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Critical Reviews in Environmental


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Municipal Solid Waste Generation,


Composition, and Management: The
World Scenario
a

Tanmoy Karak , R. M. Bhagat & Pradip Bhattacharyya

Tocklai Experimental Station, Tea Research Association, Assam,


India
b

Department of Renewable Resources, University of Wyoming,


Laramie, Wyoming, USA
Available online: 30 Aug 2011

To cite this article: Tanmoy Karak, R. M. Bhagat & Pradip Bhattacharyya (2012): Municipal Solid Waste
Generation, Composition, and Management: The World Scenario, Critical Reviews in Environmental
Science and Technology, 42:15, 1509-1630
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Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 42:15091630, 2012


Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1064-3389 print / 1547-6537 online
DOI: 10.1080/10643389.2011.569871

Municipal Solid Waste Generation,


Composition, and Management:
The World Scenario
TANMOY KARAK,1 R. M. BHAGAT,1
and PRADIP BHATTACHARYYA2
1

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Tocklai Experimental Station, Tea Research Association, Assam, India


Department of Renewable Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is the abridgment of the waste generated from domestic, commercial, and construction activities by
natural persons that is collected and treated by municipalities. Exponential growth of population and urbanization, and the development of social economy, coupled with the improvement of living
standard, have resulted in an increase in the amount of MSW generation throughout the world. On average the developed countries
typically generate 521.95759.2 kg per person per year (kpc) and
109.5525.6 kpc typically by developing countries. Recent estimates
suggest that the MSW generation globally exceeds 2 billion tons per
year, which is a potential threat to environmental dilapidation.
Therefore, MSW management (MSWM) seems to be one of the key
topics for environmental protection in present days and also in the
future. The authors have illustrated MSW generation and composition analysis and have provided a comprehensive review of MSWM
in different countries throughout the world based on the available
literatures. Some of the important aspects of waste management,
such as composting, landfilling, and incineration, are illustrated.
KEY WORDS: landfilling, composting, incineration, MSW, MSW
composition, MSW generation rate, MSW management, recycling

Address correspondence to Tanmoy Karak, Tocklai Experimental Station, Tea Research


Association, Jorhat-8, Assam, India. E-mail: tanmay.karak@gmail.com
1509

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T. Karak et al.

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INTRODUCTION
It is well documented that humans are the principal factor for breaking the
ecological diversity in the environment and that subsequently comes as an
end of environmental pollution. Population growth and increasing consumer
choices have resulted in a large production showing worldwide. Most production facilitates lack environmental control in industrial processes, and also
inadequate or insufficient facilities for waste management and treatment. Increase in urban growth has further resulted in an increase in the generation
of waste from residential sites, private and public service facilities, and construction and demolition activities as new subdivisions are established. As
the population density in urban areas is generally very high throughout the
world, therefore the daily consumption pattern is also high. Besides this,
the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is also associated
with the economic status of a society (Shekdar, 2009). A large percentage
of trash that is generated now is the result of the products that are used or
brought, which become wastes after use. This is considered as municipal
solid waste or prevalently MSW and its final disposal is the last phase of the
urban sanitation system of any city. It is closely related to the preservation of
the environment as well as of the public health. Therefore, the control and
treatment of MSW must be done through an intelligent system that minimizes
its negative impacts on the ecosystem. Increased generation of household
waste, which surpasses the assimilation capacity of the ecosystem and the
insufficient installed capacity of disposed yards for its handling, promotes
the proliferation of open air dumps, with an increased threat to the public
health, ecosystem, and quality of life. Based on the population estimates
by the Population Division of the United Nations and the gross domestic
product (GDP) predicted by the World Bank, it is likely to be expected that
total solid waste will be increased to 27 billion tons in 2050 from 13 billion
tons in the year 1990 (Beede and Bloom, 1995). At present, the annual total solid waste generation is approximately 17 billion tons (Chattopadhyay
et al., 2009). Global generation of MSW in 1997 was 0.49 billion tons with an
estimated annual growth rate of 3.24.5% in developed nations and 23% in
developing nations (Suocheng et al., 2001).
Quantification and characterization of MSW is one of the vital formulations of its management strategy. In the developed economies, reliable data
on MSW generation and management are updated and are available in the
literature. These data are normally collected on a daily basis, which provides
a rational basis for planning and executing waste management operations.
On the other hand, in developing economies the data on MSW generation
have a short history and insufficient national data or data of a large urban or
periurban population center (Shekdar, 2009). However, anthology of MSW
study throughout the world is scant. Therefore, in the present article we
assess worldwide situation of MSW generation and composition to identify

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1511

issues relevant to MSW management (MSWM), and formulate a strategy for


improving sustainable management of MSW.

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GENERATION AND COMPOSITION OF MSW THROUGHOUT


THE WORLD
Generally, in European countries and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, MSW covers waste from households (82% of total MSW) including bulky waste, waste from commerce
and trade, office buildings, institutions and small businesses, yard and garden waste, street sweepings, the contents of litter containers, and market
cleansing waste (Eurostat, 2003). The definition of MSW excludes waste
from municipal sewage networks and treatment, as well as municipal construction and demolition waste. However, national definitions of MSW may
differ (OECD, 2007a). In a developing economy, MSW is generally defined
as the waste produced in a municipality. Most of the MSWs generated in
developing countries are nonsegregated and, therefore, it may be either hazardous or nonhazardous. In general, whatsoever be the source of MSW, its
impact on environment and quality of life is mainly related to air, water,
and soil contaminations. It is also related to space consumption, odors, and
esthetic prejudice.

Generation of MSW in 15 Countries of the European Union (EU-15)


The 15 countries of the European Union (EU-15) are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The total MSW
generation in million tons and the generation rate in kilograms per person
per year (or kpc) for EU-15 from 1998 to 2008 are depicted in Figure 1.
Within this reference period, on average MSW generation increased in the
EU-15 by 4.6% from 540 to 565 kpc. Among the EU-15 countries, Denmark
reported considerably higher amounts of MSW generation rate (i.e., 802 kpc
[equivalent to 3.77 million tons]) for the year 2008 (Eurostat, 2009). On the
other hand, Greece continued to be somewhat lower generation rate (i.e.,
453 kpc) among the EU-15 countries in the year 2008 (Erkut et al., 2008;
Eurostat, 2009).

Composition of MSW in 15 Countries of the European Union (EU-15)


Physical composition is important to characterize and classify the MSW for
its proper management. Nationwide MSW composition pattern in some selected cities among the countries of EU-15 are tabulated in Table 1. Besides,
throughout the documentation for MSW composition, the whole MSW is

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T. Karak et al.

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classified as organic material (including vegetables, food, and garden waste),


paper and paperboard (including paper, wrapper, cardboard, and packaging paper), plastics (including plastic bags, plastic bottles, and packaging
material), glass/ceramics (including glass bottles, broken glass, pottery items
and earthen pot), metals (cables, foils, ferrous and nonferrous material), and
others (including textiles).

FIGURE 1. Total MSW generation and generation rate in the year 19982008 for EU-15
(Eurostat, 2009; DEFRA, 2008). (Continued)

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1513

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The percentage wise contributions of organic material in MSW, generated in the year 2005 in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, and France were
recorded as 35, 39, 29, and 32 of the total MSW, respectively (OECD, 2007a).
MSW composition in Germany from 1983 to 1985 was found to be organic
matter 27%, paper and paperboard 18.7%, plastics 6.1%, glass 11.5%, metals
3.9%, and textiles and others 32.9% (Vehlow, 1996). Presently Germany has
more or less implemented different multibin or bag collection systems all

FIGURE 1. (Continued)

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T. Karak et al.

FIGURE 1. (Continued)

over the country, through different types of wastes being separated in the
households. The present organic matter content in MSW is only 14% (OECD,
2007a).
According to the National Waste Management Planning of Greece, MSW
consisted of 47.0% organic material, 20.0% paper and paperboard, 8.5% plastics, 4.5% glass, 4.5% metal, and 15.5% other waste in 2000 (National &
Regional Solid Waste Planning, 2003). In the same year, the quantity of recyclable materials (potentially available for separate collection) was estimated
as 1.5 million tons, corresponding to 37.5% of weight of the total MSW,
21% of which (i.e., 975 tons) was packaging material (Greek Government,
2003). In the year 2005, the percent of organic matter in Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain was recorded as 25%, 29%,
45%, 35%, 34%, and 49%, respectively. However, in these countries, paper
and paperboard contributes 31%, 28%, 22%, 26%, 21%, and 21% of the total
MSW, respectively. Among the different composition in MSW, paper and paperboard contributes a higher percentage, which was 68% for the year 2005,
however it was 74% for the year 2000 (OECD, 2007a).

1515

Nationwide
Nationwide
Vienna
Vienna
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Espoo, Helsinki,
Kauniainen and Vantaa
Nationwide
Mende in the district of
Loz`ere
Paris
Nationwide
Nationwide
Berlin
Bonn
Munich
Nationwide
Athens
Chania
Heraklion
Kalamata
Komotini
Kos
Pylaia
Rhodes
Salonica
Xanthi

Austria

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Belgium

Location

Country

32.0
29.4
40.9
43.1
30.0
15.0
21.0
40.0
47.0
59.0
55.0
52.5
47.0
67.0
37.0
41.0
42.0
26.6
62.0

NA
1983
2005
2003
NA
NA
2001
1984
1990
1987
1992
1993
1989
1998
1988
1998
1993

30.0
35.0
24.0
37.0
41.0
39.0
34.0
29.0
30.0
33.0
28.0

2002
2005

1999
2004
NA
1997
1995
2003
1979
2003
1990
2000
1995

Year

Organic
material

16.3
18.7
24.0
20.0
20.0
23.0
20.0
19.5
19.0
17.2
25.0
9.0
25.0
23.0
14.0
29.0
15.0

20.0
23.3

27.0
22.0
35.0
22.0
16.0
17.0
34.0
27.0
51.0
40.0
30.0

Paper
and
paperboard

8.4
6.1
13.0
23.0
2.0
6.0
8.5
7.0
8.0
14.3
7.5
6.0
11.0
4.0
12.0
18.0
7.0

9.0
14.8

13.0
11.0
6.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
7.0
0.8
5.0
10.0
7.0

Plastics

9.4
11.5
10.0
7.0
10.0
12.0
4.5
2.5
4.0
1.4
3.0
2.0
12.0
3.0
2.0
4.0
2.0

10.0
4.2

11.0
8.0
9.0
16.0
6.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
4.0

Glass/
Ceramic

3.2
3.9
1.0
2.0
5.0
4.0
4.5
4.0
3.0
2.5
3.0
3.0
3.0
13.0
10.0
3.4
3.0

3.0
5.4

7.0
5.0
10.0
5.0
3.0
3.0
5.0
6.0
2.0
5.0
4.0

Metals

21.8
16.7
22.0
33.0
42.0
15.0
15.5
8.0
11.0
12.1
14.5
13.0
12.0
16.0
20.0
19.0
11.0

26.0
22.9

12.0
19.0
16.0
16.0
29.0
29.0
14.0
32.2
6.0
7.0
27.0

Textiles
&
others

TABLE 1. Percentage of physical composition of MSW generated from different countries and important cities of EU-15

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(Continued on next page)

Scharff and Vogel, 1994


Vehlow, 1996
Muhle et al., 2010
Zhang et al., 2010a
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Scharff and Vogel, 1994
Erkut et al., 2008
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Parisakis et al., 1990
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Parisakis et al., 1992
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Parisakis et al., 1991
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Gidarakos et al., 2006
Gidarakos et al., 2006

OECD, 2007a
Bayard et al., 2010

OECD, 2007a
OECD, 2007a
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Salhofer et al., 1999
OECD, 2007a
OECD, 2007a
OECD, 2007a
OECD, 2007a
Sokka et al., 2007
OECD, 2007a
Tanskanen, 2000

Reference

1516

Nationwide
Rome
Sicily
Nationwide
Dublin
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Amsterdam
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Castellon
Castellon de la Plana
Churriana de la Vega in
Granada
Gipuzkoa
Madrid
Pamplona
Nationwide
Stockholm
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
London and Bedford
Luton
Midlands
Rhondda Cynon Taf
County Borough Council
Wales

Location

Note. NA = not available; NR = not reported.

United Kingdom

Sweden

Spain

Portugal

Netherlands

Luxembourg

Ireland

Italy

Country
29.0
50.0
27.5
25.0
45.6
35.0
45.0
30.0
50.0
34.0
35.5
48.0
57.1
57.0
55.5
70.5
45.0
43.0
39.0
NA
33.5
32.7
41.0
17.0
44.8
30.9
27.0
33.7

2005
NA
2004
2005
1992
1995
2003
1996
NA
1994
2001
2002
2002 (predicted)
2007
2008
2016 (predicted)
1985
1995
2002
NA
1996
2005
2009
2004
1993
1993
2002
2003

Year

Organic
material

22.7

16.3
21.0
23.0
40.0
68.0
26.4
23.3
18.0
45.0
22.3
25.1
45.0

28.0
18.0
33.5
31.0
21.1
24.0
22.0
32.7
23.0
23.0
25.9
21.0
15.2
15.0
20.0

Paper
and
paperboard

10.0

3.8
NR
6.0
6.8
2.0
8.9
23.7
7.0
9.0
10.4
15.3
10.0

5.0
4.0
17.0
11.0
8.8
2.0
0.8
4.2
5.0
12.0
11.4
12.0
10.1
10.0
16.5

Plastics

6.6

4.9
4.0
10.0
6.2
11.0
5.7
4.3
7.0
7.0
6.2
7.3
4.0

13.0
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.0
16.0
12.0
3.4
13.0
5.0
5.4
8.0
7.1
7.0
8.0

Glass/
Ceramic

4.3

1.9
3.0
3.0
4.9
2.0
8.8
6.2
8.0
6.0
3.6
13.2
6.0

2.0
3.0
3.0
4.0
3.7
7.0
4.0
5.5
3.0
3.0
2.6
4.0
3.8
4.0
NR

Metals

22.7

2.6
27.0
15.0
3.1
17.0
16.9
9.8
19.0
16.0
12.7
8.2
8.0

22.0
21.0
14.5
23.0
15.8
16.0
16.2
24.2
6.0
23.0
19.2
7.0
6.7
7.0
NR

Textiles
&
others

Burnley et al., 2007

Munoz et al., 2004


Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Wilson, 2002
OECD, 2007a
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Daskalopoulos et al., 1998
Muhle et al., 2010
DEFRA, 2010
Poll, 2004
Burnley, 2007
Burnley et al., 2007
Emery et al., 2007

OECD, 2007a
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Messineo and Panno, 2008
OECD, 2007a
Dennison et al., 1996
OECD, 2007a
OECD, 2007a
Sakai et al., 1996
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
OECD, 2007a
Magrinho et al., 2006
OECD, 2007a
Vidal et al., 2001
Bovea et al., 2010
Zamorano et al., 2009

Reference

TABLE 1. Percentage of physical composition of MSW generated from different countries and important cities of EU-15 (Continued)

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1517

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Generation of MSW in Other European Countries


Albania, Andorra, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Iceland, Kosovo, Latvia,
Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malta, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro,
Norway, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey,
Ukraine, and Vatican City are the major European countries other than the
EU-15. Most of these countries are considered as developed countries except
Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova,
Montenegro, Serbia, and Turkey. Therefore, data of nationwide MSW generation in these countries are scan, except Turkey.
Albania (southeastern Europe, in the west of the Balkan Peninsula)
had a sustainable MSW production of 0.36 million tons in the year 2005,
which contributes about 7.5% of the total annual biomass production (i.e.,
4.8 million tons; Karaj et al., 2010). The distribution of MSW generation
in the year 2005 in a different prefecture such as Berat (World Heritage
designated place in Albania), Diber, Durres (second largest city of Albania),
Elbasan (city in central Albania and one of the largest cities in Albania),
Fier (city in southwest Albania), Gjrokaster (city in southern Albania and the
World Heritage designated place), Korce (city in southeastern Albania and
surrounded by the Morava Mountains), Kukes (town city in Albania and set
among the mountains of northern Albania), Lezhe (city in northwest Albania),
Shkoder (lake city in northwestern Albania and one of the oldest and most
historic towns in Albania), Tirana (the capital and the largest city of Albania),
and Vlore (the second largest port city of Albania) in Albania was recorded as
0.02, 0.01, 0.04, 0.03, 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.12, and 0.03 million
tons, respectively (Figure 2). Therefore, among the entire prefecture, Tirana
(capital city of Albania) generated highest amount (0.12 million tons) of MSW.
At present Albanian citizens are generating approximately 219307 kpc of
urban waste (Karaj et al., 2010). Presently MSW productions in Tirana are
280 kpc on average in urban areas and 110 kpc in rural areas.
In Azerbaijan, MSW generated was approximately 182.5 kpc. Exact data
on the quantities of waste generated in Bosnia and Herzegovina are not
available. However, according to the Regional Environmental Center (2000),
Bosnia and Herzegovina generated 1.5 million kg of MSW for the year 2000
with respect to 3.8 million population, of which the urban population had
generated 1.2 million kg per year (population 3.04 million) and the rural
population had generated 0.3 million kg of MSW per year (population 0.76
million). Quantification of MSW in Kosovo is not in a good state due to the
lack of completed legislation for waste management, and lack of infrastructure for waste collection services and waste treatment. According to GTZ
data, 2.3 million urban people in Kosovo produced 0.25 million tons MSW,
which means 109.5 kpc in the year 2004 (GTZ, 2004).

T. Karak et al.
230

Total MSW generation

0.12

210

MSW (kpc)

90
Vlore

0.00

Tirane

110

Shkoder

0.02

Lezhe

130

Kukes

0.04

Korce

150

Gjirokaster

0.06

Fier

170

Elbasan

0.08

Durres

190

Diber

0.10

MSW generation rate (kpc)

0.14

Berat

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Total MSW generation ( million tons)

1518

Location

FIGURE 2. Total MSW production in Albania per prefecture for the year 2005 (Data extracted
from Karaj et al., 2010).

