The paper presents the main results obtained from a systematic assessment about the current possibility to simulate hydrodynamic characteristics of super-cavitating hydrofoils with state of the art CFD methods.

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The paper presents the main results obtained from a systematic assessment about the current possibility to simulate hydrodynamic characteristics of super-cavitating hydrofoils with state of the art CFD methods.

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Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Stefano Brizzolara1 and Alessandro Federici2

M a r i n e C F D G r o u p , Genova - Italy

1

University of Genova, Italy, Department of Naval Architecture, Head of Marine CFD Group

2

University Pole for Yacht Design of La Spezia, Italy

ABSTRACT:

The paper presents the main results obtained from a systematic assessment about the current possibility to

simulate hydrodynamic characteristics of super-cavitating hydrofoils with state of the art CFD methods. First

a systematic validation of the finite volume RANSE solver with volume of fluid method for the multiphase

flow and a simple Rayleigh-Plesset model for bubble dynamics. Sensitivity of the solver to various

parameters which affect the cavitation model is verified as well as the integration time-step, the number of

inner iterations, which influence the unsteady calculations. The final best configurations of the CFD model

are used for its validation against experimental results on a reference two terms super-cavitating profile at a

typical design angle of attack and for the complete range of cavitation indexes. After this preliminary study,

the paper continues with the verification of the performance in case of different super-cavitating hydrofoils

with two/three and five terms face shapes, designed using a classical asymptotic theory for the face and the

back shapes chosen on the basis of cavity shapes predicted RANSE simulations. The RANSE method proves

to be effective to design the hydrofoil back side for finite cavitation numbers and to assess its performance of

for the next 3D hydrofoil design.

NOMENCLATURE

BOA

p0

pV

V

VoF

CL ,D

c

vapour tension at given water temperature [Pa]

flow speed [m/s]

volume of fluid

Lift or Drag Coefficient 2(L , D)/(cV2)

hydrofoil chord length [m]

2 INTRODUCTION

Results presented in the paper are those obtained in

the preliminary phase of more ample research

project dedicated to the concept design and

hydrodynamic optimization of a super-high speed

autonomous surface vehicle developed by the

Marine CFD Group of the University of Genoa in a

IX HSMV Naples 25 - 27 May 2011

Research Global. As from general specifications, the

unmanned vehicle is meant to reach a top speed of

120 knots in sea state two, but is also requested to

loiter at slow speed for days. To this scope, an

unconventional SWATH hull has been designed for

loitering mode and optimized for minimum

resistance at take-off speed, on the basis of the

previous experience in the design of unconventional

SWATH vessels (S. Brizzolara, 2004) (Brizzolara &

Bruzzone, 2007) also in case of unmanned vehicles

(Brizzolara et al. 2011). For the operations at super

high speed, the unconventional displacement hull

can be converted into a hybrid hydrofoil-wig craft

by means of two pairs of retractable super-cavitating

hydrofoils. The initial concept design of the vessel is

presented in the two picture of Figure 1, which

shows 3D renderings of the two operating modes:

hullborne and foilborne.

The design of the surface piercing hydrofoils turns

to be one of the most challenging design topics of

the project connected with the ultra-high speed

1

becomes almost unavoidable at speed greater than

50/60 knots, above which super-cavitating hydrofoil

shapes have to be used.

The major hydrofoil studies and scientific

advancements were done between the 60s and the

80s and indeed few example of hydrofoils vessels

with top speed higher than 60 knots can be found

from those years, as for instance super-cavitating

submerged hydrofoils TAP-1 or TAP-2 designed by

Boeing (Baker E., 1975).

