.5z

= 0.24 cm

R
R

= 0.50.2420
= 3.4 cm

Compare the above value with R value in step 2 and take the greater
value for further calculations

Actual cone radius

= 3.4 cm

DETERMINATION OF ACTUAL NUMBER OF TEETH


No. of teeth on pinion Z
Z1
Z2

= 16.58 16
= 116 =16

DETERMINATION OF DIAMETER OF GEARS


Pitch circle diameter of pinion

d1= mtz1 = 0.3616 = 5.76 cm

Pitch circle diameter of wheel

d2 = mtz2 = 0.3648 = 5.76 cm

DETERMINATION OF WIDTH OF GEARS


y

Width b

= 1.13 cm

m
Width b
b

= 0.210
= 2 cm

Compare the above values and take the greater value as width for
further calculations
b

= 2 cm

CHECKING
CHECK FOR INDUCED COMPRESSIVE STRESS

=
= = 0.19
Load concentration factor
Velocity of drive

= 1 from PSG DDB Pg no. 8.15

=0.12 m/s

Preferred IS quality

= 10 from PSG DDB Pg no. 8.3

Dynamic load factor

kd= 1
[Mt]= 36.5311 = 36.53 kgf/cm2

Compressive stress c =
c
= 2107.8 kgf/cm2
For safe design
c
2107.8

[c]

2160

Design Is Safe
CHECK FOR INDUCED BENDING STRESS

[b]

= 247.94 kgf/cm2
For design safe
b
[b] Design Is Safe

3.3. SPRING CALCULATION


C

= 0.2 KW

=7N

DETERMINATION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES


The chosen shaft material is (C15 steel)
Ultimate Yield stress

= 500 N/mm2

Allowable Yield stress

[y]

= 250 N/mm2

Allowable Shear stress []

= 150 N/mm2

Assume factor of safety

=2

DETERMINATION OF DIMENSION OF SPRING:


Shear stress =
Whal stress factor =
Ks = 1.1448
150 =
coil diameter = 1.14 mm = 1mm
Mean wire diameter = 10 mm

DETERMINATION OF NUMBER OF TURNS:

Deflection of spring y =
36 =
Number of coils = 58
DETERMINATION OF SOLID HEIGHT, FREE LENTH AND
PITCH:
Free length = pn+d

Solid length = dn+d = 158+1 = 59 mm

Free length = solid length + maximum expansion

= 59 + 36 = 95 mm

Free length = pn+d = 95

Pitch = 1.6 mm

3.4. BEARING CALCULATION


Radial load

= 100 N = 10 kgf

Axial load

= 75 N = 7.5 kgf

Life

= 2 years

Speed

= 40 rpm

I. DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT LOAD


Assume the bearing as deep groove ball bearing PSG DDB Pg No. 4.2
Equivalent Load

P = [(XFr)+(YFa)]S
=

Service factor

= 1.3

From PSG DDB Pg.No. 4.4 > (0.22-0.44)


X= 0.56
Y= 1
P
Equivalent Load

= [(0.56100)+(175)]1.3
P = 170.3 N = 17.03 kgf

II. DETERMINATION OF DYNAMIC LOAD


Dynamic Load C
P
From PSG DDB pg no. 4.2 L10 = 1 mr

= 3 for ball bearings

Life

= 2365126040

= 21.024 mr
=

Dynamic load C

= 470.02 N
= 47 kgf

III.SELECTION OF BEARING
For equivalent

Shaft diameter
= 22 mm
Dynami capacity =47 kgf

SKF 6004 can be selected from PSG DDB Pg.No. 4.2


Shaft diameter

= 22 mm

Bearing diameter D

= 42 mm

Width of bearing B

= 12 mm

Dynamic load

= 735 kgf

Static load C0
IV.TOLERANCE ANALYSIS

= 450 kgf

from PSG DDB Pg.No. 4.8


for shaft, type of condition is light and variable load j6
for housing, type of condition is normal and light load J7
from PSG DDB Pg.No. 3.8
Shaft diameter= 22 mm
Bearing outside diameter= 42 () mm

Chapter 4 : FABRICATION
4.1. BEVEL GEAR
Bevel gears are used for 90 power transmission. Some materials
chosen for bevel gear are Cast Iron, Steel, Cast Steel, Carbon Steel, Alloy
Steel and Non-Metallic Materials. Bevel gears are manufactured on
precision generating machines by indexing method ensuring that the teeth
should be of tapered depth and thickness. Teeth are cut on the outside of the
cone. They have a straight tooth geometry, which if extends, passes through
the intersection of their axes. Bevel gears are generally known as straight
bevel gears. Straight bevel angles can also be with one gear flat with a pitch
angle of 90. They have conical pitch surfaces that operate on intersecting
axes. They can be designed and cut to operate on any shaft angle. In bevel
gears when each tooth engages it impacts the corresponding tooth and
simply curving the gear teeth can solve the problem. These gears are
recommended at less speed and when loads are light. At higher speed they
makes noise. The most preeminent function of these gears is in a bevel gear
differential. Bevel gears are also used in steel plant, material handling
system and cooling towers etc.