In the mid-nineties of the last century, Kruger International Consult of


Denmark (1999), in cooperation with VKI, Denmark, and Symonds Group,
United Kingdom, conducted a study on the National Solid Waste Management System (NSWMS) in Macedonia, funded by the Phare Program of the
EU. It was found that the daily generation rate of solid waste in Macedonia
was about 300 kpc and 150 kpc for the urban and rural areas, respectively. An
Environmental Performance Review for Macedonia conducted by the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE; 2002), in which it was
estimated that the urban and rural areas generated 360 kpc and 120 kpc,
respectively, for the year 2002. A short-term study (one-week period in the
summer of 2002) by Hristovski et al. (2007) was conducted in the municipality of Veles (approximately 50 km south of the capital, Skopje), Macedonia.
This study revealed that MSW generation rate was 386.9 kpc.
Due to the social and political condition, the waste management in
Moldova remains at the same stage of situation as 20 years ago (Gavrilita,
2006). Total MSW generation in Moldova for the years 2001, 2002, and 2003
was 2.04, 2.75, and 2.54 million tons per year, respectively (Gavrilita, 2006).
The considerable decrease of MSW generation from 2002 to 2003 was due to
the collapse of the Soviet Union. As a result the drop of waste generation in

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1519

Moldova may be ascribed as the fall in the demand, consequently reduced


industrial activities and the transition to market economy.
It is estimated that average annual waste generation in Serbia is 290 kpc.
Households generate about 63% of the municipal waste, and businesses
about 20%. Generally, solid waste is collected only from urban centers, which
is about 6070% of the total collected MSW (2.2 million tons annually) and
there is no organized waste collection and treatment in rural areas.
In Turkey, there are 3,215 municipalities, and 16 of them are metropolitan municipalities. A total of 2,984 municipalities have solid waste management services. In summer and winter seasons of 2002, 12.70 and 12.67
million tons of solid waste were generated by the municipalities that had
solid waste management services (Agdag, 2009). In Turkey, the solid waste
generation rates in summer and in winter were 481.8 and 489.1 kpc, respectively. According to Turan et al. (2009), the rate of waste generation
in Turkey in the areas with the lowest population (<100,000) is 616.9 kpc,
whereas in the areas with the highest population (>2,000,000) it is 456.3 kpc.
The amount of solid waste generated in Denizli (city in southwest Turkey)
has increased steadily over time, from 0.11 million tons in 1993 to 0.18
million tons in 2006, because of increasing population and economic development. A very recent study reported that the amount of MSW generated
from other locations in Turkey, such as Canakkale (a town and seaport in
Turkey; population in 2009: 96588), Kusadasi-Aydin (seaside district and a
resort town in Turkey; population in 2000: 65,764), Manisa (a large city in
Turkey; population in 2009: 0.29 million), Izmir (second largest port city in
Turkey; population in 2009: 2.72 million), Balikesir (population in 2009: 0.26
million), and Mugla (population in 2007: 94,207) was 408.8, 839.5, 711.8,
350.4, 324.9, and 365 kpc, respectively. According to the records of the
municipality of Corlu Town (41 7 30 eastern longitude and 27 4 northern
latitude; population in 2007: 0.21 million), 170 tons of waste are collected
daily and the waste generation rate is 419.8 kpc (Tinmaz and Demir, 2006).
The present MSW production in Gumushane (in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey; population in 2009: 39,290) is approximately 365 kpc or 70
tons per day (tpd) (Nas and Bayram, 2008). Presently metropolitan Istanbul
(largest city in Turkey; population in 2009: 12.78 million) in Turkey produces
about 5.11 million tons of solid waste per year (Kanat, 2010). A significant
change of overall MSW generation from 1998 to 2008 was also observed in
this country (Figure 3).
According to the Environmental Department of Andorran Government,
the MSW generation rate in the Balearic Islands (Spain) was recorded as
547.5 kpc in winter season; however, in summer it was 912.5 kpc in 2008.
According to the data obtained from Vego et al. (2008), the MSW generation
rate in Dalmatia (having four counties: Zadar, Sibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia,
and Dubrovnik, covering a land area of 12.990 km2) in Croatia was found to
be 292 kpc due to inhabitants and 365 kpc due to tourists. There, the rate of

1520

T. Karak et al.

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waste generation was highly influenced by the population type as the rate
of waste generation in rural areas being around 109.5 kpc, while in urban
areas it is 310.3 kpc. Therefore, it can be estimated that Dalmatia annually
generates 0.27 million tons of MSW, most of which is from urban areas along
the Adriatic coast.
MSW generation for the year 2001 in different cities of Cyprus such
as Nicosia (the capital and largest city of Cyprus), Limassol (second largest

FIGURE 3. Generation of MSW in other EU countries.

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1521

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

city in Cyprus), Larnaca (city on the southern coast of Cyprus), and Paphos
(a coastal city in the southwest of Cyprus) were recorded as 68,500, 77,800,
37,500, and 37,000 tons, respectively, per year by daily weighting of the solid
waste generated by the municipalities (Eleftheriou, 2002). More than 750 kpc
was generated in 2007 in Cyprus. In the same year Malta had generated
600750 kpc and Sweden generated between 500 and 600 kpc. The member
states Bulgaria, Hungary, Slovenia, and Lithuania were with values between

FIGURE 3. (Continued)

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1522

T. Karak et al.

FIGURE 3. (Continued)

400 and 500 kpc (Figure 3). The lowest values, which are below 400 kpc,
were found in Romania, Latvia, Poland, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic
(Eurostat, 2009a, 2009b). The present total amount of waste generated by
Danube Region of Bulgaria, having 20 municipalities, is 0.33 million tons
per year. The average amount of MSW production in the Czech Republic in
2001 was 273 kpc (Sauer et al., 2008) and among the total MSW generation,
20 kpc (i.e., 8.2%) was separated waste and 253 kpc (i.e., 91.8%) was mixed
residual waste. MSW generation rate in Malta for the year 2000 was 0.48
tons per capita per year (Pipatti et al., 2006). MSW generation in Iceland
was recorded only 0.02 million tons for the year 1995 (Eurostat, 1996). MSW
generation in Norway was recorded only 0.27 million tons for the year 1995
(Eurostat, 1996). In the year 1999, the recorded MSW in this country was 2.9
million tons with 596 kpc (OECD, 2002) and in the year 2008 it was recorded
only 490 kpc. In Poland, the amount of municipal wastes has been increasing
continuously since 1992. Since 1975 its weights has almost got doubled, and
in the years 19851998 it got by almost 8%, reaching 12.28 million tons in

1998 (Grodzinska-Jurczak,
2001). It is expected that for next few years the
amount of waste (mostly MSW) generated in Poland will continue to rise

(Grodzinska-Jurczak,
2001). The generation of total MSW in Poland for the

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1523

year 2003 has been reported as 260 kpc (European Commission, 2003). The
amount of MSW varies from region to region in Poland and is proportional to
the population density. The largest amount of municipal wastes is generated
in the Lower Silesia province (historical region in Poland; 14.9 million tons),
the Kujawy-Pomorze province (historical and ethnographic region in the
center of Poland; 6.3 million tons), and the Lublin province (the ninth largest
city in Poland; 5.6 million tons; Pauli-Wilga, 1996). MSW generation in Poland
for the year 2008 was recorded as 12.2 million tons (Figure 3), which is
equal to 320 kpc (Eurostat, 2009a, 2009b). Besides this, extensive studies are
available on solid waste composition and quantities in Poland by den Boer
et al. (2010). In these literatures the municipal waste in Warsaw (capital of
Poland) is also frequently monitored for quantity and quality, in accordance
with the methods as prescribed by Polish Standard of MSW (Skalmowski,
2001, 2005). These results conclude that the quantity of waste per capita
showed a steady increase in the early 1990s and this value has decreased by
approximately 10% since 1996.
The Soviet economy produced an average of only 5657 million tons of
domestic and commercial waste, or about 195 kpc a year, in the late 1980s.
According to estimated data of 1988, the generation of solid wastes in the
USSR from all sources were approximately 9 billion tons annually, equaling
195 kpc (Pirogov, 1988). In the year 1989, the Russian (population about
145 million) economy produced 27 million tons of trash (about 48% of the
Soviet total), or 186 kilograms per inhabitant (Hunsicker et al., 1996). In
1991, the USSR created about 163 million tons of MSW annually, equaling
about 655 kpc (U.S. Census Bureau, 1991). In the year 2000, the Russian
Federation generated 50 million tons of MSW, equaling 340 kpc, which is
a 112% increase since the year 1980 (Twardowska and Allen, 2004). However, no details of present survey data on MSW generation in these countries
are available. Amount of total residential waste generation in Ukraine for
the year 1985 was estimated as 11 million tons (Hunsicker et al., 1996).
MSW generation for the year 2007 in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia,
Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland was 3.59, 3.03, 0.72, 0.59,
0.86, 1.35, 4.59, 0.27, 12.26, 8.18, 0.89, 1.67, 3.00, 0.17, 3.86, and 5.46 million
tons, respectively (Eurostat, 2009a, 2009b).
In a nutshell, among the all EU countries (i.e., EU-15 and other European
countries), on average 522 kpc of municipal waste was generated in 2008,
where MSW generated per person varied from 294 kg in the Czech Republic
to 801 kg in Denmark.

Composition of MSW in Other European Countries


A typical data from the European countries (other than EU-15) are tabulated in Table 2. Among these countries, Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and

1524
2003
2003
2000
NA
2005
NA
1999
2005
2002

Warsaw
Krakow
Nationwide
Balikesir
Beylikduzu
Bursa
Canakkale
Catalca
Corlu Town

Turkey

Hungary
Moldova
Poland

2004
2005
2010
2005
2003
1998
1998

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
City of Jaslo

Kosovo
Lithuania

1990
1995
2005
2007

Year

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Pafos

Location

Bulgaria
Czech Republic
Cyprus

Country

32.2
40.5
53.9
67.0
48.8
53.1
80.0
35.1
54.2

30.5
43.0
36.0
29.0
68.5
31.0
53.0

41.0
18.0
39.0
40.6

Organic
material

18.4
10.2
14.3
8.0
10.6
18.4
7.0
15.7
11.3

25.7
9.0
15.0
15.0
5.1
19.0
19.0

14.2
8.0
24.0
29.6

Paper
and
paperboard

16.5
12.1
10.1
3.0
24.2
11.6
3.0
20.4
5.8

7.3
9.0
12.0
17.0
9.7
4.0
4.0

4.4
4.0
5.0
12.3

Plastics

11.3
10.1
4.0
3.0
5.5
3.4
2.0
3.6
3.2

11.3
7.0
8.0
2.0
4.1
8.0
8.0

3.3
4.0
1.5
1.4

Glass/
Ceramic

3.0
1.8
2.9
5.0
2.4
3.0
1.0
2.3
1.5

15.5
4.0
2.0
2.0
3.1
4.0
3.0

4.5
2.0
2.0
1.4

Metals

18.6
25.3
14.9
14.0
8.5
10.5
7.0
22.9
24.1

9.7
28.0
27.0
35.0
9.5
34.0
13.0

32.6
63.0
28.5
14.7

Textiles
&
others

Andreevska, 1990
OECD, 2007a
Eleftheriou, 2007
Athanassiou and
Zabaniotou, 2008
GTZ, 2004
Miliute and Staniskis, 2010
Miliute and Staniskis, 2010
OECD, 2007a
Gavrilita, 2006
Grodzinska-Jurczak, 2001
Grodzinska-Jurczak et al.,
2003
den Boer et al., 2010
den Boer et al., 2010
Metin et al., 2003
Metin et al., 2003
Kanat, 2010
Metin et al., 2003
Kirkitsos et al., 2000
Kanat, 2010
Tinmaz and Demir, 2006

Reference

TABLE 2. Percentage of physical composition of MSW generated from different countries and major cities of EU other than EU-15

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1525

Note. NA = not available.

Switzerland

Denizli city
Denizli city
Denizli city
Eminonu
Fatih
Gumushane
Istanbul
Istanbul
Istanbul
Izmir
Kusadasi-aydn
Manisa
Mugla
Sariyer
Silivri
Trabzon
Yakuplu
Geneva

1995
2004
2005
2005
2005
2005
1980
1999
2005
NA
1998
NA
NA
2005
2005
NA
2005
1989

65.6
43.7
42.0
47.5
40.7
29.8
60.8
48.0
60.5
46.0
14.8
62.6
20.0
55.6
55.8
1.0
49.3
29.5

8.4
10.3
12.0
18.5
7.7
9.8
10.2
8.4
9.8
12.0
5.8
1.5
4.0
15.3
9.4
28.0
10.6
32.0

9.4
19.3
17.5
16.9
23.2
7.9
3.1
11.0
11.9
12.0
1.9
4.5
2.0
15.0
19.6
36.0
14.4
8.0

3.3
3.2
4.0
6.0
4.2
3.3
0.7
4.6
6.1
4.0
2.3
1.1
2.0
9.4
5.8
11.0
4.1
8.5

5.2
NA
1.5
1.7
1.7
1.6
1.4
2.3
1.5
3.0
3.7
2.1
3.0
1.0
0.3
11.0
3.5
2.5

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8.1
23.5
23.0
9.3
22.5
47.6
23.9
25.7
10.2
23.0
71.9
28.2
69.0
3.7
9.2
13.0
18.5
19.5

Agdag, 2009
Agdag, 2009
Agdag, 2009
Kanat, 2010
Kanat, 2010
Nas and Bayram, 2008
Kocasoy, 1996
Berkun et al., 2005
Kanat, 2010
Metin et al., 2003
Kirkitsos et al., 2000
Metin et al., 2003
Metin et al., 2003
Kanat, 2010
Kanat, 2010
Ersoy et al., 2008
Kanat, 2010
Leroy et al., 1992

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1526

T. Karak et al.

Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, and Serbia, there


are almost no organized solid waste quantification data as stated earlier.
Consequently, there are no systematic official MSW compositions. However,
in general, most of the generated MSW contains high fractions of organics
and paper, compared with the lower amounts of plastics, glass, and metals
reported so far. On the basis of the selected MSW data in some prefecture of
Albania, it has been observed that the components of MSW are mainly paper, cardboard, plastics, wood, and other combustible materials (Karaj et al.,
2010). Metals, glass, and other noncombustible materials are included in a
small quantity. About 80% of MSW composition is biodegradable (Ministry of
Environment, 2005). Adana city in Turkey generated high amounts of organic
matter (64%) in MSW, followed by Mersin (63%), Bursa (53%), Izmir (43%),
and Istanbul (46%). A high organic fraction of MSW has also been reported
in many cities of Turkey (4364%; Metin et al., 2003). The present typical
range of composition (percentage by weight) in MSW in Turkey is organics:
4065; paper and paper board: 718; plastics: 514; metal: 16; glass: 26;
and others: 724 (Turan et al., 2009).
Of particular interest, the large share of Soviet waste classified as food
products, despite perennial food shortages. This phenomenon can be attributed to two factors: a smaller volume of plastics, paper, and metal discarded (a function, in part, of modest packaging practices) and a large share
of food wasted in the processing and transport phase of the food chain.
MSW composition in 1989 data for the Soviet Union is organic (2038%), paper and paperboard (2036%), plastics (35%), glass (57%), metals (23%),
and textiles and others (1440.5%; VINITI, 1989). The percent organic matter
present in MSW for the year 2005 in Hungary, Iceland, Norway, Slovakia,
and Switzerland was recorded as 17%, 17%, 9%, 7%, and 15%, respectively
(OECD, 2007a).

MSW Generation in Southeast Asia


Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand,
the Philippines, and Vietnam belong to Southeast Asian Nations. In general,
in most of the developing countries, collection and transport activities account for most of the municipal solid waste management budget. Despite
this high expenditure, only a small fraction of the waste generated is collected (Eawag, 2008). On the basis of the available literature, the picture of
MSW generation in Southeast Asian countries and in their important cities
is shown in Table 3. Among 0.38 million total population in Brunei, about
59.0% stay in the urban region and produce 54.45 million tons solid waste
per year, which is equivalent to 240.9 kpc waste generation in the year 2001.
The predicted amount of waste generation in this country would be 79.18
million tons per year (i.e., 346.8 kpc; Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). In the year
1995, the total amount of MSW generated in Cambodia was 1.29 million tons

1527

2004

Phnom Penh

Laos

Indonesia

1999

Nationwide

Cambodia

1998

1995

Semarang

Vientiane

1986

Jakarta

2005

2005

Bandung

Nationwide

2005

Nationwide

1999

Nationwide

Brunei

Year

Location

Country

0.18

5.75

1.30

7.00

2.62

107.25

2.61

14.17

0.39

Population
(in
millions)

0.04

1.15

0.18

1.28

0.55

31.32

0.62

2.69

0.09

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

211.7

200.8

134.8

182.5

209.0

292.0

237.3

189.8

240.9

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Remarks

Vientiane is the capital city of Laos. This city is


literally known as the City of Sandalwood.

Brunei is one of the developed country in


Southeast Asia
Cambodia is a country in Southeast Asia. For
the past 20 years this country has been
classified as one of the poorest countries in
the world
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of
Cambodia. No rigorous estimate of the waste
generation available
Indonesia is a country in Southeast Asia and
Oceania. It is the worlds fourth most
populous country. Population was
considered for the entire country.
Bandung is the second largest metropolitan
area in Indonesia. 66% of the total MSW is
originating from households.
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of
Indonesia.
Semarang, the capital city of the Central Java
Province, Indonesia. MSW generation data in
Semarang municipality was calculated on the
basis of MSW generation of the subdistrict of
Pedurungan as this district is representative
of the Semarang municipality.
Laos is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia.

TABLE 3. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Southeast Asia

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(Continued on next page)

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009
Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Supriyadi et al., 2000

Maniatis et al., 1987

Damanhuri et al., 2009

Shekdar, 2009

Kum et al., 2005

Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009

Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009

Reference

1528

Philippines

2010
1995

2004
2010

Nationwide
Metro Manila

Metro Manila
Quezon City

1993

Yangon

2000

1998
2008
1999

Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Nationwide

Nationwide

2008
1989

Nationwide
Kuala Lumpur

Myanmar

1995

Nationwide

Malaysia

Year

Location

Country

9.93
2.86

76.50
9.45

57.29

2.51

1.45
2.34
1.48

38.19
0.92

37.43

Population
(in
millions)

1.58
0.74

10.67
1.83

9.41

0.41

0.82
1.38
1.13

6.97
0.43

3.19

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

158.7
257.0

139.5
193.5

164.3

164.3

569.4
591.3
766.9

182.5
470.9

85.3

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy
in Southeast Asia

Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second


largest city of Malaysia.

Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) is the


second largest country by geographical area
in Southeast Asia.
Yangon (also known as Rangoon), is a former
capital of Myanmar.
Philippines is the worlds 12th most populous
country

Manila is the capital of the Philippines. Manila


is considered the Philippines gateway to
the world.
Only urban population in 2000
Quezon City, a former capital (1948 to 1976)
of the Philippines is located on the island
of Luzon.

Remarks

TABLE 3. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Southeast Asia (Continued)

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Diaz et al., 2007


UN-HABITAT, 2010

World Bank, 2000


Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

World Bank, 2000

Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Manaf et al., 2009


Saeed et al., 2009
Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009

Periathamby et al., 2009


Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Periathamby et al., 2009

Reference

1529

1999
2008
1995
2002
1998
2005
1995
2008

2008

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide

Nationwide
Bangkok

Bangkok
Nationwide

Can Tho city

Mekong Delta city

Thailand

Vietnam

1980

Nationwide

Singapore

1.12

1.16

5.88
15.29

63.19
4.70

2.41
3.89
11.64

1.58

0.16

0.12

2.14
3.07

14.30
1.10

0.64
1.36
4.67

0.23

102.7

104.0

365.0
200.7

226.3
233.1

265.6
349.6
401.5

146.0

Singapore is the worlds fourth leading


financial center and a cosmopolitan world
city. This country has the best quality of life
in Asia.

Thailand is the worlds 50th largest country in


terms of total area and lies in the heart of
Southeast Asia.

Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area


of Thailand. This city is also known as city
of angels. Population in 1980.

Vietnam is the easternmost country on the


Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Can Tho city, the capital city of the Mekong
Delta region, in Vietnam. MSW data was
calculated from the
1-month survey of 130 households.
One-month survey from 24 February to 25
March, 2009, and from 17 to 31 October,
2009

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Thanh et al., 2010b

Thanh et al., 2010a

Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b


Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009

Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b


BMA, 2002

Bai and Sutanto, 2002


Zhang et al., 2010a
Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Bai and Sutanto, 2002

T. Karak et al.

per year, which is equivalent to 189.8 kpc (Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). For
the year 2000, a normal Cambodian generated 365 kpc MSW (Yem, 2001). In
the year 2004, 124.1 kpc MSW was generated on average in Siem Reap (the
gateway to the archaeological ruins of Angkor Wat; Parizeau et al., 2006).
The predicted amount of MSW generation in this country for the year 2025
will be 2.74 million tons per year, which is 401.5 kpc.
The estimated total MSW generation in the year 2000 in Indonesia was
reported between 292 and 365 kpc (Mukawi, 2001). On average, every Indonesian generated 277.4 kpc of solid waste for the year 2006. Thus, with
total 246.5 million populations, Indonesia would generate 68.39 million tons
per year of MSW, which is administratively distributed into 33 provinces
(Helmy et al., 2006). The MSW generation in Indonesia is directly related to
the contributing population. Figure 4 represents the waste generation in the
major cities in Indonesia in the year 2000. It has been reported that from
87.1% to 94.5% of the total generated wastes been collected by the collecting authorities. MSW generation for the year 2007 in kpc was 292 having the
GDP of US$5096 (Shekdar, 2009). According to Shekdar (2009) the estimated
amount of MSW generation for the year 2030 will be the 114.15 million tons
in response to the urban population of 186.72 million people.
In Laos, the average urban waste production was 200.8 kpc in the year
1998 (Hoornweg and Laura, 1999). However, the generation rate increased to
273.8 kpc in the year 2001 (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009). In the year 2008,
0.70

350

Annual MSW generation (million tons)


MSW generation rate (kpc)

0.60
0.50

310
0.40
290
0.30
270
0.20

Yogyakarta

Padang

Makassar

230
Semarang

0.00
Medan

250

Bandung

0.10

Location

FIGURE 4. MSW generated in major cities in Indonesia (Source: Helmy et al., 2006).

MSW generation rate (kpc)

330

Surabaya

Total MSW generation ( million tons)

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1530

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1531

waste generation was 255.5 kpc (Shekdar, 2009). The expected generation
rate for the year 2025 will be 328.5 kpc, totaling of 0.82 million tons per year
(Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009).
Despite the aggressive economic development in Malaysia (population
in 2000: 24.82 million), the solid waste management is relatively poor and
haphazard (Hassan et al., 2000). However, on the basis of the available
literature, the Malaysian people generated an estimated 5.48 million tons of
solid waste in 2001, which is about 295.65 kpc (Hassan et al., 2001). This is
much lower than the waste generation rate of 803 kpc in the United States and
547.5 kpc in European countries. The waste generation rate in Kuala Lumpur
(population in 2009: 1.81 million) has been continuously rising every year
due to the uncontrolled consumption owing to the increasing population,
the attitude toward shopping, and the high living standard. It is expected that
the amount of solid waste generated in Kuala Lumpur would get doubled
in the next 20 years: from 3.2 million tons a year today to 7.7 million tons
a year (Hassan, 2002; Hassan et al., 2000). The quantity of waste generation
per year in Kuala Lumpur alone was projected to increase from 0.96 million
tons in 1995 up to 1.12 million tons in 2000 (Mansor, 1999). In Kuala Lumpur
alone, the estimated solid waste generation was 1.27 million tons in the year
2005 (Murad and Siwar, 2007). Among the major urban cities in Malaysia, the
amount of MSW generation for the year 2007 has been reported as 182.5 to
357.7 kpc (Asian Productivity Organization, 2007; Shekdar, 2009). Among all
the metropolitan cities in Malaysia, Penang City (population in 2010 estimate:
1.77 million) generates highest amount (357.7 kpc) of MSW. Recent data on
predicted MSW generation in Kuala Lumpur by Saeed et al. (2009) indicated
that if the current waste generation trends continue to increase at 6.26% rate
per year, then the waste generation would reach 1.38 million tons in the
year 2008 to 3.57 million tons (or 813.95 kpc) in the year 2024. In general,
MSW generated in Malaysia consisting 48% residential, 11% street cleansing,
24% commercial, 6% institutional, 4% construction & industry, and 7% from
landscape (Tchobanoglous et al., 2005).
In the Union of Myanmar (population in 2009 estimate: 50.02 million),
formerly known as Burma, Yangon (formerly Rangoon; population in 2010:
4.35 million) produced 0.55 million tons per year of MSW, which was equivalent to 164.25 kpc (Tin et al., 1995). Presently in Myanmar, 10,526 tons
of waste is generated per year and the waste generation rate is 164.25 kpc
(Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). The predicted amount of MSW for the year 2025
will be 8.36 million tons.
According to the report given by Kah (1993), the daily output of refuse
in Singapore (population in 2010: 5.08 million) had increased from 0.58
million tons in 1972 to 2.26 million tons in 1992. The quantity of waste
generated in Singapore in the year 2001 was 5.04 million tons, which is about
401.5 kpc against a population of only 4.48 million (Ngoc and Schnitzer,
2009). The amount of solid waste generated in Singapore in the year 2005

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1532

T. Karak et al.

was recorded as 1.73 million tons, which was equivalent to 401.5 kpc. The
projected amount of MSW that will be generated in the year 2025 and 2030
are 1.77 and 2.1 million tons, respectively (Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009).
Solid waste has been becoming a major problem in Thailand, particularly the Bangkok metropolis and other major cities in regional areas. Each
year more than 7 million tons of solid wastes are generated in urban areas
(Bangkok metropolis, municipalities) where more than 22 million people
reside. Nuntapodidech and Puncharoen (1993) reported that MSW generation rate in the Bangkok metropolitan region is in the range from 233.6 to
1018.35 kpc for the year 1992 and daily production is about 5,400 tons of
which 4,230 tons are collected. In Thailand, 401.5 kpc MSW was formed
in the year 1998 (Hoornweg and Laura, 1999). The quantity of waste produced by Thailand in 2001 was 14.1 million tons per year (about 233.6 kpc),
an increase of about 0.17 million tons per year compared with the prior
year (Hiramatsu et al., 2009). The urban waste generation in Thailand for
the year 2002 was reported to be 365584 kpc (National Research Institute,
2003a, 2003b). In 2003, approximately 14.32 million tons per year of solid
waste was generated across the country, of which 24% was from Bangkok
Metropolitan Administration (BMA), 31% from municipalities, and the remaining 45% was from rural areas (outside municipalities; Thailand Environment Monitor, 2003). In the year 2005, the generation of MSW in the urban
areas of the Bangkok metropolitan region (population in 2010: 9.1 million)
rapidly increased and was measured at 474.5 kpc, which was almost twice
the average for the country (Thailand) as a whole (233.6 kpc; Siriratpiriya,
2006). A survey report for the year 2009 by Hiramatsu et al. (2009), showed
that among the nonfarming households, food shops generated the most;
401.5 kpc in Thailand. Townhouses, which were the most numerous household types in their survey area, disposed of 0.54 kg wet weight per day per
person on average, with organic waste accounting for 78% by weight of the
total waste. Waste generation from apartment houses was 153.3 kpc, which
was about 36.5 kpc less than that of the urban detached houses. Among
the Asian countries, Thailand acquired second position on the basis of MSW
generation rate, which is 526.7 kpc (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009).
In the Philippines, an average of 36,172.50 tons of waste was generated
for the year 1999 (World Bank, 2001), and the waste generation rate was
189.8 kpc (in urban areas) and 109.5 kpc (in rural areas). According to Asian
Productivity Organization (APO) survey report, Philippines citizen generated
240.9 kpc MSW for the year 20032004 (APO, 2007). Figure 5 shows status of
waste generation in the Philippines for the year 2000 as per the World Bank
(2001). From these data, it is clear that the National Capital Region (i.e., Metro
Manila; population in 2007: 1.66 million) has the highest waste generation
(23%), almost a quarter of the countrys generated waste as a whole. On
the other hand, the Cordillera region (the largest mountain range in the
Philippines, having a population of about 1.52 million for the year 2007) has

1533

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

600

2.5

Annual MSW generation (million tons)


2.3

550

MSW generation rate (kpc)


500
450

1.8

400

1.5

350

1.3

300

1.0

250
200

0.8
150
0.5
100
0.3

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

MSW generation rate (kpc)

Total MSW generation ( million tons)

2.0

50

0.0

0
ARMM

Bicol

Cagayan Caraga
Valley

Central Cordillera Ilocos


Luzon
AR

Metro
Manila

Visayas Western
Mindanao

Locations

FIGURE 5. MSW generation in different major metropolitans in Philippines for the year 2000
(Source: World Bank, 2000).

the lowest generation (1.6%). According to the forecasted data of the World
Health Organization (WHO; 1999), the Philippines will be producing 292 kpc
MSW for the year 2025. According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB;
2004) reports, Metro Manila generates 2.45 million tons of solid waste per
year where 9.9 million people are residing. As per the World Bank (2001)
report, the predicted waste generation in the Philippines for the year 2025
will go to 18.8 million tons per year, which is equivalent to 292 kpc waste
generation.
The average quantity of solid waste generated from towns and cities in
Vietnam (population in 2009: 85.85) increased from 5.93 million tons per year
in 1996 to 8.11 million tons per yea in 1998 (Shekdar, 2009). The generation
rates of MSW depend on the category of urban area and ranges from 127.8
to 292 kpc (Hoornweg, 1999). In the year 2000, Vietnam generated 49.13
million tons per year (about 222.7 kpc). Urban data by Consulting Data
Group survey of Vietnam reported that the MSW generation rate in different
cities of Vietnam like Ho Chi Minh City (population in 2009: 7.16 million),
Hanoi (population in 2009: 6.5 million) and Da Nang (population in 2009:
0.89 million) in the year 2003 was 474.5, 365 and 328.5 kpc, respectively
(Doberstein, 2003). Vietnam produced over 15 million tons of MSW in the
year 2008 from various sources. Urban areas contained only 24 percent
of the population of the country, but produces over 6 million tons of the
countrys municipal waste. This is due to the more affluent lifestyles, larger

1534

T. Karak et al.

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

FIGURE 6. MSW generation in Vietnam from 1997 to 2010 (Source: World Bank, 2004).

quantity of commercial activities, and more intense industrialization in urban


areas. These activities also increase the proportion of hazardous waste (such
as batteries and household solvents) and nonbiodegradable waste (such as
plastics, metal, and glass) in urban waste. On the contrary, people in rural
areas (109.5 kpc) produce less than half of the rate of those in urban areas
(255.5 kpc) municipal waste. MSW generation in this country from the years
19972009 and predicted MSW in the year 2010 are presented in Figure 6.
Urbanization in Vietnam is rapid and is expected to increase from the current
level of 24% to 33% in 2010, resulting in 10 million more people in urban
areas.

Composition of MSW in Southeast Asia


A percentage analysis of different composition of MSW in Southeast Asia
is presented in Table 4. Waste composition in Brunei was as follows: organic waste (44%), paper and paperboard (22%), plastics (12%), glass (4%),
metal (5%), and others (13%; Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). Kitchen wastes,
yard waste, wood, coconut shells, and bones collectively accounted for
66.3% of waste by weight in Cambodia. Other components such as stones
and dirts were 14%, plastics were 14%, paper and paperboard were 3%,
metal and glass were 1% each, and others including textiles were 15%
(Parizeau et. al., 2006). The typical physical composition of MSW in Indonesia includes compostable organic matter 63%, paper 13%, plastics 11%,
and metal/glass/textiles and others are 1% each (Helmy et al., 2006). MSW
composition in Laos includes biodegradable fraction 54.3%, paper and paperboard 3.3%, plastics 7.8%, glass 8.5%, metals 3.8%, and inert fraction 22.5%
(Shekdar, 2009). The composition of solid waste in Malaysia was similar to
that of the most developing countries. According to APO (2007), the present
status of different components of MSW in Malaysia includes organic (51%),

1535

Nationwide
Nationwide
Siem Reap
Nationwide
Bandung
Bandung
Bogor
Cimahi
Jakarta
Jakarta
Sarimukti
Semarang
Surabaya (formerly
Soerabaja)
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Kuala Lumpur
Shah Alam
Rangoon (also known
as Yangon)
Nationwide
Baguio
Batangas
Dinalupihan
Iloilo
Manilla
Olongapo
Tacloban

Brunei
Cambodia

Myanmar (formerly
known as Burma)
Philippines

Laos
Malaysia

Indonesia

Location

Country

54.3
63.7
48.3
45.7
44.8
40.0
63.7
46.9
80.0
41.6
52.5
53.8
25.5
38.1
43.0
45.1
52.1

NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
1985
NA
NA

44.0
55.0
66.0
74.0
71.6
51.9
80.0
50.0
82.0
79.5
51.4
70.7
94.0

NA
1975
1985
1995
2005
NA
1982
2005
NA

2000
2005
2005
NA
1978
2005
1984
2005
NA
1981
2005
1995
1982

Year

Organic
material

19.5
13.6
9.5
6.5
9.4
17.0
12.6
12.1

3.3
7.0
23.6
9.0
16.0
15.0
11.7
17.9
1.0

22.0
3.0
3.0
10.0
9.6
9.8
6.0
13.2
2.0
8.0
9.3
10.2
2.0

Paper
and
paperboard

13.8
6.4
13.2
9.0
20.0
4.0
12.4
11.0

7.8
2.5
9.4
3.9
15.0
15.0
7.0
20.3
4.0

12.0
10.0
14.0
8.0
5.5
12.1
4.0
18.0
3.0
3.7
15.7
10.6
2.0

Plastics

2.5
2.4
2.4
3.0
1.3
5.0
2.9
2.7

8.5
2.5
4.0
3.9
3.0
4.0
2.5
2.6
6.0

4.0
8.0
1.0
2.0
0.4
3.6
NA
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.7
1.9
1.0

Glass/
Ceramic

4.8
3.9
3.3
7.0
6.1
2.0
5.5
3.0

3.8
6.4
5.9
5.1
3.3
3.0
6.4
4.3
3.0

5.0
7.0
1.0
2.0
2.2
1.3
NA
0.6
4.0
1.4
0.3
1.0
0.5

Metals

17.8
21.3
17.7
49.0
25.1
29.0
21.5
19.1

22.3
17.9
8.8
32.4
17.9
23.0
8.7
8.0
6.0

13.0
17.0
15.0
4.0
10.7
21.3
10.0
17.7
8.5
7.0
22.6
5.6
0.5

Textiles
&
others
Reference

Shekdar, 2009
World Bank, 2000
World Bank, 2000
World Bank, 2000
World Bank, 2000
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
World Bank, 2000
World Bank, 2000
(Continued on next page)

Shekdar, 2009
Periathamby et al., 2009
Periathamby et al., 2009
Periathamby et al., 2009
Periathamby et al., 2009
Shekdar, 2009
Maniatis et al., 1987
Sharifah et al., 2008
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989

Damanhuri et al., 2009


Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Maniatis et al., 1987
Damanhuri et al., 2009
Supriyadi et al., 2000
Maniatis et al., 1987

Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009


Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009
Parizeau et al., 2006
Shekdar, 2009
Maniatis et al., 1987
Damanhuri et al., 2009

TABLE 4. Percentage of physical composition in MSW generated from different countries and major cities of Southeast Asia

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1536

Location

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Angthong
Bangkok
Bangkok
Chiangmai
Chiangrai
Kanchanaburi
Nakhonpathom
Nakornratchasima
Nakornsawan
Nonthaburi
Nonthaburi
Pattaya
Petchburi
Phitsanulok
Phuket
Nationwide
Can Tho City
Ha Long
Tay Ninh
Thai Nguyen
Viet Tri

Note. NA = not available.