The design methods for super-cavitating hydrofoils

are still nowadays primarily based on the linearised

asymptotic theories developed in the mid of last

century by Tulin and Burkart (1955), generalized to

the design of 3D hyofoils near the free surface by

Virgil Johson (1957). This theory is valid only in the

limit of zero cavitation number and is able to give

the shape of only the face of the profile (since the

back is supposed to lie inside the supercavity, by

definition). Actual profiles for the previously

mentioned super-high speed vehicle have to be

optimized for a finite cavitation number (0=0.05 at

120 knots) and their back face need to lie inside the

cavity while ensuring a sufficient thickness for

strength issues.

mixed design approach: the linearised theory to

design the face and a CFD approach to verify the

hydrodynamic characteristics and design the back

side with a trial and error procedure. Hence the topic

of RANSE solvers of multiphase cavitating flow.

The solution of the flow field around supercavitating hydrofoils is rather complex because of

the critical and unstable nature of cavitation. Modern

volume finite volume unsteady RANS solvers

promise to be a valid tool to study this complex

phenomenon, but the theoretical models need to be

set up correctly for what regards the parameters that

control the physical models and numerical

approximation schemes.

After a concise description of the theoretical and

physical models used by the numerical method, the

paper will continue with the description of its

validation on a set of experimental results for a 2D

super-cavitating foil in section 4 and finally will

illustrate the design method followed to design the

basis 2D section of the surface piercing supercavitating hydrofoils of the autonomous vessel.

3.1 RANSE solver with multiphase VoF model

A state of art of RANSE solver with VoF method for

representing the free surface has been selected. The

software suite (CD-Adapco, 2009) has the capability

of solving model or full scale turbulent flows around

a body in non-stationary conditions, with the VoF

method for predicting the free surface around it, with

a simplified adiabatic cavitation model, described in

the next paragraph.

The solver is applied to the following group of

equations which express the mass and momentum

balance with an Eulerian approach and Reynolds

time-Average approach with the needed boundary

conditions valid for this type of CFD simulation.

The RANS equations can be expressed, in our case,

for an incompressible flow as shown in Eq. 2:

V 0

V P V TRe S M

Hydrofoil-SWATH-WIG in foilborne (up) and hullborne

(bottom ) operating modes

(1)

vector, P is the average pressure field, is the

dynamic viscosity, TRe is the tensor of Reynolds

stresses and SM is the vector of momentum sources.

The component of TRe is computed in agreement

with the standard k- turbulence model selected for

this application, in agreement with the Boussinesq

hypothesis:

2

Vi

V j 2

k ij

3

x

j

i

2

2 t Dij k ij

3

ijRe t

(2)

kinetic energy. The realizable k- turbulence model

was selected to close the hydrodynamic problem. To

save cells close to the hull surface, an analytical wall

function has been adopted to the velocity vector and

all other scalar quantities are extrapolated from the

known quantities on the wall boundary surface.

As regards the wall function, on the cell closest to

the profile, a two layer model approach has been

applied. The two layer wall function model is a

model that imposes a first thin laminar layer near the

wall and a second logarithmic layer over the first;

this model assumes that the centroid of the first cell

near the wall lies within the logarithmic region of

the boundary layer. The wall treatment is optimized

to approximate boundary layer effects with a

dimensionless wall distance y+<100, but a much

smaller value has been used in this study in order to

accurately solve the cavity thickness growth along

the wall.

The RANS solver is based on a Finite-Volume

method to discretize the physical domain. The

equation for an incompressible multiphase fluid is

used in the simulation, with one more transport

equation for the VoF, shown in Eq. 3, which

represents the fraction of water inside each cell:

VoF

VoF U 0

t

(3)

free surface between water and air, this method is

powerful for solving problems when the wave

breaking may occurred, or when the air effects are

important on the free surface shape.

To solve the time-marching equations, an implicit

unsteady solver is used.

All hydrodynamic unknown quantities in the field

are solved at each time step using an iterative

method. In particular, many inner iterative steps are

needed to reach a good prediction of the unsteady

cavity evolution at each time step. The software uses

a SIMPLE method to conjugate pressure field and

velocity field, and a AMG (Algebraic Multi-Grid)

solver to accelerate the convergence of the solution.