4.2. HELICAL GEAR

Helical or dry fixed gears offers a refinement over spur gears. They
are generally made up of Carbon Steel, Cast Iron, Alloy steel and NonMetallic Materials. These gears are manufactured by various processes.
These are, casting, stamping, rolling, extruding, and machining. Gears can
also be produced by powder metallurgy. Among the above said process,
machining process in most commonly used. It is an accurate method.
Basically gears are produced by machining by a) Forming method. b)
Generating method.
4.2.1. GEAR FORMING
In this method a form cutter is used. The formed cutter may be single
point cutting tool or a multipoint milling cutter. The cutting edges formed
cutter has been finished to the shape
between the gear teeth being cut. Forming method is used for producing very
small number
of gears. Gears produced by forming are less accurate. Forming process is
simple and cheaper.
This method is takes more time.
4.2.2. Gear Generating
This method of gear manufacturing is based on the fact that any two
involute gears of the same module will mesh together. Here one of the
meshing gears is made as the cutter. The other gear rotates and also
reciprocates along the width of the gear blank. Because of the relative rolling
motion between cutter and the blank, gear teeth are generated on the gear
blank. The gear may be generated by rack cutter, pinion cutter or a hob.
Using the generated method, profile of the gear teeth can be very accurately
produced. The following generating methods used for gear production are
Gear shaping, Gear planning, Gear hobbing.
4.2.2.1. Gear Hobbing
It is a process of generating a gear by means of a rotating cutter called
hob. The hob has helical threads. Grooves are cut in the threads parallel to
the axis. This will provide the edges. Proper rake and clearance angle are
ground on these cutting edges. The rotating hob acts like a continuously

moving rack as it cuts. The blank is mounted on a vertical arbour. The hob is
mounted in a

rotating arbour. The hob axis is tilted the hob lead angle so that its teeth are
parallel to the axis of the gear blank.

4.3. SHAFTS
Shafts are usually made up of Cast Iron. A higher diameter rod is
reduced into required dimensions by conducting facing and turning
operations on lathe machine. Facing is the operation which is used to reduce
the length of the shaft. Facing usually carried out on both sides of the shafts.
Turning is one of the most common of metal cutting operations. In turning, a
workpiece is rotated about its axis as single-point cutting tools are fed into it,
shearing away unwanted material and creating the desired part. Turning can
occur on both external and internal surfaces to produce an axiallysymmetrical contoured part.
4.4 Ball Bearings
Ball bearings are at the heart of almost every product with a rotating
shaft. Ball bearings are generally made up of high carbon steel. The varios
processes involves in the fabrication of ball bearings are turning operation,
centerless grinding, heat treatment, hardness testing rough grinding, finish

grinding, honing and super finishing. The rings, balls and cages are
manufactured in different sections and finally assembled together.

4.5 Rail Setup and Assembly


The rail setup is used for the to and fro motion of the movable gear
assembly. Welding and drilling operations are used for the assembly of rail
setup and the whole setup. There are many welding processes used in

modern metal fabrication and repair. The primary differences between the
various welding processes are the methods by which heat is generated to
melt the metal. The most common types of welding are oxy-fuel gas welding
(OFW), arc welding (AW), and resistance welding (RW). Here OFW and
AW are used. One of the most popular welding methods uses a gas flame as
a source of heat. In the oxy-fuel gas welding process heat is produced by
burning a combustible gas, such as acetylene, mixed with oxygen. Gas
welding is widely used in maintenance and repair work because of the ease
in transporting oxygen and fuel cylinders. Using gas welding metal plate of
nearly 10mm can be cut. Arc welding is a process that uses an lectric arc to
join the metals being welded. A distinct advantage of arc welding over gas
welding is the concentration of heat. Arc welding is generally used for join
two metal parts.
Drilling is the operation used for producing a small hole for the
assembly of whole parts using bolt and nut. This operation is simply carried
out by drilling machine and drill bit. Due to high speed of rotation of the
drill bit a hole can be generated on the metal plete. Usually the drill bit is
made up of high carbon steel.