Vietnam

Thailand

Singapore

Country
2000
2008
1995
2001
NA
2003
1985
2003
2003
2003
2003
20012003
2003
2003
2003
2007
2003
2003
2003
2004
NA
2008
NA
NA
NA
NA

Year
41.5
27.2
21.1
35.9
48.6
65.0
49.9
51.8
44.0
55.2
55.0
61.5
54.6
45.6
68.7
53.3
68.6
47.0
57.6
64.8
49.4
86.1
49.2
63.0
55.0
55.5

20.6
21.2
40.1
20.7
14.6
3.8
12.1
13.5
24.6
11.0
10.0
5.0
17.7
20.1
13.2
6.8
5.7
25.0
11.3
8.9
14.7
4.9
4.6
5.3
3.0
7.5

5.8
11.5
8.8
15.9
13.9
13.2
10.9
12.4
7.0
15.1
12.0
26.2
19.7
21.0
13.7
28.4
9.6
17.6
19.3
17.1
15.1
6.1
3.2
8.7
3.0
4.5

1.1
1.0
3.6
9.9
5.1
4.9
6.6
4.0
1.0
9.6
10.0
1.7
2.4
6.4
0.3
4.3
1.7
4.5
0.6
2.6
9.7
1.1
0.4
1.3
0.1
0.6

3.2
14.6
11.5
3.8
3.6
1.0
3.5
3.5
1.0
2.1
5.0
1.1
2.0
2.6
0.4
0.6
0.6
1.3
3.9
2.7
3.4
0.7
0.4
2.8
3.0
0.2

27.8
24.5
15.0
13.8
14.2
12.1
17.0
14.8
22.4
7.0
8.0
4.5
3.5
4.3
3.8
6.6
13.8
4.6
7.3
3.9
7.7
1.1
42.6
19.6
36.0
32.1

Paper
Textiles
Organic
and
Glass/
&
material paperboard Plastics Ceramic Metals others

Bai and Sutanto, 2002


NEA, 2008
Brereton, 1996
Chaya and Gheewala, 2007
Shekdar, 2009
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Maniatis et al., 1987
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007a
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Hiramatsu et al., 2009
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Chiemchaisri et al., 2007b
Liamsanguan and Gheewala, 2008
Shekdar, 2009
Thanh et al., 2010a
NEA, 2002
NEA, 2002
NEA, 2002
NEA, 2002

Reference

TABLE 4. Percentage of physical composition in MSW generated from different countries and major cities of Southeast Asia (Continued)

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1537

paper and paperboard (15%), plastics (14%), glass (3%), metals (4%), and
textiles and other (13%). This indicates that organic waste forms the biggest
component, with paper and plastics (including rubber) at the second and
third positions, respectively.
There are, however, variations in the composition of waste among different areas in this country. A detailed study in 2000 in and around Kuala
Lumpur showed that there were differences in the percentages of different
types of wastes according to building use and the socioeconomic background
of the residents. Figure 7 shows the change of solid waste composition in
Kuala Lumpur from 1975 to 2000. No significant changes in organic matter
were observed in Kuala Lumpur MSW except for the year 1985.
According to an APO (2007) report, there is also a difference in waste
composition between the bigger cities and smaller towns. In Kuala Lumpur,
the organic waste accounted for about 48.4% while in Muar, an average-size
municipality of about 0.5 million people, it was 63.7% for recent years.
The physical composition of MSW in Yangon in Myanmar as given by
Yangon City Development Committee (1993) includes vegetable waste 75%,
paper 4%, plastics 2%, leather and rubber 2%, textile 3%, bone waste 1%,
bamboo and wood products 5% and miscellaneous 5%. The waste composition for several cities outside Metro Manila of Philippines is shown in Table 5
(World Bank, 2000a). From these data, it is evident that there was more percentage of organic waste (25.555.0%).
According to Shekdar (2009), the MSW composition in Singapore with
respect to percentage wet basis was found to be as biodegradable fraction

FIGURE 7. Solid waste composition in Kuala Lumpur (Data extracted from Nasir, 2007).

1538

Note. NA = not available.

Organic material
Paper and paperboard
Plastics
Glass/Ceramic
Metals
Textiles and others

Waste composition
53.8
9.5
13.2
2.4
3.3
17.7

Batangas
45.1
12.6
12.4
2.9
5.5
21.5

Olongapo
52.5
13.6
6.4
2.4
3.9
21.3

Baguio
38.1
9.4
20.0
1.3
6.1
25.1

Iloilo
52.1
12.1
11.0
2.7
3.0
19.1

Tacloban

Local government units in the Philippines

55.0
0.0
NA
NA
NA
45.0

San
Fernando

TABLE 5. Percentage of waste composition in different local Government units in Philippines (Source: World Bank, 2000a)

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25.5
6.5
9.0
3.0
7.0
49.0

Dinalupihan

1539

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

44.4%, paper 28.3%, plastics 11.8%, glass 4.1%, metal 4.8%, and inert fraction 6.6%. A survey study of MSW composition in Oboto Bang Maenang
in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok in Thailand, was performed by
Hiramatsu et al. (2009). This survey concluded that waste composition was
directly influenced by economic status of the community and the household
pattern. Among the waste composition the percentage of kitchen wastes
ranged from 27.7 (in a farmers house) to 84.9 (in food shops); for papers
from 1.6 (food shops) to 8.8 (in a townhouse); for can from 0 to 0.4 (in food
shops); for glass from 0 (in a farmers house) to 11.3 (in temporary houses);
for plastics from 6.4 to 20.4 (in temporary houses); for yard waste from 0 (in
apartment) to 55.7 (in a farmers house); for wood from 0 (urban detached
house) to 1.3 (in temporary houses); for metal from 0.2 (in apartment) to 2.2
(in temporary houses); and for fabric from 0 (in farmers house) to 2.8 (in
apartment). The MSW composition in Phuket (a province in the southern part
of Thailand) for the year 2007 was cloth (2.07%), food waste (44.13%), garden waste (5.26%), glass (9.67%), metals (3.44%), paper (14.74%), plastics
(15.08%), rubber/leather (2.28%), and stone/ceramic (1.39%; Liamsanguan
and Gheewala, 2008).
The composition of solid waste in Hanoi, Vietnam, consisted of organic
substances, paper, cartons, plastics, glass, ceramic waste, metal, and bones.
Table 6 shows the changing characteristics of solid waste in Hanoi City from
1995 to 1998.
According to the report of the State of the Environment in Vietnam
(National Environment Agency, 2002), the organic substances present in
MSW from different locations of this country contributed to more than 50%
of the total weight. MSW composition in different major cities of Vietnam
is shown in Table 7. From the Table 7 it is apparent that organic waste
accounted for the largest part (49.263%) of the total generated MSW. Thanh
et al. (2010a) also reported that about 84.1885.10% of household solid
waste (the main discharge source of MSW) was organic part when waste
was collected from Can Tho city, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region
in Vietnam, in the year 2009.
TABLE 6. Changing composition (%) of MSW in Hanoi from 1995 to 1998 (Source: VietnamState of the Environment Report, 1998)
Year
Composition

1995

1996

1997

1998

Organic material
Paper and paperboard
Plastics
Glass/Ceramic
Metals
Textiles and other

45.9
2.2
1.7
1.4
1.2
47.6

50.4
2.9
3.2
2.6
1.8
39.1

53.0
2.3
4.1
3.8
5.5
31.3

50.1
4.2
5.5
1.8
2.5
35.9

1540

T. Karak et al.

TABLE 7. MSW composition (percentage of weight) of different locations in Vietnam (Source:


NEA, 2002)
Different location in Vietnam
Waste composition
Organic material
Paper and paperboard
Plastics
Glass/Ceramic
Metals
Textiles and others

Ha Long

Hanoi

Tay Ninh

Thai Nguyen

Viet Tri

49.20
4.60
3.23
3.70
0.40
38.87

53.0
1.09
9.66
3.27
5.15
27.90

63.0
4.76.0
7.711.6
1.72.7
1.03.4
21.913.3

55.00
3.00
3.00
0.70
3.00
35.30

55.50
7.52
4.52
0.63
0.22
32.13

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MSW Generation From Other Asian Nations


Most Asian nations (except Japan, South Korea, and Singapore) lack well
formulated guidelines and policy structure regarding waste management
services, in the absence of which the municipal agencies have not been
performing their duties satisfactorily in this aspect. Though, few rules are
there within the various municipal acts, which govern the day-to-day running of these agencies, the same, however, due to lack of enforcement, have
not served the purpose much. Besides this fact, the weakness of the estimated total current MSW generation in the Asian countries is due to the lack
of complete source of data on the major waste streams. Therefore, numerous
statistical gaps on MSW generation database are frequently observed among
Asian nations.
Table 8 is a reflection of MSW generation in different countries and
different cities of Asian nations based on the available literature. From Table
8, a wide variation in the quantity of MSW has been observed in Asian
countries. Among the eight Asian countries, Afghanistan is categorized as
the least developed country (LDC) by the World Bank in terms of its low
income, human resource weakness, and economic vulnerability. Reliable
data of MSW generation in this country is scanty due to lack of quantification
of MSW. According to Glawe et al. (2005), the estimated amount of MSW was
146 kpc in Kabul (capital and largest city of Afghanistan) in 2003. Between
October 2002 and May 2004, over 120,000 m3 of solid wastes were collected
in Kabul. Similar to Afghanistan, the data regarding waste generation in
Armenia is quite inexact and nonreliable. Nonetheless, according to the data
for the period of 19851990 about 1.5 million tons of MSW was generated
per year (UNECE, 2000). This is equal to 370430 kpc. On the other hand,
according to UNECE data, the amount of waste per capita per person for
19961997 was in the range of 247285 kg. The municipal waste contains
about 85% of household and the rest was nonhazardous industrial waste.

1541

NA

1991

2001

2005

2025

2006

2003

2005

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

Chittagong

Dhaka

Dhaka

Bangladesh

2000

Nationwide

Bahrain

NA

Year

Kabul

Location

Afghanistan

Country

5.73

6.50

3.65

78.44

32.76

28.81

20.87

17.50

0.35

NA

Population
(in
millions)

0.71

1.28

0.33

17.18

4.87

5.26

3.73

2.81

0.16

NA

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

124.3

196.5

91.3

219.0

149.6

182.5

178.9

160.4

459.9

146.0

Average
MSW
generation
(in
kpc)

Projected data (where urban population is 40%


of total population of Bangladesh)
Chittagong is a major commercial and industrial
center in Bangladesh.
MSW data from a reconnaissance survey in
March 2006.
Dhaka (formerly known as Dacca, and
Jahangirnagar) is the capital of Bangladesh.
Dhaka is also known as the Rickshaw
Capital of the World.
Projected data

Kabul is the capital and largest city of


Afghanistan.
Bahrain, a small island country in the Persian
Gulf.
Bangladesh is a country in South Asia and the
eighth most populous country and is among
the most densely populated countries in the
world. For MSW generation, data were
collected from 21 May to 30 June, 2004, of
season 1, from 1 July to 29 August, 2004, of
season 2, and from 3 November 2004 to 5
January 2005 of season 3 from the six cities
(Dhaka, Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi,
Barisal, and Sylhet) in Bangladesh.
Urban population is the 20.15% of total
population of Bangladesh.
Urban population is 23.39% of total population
of Bangladesh.

Remarks

TABLE 8. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Asia other than Southeast Asia

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

JICA, 2005a
(Continued on next page)

Zurbrugg et al., 2005

Sujauddin et al., 2008

Enayetullah and Hashimi,


2006
ADB, 2000

Zurbrugg, 2002

ADB, 2000

Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007

Alhumoud, 2005

Glawe et al., 2005

Reference

1542

1981

1990

2000

2002

2006
1992

2000
2006
1996

2001
1980

1990

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nationwide
Beijing

Beijing
Beijing
Chongqing

Chongqing
Hong Kong

Hong Kong

China

2008

Nationwide

Bhutan

Year

Location

Country

5.70

2.94
5.06

10.57
13.33
3.23

592.68
8.19

352.20

388.24

325.30

144.00

0.67

Population
(in
millions)

2.59

1.16
1.59

2.96
4.14
1.12

212.00
2.47

136.27

117.62

67.68

26.28

0.04

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

454.3

394.2
313.6

280.0
310.3
346.8

357.7
301.6

386.9

303.0

208.1

182.5

193.5

Average
MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Bhutan is a small landlocked country in South
Asia, located at the eastern end of the
Himalayas. A survey was conducted during
November 2007 and January 2008 where
urban population was found to be 30% of
the countrys total population.
China also known as Peoples Republic of
China (PRC). This country is located in East
Asia and which is the most populous country
in the world.
Data of MSW produced in some cities were
not reported as they are not collected or
transported.
MSW produced in some cities was not reported
as they are not collected or transported.
MSW produced in some cities was not reported
as they are not collected or transported.
MSW produced in some cities was not reported
as they are not collected or transported.

Beijing is the metropolis in northern China and


capital of China.

Chongqing is a major city in southwestern


mainland China and one of the five national
central cities of China.

Hong Kong is one of the most densely


populated areas in the world and is one of
two special administrative regions (SARs) of
China

Remarks

TABLE 8. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Asia other than Southeast Asia (Continued)

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

Ko and Poon, 2009

Yuan et al., 2006


Ko and Poon, 2009

Zhen-shan et al., 2009


NBSC, 2007
Li and Gu, 2001

Zhang et al., 2010b


Liang et al., 2003

Huang et al., 2006

Huang et al., 2006

Suocheng et al., 2001

Huang et al., 2006

Phuntsho et al., 2010

Reference

1543

India

2001

Zhongshan

2006

2006

Tibet

Ahmedabad

2000
2003
2007

Shanghai
Shanghai
Tianjin

2006

1990

Shanghai

North India

2003

Macao

1991

2010

Kunming

Nationwide

2000
2007
2001

Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Jiangmen

3.52

316.94

217.00

2.36

2.68

13.22
13.42
10.75

12.83

0.45

3.50

6.67
6.93
4.21

0.61

57.84

23.86

0.73

1.04

5.24
5.85
1.64

2.79

0.25

1.00

3.41
6.25
1.23

171.9

182.5

110.0

123.7

386.5

396.4
436.2
152.8

217.1

554.8

286.0

511.5
901.6
292.0

Jiangmen is a prefecture-level city in


Guangdong province in southern China.
Population for the year 2000 and MSW
collection rate is only 85%.
Kunming is a prefecture-level city and capital
of Yunnan province, in southwestern China.
Macao is a Special Administrative Region (SAR)
of China with limited amounts of natural
resources.
Shanghai is the most populous city and largest
center of commerce and finance in mainland
China.

Tianjin is a metropolis in North China and one


of the five national central cities of China.
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia and located in
the north of the Himalayas.
Calculation of annual MSW generation was
performed on the basis of MSW generation in
the urban areas of Lhasa city, Shigatse,
Nedong of Lhoka, and Bayi of Nyingtri in
Tibet.
Zhongshan county is a county of Guangxi,
China. Population for the year 2000 and
MSW collection rate was only 85.6%
India is a country in South Asia and is the
seventh-largest country by geographical area
and the second most populous country in
the world.
Northern India consists of states of Rajasthan,
Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, Hariyana,
Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and
Kashmir, as well as the Union Territory of
Chandigarh. Population on the basis Indian
census report, 2001
Ahmedabad is the largest city in Gujarat, India.
It is the seventh largest city and eighth
largest metropolitan area of India.

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(Continued on next page)

Rawat et al., 2008

Ojha, 2010

Sharholy et al., 2008

Chung and Lo, 2004

Jiang et al., 2009

Liu and Yu, 2007


Liu and Yu, 2007
Zhao et al., 2009a

Liu and Yu, 2007

Jin et al., 2006

UN-HABITAT, 2010

Ko and Poon, 2009


Shan, 2010
Chung and Lo, 2004

1544

Country

Year

2006

2006

2000

2006
2006

1995

2006
2001
2006

2008

Location

Bally Municipality

Bangalore

Chennai

Chennai
Dehradun

Delhi

Delhi
Haridwar
Hyderabad

Kolkata

8.00

9.88
0.50
10.00

5.80

5.80
4.62

4.62

4.30

1.31

Population
(in
millions)

1.10

2.19
0.07
2.19

1.46

1.46
1.01

1.01

0.90

0.28

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

138.7

158.7
138.7
219.0

251.7

251.7
219.0

219.0

209.3

210.9

Average
MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
In the Gangetic plain of West Bengal in the
district of Howrah. Population in 2001
Bangalore is located on the Deccan Plateau,
capital of the Indian state of Karnataka and
also known as the Garden City.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the
capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
This city is Chennai is the fourth most
populous metropolitan area and the fifth
most populous city in India.

Dehradun is the capital city of the Uttarakhand


state and about 246 km North of Indias
capital New Delhi.
Delhi is the capital of India, and also the largest
metropolis by area and the second-largest
metropolis by population in India. It is the
eighth-largest metropolis in the world by
population.

One of the holiest places in India


Hyderabad is the capital of the state Andhra
Pradesh, India. This city is the sixth most
populous and sixth most populous urban
agglomeration in India.
Kolkata (formerly known as Calcutta) is the
capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
This city is the third most populous
metropolitan area in India and one of the
most populous urban areas in the world.
MSW data reflected only 60% house-to-house
collection and 5055% open vats collection
system.

Remarks

TABLE 8. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Asia other than Southeast Asia (Continued)

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

Chattopadhyay et al., 2009

Mor et al., 2006


Jain and Sharma, 2010
Sharholy et al., 2007

Agarwal et al., 2005

Elango et al., 2009


Rawat et al., 2008

Esakku et al., 2007

Rawat et al., 2008

Sarkhel and Banerjee, 2010

Reference

1545

Jordan

1998

2000

Zarqa City

2006

Yokohama

Amman

1992
2001
2006

2006

Jerusalem

Nationwide
Nationwide
Kawasaki

2006

Nationwide

Israel

1985

2004
2006
2010

Tehran
Baghdad
Baghdad

Iraq

Nationwide

1996

Tehran

Japan

2004

2006

Nationwide

Iran

Mumbai

2.16

1.37

3.60

7.03
7.12
1.37

0.78

5.79

8.20

8.20
5.79
7.67

5.54

44.22

13.80

0.37

0.60

1.65

1.90
4.20
0.44

0.36

1.33

2.63

2.63
1.33
2.50

1.07

13.61

2.92

169.1

438.0

458.3

270.1
590.0
438.0

459.9

230.0

320.3

320.3
230.0
326.1

193.6

307.7

211.6

Mumbai (formerly known as known as


Bombay) is the capital of the Indian state of
Maharashtra. Mumbai is the most populous
city in India, and the second most populous
city in the world.
Iran is a country in Central Eurasia and Western
Asia.
Tehran is Irans largest urban area and the
capital city.
MSW data among 22 urban regions of
Tehran.