A more complete description can be found in the

technical reference manual (CD-Adapco, 2009).

concept and the Rayleigh-Plesset simple model to

simulate bubbles dynamics. With this simplified

model one can define the cavitation inception and

bubble dynamics by setting the size and number of

micro-bubble seeds (cavitation nuclei), and their

stochastic spectral distribution in the considered.

These are approximately represented in the RANSE

solver through an average seed radius R0 and an

average seed density n0. The latter is a constant

strongly dependent on water quality and it is defined

as the number of cavitation seeds (nuclei) per unit

volume of liquid (Sauer 2000).

To simplify the problem, the vapor bubbles in a

control volume are represented in an average sense

by an homogeneous distribution of seeds with the

same mean radius. This assumption allows to

describe the bubble distribution by a single scalar

field, the vapor volume fraction V, which

influences directly the VoF variable solved in (3).

Assuming that only one liquid phase and the

corresponding liquid-vapor phase can occupy the

control volume where cavitation takes place:

V

n 4 R 3

VolV

034 3

Vol l VolV 1 n0 3 R

(4)

the volume occupied by the liquid and Nbub the

number of vapor bubbles in the control volume.

This vapor volume fraction changes, as all phases,

due to convective transport but also to bubble

growing and collapsing.

The modeling of bubble grow rate is based on a

Lagrangian observation of a cloud of bubbles, using

the Rayleight-Plasset equation to describe the

average bubble radius time evolution R(t):

p p0 2

dR

d 2 R 3 dR

v

4 l

2

dt

2 dt

l

l R

l R dt

2

(5)

the temperature at the bubble surface and l , l are

the water density and viscosity respectively, and is

the surface tension coefficient.

The model is simplified and the final equation for

the bubble growth, obtained neglecting the inertia,

viscous and surface tension terms in (5) is given by

the following expression:

2 pv p0

dR

dt Ray 3 l

2

(6)

Different numerical models have been generated to

be used with the RANSE solver described in the

previous section, by systematically varying

geometrical mesh parameters as well as cavitation

model constants, to be validated against the

experimental results on a super-cavitating hydrofoil

of Waid & Lindberg (1957).

The systematic validation study has been performed

for different angles of attack of the profile (6, 4 and

2 degrees), for each of them exploring a quite wide

cavitation index range, by keeping constant the flow

speed and opportunely changing the ambient

pressure. Only the results of the 6 degree are

reported in this article, as most representative of a

typical design conditions.

The general approach, derived from experience in

order to cope with particular instability issues of the

unsteady cavitation model, is first to converge on the

steady non-cavitating viscous flow field around the

airfoil and then to gradually increase the vapor

pressure to its correct value from an initial (virtual)

very negative one. This procedure is necessary to

avoid the cavitation model to be applied on the

initial unrealistic negative pressures field which rise

for the sudden acceleration of the flow around the

foil in the first instants, during the solution of the

virtual transient to converge on the steady flow field;

these unrealistic negative pressure values, which

gradually disappear until convergence on the steady

non-cavitating flow field around the foil, would

cause the unrealistic formation of large vapor

bubbles around the foil and would lead the solution

to divergence.

4.1 Physical model set up

The set-up of the parameters which rule the physical

model has been also systematically investigated.

First, as perhaps obvious, for the inherent unsteady

nature of cavitation an unsteady solution must be

searched for in order to find a feasible solution,

although the final global parameters compared with

the experimental tests are the mean forces

components. Also the integration time-step of the

solver was studied: a constant value of 110-3 s was

selected as the minimum for stability and accurate

results. In fact, higher time-step values brought to

inaccurate results, while smaller values made the

convergence property of the solution very weak

being too sensible to the turbulent fluctuation of the

flow around the foil.