Baghdad is the capital of Iraq.


Projected data, population growth rates has
been taken as 3% increase per year over the
year 2006.
Israel is a parliamentary republic in the Middle
East. Population as per 2009 census.
Jerusalem is the capital of Israel. Population as
per 2009 census
Japan (also know as Land of the Rising Sun) is
an island nation in East Asia and located in
the Pacific Ocean. This country has the
worlds second-largest economy. MSW data
includes residential and commercial solid
waste and excludes industrial solid waste.
Year-wise survey
Yearwise survey
Kawasaki the ninth most populated city in
Japan.
Yokohama the second largest city in Japan by
population after Tokyo.
Amman is the capital and largest city of the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.
Zarqa is a city in Jordan located to the
northeast of Amman and it is the countrys
third largest city. MSW data from eight
regions from Zarqa Governorate.

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(Continued on next page)

Abu-Qudais and
Abu-Qudais, 2000
Mrayyan and Hamdi, 2006

Contreras et al., 2010

Sakai, 1996
Tanaka, 2007
Geng et al., 2010

Tanaka, 1992

MEP, 2010

MEP, 2010

Damghani et al., 2008


Alsamawi et al., 2009
Alsamawi et al., 2009

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009
OWRC, 2006

Chattopadhyay et al., 2009

1546

1994
2015
NA

2010
NA

1986

1990
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

2006

2010

Nationwide

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide

Cureppipe
Nationwide

Nationwide

Kathmandu

Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu

Kathmandu

Ghorahi

Kyrgyzstan

Lebanon

Mauritius

Mongolia

Nagorno-Karabakh

Nepal

NA

NA

2000

Nationwide

Kuwait

NA

Year

Nationwide

Location

Kazakhstan

Country

0.06

1.18

0.32
0.59
0.63
0.67
0.71
0.74
0.30

0.28

5.09

0.08
4.39

1.10
2.23
3.73

1.92

2.23

6.32

Population
(in
millions)

0.01

0.56

0.03
0.07
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.08
0.27

0.03

2.08

0.02
1.51

0.18
1.14
1.09

0.60

1.14

1.34

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

167.0

474.5

107.3
125.9
123.1
116.0
113.2
112.1
905.2

107.1

408.8

284.0
343.1

160.6
511.0
292.0

310.3

511.0

211.9

Average
MSW
generation
(in
kpc)

Lebanon is a country in Western Asia.


Projected data
Mauritius is an island nation off the southeast
coast of the African continent in the
southwest Indian Ocean. Population in 2000
Mauritius is tourist destination in Mauritius
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and
Central Asia. Population in 2000 census
Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in
the South Caucasus.
Kathmandu is the capital and largest
metropolitan city of Nepal.

MSW data generated from 40 households


examined in April 2004 (the dry season).
Calculation based on overall 94% collection
efficiency.
Ghorahi is the main city of Dang Valley, in
southwestern Nepal.

Kazakhstan is a transcontinental country


located in Central Asia and Eastern Europe.
Ranked as the ninth largest country in the
world and the worlds largest landlocked
country.
Kuwait is a sovereign Arab nation situated in
the northeast of the Arabian Peninsula in
Western Asia.
Kyrgyzstan is a country located in Central Asia.

Remarks

TABLE 8. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Asia other than Southeast Asia (Continued)

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UN-HABITAT, 2010

Alam et al., 2008

Alam et al., 2008


Alam et al., 2008
Alam et al., 2008
Alam et al., 2008
Alam et al., 2008
Alam et al., 2008
Dangi et al., 2011

UN-HABITAT, 2010
Troschinetz and Mihelcic,
2009
Troschinetz and Mihelcic,
2009
Alam et al., 2008

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009
EI-Fadel and Sbayti, 2000
EI-Fadel and Sbayti, 2000
Troschinetz and Mihelcic,
2009

Alhumoud, 2005

EI-Fadel and Sbayti, 2000

Reference

1547

1994
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2006

Nationwide

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Kwangmyong

1988

Eastern Province

South Korea

2000

Nationwide

Saudi Arabia

2000

2002

West Bank and Gaza Strip

Nationwide

2005
2000

Palestinian Territory
West Bank

Qatar

2005

2005

Lahore

Nablus district

2004
1985

Nationwide
Karachi

Pakistan

Palestine

2000

Nationwide

Oman

48.54
47.03
49.17
49.46
46.75
0.05

42.03

0.44

20.10

0.44

7.20

5.99
6.92

0.30

1.62

2.40
2.00

2.00

18.25
17.34
16.15
16.61
17.06
0.04

21.17

0.35

9.17

0.21

1.97

1.16
1.35

0.11

0.50

0.90
0.53

0.53

376.0
368.7
328.5
335.8
365.0
313.4

503.7

785.5

456.3

474.5

273.8

194.6
194.6

365.0

306.6

375.0
266.5

266.5

The Sultanate of Oman is an arid country


located in the Arabian Peninsula.

Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and


financial center of Pakistan.
Lahore is the second largest city in Pakistan.
Average data from the period of 19802005
Nablus is a Palestinian city in the northern West
Bank.
The reference period was April 2005
The West Bank is a landlocked territory and is
the eastern part of the Palestinian territories.
The amount of solid waste generated daily
ranges from 328.5 to 438.0 kpc in the West
Bank urban area and from 182.5 to 292.0 kpc
in rural areas.
Gaza Strip lies on the Eastern coast of the
Mediterranean Sea.
MSW data based on the 20012002 survey
Qatar is an Arab country located in the Middle
East
Saudi Arabia is the largest Arab country of the
Middle East.
Five cities in the Eastern Province of Saudi
Arabia are A1-Khobar, Abqaiq, Dammam,
Dhahran, and Rahima
South Korea is a country in East Asia, located
on the southern portion of the Korean
Peninsula MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey
MSW data on year-wise survey

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(Continued on next page)

Hong, 1999
Shekdar, 2009
Kim, 2002
Hong, 1999
Shekdar, 2009
Kim, 2002

Kim, 2002

Khan et al., 1987

Alhumoud, 2005

Alhumoud, 2005

Khatib and Al-Khateeb, 2009

Al-Khatib and Arafat, 2010


Al-Hmaidi, 2002

Al-Khatib et al., 2010

Batool et al., 2009

Taha et al., 2004


Khatib et al., 1990

Alhumoud, 2005

1548

Nationwide

NA

2005
2008

Nationwide
Taipei

Tajikistan

2000

Nationwide

Taiwan

1994

Kandy

2002

1994

Colombo

Damascus City

1995

Year

Nationwide

Location

Syria

Sri Lanka

Country

0.41

22.71
5.20

21.91

2.00

0.10

0.62

47.02

Population
(in
millions)

0.21

7.83
3.70

7.85

0.46

0.02

0.22

16.65

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

519.3

344.9
711.5

358.5

230.0

211.7

357.7

354.1

Average
MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
An island nation in South Asia, surrounded by
the Indian Ocean. Sri Lanka was formerly
known as Ceylon until 1972. Urban
population was 22% of the total population.
Colombo is the largest city and former capital
of Sri Lanka.
Kandy is the world heritage city in the center of
Sri Lanka.
Damascus is the capital of Syria (a country of
Western Asia) also known as the City of
Jasmine. More than 90% of the inhabitants
are served by regular waste collection
managed by the municipality. The remaining
inhabitants (100,000150,000)
live in the shanty towns of the city, which do
not yet have any organized waste
management system.
Taiwan, located in the southeastern rim of
mainland China with a high population
density.

Taipei is Taiwans economic gateway to the


world
Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country
in Central Asia and lies adjacent to Pakistan.

Remarks

TABLE 8. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of Asia other than Southeast Asia (Continued)

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Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009

Tsai et al., 2007


Tseng, 2010

Tsai and Chou, 2006

Alboukhari, 2004

Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Hoornweg and Laura, 1999

Vidanaarachchi et al., 2006

Reference

1549

1995

Abu Dhabi

Note. NA = not available.

2000

Nationwide

United Arab Emirates

2004

Nationwide

Turkmenistan

NA

Nationwide

Timor-Leste

0.90

2.00

1.09

0.43

0.58

0.86

0.37

0.24

642.4

430.7

338.5

565.3

Timor-Leste is a small country in Asia and


located about 640 km northwest of Darwin,
Australia.
Turkmenistan is also known as Turkmenia.
This country is one of the Turkic states in
Central Asia.
United Arab Emirates (or UAE) is a federation
situated in the southeast of the Arabian
Peninsula in Southwest Asia.
This country has the worlds seventh largest
oil reserves and the most developed
economies in West Asia.
Abu Dhabi is the capital and the second largest
city in the United Arab Emirates.
40 houses with different socioeconomic
levels and totaled 840 samples were sampled
for this study.

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Abu Qdais et al., 1997

Alhumoud, 2005

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

1550

T. Karak et al.

According to the statistics available, 5.99 million tons of wastes are


produced in Bangladesh per year (Enayetullah et al., 2005; Hasan and
Chowdhury, 2005; Sujauddin et al., 2008). Dhaka (capital city of Bangladesh;
population in 2008: 7.0 million), generates approximately 1.64 million tons of
wastes per year (Hasan and Chowdhury, 2005), but Dhaka City Corporation
(DCC) can pick up and dispose off only 42% of the total waste generated
(Salequzzaman et al., 1998). In 1991, urban Bangladesh generated 113.2 kpc,
totaling 2.37 million tons per year against 20.8 million people, which is estimated to increase to 0.6 kg (i.e., 17.16 million tons per year; Enayetullah
and Hashimi, 2006) with the estimated urban population of 78.44 million by
2025 (Ray, 2008). According to the World Bank (1999), the residential waste
generation rate in all the metropolitan cities of Bangladesh was 54.75 kpc.
But, on the contrary, Hoornweg (1999) reported that metropolitan cities of
Bangladesh generated 182.5 kpc MSW in 1998. The estimated data of the
per capita waste generation rate in the year 2004 in six major urban areas of Bangladesh: Dhaka, Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet, and Barisal
was 0.56, 0.48, 0.30, 0.27, 0.30, and 0.25 kg, respectively (Enayetullah et al.,
2005). In the year 2005, a total of 4.25 million tons of MSW was generated
yearly in the seven major cities (Dhaka; Chittagong, population in 2008: 2.58
million; Rajshahi, population in 2008 estimated: 0.78 million; Khulna, population in 2008 estimated: 0.86 million; Barisal, population in 2008 estimated:
0.21 million; Sylhet, population in 2008: 0.46 million) of Bangladesh (Alamgir
and Ahsan, 2007). The per capita generation of MSW ranged from 118.6 to
177 kpc in the country while the average rate was 141.3 kpc as measured
in the six major cities (Ahsan, 2005). According to Sujauddin et al. (2008),
the solid waste generation at Rahman Nagar residential area (population in
2006: 3500) of Chittagong district in Bangladesh was 91.25 kpc in the year
2006. However, these findings varied from the value (54.75 kpc) that was
recorded by the World Bank (1999). Sujauddin et al. (2008) further reported
that different socioeconomic groups have an influence on MSW generation
in Bangladesh. For example, low socioeconomic groups (monthly income
< BDT 5000 where US$1 = BDT 70) generate 29.2 kpc MSW; however, the
lower middle (monthly income between BDT 5000 and BDT 10,000), middle (monthly income between BDT 10,000 and BDT 20,000), upper middle
(monthly income between BDT 20,000 and BDT 50,000), and high socioeconomic groups (monthly income above BDT 50,000) generate 73, 62.1, 65.7,
and 200.8 kpc MSW, respectively.
The average MSW generation for the year 2000 from different sources
in Thimphu (capital city of Bhutan; population in 2005: 0.08 million) was
547.5730 kpc from households, 182.5365 kpc form tourists, 401.5 kpc
from commercial institutions, and 51.1 kpc from office employees (Urban
Sector Programme Support Secretariat, 2000). On the basis of the one-week
period (October 29November 4, 2007) of MSW generation rate survey in
Phuntsholing city of Bhutan, Norbu et al. (2010) reported that the waste

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1551

generation rate was 146 kpc, which indicated waste generation of 1.19 million
tons per year. The waste generation rate has increased from 113.2 kpc in 2000
(National Environment Commission, 2000) to 146 kpc in 2007, indicating a
3.8% increase per year.
In the year 1986, the Peoples Republic of China (population in 2010
estimate: 1.34 billion) produced 408.8 kpc of MSW (Zhang, 1998). A recent
study revealed that this country produced 29% of the worlds MSW each year
(Dong et al., 2001). According to the State Statistical Bureau of the Peoples
Republic of China (1991), 45 Chinese cities generate 28.77 million tons MSW
and among them in rank, Beijing city (capital of China; population in 2010:
22 million) was the highest one (3.45 million tons) and Weihai (population
in 2004: 2.6 million) province generated lowest amount (only 52,000 metric
tons). The total generated MSW in China for the year 1995 was 106.71 million
tons, which is equivalent to 576.7 kpc (Environmental Protection Bureau of
China, 1995). The amount of MSW generated in China for the year 1997 was
109.82 million tons (State Statistical Bureau of the Peoples Republic of China,
1999). It was 140 million tons in the year 2000 (Wei et al., 2000). Between
1995 and 2004, MSW generation in China grew by 45% (OECD, 2007b).
About 180 million tons of MSW were generated in the year 2007 (Xiao et al.,
2009), the highest amount generated by any single country. According to
Bie et al. (2007) the quantity of MSW generated in China has increased at a
rate between 8% and 10% per year over the past decades. Figure 8A depicts
the amount of MSW in Beijing city over the last decades. It can be seen
that the amount of MSW has increased steadily over the 14 years, from 2.23
million tons in 1990 to 3.73 million tons in 2003, with an increase of 67.3%
during this period (Beijing Statistics Bureau, 2003).
The generation of MSW during 19902003 in the Beijing suburb showed
the significant correlations with the GDP (r = .96, p < .01), per capita income
(r = .92, p < .01), and the population (r = .93, p < .01; Xiao et al., 2007).
A multiregression analysis showed that, among these three, GDP has been
identified to be the strongest explanatory factor for the growth of the total
solid waste amount in Beijing, indicating that the environment has been
paying the price for the economic growth. According to the Environmental
Protection Department of Wuhan City (population in 2007:6.66 million), MSW
quantities was increased from 1.19 million tons in 1985 to 1.50 million tons
in 1993 (Wei et al, 1997).
MSW generation and generation rate in Hong Kong (population in
2010: 7.06 million) for the year 1995 was recorded as 10.9 million tons
and 1850.6 kpc, which is higher than any other Asian countries on the basis
of per-day waste generation. The predicted MSW generation and generation rate will be decreased to 9.42 million tons with 1642.5 kpc by the year
2025 (World Bank, 1997). The amount of solid waste generated in Macao
(located at the southeast coast of China; population in 2001: 0.45 million)
over the last decade has increased steadily over the years, from 0.21 million

T. Karak et al.

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1552

FIGURE 8. Generation of MSW (A) in Beijing city between 1990 and 2003 and (B) in Taipei
city from the year 1993 to 2002.