As regards parameters of the cavitation model, in a

particular case for 0=0.48 (i.e. the region where the

highest differences between experimental and

IX HSMV Naples 25 - 27 May 2011

effect of a variation in the seed diameter of the

cavitation nuclei (chapter 3.2) from 1e-6 to 1e-4

meter; this test is carried out with the mesh type Q2

(see chapter 4.2). The results are quite interesting: as

the seed diameter increases, the lift coefficient CL

decreases coming closer to the experimental value,

on the other hand CD instead diverges. A good

compromise seems to lay around 510-5 m, in fact the

accuracy on CL increases of about 4% while that on

on CD is worse of about 2%. Also the ratio L/D at

this point is quite in line with the tunnel tests results.

Not being convinced about the obtained trends and

being uncertain of the tunnel tests at this particular

cavitation index and about the effect of this

parameter for all the other 0, the more typical seed

diameter value of 510-5 m was assumed, eventually

privileging a smaller error on drag than that on lift.

On the other hand, specific measurement of the

cavitation nuclei size statistical distribution were not

made in the reference tests.

Lift and Drag Coefficient =6 degree, 0=0.48)

were performed, but this parameter does not

appreciably influence the results, so the standard

value 1012 nuclei per cubic meter of water was

assumed for all the simulations.

4.2 Mesh sensitivity First Systematic Analysis

As a result of this systematic analysis a domain

spanning of 3 chord lengths upstream of the foil

leading edge, 15 chord lengths aft of the trailing

edge and 5 chord lengths from the face and back

sides of the foil itself has been chosen, as illustrated

in Figure 2. This with the scope of eliminating the

influence of the boundaries (especially the inlet and

top and bottom slipping walls) on the solution. Since

results reported from the tests in the water tunnel on

a small model (3x3 inches) were not corrected

blockage and upper/lower wall effects, some

which needs to be discussed case by case.

To find the correct mesh refinement, two different

sensitivity analyses were performed: the first with a

closer inlet, about 1 chord lengths upstream of the

foil (usually sufficient for standard profiles), the

second with 3 chord lengths; two different

refinements have been applied to both mesh sizes.

role: this must be greater than the cavitation bubble

height in the condition that has to be solved. Figure

5 shows the difference between two different prism

layer sizes at the same condition, the difference in

results are quite important: not only we have a

reduction of the cavity length but also a different

unsteady behavior of the bubble (and induced

forces) with time. This problem is rather complex

and is further detailed in paragraph 4.3.

5 Chords

3

15 Chords

5 Chords

Figure 2 Fluid domain, final sizes (mesh Q2+I)

refinement around the foil in order to correctly

capture the shape of the cavity. In fact, a thick prism

layer of very thin cells is needed over the suction

side of the hydrofoil.

Figure 5 Effect of two different prism layer thicknesses on

the predicted cavity shape (same condition)

of the foil and results of the VoF of the liquid phase.

solution of the vapor volume fraction in terms of

free surface tracking capability along the prismatic

cells generated on the suction side of the foil.

cavitation index is given in the pictures of Figure 21

in the Appendix. The effect of the mesh refinement

is also important when the cavity overpass the foil

length (super-cavitating conditions): a proper

refinement behind the trailing edge is also needed to

catch the correct cavity free surface and the unsteady

turbulent flow in the cavity closure region. Even at

the highest cavitation indexes (=1.71.3), as soon

as the partial cavity is forming and growing at the

leading edge, it gradually (and significantly) affects

the hydrodynamic predicted forces, since it alters

considerably the distribution of pressure and flow

field in the surrounding areas (see Figure 19 and 20).

In fact, both lift and drag force components are

influenced by the partial cavity development and as

from Graph 3 and Graph 4. In these graphs four

different numerical curves are plot corresponding to

for four different meshes considered in the

sensitivity analysis. The experimental values are

taken from the tests of Waid & Lindberg (1957) on a

3x3 inches wing spanning the full width of the

cavitation tunnel test section and without any

reflection effects.

The first mesh type, named Q1 corresponds to the

lighter mesh with the lowest number of prism layer

cells from the wall and a refinement region of one

chord behind foil trailing edge. The second mesh

type, Q2, is more refined but has the same

extensions of mesh Q1.

As expected, the main differences between the

global forces predicted in both cases are around 0 =

0.5, where the cavity is partially interesting the

profile and particularly unsteady. Indeed, it is

troublesome to solve the flow in these conditions:

due to the inherent instability of the phenomenon, in

fact, the bubble grows up, bursts and regenerates

itself continuously and this high frequency behavior

is not simple to follow numerically. More details

will be given in the next paragraph.

At lowest cavitation indexes, i.e. in supercavitaing

conditions (0<0.45 at the considered angle of attack

of 6 degree), the predicted forces are well following

the trends of the experimental measurements, still

showing considerable errors on experimental CL

(about +15%) and on CD (around 22%).

they have a fluctuation both on lift and drag

components. Perhaps the order of magnitude of the

measurement precision is in this range of these

fluctuations. Focusing the attention to the fully

cavitating condition (0 < 0.6), the best results are

achieved with the Q2+I mesh type, both for CL and

CD. The average error in this regime being an

overestimation of about 8% on CL and 12% on CD.

As anticipated in the previous paragraph, the

problematic zone is between 0 =0.5 and 0 =1.0; A

deeper analysis of the problem revealed that in these

cavitating conditions the cavity forming on the foil

suction side is not stable, but it is growing and

collapsing at a certain frequency.

After assessing the influence of the mesh refinement

from first sensitivity analysis (in particular on the

pressure field around the foil) a larger domain

extension was tested since some influence of the

boundary conditions on the local solution around the

foil was noted. The new domain size corresponds to

the extensions quoted in Figure 2.

So also in this second sensitivity analysis the two

different mesh resolutions were investigated but

with a larger domain size: the new codes for these

two meshes are Q1+I (larger size but lower

refinement) and Q2+I (larger size and higher

refinement). The forces obtained in these cases are

represented in Graph 3 and Graph 4, with orange

and red lines, respectively.

As clear the difference in lift and drag coefficient in

non cavitating conditions (0=2.95) has been solved.

The shift of the inlet from one to three chord lengths

upstream of the profile is the main responsible of the

good correlation with the experimental lift force,

regardless of the mesh refinement. For the drag,

instead, also the mesh refinement influences the

predicted force and strangely the coarser mesh is

closer to the experimental results in non-cavitating

or partially cavitating conditions than the finest one.

It is to be noted that also experimental measurements show some unexpected result: in fact for

01.5 when there is still no cavitation on the foil,

IX HSMV Naples 25 - 27 May 2011

coefficient prediced with two different mesh

refinements at V = 0.744. The minimum cell size

condition the frequency with which the lift force

signal oscillates (and so the cavity on the back).

With a low refinement, after an initial period of time

in wich the lift is growing similarly to the more

refined mesh, we note a certain quiescent period in

which the force remain almost constant (3.2s to

5.0s). This phenomenon is differently predicted with

the higher resolution mesh, for which the cavity is

always contained within the prism layer height

during its growth. The finer resolution mesh is able

to capture a periodical growth and collapse of the

cavity (so the lift) on the hydrofoil suction side,

being more adherent to reality (Brennen, 1995). This

different behavior with time obviously influence

also the mean value of the force when averaged over

a period of about 5 seconds, which is the value

compared with the experiments. So the apparently

better correlation of CL with the Q1 mesh is due to

this unphysically predicted lift time history and not

to a real improvement in the model accuracy.

The high frequency oscillations of the partial

cavitation stops at lower cavitation numbers, as soon

as the cavitaty interests the complete length of the

profile.