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1553

tons in 1998 to 0.25 million tons in 2003, increasing at an average annual


rate of 2.49% (Jin et al., 2006). This could be attributed to the increase in
the population and economic development. The average per capita rate of
solid waste generated in Macao was 514.7 kpc in 1998 and 554.8 kpc in
2003, with an average annual rate of increase of 1.56% (Statistics and Census
Department, 2000, 2003). The quantity of solid waste generated in Pudong
(eastern part of Shanghai and one of the Chinas most economically active
cities; population in 2005: 1.85 million) increased from 0.88 million tons per
year in 2004 to 1.04 million tons per year in 2005 (Minghua et al., 2009).
In 2006, the amount of MSW generated in Pudong was about 1.13 million
tons per year (about 405.2 kpc), approximately one fifth of the total amount
produced in Shanghai (population in 2009: 19.21 million). Based on the current population growth trend, the solid waste quantity generated in Pudong
will continue to be increased with the citys development according to the
projected municipal waste generation for China (World Bank, 2005).
The quantity of MSW generated in Taiwan (population in 2009: 23.05
million) has greatly increased during the past decade. In 1990, the daily MSW
generation was 18750 tons, which represented an increase of 115% in the
10 years following 1980 (Liu, 1991). A 10% increase of MSW was reported
for 1992 compared with that of 1991 (Yang, 1995). On per capita basis,
the MSW generation rates were 284.7, 299.3 and 365 kpc in 1987, 1988 and
1991, respectively (Chien, 1991). It was estimated that 397.9 kpc of MSW was
generated in 1992 in the Taiwan area, 467.2 kpc in Taipei city (population in
2010: 7.16 million); and 412.45 kpc in Kaohsiung city (population in 2009: 3
million; Yang, 1995). However, Taiwan introduced a unit pricing system of
MSW generation and has resulted in a reduction of waste generation from
414.3 kpc in 1996 to 243.5 kpc in 2005 (Lu et al., 2006). Figure 8B shows the
variations in annual waste volume over the last decade in Taipei. Comparing
this with the 2002 data, the annual total waste volume was 0.9 million tons,
or an average of 346.8 kpc, representing a 33.1% reduction from 1991, which
reflected the per-bag trash collection fee strategy implementation to achieve
the goal of waste reduction and resource recycling in this city (APO, 2007).
In 1947, Indian cities, towns, and municipalities generated 6 million tons
of MSW (Sharholy et al., 2007). The urban population in India generated
about 4.15 million tons of MSW in the year 1996, which is predicted to
increase in fourfold to about 16.6 million tons by the year 2026 (Hoornweg
and Laura, 1999), which is equivalent to 255.5 kpc (World Bank, 2006). Per
capita solid waste generation rates for Indian towns and cities were found
in the range of 80.3240.9 kpc in 1998 (International Bank of Reconstruction
and Development, 1999). According to Central Pollution Control Board of
India (CPCB; 2004) prediction data, the expected generation rate of MSW will
be supposed to increase to 299.3 million tons by the year 2047, considering
that the urban population of India is expected to grow to 45% in total
from the prevailing 28% (CPCB, 2004; Sharholy et al., 2007).This tremendous

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1554

T. Karak et al.

increase in the amount of MSW generation is due to changing lifestyles, food


habits, and living standards of the urban population in India. In New Delhi
(capital city of India), 13.9 million residents living in 2.96 million households
generated approximately 2.56 million tons per year of MSW at the rate of
182.5 kpc in the year 2001 (Delhi Urban Environment and Infrastructure
Improvement Project, 2001). The planning department of Delhi projected
that the present population is likely to increase to 22.4 million and the waste
generation to 6.219.13 million tons per year by the year 2021 (Talyan et al.,
2008). Presently, with India having seven megacities, 28 metro cities, 388
class I cities, and another 3,955 urban centers (populations less than 100,000)
have produced 7.70, 7.17, 15.56, and 7.35 million tons of MSW per year,
respectively. These contribute 72.5% of the waste generated in the country
against the other 3,955 urban centers producing only 17.5% of the total
waste (Zia and Devadas, 2008). The quantity of MSW generated in Chennai
(formerly Madras; population in 2010: 4.62 million) metropolitan city was
around 1.281.75 million tons per year (or 146219 kpc; Elango et al., 2009).
Allahabad Municipal Corporation (AMC; population in 2001: 1.22 million)
estimated the annual per capita growth rate for MSW generation as 1.33% and
forecasted that the quantity of MSW will be changed from 0.15 million tons in
the year 1997 to 0.51 million tons in the year 2026 (AMC, 2003). Kolkata city
(capital of West Bengal state in India, formerly known as Calcutta; population
in 2010: 5.14 million) generated approximately 1.07 million tons per year
(i.e., 230.7 kpc of MSW in the year 2008; Hazra and Goel, 2009). The total
MSW generated in Kharagpur (a district of West Medinipur of West Bengal;
population in 2001: 0.21 million), famous for having the longest railway
platform in the world (i.e., 1.0725 km long), was 95 tpd, but the waste
collected by the municipality is about 50 tpd, which implies that almost 45 tpd
of the solid waste generated remained uncollected for the year 2008 (Kumar
and Goel, 2009).
The quantity of MSW generated in different states in India for the year
of 2004 are shown in Figure 9.
The Islamic Republic of Iran has 28 provinces comprising of 950 cities
and 68,000 villages. The size and population of the cities are something
different. About 45% of the citizens live in the eight big cities of Tehran,
Mashhad, Esfahan, Tabriz, Karag, Ghom, Shiraz, and Kermanshah. The other
55% of the citizens live in the other 942 cities. The history of MSWM systems
in the Islamic Republic of Iran goes back to 1911, when the first municipality
was established (Kreith, 1994). More than 45% of the MSW is generated
from these eight big cities. The population is divided as 33% in rural and
67% in urban areas. According to the research carried out by the Ministry
of Interior in 1993, the yearly average generation rates of municipal waste
in the urban area of the Islamic Republic of Iran was 292 kpc (Abdoli,
1995). Tehran, the capital city of Iran and a metropolis with a population of
8.2 million and containing 2.4 million households, generated 2.56 million

1555

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management


3.5

190
3.14

Annual MSW generation (million tons)


MSW generation rate (kpc)

0.83

0.65

0.24

0.37

70

WB

TR

50
UP

TN

RA

PN

0.01

0.02
PO

0.02
MZ

OR

0.02

0.01
ME

MA

MH

KE

MP

KR

0.23

0.01
HI

HR

DH

CH

90

0.45

0.54
0.07

0.07
B

0.0
AS

1.63

1.14

110

1.0

AP

130

1.39

1.5

1.46

2.0

MSW generation rate (kpc)

1.83

2.01

150

0.5

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170

2.5

1.44

Total MSW generation ( million tons)

3.0

State code

FIGURE 9. MSW generation rates in different states in India for the year 2004. AP = Andhra
Pradesh; AS = Assam; B = Bihar; CH = Chandigarh; DH = Delhi; G = Gujrat; HR =
Haryana; HI = Himachal Pradesh; KR = Karnataka; KE = Kerala; MP = Madhya Pradesh;
MH = Maharashtra; MA = Manipur; ME = Meghalaya; MZ = Mizoram; OR = Orissa; PO =
Pondicherry; PN = Punjab; RA = Rajasthan; TN = Tamil Nadu; TR = Tripura; UP = Uttar
Pradesh: WB = West Bengal. Source: CPCB (2004).

tons of MSW in 2004 and in 2005, it was 2.57 million tons (Damghani et al.,
2008). According to the data collected by the local authorities, the waste
generation rate was estimated to be as 292 kpc for Rasht city in Iran for the
year 2007 and the total amount of MSW is currently about 0.15 million tons
per year (Moghadam et al., 2009). This generation rate is similar to that of the
Tehran province (Abdoli, 1995). Presently, the amount of municipal waste
generated in Iran is 17.58 million tons per year. However, this figure does
not include demolition and construction of waste generated in the urban and
rural area of Iran (Moghadam et al., 2009). According to Baghdad Mayoralty
Reports, Baghdad (capital city of Iraq) produced 230 kpc MSW for the year
2006. MSW generation rate for the year 2007, 2008, and 2009 in Baghdad
city was recorded as 241, 248.2, and 259.2 kpc, respectively. The estimated
amount of MSW in Baghdad city for the year 2010 is 270 kpc (Alsamawi
et al., 2009).
Studies conducted in the mid-1990s estimated that the amount of MSW
generated daily ranges from 328.5 to 438 kpc in the Palestinian urban areas
and from 182.5 to 292 kpc in rural areas. On the same time the total annual
amount of MSW produced in West Bank and Gaza Strip alone exceeded
0.5 million tons (Al-Hmaidi, 2002). The study was executed between July 1,
2001, and June 30, 2003, in Palestinian authority areas and concluded that the

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1556

T. Karak et al.

average solid waste generated was 155.3 kpc with the range between 117.2
and 307.3 kpc (Khatib and Al-Khateeb, 2009). According to the Palestinian
Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS; 2002), it was estimated that the total daily
solid waste produced in the Gaza Strip for the year 2005 was 0.37 million
tons per year, which is equivalent to 255.5 to 365 kpc.
The per capita MSW generation rate (in kpc) in major cities of Israel
for the year 2006 was ranged between 376 and 1237.35 (Central Bureau of
Statistics, 2007). Data on MSW quantities, which were compiled by the Solid
Waste Division in the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Israel, revealed
that in 2006, on average each person in Israel generated 560 kpc.
From 1960 onward, rapid economic growth began in Japan. The rate
of economic growth was more than 10% in those years, and it brought
prosperity to Japan. However, it also brought serous public nuisance and
an increase in the municipal solid waste. Before 1960, the changes in the
waste and the population showed almost same trends, but after that year,
the waste increased very rapidly although the population had been relatively
decreasing. This increase was appeared in all the cities and towns in Japan
(Yamamoto, 2002). The rate of MSW generation in Japan for the year 1970
was recorded to be 357.7 kpc. It was 401.5 kpc for the year 1975 and 1980.
On average, from 1983 to 1989, Japanese people generated 43.78 million tons
per year, which is equal to 357.7 kpc (NREL, 1993). In 1990 the generation of
MSW was 365 kpc. A survey data from Environmental Bureau of Fukuoka city
(1992) reported that this city managed 0.71 million tons of MSW for the year
1991. Out of this amount, 36,106 tons were imported from three neighboring
municipalities such as Cayuga, Hiragana, and Nakagawa. In this year annual
per capita MSW generation rate for Fukuoka city, exclusive of these other
communities was 540 kpc. Total MSW generation and generation rate in
Japan for the year 1992 was 51.18 million tons and 408.8 kpc, respectively
(World Bank, 1997). The significant increase of MSW generation in Japan
was observed in 2005 (693.5 kpc; Tanaka et al., 2005). According to Shekdar
(2009), the per capita per year waste generation in Japan was 401.5 kg for
the year 2007 with the GDP of US$33,010. According to Shekdar (2009), the
predicated MSW that will be generated in this country by the year 2030 is 49
million tons with the urban population of 122 million.
According a World Bank (2000) report, Jordanian citizens produced
1.3 million tons (i.e., 284 kpc) of MSW for the year 1998. The generation rate
of per capita solid waste in Jordan for the year 2002 was 292 kpc. however, it
varied in cities and rural areas. The generation rate may be as high as 365 kpc
in big cities, whereas in small cities and rural areas it might be as low as
219 kpc for each person (Agamuthu, 2003). On the basis of the increment
of the waste generation data, World Bank (2000) speculated that the waste
generation for the year 2010 would go to 2.0 million tons which is equivalent
to 349 kpc (i.e., percentage increase in per capita waste generation is 1.91).
Abu Qdais (2007) reported that the amount of MSW in Jordan for the 2020 is

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1557

expected to reach about 2.5 million tons. This increase is mainly attributed
to increase in population and changes in living standards and consumption
patterns in the country.
The amounts of MSW generated in Kuwait in 1995, 2000, and 2005
were 864, 984, and 1117 million tons per year, respectively (Al-Salem and
Al-Shaman, 2007; Koushki and Al-Humoud, 2002). In a past study, it was
found that an average household in Kuwait generates 2.2 times (8.4 kg) as
much as waste generated by a German household per day for the year 1996
(Koushki and Al-Khaleefi, 1998). The average citizen in Kuwait produced
511 kpc of MSW in the year 2008 (Al-Salem and Lettieri, 2009). According
to Al-Salem and Lettieri (2009), the projected total MSW in Kuwait will be
double by the year 2020 (1,661 tons) with respect to the total amount of
MSW generated in the year 1995. As nearly 98% of Kuwaits population
resides within the metropolitan area and contributes the comparatively high
generation rate of MSW in the country, even though population density is
lower (Koushki and Al-Humid, 2002).
According the previously mentioned World Bank (2000) report, the estimated solid waste generation in Lebanon for the year 1998 was 1.4 million
tons, equaling 337 kpc. The projected solid waste generation for the year
2010 is 1.8 million tons, which is equivalent to 363 kpc. This reflects the
8% increase of waste generation per year over the year from 1998 to 2010.
Presently Lebanese citizens each generate 182.5 kpc MSW (Troschinetz and
Mihelcic, 2009).
Maldives has the highest MSW generation rate (905.2 kpc) among the
developed Southeast Asian countries as its greatest economic activity being
tourism (United Nations Environmental Programme [UNEP], 2002), making it
an exception to the range of 109.5525.6 kpc typical of developing countries
(Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009).
Among the Asian countries, MSW generation rate in Mauritius acquired
the third position, just after Thailand, providing 474.5 kpc MSW.
There have been very few studies on MSW generation rates and management practices in Nepal and most of these have been confined to Kathmandu city. Households are the main source of municipal waste in Nepal.
Based on the study by Mishra and Kayastha (1998), it was estimated that
the average MSW generation rate in municipalities of Nepal ranges from
91.3 to 182.5 kpc, depending on the size of the municipality. The MSW
generated among 58 municipalities in Nepal varied by approximately 1.3
123 tpd according to the estimate made in 1999. According to UNEP (2001a),
the total amount of solid waste generated in the year 2000 by all of the
municipalities in Nepal was estimated as 427 tpd (83% of all waste generated in Nepal). Table 8 shows a generation rate of solid waste over time
in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. This clearly revealed that the total
amount of waste rose by a factor of three during a period of about four
decades, from 19521954 to 1991. From 1991 to 2001, the average rise of

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1558

T. Karak et al.

total amount of MSW in Kathmandu was 5.2% per year; however, it was
20% in 2001 and 2002 (Alam et al., 2008; Dangi et al., 2011). The annual
per capita production of MSW in the year 1987 in Kathmandu, Nepal has
been estimated at 109 kpc (Rushbrook and Finney, 1988). A study in 1991
showed the average amount of MSW generated by people of the Kathmandu
valley varied from 91.3 to 182.5 kpc (Pokhrel and Viraraghavan, 2005). In
another study in 1997, the amount of solid waste generated in Kathmandu
valley was estimated as 206 kpc (Mishra and Kayastha, 1998). A survey by
Solid Waste Management and Resource Mobilization Center (SWMRMC) in
all 58 municipalities in Nepal was conducted in 2003 and found that the
MSW generation rate in the municipalities varied from 92.2 (in Putali Bazar)
to 255.5 (in Birgunj) kpc, with the average being 91.3 kpc (SWMRMC, 2004).
Omans annual production of solid waste was about 0.9 million tons (Taha
et al., 2004). Pakistan has a population of 160 million, with 35% people living in urban areas. According to the World Wildlife Fund (2001), Pakistan
generated about 219292 kpc MSW in the year 2000. Solid waste generated
in urban areas of Pakistan was estimated to be 20.08 million tons per year in
the year 2004 (Japan International Cooperation Agency and Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency, 2005b). Presently the total waste generated in
Lahore city per year is 0.5 million tons, or 306.6 kpc (Batool and Ch, 2009).
From the data shown in Table 8 it can be concluded that generation of
MSW in the year 2000 decreased than the year 1994 and this is due to South
Korea introduced a volume-based fee system in 1995 (Hong, 1999). The
initiative was based on the polluter pays principle, and promotes a reduction
of waste generation at the source. The system has played a significant role
in reducing the volumes of waste generated by promoting recycling, while
it has also helped to cut the municipal waste management costs. In the year
2003, 46.8 million urban populations had generated 17 million tons of solid
waste, which is equal to 379.6 kpc (Shekdar, 2009). According to Shekdar
(2009), the projected amount of solid waste generation in this country for
the year 2030 will raise up to 18 million tons from the population of 49.2
million.
The per capita waste generation in different local authorities of municipal councils, urban councils, and Pradeshiya Sabhas (smallest administrative
unit of local authorities in Sri Lanka) in Sri Lanka for the year 2000 were
around 237.3310.3, 164.3237.3, and 73.0164.3 kpc, respectively (UNEP,
2001b). The per capita generation of solid waste in the year 2002 in Sri Lanka
was within the range of 146.0328.5 kpc (National Research Institute, 2003).
The total MSW generation in this country for the year 2003 was around 3.29
million tons per year (Asian Institute of Technology, 2004). According to
Shekdar (2009) the waste generation rate of Sri Lanka for the year 2007 was
73.0328.5 kpc with the GDP of $US5,047.
MSW generation in Syria for the year 1998 was 3.4 million tons and
the projected MSW generation for the year 2010 is 5.7 million tons (World

1559

900

Waste

40,000

GDP

800

35,000

700

30,000

600

25,000

500

20,000

400

15,000

300
200

10,000

100

5,000
Nepal

Lao PDR

Vietnam

India

Sri Lanka

Indonesia

Philippines

China

Thailand

Malaysia

South Korea

Taiwan

Singapore

Japan

0
Hong Kong

GDP per capita for 2007 (USD)

Bank, 2000a). The per capita per person waste generation for the year 1998
was recorded 0.56 kg; however, the estimated per capita per person waste
generation for the year 2010 is 0.67 kg.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is located in Arabian peninsula with
seven emirates and a population 2.4 million. The generated MSW in the year
1996 in Abu Dhabi city, the UAE was 1.76 kpc (Abu Qdais et al., 1997).
However, the country had one of the highest solid waste generation rates
in the world; that is 750 kpc per year for the year 2001 (Elshorbagy and
Mohamed, 2000).
In Mongolia, total MSW generation was 0.33 million tons (i.e., 219 kpc)
but the projected MSW generation will go to 0.95 million tons (i.e., 328.5 kpc)
by 2025 (United Nations, 1995). Presently the generation rate of MSW in
Turkmenistan is recorded as 145.6 kpc (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009).
According to UNEP (2000a), MSW generation rate by Yemeni citizens for the
year 2000 was 292 kpc.
In a nutshell, urban areas in Asia produced approximately 0.76 million
tons of MSW per day in 1998, which is expected to rise to 1.8 million
tons by 2025 (Jin et al., 2006). Besides this fact, the quantity of solid waste
generation is also mostly associated with the economic status of a society.
Accordingly, Figure 10 shows GDP, together with waste generation rates and
composition for some of the largest Asian countries. It can readily be seen
that the waste generation rates are lower in developing economies having
lower GDP (Shekdar, 2009).

Waste generation (kpc)

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

Asian countries
FIGURE 10. Graphical presentation of MSW generation in relation to the GDP for the year
2007 in some Asian countries (Source: Shekdar, 2009).

1560

T. Karak et al.

The information of MSW generation in other Asian countries such as


Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nagorno-Karabakh, North Korea, Northern Cyprus, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, and Uzbekistan is scanty and
no presentable data were found for this review.