6

CL

0.95

0.85

0.75

0.65

CFD Q1

0.55

CFD Q2

CFD Q1+I

0.45

CFD Q2+I

Tunnel

0.35

0.25

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

CD

0.07

0.06

0.05

Tunnel

CFD Q1

CFD Q2

0.04

CFD Q1+I

CFD Q2+I

0.03

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

coefficient (Graph 5), which can be subject to the

same error in averaging the unsteady signal. The

peaks and through of lift are synchronized with

those of drag, so the cavity affects the two force

components in the same way.

at the cost of more complex line shapes.

As presented in Graph 6, in fact, the three and five

terms shapes have a higher maximum camber that is

moved further aft with respect to the corresponding

two terms shape and even an initial negative camber

more pronounced in the five terms shape.

0.07

0.06

Tulin-Burk

0.05

J3terms

0.04

J5terms

y/c

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

-0.01 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.02

-0.03

systematic CFD calculations on the mesh Q2+I are

reported in the Appendix, where Figure 19 presents

streamlines and pressure field around the foil and

Figure 20 the flow velocity magnitude.

From these figures it clearly distinguishable the

separated zone aft of the brunt trailing edge which

are interested by recirculating flow in wetted as well

as cavitating conditions. Also it is possible to note

the constant pressure inside the vapor cavity and

behind the blunt trailing edge of the hydrofoils.

and set-up of the CFD model, the study continued

with the design and optimization of the 2D hydrofoil

to be used as a base section for the 3D

supercavitating hydrofoils which sustain the vessel

at high speed.

The approach followed was a hybrid approach: first

the face of the supercavitating hydrofoil was

designed with traditional linear asymptotic theories

(V. Johnson, 1957) with the desired CL value. In

fact, in fully cavitating condition, only the face carry

out the lift, because the back and the trailing edge

are normally covered by the cavity vapor bubble.

The theory developed by Johnson (1957) is based on

the conformal mapping method of Wu, as linearised

developed by Tulin and Burkart (1955), generalizing

the series expansion which defines the vorticity

distribution along the chord of the profile (in the

imaginary plane) to higher order and so opening the

possibility to obtain higher efficiencies with respect

x/c

profiles shpes at the given design CL=0.25.

extended with higher order terms the maximum

theoretical efficiency which can be obtained in ideal

conditions (zero angle of attack) for the two terms

profile (also called Tulin-Burkart) is:

L 25

D 4 2C L

(7)

times higher efficiency than that (7) of the TulinBurkart shapes and the five terms profile can reach

1.78 higher efficiency at the same lift coefficient.

The cited design method developed by Johnson

extends even further these asymptotic methods valid

for 2D sections which are valid for infinite water

depth, by considering also free surface effects, and

the three dimensional effects caused by the finite

aspect ratio of a 3D hydrofoil and that due to the the

cross flow.

Based on the cited theory, three different 2D face

shapes have been designed with a 2D-CL=0.42,

corresponding to a 3D-CL=0.25 for the surface

piercing foil, according the approximate corrections.

The design angle of attack of 5 degree (higher thean

the ideal one) was selected in order to have a

sufficient cavity thickness at the design operating

point. After having defined the face shape, also the

shape of the back have been designed with the aid of

RANSE simulations by a trial and error method,

better described herein after. Moreover RANSE

simulations allow also to verify the order of

approximation of the asymptotic theory in

evaluating the theoretical lift coefficient for 0=0,

8

0=0.05 (at the top speed of 120 knots). At finite

cavitation indexes, the real cavity thickness is

important and the shape of the back must be

designed in order to obtain the maximum profile

thickness at each chord station (to increase the

section area modulus, for strength reasons) while

ensuring that the back line is still laying inside the

vapor cavity. From the comparison of the designed

face camber lines (Graph 6), it was decided to

discard the Johnson 5-terms line, because of its

strong thickness reduction of the profile area close to

the trailing edge, resulting in a rather poor sectional

modulus of inertia. The largest inertia modulus for

the profile is ensured by the Tulin-Burkhart camber

line, so this type of face line was the first to be

simulated. As in other conventional supercavitating

profiles, the trailing edge was sharply truncated and

with a trial and error procedure the thickness

distribution along the chord was calibrated in order

to obtain the maximum sectional area still remaining

in supercavitating conditions, as from Figure 6.

foil with the streamlines.