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MSW Composition in Other Asian Nations


Data on average (wet) composition of MSW in Asian nations along with
major cities of different countries have been tabulated in Table 9. Organic
fractions (69%) were found to be the largest contributors of MSW in the
six major cities of Bangladesh, namely Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna,
Rajshahi, and Sylhet, as estimated in the year 2005 (Ahsan, 2005). The overall
socioeconomic condition of the country is probably responsible for the very
high percentage of organic matter.
The total organic fraction of the waste composition in Phuntsholing city
of Bhutan made up the largest fraction, which is 70.9% (2,320 tons per year),
followed by total inorganic materials, which comprised 24.0% (784 tons per
year), and other miscellaneous materials, which constituted 5.1% (167 tons
per year; Norbu et al., 2010).
MSW in China is composed of resident refuse, street refuse, and group
refuse where resident refuse is the key factor affecting MSW quantity and
composition (Nie and Dong, 1998; Zhang, 1998). The composition of MSW
in China cities varied with their scale, situation, and the seasons. The inorganic components of MSW in China were more than organic ones except
in Hong Kong. The MSW composition in Hong Kong is composed of 38%
biodegradable, 26% paper, 19% plastics, 2% metal, 9% inert fraction and textiles contributes 2% each. In China, the ranges of inorganic, organic, and
utilizable ingredients were 17.1277.61%, 13.2060.17%, and 2.4022.92%,
respectively (Wei et al., 2000). From 1990 to 2003, the proportion of organic
substances (food waste, paper, plastics, wood, and fiber) in Beijing city increased gradually, and accounted for 86% in 2003. Meanwhile, the proportion
of recycling waste (plastics, glass, paper, fiber and metal) also got increased
from 15% in 1990 to 45% in 2000 (Sun et al., 2006). However, it decreased
in 2003 due to the increase of food waste. According to the Ningbo Statistics Bureau (2003), organic components (food scrap), which weigh the most
among the total MSW produced in the area, accounted for approximately
65%; inorganic components (e.g., furnace ash, brick, tiles, stones, dust, ash,
glass, metal) accounted for the remaining 35% from 1998 to 2002. According to a recent report, the composition found in Taiwans MSW was paper
21.8826.24%, plastics 19.7222.79%, rubber 0.111.37%, glass 4.826.22%,
metals 7.128.08%, and about 4446% are organic matters (Yang, 1995). The
respective physical composition of the MSW over time (from 1998 to 2004)
in Macao revealed that a considerable quantity of waste, including paper
and cardboard, plastics, metal, and glass that can be recycled, recovered, or

1561

Yerevan
Yerevan
Barisal
Chittagong
Dhaka (formerly
known as Dacca)
Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka
Khulna
Rajshahi
Sylhet
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Bayi
Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
Beijing
Chongqing
Chongqing
Guanghan
Guangzhou
Hangzhou
Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Lhasa city
Macao
Macao
Macao
Nedong
Ningbo

Armenia

Bhutan
China

Bangladesh

Location

Country
65.5
61.5
81.1
73.6
40.0
70.0
79.9
68.3
78.9
71.1
73.5
58.3
62.0
57.0
59.0
55.0
33.8
44.3
51.6
65.2
69.3
63.4
59.2
50.7
58.1
57.0
9.0
44.0
71.0
8.8
35.2
16.9
57.0
53.7

2000
2004
2005
2005
2005
2005
2008
1996
2000
2002
2006
1989
1995
2000
2006
2008
2005
2006
1998
1999
2009
1985
2006
2006
1998
2001
2004
2006
1998

Organic
material

Before 1990
After 1990
2005
2005
1885

Year

4.0
9.4
10.7
9.5
8.9
8.6
15.9
6.0
8.0
8.0
18.0
6.0
16.2
14.3
11.1
10.3
10.1
10.1
8.8
6.3
15.0
32.0
26.0
6.0
12.3
15.0
16.9
5.0
5.4

11.6
18.0
7.2
9.9
2.0

Paper and
paperboard

5.0
4.5
4.3
3.1
4.0
3.5
12.6
8.0
10.0
10.0
17.0
1.9
10.4
13.6
12.7
9.8
15.7
15.7
6.1
14.5
3.0
11.0
18.0
12.0
9.7
15.2
22.2
24.0
7.9

2.0
2.0
3.5
2.8
1.0

Plastics

0.3
1.7
0.7
0.5
1.1
0.7
4.1
2.0
2.0
3.0
NR
3.8
10.2
6.3
1.8
0.8
NR
3.4
0.6
2.0
8.0
10.0
3.0
NR
4.9
10.5
5.1
NR
2.4

5.4
4.0
0.5
1.0
9.0

Glass/
Ceramic

0.1
1.0
2.0
1.1
1.1
1.1
0.9
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.8
3.0
1.2
0.3
0.6
NR
1.1
0.2
0.6
3.0
2.0
2.0
1.0
3.1
2.7
7.8
1.0
1.0

3.1
0.3
1.2
2.2
1.0

Metals

20.6
3.6
14.0
6.9
13.8
12.6
8.2
21.0
22.0
19.0
9.0
53.9
16.0
13.0
9.0
9.2
10.8
10.5
33.6
18.5
14.0
36.0
7.0
10.0
61.2
21.4
31.1
13.0
29.6

12.4
14.2
6.5
10.5
47.0

Textiles and
other

(Continued on next page)

Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007


Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007
Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007
Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007
Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007
Alamgir and Ahsan, 2007
Phuntsho et al., 2010
Wang and Nie, 2001
Chen et al., 2010
Huang et al., 2006
Jiang et al., 2009
Rong et al., 2004
Wang and Wu, 2001
Rong et al., 2004
Zhen-shan et al.,2009
Qu et al., 2009
Liao et al., 2009
Yuan et al., 2006
Hu et al., 1998
Jiang et al., 2009
Zhao et al., 2009b
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Ko and Poon, 2009
Jiang et al., 2009
Jin et al., 2006
Jin et al., 2006
Jin et al., 2006
Jiang et al., 2009
Liu et al., 2006

Arzumanyan, 2004
Arzumanyan, 2004
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Ahmed and Rahman, 2000
Yousuf and Rahman, 2007

Reference

TABLE 9. Percentage of physical composition in MSW generated from different countries and major cities from Asia other than Southeast Asia

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1562

India

Country
42.2
51.0
66.7
73.7
40.0
63.0
25.0
56.9
72.0
40.0
40.0
72.0
65.0
45.0
72.0
45.0
48.0
44.0
47.2
35.0
35.4
31.8
51.8
40.0
43.0
42.0
40.0
44.3
58.0
46.6
70.5
40.0
55.1

Year
1998
2008
2009
2007
1998
2006
1984
2007
2009
2008
1997
2007
1985
1996
2000
1995
1973
1997
2002
1973
1997
2004
1997
1997
1997
1997
2007
1997
2008
1973
1995
1997
2002

Location

Qingdao
Shanghai
Shanghai
Shen Yang
Shenzhen
Shigatse
Taipei
Tianjin
Tibet
Nationwide
Ahmedabad
Ahmadabad
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bangalore
Bhopal
Chennai (formerly
known as Madras)
Chennai
Chennai
Delhi
Delhi
Har Ki Pauri,
Haridwar
Hyderabad
Indore
Jaipur
Kanpur
Kanpur
Kochi
Kohima
Kolkata (formerly
known as Calcutta)
Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata

Organic
material

NR
7.6
10.0
6.1

4.5
7.0
5.0
6.0
5.0
4.0
4.9

10.0
6.5
5.0
6.3
6.6

4.0
16.0
4.5
7.6
17.0
5.0
8.0
8.7
6.0
10.0
6.0
5.7
3.0
8.0
11.0
10.0
7.8

Paper and
paperboard

5.2
8.0
4.9

6.4
1.3
1.0
1.0
1.5
5.4
1.1
1.5

3.0
7.0
1.0
0.9
1.5

11.2
20.1
20.0
5.2
13.0
13.0
2.0
12.1
12.0
2.0
3.0
6.7
0.5
6.0
6.2
2.0
0.9

Plastics

3.2
3.0
0.3

9.3
NR
NR
2.0
NR
0.0
NR
0.2

NR
NR
NR
0.6
1.2

2.2
NR
2.7
2.4
5.0
NR
3.0
1.3
0.0
0.2
NR
1.4
0.2
6.0
1.4
1.0
1.0

Glass/
Ceramic

3.1
NR
0.2

1.4
NR
NR
NR
NR
0.0
NR
0.7

NR
NR
NR
1.2
2.5

1.1
NR
0.3
0.3
3.0
1.0
1.0
0.4
1.0
NR
NR
0.8
0.4
3.0
1.0
NR
1.0

Metals

11.0
39.0
33.5

26.6
51.7
51.0
49.0
58.5
46.3
36.0
51.0

43.0
39.2
59.0
55.7
56.1

39.3
12.9
5.9
10.8
22.0
18.0
61.0
20.6
9.0
47.8
51.0
13.4
30.9
32.0
8.4
42.0
41.5

Textiles and
other

NEERI, 2005
CPCB, 1998
Jha et al., 2008

CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
Zia and Devadas, 2008
CPCB, 1998
Chatterjee, 2009
Jha et al., 2008

CPCB, 1998
Jha et al., 2008
Jha et al., 2008
CPCB, 1998
Gangwar and Joshi, 2008

Liu et al., 2006


Chen et al., 2010
Hong et al.,2006
Raninger, 2009
Liu et al., 2006
Jiang et al., 2009
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Zhao et al., 2009a
Jiang et al., 2009
Unnikrishnan and Singh, 2010
CPCB, 1998
Singh et al., 2008
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
CPCB, 1998
Chanakya et al., 2007
CPCB, 1998
Jha et al., 2008

Reference

TABLE 9. Percentage of physical composition in MSW generated from different countries and major cities from Asia other than Southeast Asia
(Continued)

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1563

Kazakhstan
Kuwait

Jordan

Japan

Iran

Kolkata
Lucknow
Madurai
Mumbai (formerly
known as Bombay)
Nagpur
Patna
Puducherry
Pune
Sangamner city
Surat
Vadodara
Varanasi
Vishakapatnam
Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
Nationwide
Nationwide
Kawasaki
Kawasaki
Kyoto
Osaka
Osaka
Sapporo
Tokyo
Tokyo
Yokohama
Yokohama
Yokohama
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Amman
Irbid
Zarqa city
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Safwa

55.9
40.4
40.0
40.0
45.0
30.0
38.4
44.0
45.0
55.0
42.2
40.0
40.0
48.0
85.6
64.8
73.6
42.3
42.6
23.7
34.0
68.8
31.8
6.5
46.6
42.3
31.3
9.8
11.0
23.0
77.5
71.5
63.0
54.4
77.5
62.6
54.4
37.5
50.0
30.0

2005
1997
1997
1996
1997
1997
2008
1997
2006
1997
1997
1997
1997
1980
1983
1992
2008
1992
2003
1979
2006
1992
1980
1989
1989
NA
1989
1989
1990
2004
1979
1986
1995
2000
1999
2001
NA
1995
2005
1984

5.0
4.5
30.0
0.8
4.0
5.0
6.1
4.0
4.0
3.0
4.7
17.2
8.3
25.0
22.3
35.8
33.0
8.1
38.3
35.7
25.2
25.0
44.5
40.0
56.2
38.0
14.0
15.2
11.0
14.0
14.9
11.5
14.0
35.0
20.7
40.0

4.6
3.2
4.0
3.0
3.0
1.3
10.4
0.6
6.0
5.0
6.0
3.0
7.0
10.0
3.6
3.8
4.8
11.2
11.4
14.4
13.0
9.7
15.9
20.3
12.5
11.2
7.8
14.8
16.8
11.0
3.4
2.4
16.0
13.2
2.5
16.2
13.2
5.0
12.6
6.0

3.2
0.7
4.0
3.0
NR
1.2
5.0
0.4
2.0
10.0
2.0
3.0
NR
NR
0.5
2.1
2.7
2.9
1.6
7.3
5.0
2.4
1.1
9.8
7.1
2.9
1.2
13.2
1.6
7.0
4.1
2.0
2.0
2.8
2.6
2.1
2.8
3.5
3.3
2.0

1.7
0.4
NR
NR
NR
0.4
4.5
0.6
1.0
NR
5.0
NR
NR
NR
2.1
1.1
1.3
5.1
9.0
3.7
3.0
1.8
1.1
5.3
3.7
5.1
1.2
5.7
2.0
4.0
1.0
2.1
2.0
2.4
1.3
2.1
2.4
5.5
2.6
2.0

0.4
0.7
1.0
NR
47.0
62.3
11.7
41.8
42.0
15.0
38.7
50.0
49.0
39.0
3.5
4.1
9.3
13.5
13.0
15.1
12.0
9.2
11.9
22.4
4.9
13.5
14.0
16.5
12.5
17.0
NR
6.9
6.0
13.2
1.2
5.6
13.2
13.5
10.8
20.0

34.1
54.8
51.0
35.0

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(Continued on next page)

CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
Pattnaik and Reddy, 2010
CPCB, 1998
Thitame et al., 2010
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
Chokouhmand, 1982
Abduli, 1995
Abduli, 1997
Abduli et al., 2010
Sakai, 1996
OECD,2005
Yamamura, 1983
Geng et al., 2010
Sakai et al., 1996
Yamamura, 1983
Sakai, 1996
Sakai, 1996
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Sakai, 1996
Sakai, 1996
Takanashi et al., 1998
Contreras et al., 2010
Hawskley, 1980
Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Abu-Qudais and Abu-Qdais, 2000
Abu Qdais, 2007
Abu Qdais, 2007
Mrayyan and Hamdi,2006
Abu Qdais, 2007
Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Al-Salem and Lettieri, 2009
Khan et al., 1987

NEERI, 2005
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998
CPCB, 1998

1564

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Kathmandu
Nationwide
Lahore
Data Ganj Bukhsh
Town (DGBT) in
Lahore
Karachi
Karachi
Karachi
Nablus
West Bank and Gaza
Strip
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Dammam
Jeddah
Khobar
Nationwide
Nationwide
Moratuwa
Nationwide
Nationwide
Abu Dhabi
Al-Ain
Sanaa

Lebanon
Mauritius
Nepal

Note. NA = not available; NR = not reported.

Yemen

Syria
Tajikistan
United Arab Emirates

Sri Lanka

Qatar
Saudi Arabia

Palestine

Oman
Pakistan

Location

Country

53.3
35.0
53.3
61.0
73.7
57.0
66.0
58.9
52.8
66.0
71.3
49.0
21.0
56.0

49.0
54.5
67.0
56.0
74.0

NA
1985
1988
2005
2002
NA
NA
2006
1987
1987
1986
1997
2004
2005
NA
NA
1995
1987
NA

37.5
62.4
80.0
52.2
57.7
52.2
57.8
69.8
67.8
53.0
71.0
67.0

Organic
material

NA
NA
NA
1976
1988
1995
2001
2004
2007
NA
NA
2005

Year

17.7
34.0
17.7
15.0
15.6
17.0
13.0
6.5
16.4
13.0
6.5
6.0
39.0
6.0

4.0
10.1
5.0
0.5
5.0

35.0
11.3
7.0
6.0
6.2
6.0
6.2
8.5
6.5
13.0
7.5
5.0

Paper and
paperboard

15.0
1.0
15.0
5.0
2.7
10.0
8.0
5.9
21.1
8.0
5.9
12.0
5.0
1.0

2.0
9.9
18.5
0.5
3.0

5.0
11.0
2.5
5.4
2.0
5.4
2.0
9.2
0.3
12.5
12.0
18.5

Plastics

3.1
1.0
3.1
5.0
1.2
7.0
2.0
2.0
NR
2.0
2.0
9.0
5.0
2.0

3.0
1.2
2.2
0.5
1.0

3.5
5.6
3.0
3.6
1.6
3.6
1.6
2.5
1.3
6.5
1.3
2.2

Glass/
Ceramic

4.3
5.0
4.3
7.0
2.1
7.0
3.0
2.8
2.4
3.0
2.8
8.0
15.0
8.0

4.0
0.7
0.5
0.5
2.0

5.5
2.9
0.5
4.8
0.4
2.3
0.4
0.9
4.9
6.0
0.5
0.5

Metals

6.6
24.0
6.6
7.0
4.7
2.0
8.0
23.9
7.3
8.0
11.5
16.0
15.0
27.0

38.0
23.6
6.8
42.0
5.0

13.5
6.8
7.0
28.0
32.2
30.5
32.0
9.1
19.2
9.0
7.7
6.8

Textiles and
other

Abu Qdais et al., 1997


Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Kwak et al., 2006
Khan et al., 1987
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Kharajian et al., 1985
Vidanaarachchi et al., 2006
Menikpura and Basnayake, 2009
Bandara et al., 2007
Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Abu Qdais et al., 1997
Khan et al., 1987
Khan et al., 1987

Ali Khan and Burney, 1989


Khatib et al., 1990
Khatib et al., 1990
Al-Khatib et al., 2010
Khatib and Al-Khateeb, 2009

EI-Fadel and Sbayti, 2000


Shekdar, 2009
Shekdar, 2009
Tabasaran, 1976; UNEP (2001a)
Alam et al., 2008
Pokhrel and Viraraghavan, 2005
Alam et al., 2008
Dangi et al., 2011
Dangi et al., 2011
Taha et al., 2004
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Batool and Chuadhry, 2009

Reference

TABLE 9. Percentage of physical composition in MSW generated from different countries and major cities from Asia other than Southeast Asia
(Continued)

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1565

reused (Jin et al., 2006). Table 9 shows the physical composition of MSW in
different metro cities in India for the year 2000. From the data it is clear that
though the larger (3072%) proportion of organic matters present in Indian
MSW, recyclable items also contribute a significant amount.
The characteristics of the waste generated in Iran vary from one city to
another, but as a general rule, compared with the industrial nations, the percentage of putrefiable materials in municipal waste is very high. Therefore,
the density and moisture content of municipal waste as it delivered is high.
On the other hand, the percentage of recoverable materials such as paper,
plastics, PET, and textiles is low. Consequently, the heat value of MSW in
Iran is very low. The major component of MSW in Iran for the year 2000 was
found as organic fraction, contributing 63% of the total MSW (Abduli, 2000).
According to a recent survey of solid waste composition in Israel, conducted in 2005, organic materials are the main components of the waste
stream, in terms of weight, constituting 40% of Israels solid waste, followed by paper (17%) and plastics (13%). Plastics waste constitutes 46%
of the countrys waste volume (up from 34% in 1995), followed by paper
(15%) and cardboard (13%; Solid Waste Management Division, 2008). Organic solid waste is the most abundant type of waste in Palestinian Authority
areas, including the West Bank and Gaza Strip, as it forms 74% (equaling
0.27 million tons per year) by weight of the solid waste generated (Khatib
and Al-Khateeb, 2009). Besides organic solids, plastics contribute 3% (10,038
tons per year), glass 1% (4,506 tons per year), metal 2% (7,547 tons per year),
writing paper 3% (11,401 tons per year), and toilet paper 12% (45,604 tons
per year).
Municipal solid wastes in Jordan contain 5570% kitchen garbage, 517%
plastics, 1117% paper and cardboard, 22.5% glass, 22.5% metals, and the
remaining 47% are other materials (Alfayez, 2003; Qdais, 2007). Therefore,
the composition of MSW showed that the largest proportion of solid waste
in Jordan is kitchen wastes (organic material).
Al-Meshan and Mahros (2001) published the fractions of MSW in Kuwait,
in which organics and paper were reported to be 49% and 21%, respectively.
Plastics, glass, and metal, wood and fibers, and other miscellaneous types of
MSW were reported as 13%, 6%, 10%, and 1%, respectively.
Similar to Singapore, most often the MSW is characterized by high paper
and plastics content, particularly in Japan. The physical composition of MSW
in Japan is paper and carton 37%, plastics 11%, glass 7%, metals 6%, textiles
7%, and biodegradable 32% (Moqsud and Hayashi, 2006). The composition
of the MSW generated in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal shows that there
has been a change in the solid waste composition over time (Table 9). The
quantity of the plastic waste has increased compared to the previous years.
Among the all compositions, biodegradable fraction in generated waste in
different location of Pakistan was found to be higher, similar to other Asian
countries.