T-B (Tulin-Burkhart) profile presented in Figure 6

(which the vapor phase is represented in blue and the

liquid phase in red) is only CL=0.36 with a

CD=0.035 and an efficiency of L/D= 10.3, too low

with respect to the ideal one for our scope.

It was then decided to go on with the Johnson Three

Terms (J3T) camber line for the face, designed for

the same bi-dimensional lift coefficient.

The first designed J3T thickness distribution (v.1),

as shown in Figure 7, was not a valid solution since

the vapor cavity does not start from the leading edge

of the profile and it is only formed at the maximum

curvature point of the back. Consequently the lift

predicted values are in good agreement with the

design values. In fact RANSE simulations predict:

v1:

CL=0.405 ; CD=0.040 ; L/D=10.1

(non optimal)

So a closer agreement of the lift value with the

theoretical (design) one, but still with a poor

efficiency similar to the T-B, for sure due to the

partly wetted back surface, which increases the

friction resistance. Following Figure 8 and 9 show

IX HSMV Naples 25 - 27 May 2011

shown in Figure 10, in which the back line was

modified to increase the camber starting from midchord in order to anticipate the cavity detachment

point. Moreover the thickness at the leading edge

was also increased to achieve a larger area in this

region. Also in this case, the results are not

satisfactory: the cavity actually detaches earlier on

the back, but still is not created at the nose.

Predicted hydrodynamic characteristics for the

solution v.2 are:

v2:

CL=0.378 ; CD=0.044 ; L/D=8.6.

Notice that not the CD increases and CL decreases

with respect to the previous version v1. This is

because of the larger profile thickness at the leading

edge not balanced by a pressure recovery at the

trailing edge of the profile (which is inside the

cavity). The increase of curvature from midchord

station was not beneficial.

by the change of curvature the initial part of the

back.

to use the back shape of v.1 with a further decrease

of thickness on the back at the leading edge, in order

to cause the cavity detachment; but this was not

achieved, according RANSE calculations because

the thickness of the foil is still too high at the nose

and the local pressure does not go under the vapor

tension.

Estimated hydrodynamic characteristics:

v.3: CL=0.365 ; CD=0.045 ; L/D=8.1

this profile, as from Figure 18, at the contrary of

what can be noted for the other versions v.2 and v.3.

in Figure 12 and 15 respectively.

Diagrams in Graph 7 shows the pressure distribution

on the face and the back of v.1 in red, v.3 in green

and v.4 in blue. The main difference is of course in

the back distribution where the only one showing

constant - CP = 0 is the v.4, while the other two

tentative designs create a pressure recovery area on

16, the back line was brought to the limit as regards

local strength. Indeed with this line a thin cavity is

obtained that spans the entire back of the profile, but

the thickness of the profile in the first half chord is

very low. Global results results:

V4.: CL=0.432 ; CD=0.035 ; L/D = 12.2,

In line with what expected from the idealized theory.

As can be noted from Figure 17, the long concave

region on the back of the profile triggers the cavity

separation and maintains it along the back up to

midchord, slowly increasing the local thickness up

to the midchord point at which the back changes

curvature and bends toward the face more gently

than the face does.

10

also the face pressure distribution close to the nose.

find a base section fort the 3D super-cavitating

hydrofoil and will be possibly improved, especially

for what concerns the strength issues, in occasion of

the next foreseen design exercises. Next activities o

AKNOWLEDGEMENTS

framework of the research grant N62909-10-1-7116

of the Office of Naval Research Global, dedicated to

the Hydrodynamic Design and Assessment by CFD

Methods of Hybrid SWATH/Hydrofoil Hulls for a

Super High Speed USV".

Graph 7 - CP distributions on the different J3T foil designs

8

6

CONCLUSIONS

volume RANSE solver based on the volume of fluid

method for the solution of the turbulent viscous flow

with vapor/water mixture and a simplified RayleighPlesset model to control the phase changes and

fraction distribution in each cell have been presented

and discussed in the paper.

The best accuracy obtained from the RANSE

simulation in terms of global force components is in

the order of 10% against the experimental values,

which is not particularly satisfactory, but still good

for engineering purposes and also taking also into

account the uncertainties levels of the experimental

results.

Further investigations need to be done including the

effect of surface tension (Weber number) and a even

further mesh refinement level. Some newer

reference experimental results would be also deemed

in order to avoid uncertainties due blockage and

symmetry effect which were not corrected in the

available experimental results.

Finally the paper also presents and offers the results

achieved by an hybrid method to effectively design

2D super-cavitating profiles at small finite cavitation

numbers (such as 0=0.05 in our case). The

approach is based on mixed use of the Johnson

asymptotic linear theory to design the face line and a

DOE (Design Of Experience) approach for the back

shape using systematic RANSE flow simulations.

The application of this new design approach leads to

very satisfactory results in terms of the lift and

hydrodynamic efficiency (L/D) predicted by the

RANSE calibrated model with respect to the best

achievable ideal performance.

REFERENCES

Baker E. S. (1975), Notes of the Design of Two Supercavitating Hydrofoils, DTNSRDC Report SPD-479-13.

Brennen C. E. (1995), Cavitation and Bubbles

Dynamics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-5094093.

Brizzolara S. (2004). Parametric Optimization of SWATHull Forms by a Viscous-Inviscid Free Surface Method

Driven by a Differential Evolution Algorithm, 25th

Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, St. Johns,

Newfoundland and Labrador, CA, Vol V, pp. 47-64.

Brizzolara S., Bruzzone D. (2007), Hydrodynamic

Assessment and Optimization of New Fast Foil Assisted

SWAMH, Practical Design of Ships and Offshore

Structures, PRADS 2007. Houston., vol. 1, pp. 205-211.

ISBN/ISSN: 0-943870-04-6.

Brizzolara S., Curtin T., Bovio M., Vernengo G.,

(2011), Concept Design and Hydrodynamic Optimization

of an Innovative SWAT-Hull Form by CFD Methods,

NURC Internal Report NR-01-11-1.2.

CD-Adapco (2009), Star-CCM+ User and Theory

Manual, version 4.04.011

Johnson, V. E. (1957), Theoretical and Experimental

Investigation of Arbitrary Aspect Ratio, Super-cavitating

Hydrofoils Operating Near the Free Surface, NACA RM

L57I16.

Sauer, J. (2000), Instationaer kavitierende Stroemungen

- Ein neues Modell, basierend auf Fron Capturing VOF

und Blasendynamik, Dissertation, Universitaet Karlsruhe.

Tulin, M. P., and Burkart, M. P. (1955) Linearized

Theory for Flows About Lifting Foils at Zero Cavitation

Number. DTMB Rep. C-638.

Waid, R.L. & Lindberg, Z.M. (1957) Experimental and

theoretical investigation on a Super-cavitating Hydrofoil,

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena.

11

supercavitating foil (Waid and Lindberg , 1957) predicted by

the RANSE model at different cav. numbers and =6 degree.

foil, predicted by the RANSE model at different cav. numbers

and =6 degree (inlet flow speed of 9.14 m/s).

12

Figure 21 Predicted cavity shapes on the 2 terms supercavitating foil of Waid and Lindberg (1957) used in the validation study

of the RANSE model.

13

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