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1566

T. Karak et al.

MSW in South Korea consists of 25% biodegradable, 26% paper, 7%


plastics, 4% glass, 9% metal, and 29% textile and leather. However, average MSW composition in Sri Lanka is biodegradable 76.4%, paper and
paperboard 10.6%, plastics 5.7%, glass and metals are 1.3% each, and inert
and other is 4.7% (Shekdar, 2009). Biodegradable fraction in other Asian
countries such as Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste,
Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, and Yemen contributed
64.878.3% of total MSW (APO, 2007).
In general, Figure 11 gives weighted average of the MSW composition
in Asian countries on the basis of economic status for the year 1995 and
also the forecasted data of MSW composition for the year 2025. From the
figures it is clear that in the countries having high income, paper is the major
contributor, followed by organic matter and plastics; in the countries having
middle and lower income, organic matter is the major contributor, followed
by paper and plastics (WHO, 1999).

MSW Generation in African Countries


Even though MSW problems were identified several decades ago in developed countries, the ills of appropriate quantification of MSW and the
lack of reliable information systems are the critical aspects of its management in African countries. Furthermore, the quantification of MSW in African
countries is mainly focused on the metropolitan areas, and few cases are nationwide. Therefore, a part of the data and information on MSW for African
countries are estimated, provided by different literatures. Hence, some inconsistencies could appear eventually with regard to the figures (Table 10).
The estimated solid waste generation in Algeria for the year 1998 was
5.2 million tons, equaling 173 kpc. The projected solid waste generation in
the year 2010 is 7.4 million tons, equaling 192 kpc. The percentage increase
in waste generation and the percentage increase in per capita waste generation of solid waste from 1998 to 2010 was projected to be 41% and 11%,
respectively (World Bank, 2000b). According to Guermoud et al. (2009), Algeria produces 8.5 million tons of MSW, a rate of 328.5 kpc for urban zones
and 219 kpc for rural zones each year. The overall MSW generation rate in
Botswana is recorded as 120.5 kpc (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009). Urban
waste generation in Gabarone, Botswana, was also found as 120.5 kpc for
the year 2003 (Bolaane and Ali, 2004). The literature concerning on MSW
generation aspect in Cameroon is scarce. Generation of domestic MSW in
Yaounde, the capital of Cameroon, between 2002 and 2005 was 288.92 kpc
(Parrot et al., 2009). The domestic waste generation rate in Yaounde is linked
to population growth as the population has increased by over 6 million in
16 years (National Institute of Statistics, 2004). Municipal waste generation
in Limbe (a coastal town in Cameroon located in the Gulf of Guinea) was
estimated as about 7,300 tons per year (i.e., 20 tpd; Awum et al., 2001). The

1567

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

FIGURE 11. Comparison of MSW composition between 1995 (AC) and 2025 (DF; predicted). (A) and (D) for low-income (Bangladesh, China, India, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Vietnam); (B) and (E) for middle-income (Indonesia, Malaysia,
Philippines, and Thailand), and (C) and (F) for high-income (Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of
Korea, and Singapore) countries (WHO, 1999).

smaller waste volumes for Limbe can be attributed to a relatively smaller


population where populations consist of about 100,000 inhabitants (Manga
et al., 2008).
In the year 1999, 24.75 million urban people in Egypt generated
6.53 million tons of MSW per year, equaling 219292 kpc (Arab Republic
of Egypt, National Environmental Action Plan, Cairo, 1992). World Bank

1568
1992
1995
2005
2010
2006
2010
2006
1996
2008

Accra
Accra
Accra

Kumasi

Kumasi
Nairobi

Bamako

Bamako

Kenya

Mali

2005

Yaounde

Accra

Ghana

NA

Bafoussam

NA

Ouagadougou

Cameroon

NA

Bobo Dioulasso

Burkina Faso

2000

2006

Mostaganem

Nationwide

2001

Year

Algiers

Location

Botswana

Algeria

Country

1.50

0.56

1.89
2.75

1.61

1.47
3.60
4.00

1.31

1.72

0.24

1.73

0.44

1.50

0.72

3.35

Population
(in
millions)

0.33

0.20

0.48
0.72

0.35

0.29
0.53
0.73

0.25

0.53

0.03

0.39

0.09

0.33

0.16

1.22

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

220.0

357.1

254.0
260.0

219.0

197.1
146.0
183.5

186.7

310.3

135.1

226.3

200.8

216.7

226.3

365.0

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)

TABLE 10. MSW generation in different countries and major cities from Africa

Kumasi is a city in southern central


Ghana.
Projected generation.
Nairobi is the capital and largest city of
Kenya.
Bamako is the capital and largest city of
Mali.

Algiers is the capital and largest city of


Algeria Population for 1998.
Mostaganem is a port city in and capital
of Mostaganem province, in the
northwest of Algeria.
Botswana is a sub-Saharan country
located in Southern Africa. MSW data
based on 60% of house holds in large
towns and only 7% in small towns.
Bobo Dioulasso the second biggest city in
Burkina Faso.
Ouagadougou is the capital of Burkina
Faso. Population for 2001.
Bafoussam is the capital of the West
Province of Cameroon.
Yaounde is the capital of Cameroon and
second largest city. Population for 2001.
Accra is the capital and largest city in
Ghana.

Projected data.

Remarks

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Samake et al., 2009

Samake et al., 2009

Asase et al., 2009


Muniafa and Otiato, 2008

Melissa Project, 2000


Fobil et al., 2008
Boadi, and Kuitunen,
2003
Asase et al., 2009

Kramer et al., 1994

Parrot et al., 2009

Ngnikame, 2000

Tezanou et al., 2001

Desseau, 1999

Kgathi and Bolaane, 2001

Guermoud et al., 2009

Kehila, 2005

Reference

1569

1995
2008
NA
1996
2010

Nationwide

Lagos
Oyo
Hargeisa

Nationwide

Nationwide

Nigeria

Somaliland

South Africa

2010
2003
2006
2008
1999
2010

Moshi

Mountain Kilimanjaro
Mountain Kilimanjaro
Sousse

Tunis
Lusaka

Tunisia

Zambia

Note. NA = not available.

1995

2006

Dar es Salaam

Tanzania

2007

Maputo

Mozambique

1996

Rabat

Marocco

2002

Nouakchott

Mauritania

9.80
1.50

0.15
0.21
0.17

0.18

2.50

49.99

40.58

10.00
0.43
0.65

15.12

1.24

0.65

0.88

2.86
0.30

0.03
0.05
0.07

0.06

0.33

49.99

1.04

0.40
0.02
0.08

10.98

0.23

0.14

0.07

292.0
201.0

219.0
219.0
394.0

338.0

120.5

249.3

25.6

401.5
46.9
125.2

726.2

182.0

219.0

76.7

Nouakchott is the capital and by far the


largest city of Mauritania. It is one of
the largest cities in the Sahara
Population for 1999.
Rabat is the capital and second largest
city of the Kingdom of Morocco.
Maputo is the capital and largest city of
Mozambique.
Based on the survey data from April to
October, 2007 from nine major cities.

Estimated waste generation in 2008.


Survey data from April 2005 to September
2008.
Waste produced per capita per year is not
routinely collected.
Provincial general waste predicted for the
year 2010.
Dar es Salaam is the capital of Tanzania.
80 households at two settlements in
Dar es Salaam city namely Kimara
Matangini and Sinza B for one week.
Moshi is a Tanzanian town in Kilimanjaro
Region.

Sousse is located on the coast of the


Mediterranean Sea, and the old part of
the city in Tunisia.
Tunis is the capital of Tunisia.
Lusaka is the capital and largest city of
Zambia.

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

METAP, 2002
UN-HABITAT, 2010

Kaseva and Moirana, 2010


Kaseva and Moirana, 2010
UN-HABITAT, 2010

UN-HABITAT, 2010

Karani and Jewasikiewitz,


2007
Kaseva et al., 2002

DWAF, 1998

Kofoworola, 2007
Afon and Okewole, 2007
Hoehne, 2008

Ogwueleka, 2009

Hunger and Stretz, 2006

ONEM,2001

Aloueimine, 2006

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

1570

T. Karak et al.

(2000b) reported that 14.5 million tons of solid waste was generated in
Egypt, equaling 219 kpc. According to Bushra (2000), Egypt is annually generating 10 million tons of MSW. Approximately 60% of the 10 million tons is
generated in urban areas. Industry produces 35 million tons per year and
approximately 0.05 million tons of these wastes are considered hazardous
waste. The rate of waste generation is highly influenced by the population
type. This is evident as the rate of waste generation in rural areas is only
11 kpc while in urban areas it is 292 kpc. In tourist regions and hotels, the
amount of waste generation is as high as 547.5 kpc (Bushra, 2000). The
projected solid waste generation for the year 2010 is 20.1 million tons, which
is equivalent to 247 kpc. The projected percentage increase of waste generation from 1998 to 2010 will be 39% (World Bank, 2000b). The project
in the development and the environment comparing health risks in Cairo
(the capital of Egypt, the largest city in Africa and the Arab world), reported
that the percentage contribution of the different sources of MSW generated
in Cairo is household (64.3%), street sweeping and green refuse (12.3%),
commercial (14.9%), industrial (2.3%), institutional educational (0.9%), hotels (0.7%), hospitals (0.09%), and others (4.15%). Badran and El-Haggar
(2006) reported that Port Said (located in the northwest of Egypt) generates
0.15 million tons of waste per year, which is equivalent to 422 tons per
day. Residential waste is the major source and accounts for about 55.7% of
the total quantity generated per day in Port Said. Per capita waste generation in Mekelle (city in Northern Ethiopia) was estimated to vary between
109.5 and 120.5 kpc between 2004 and 2006 (Tadesse et al., 2008), of which
only one third of the total MSW has been collected and disposed of on average. MSW generation rate in Banjul (the capital city of Gambia) for the
year 2000 was 109.5 kpc (Achankeng, 2003). The specific waste generation
rate in Accra (capital of Ghana) was low, at 146 kpc, in the lower-income
area, the middle-income areas showed a specific waste generation rate of
248 kpc, and high-income residential areas showed 226 kpc (Kramer et al.,
1994). MSW generation rate in Ghana for 19921995 was in stable value (i.e.,
186 kpc; Fobil and Atuguba, 2004). According to Fobil et al. (2008), Accra
generated 0.31, 0.32, 0.33, and 0.35 million tons of MSW in 1996, 1997, 1998,
and 2000, respectively. This report revealed that there is the change of total
MSW generation but no change was observed on the rate of MSW generation, which remained constant during this period (200.8 kpc). According
to this estimate and different population estimates, MSW generated in Accra
(capital of Ghana) was between 0.38 million tons per year and 0.70 million
tons per year in the year 1999 (Awal, 1999). On average, about 1,800 tons
of MSW (household/market waste) were produced daily in Accra (Danso
et al., 2006). The estimated daily municipal waste generation rate in Kumasi
(capital of Ashanti region, Ghana) was 219 kpc. The estimated annual waste
generation in Accra for the year 2010 was 734,174 tons per year (Melissa
Project, 2000). The information published by Henry et al. (2006) for Nairobi

1571

gave a typical situation of MSW in most local authorities in Kenya over the
years. In the year 1978, 0.23 million tons of MSW was produced in Nairobi.
This value was increased up to 0.37 million tons for the year 1990. However,
no change was observed on MSW generation up to 1998. In the year 2000,
0.5 million tons of MSW was produced in Nairobi. Mensah (2006) concluded
that estimated population of1.3 million and 182.5 kpc per capita generation
rate gave a total domestic type waste generation in Monrovia (the capital city
of Liberia) and its environs as 0.24 million tons per year for 2004.
In Bamako (capital city of Mali), waste volume was estimated between
0.04 and 0.06 million tons per year (Olley et al., 2004; Samake et al., 2009).
The amount of waste generated across the city in Nigeria in the year 1982 was
40.2284.7 kpc, with an average of 178.9 kpc (Federal Ministry of Housing
& Environment, 1982). In the year 2003, solid waste generation and waste
characteristics in the Makurdi urban area in Nigeria was reported by ShaAto
et al. (2007) over a 10-day survey period. The amount of waste generation (in kpc) in the high-density area (50 households), medium-density area
(30 households), low-density area (15 households), commercial premises,
institutional premises, and small- or medium-scale industry were 226, 135,
208, 197, 6.5, and 5.5, respectively. The average MSW generation rate in
Nigeria in 2004 was between 201 and 212 kpc (Igoni et al., 2007; ShaAto
et al., 2007). Figure 12 represents the waste generation rates for urban areas
in Nigeria based on the three steps of waste collection from April to October
250

2.3

Annual MSW generation


(million tons)

240

2.0

MSW generation rate (kpc)

230

1.8

220

1.5

210

1.3

200

1.0

190

0.8

180

0.5

170

0.3

160

0.0

MSW generation rate (kpc)

2.5

Total MSW generation ( million tons)

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

150
Abuja

Ibadan

Kaduna

Kano

Lagos

Makurdi

Nsukka

Onitsha

Port
Harcourt

Location

FIGURE 12. MSW generation in different city of Nigeria for the year 2007 (Source:
Ogwueleka, 2009).

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

1572

T. Karak et al.

2007 (Ogwueleka, 2009). The density of the solid waste in Nigeria ranged
from 250370 kg m3, which was higher than solid waste densities found in
developed countries. According to Adeyemi et al. (2001), the magnitude of
the total wastes in Ilorin city (capital of Kwara State, Nigeria) was estimated
as 0.040.23 million tons per year for the year 2000.
According to the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources
of Sudan (2003), the MSW generation rate for the year 2000 was 0.29 tons
per capita per year. According to the data provided by Hoehne (2008),
Hargeisa (capital city of Somaliland) produced 223 tons of MSW per day
during 20062008. Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA; 1997) asserted that the weighted average yearly generation rate of MSW in Dar es
Salaam city in Tanzania was 0.65 million tons. The specific generation rate
was 249.3, 258.1, and 275.6 kpc in suburban unplanned areas, suburban
planned areas, and urban areas, respectively. In Tunisia, the relative urban
population growth was 61% in 1994 and the amount of MSW in the same
year was 182.5365 kpc (Hamdi et al., 2003). The estimated solid waste
generation in Tunisia for 1998 was 1.8 million tons, equaling 193 kpc. The
projected solid waste generation in the year 2010 is 2.3 million tons, equaling 211 kpc. The percentage increase in waste generation and the per cent
increase in per capita waste generation of solid waste from 1998 to 2010 was
26% and 9%, respectively (World Bank, 2000b). According to Kamya et al.
(2002), the accumulation of garbage solid waste in the city of Kampala (the
largest and capital city of Uganda) in Uganda increased tremendously, from
0.11 million tons in 1972 to 0.44 million tons in 2004. The waste generation
rate in Kampala city for the year 2003 was recorded as 219 kpc (Achankeng,
2003). In 1998, Zimbabwe generated 113.5 kpc of MSW (Chimhowu, 1998).
The waste generation in Harare for the year 2003 was reported as 255.5 kpc
(Achankeng, 2003). The rate of waste generation in Sakubva (a high-density
suburb city in Zimbabwe) was 292 kpc and the total amount of waste produced was 49.9 tons per day for the year 2007 (Manyanhaire et al., 2009).
In South Africa, the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF;
1998), refers to MSW as general waste that does not pose a significant threat
to the public environment if properly managed. According to the Department
of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT; 2006), South Africa generated
around 2.7 million tons of domestic wastes per year. This translates to about
255.5 kpc (Austin et al., 2006). The generation of waste in South Africa will
probably increase due to the expected population and economic growth
(DEAT, 1999). Von Blottnitz et al. (2006) stated that the six largest South
African metropolitan municipalities (Johannesburg, city of Tshwane, Nelson
Mandela municipality, Ekurhuleni municipality, and eThekwini municipality)
were estimated to have disposed of 8.9 million tons of MSW during 2005.
Presently the generation rate of MSW in Cape Town city of South Africa
is 400 kpc. In 2004, 2.3 million tons of solid waste was collected from

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1573

Cape Town municipality of South Africa, of which 0.12 million tons was
pure green waste (Morkel, 2005). MSW generation rate in other cities of
African continents were the following: Abidjan in Cote dIvoire 365 kpc;
Brazzaville in Congo Republic 219 kpc; Bujumbura in Burundi 511 kpc;
Conakry in Guinea as 255.5 kpc; Dakar in Senegal 255.5 kpc; Kampala in
Uganda 219 kpc; Kinshasa in Congo (Democratic Republic) 438 kpc; Lome
in Togo 693.5 kpc; Niamey in Niger 365 kpc; Nouakchott in Mauritania
328.5 kpc; Novo in Benin Porto 182.5 kpc; Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso
255.5 kpc; Rabat in Marocco 219 kpc; and Windhoek in Namibia as 255.5 kpc
(Achankeng, 2003).
Notwithstanding the lack of available data, it remains impossible to say
conclusively how much waste the Africans economies produce, how it is
treated, or where it is disposed. In this relation, overall MSW generation data
in different countries of African continents such as Angola, Benin, Burkina
Faso, Burundi, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Congo,
Cote dIvoire, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau,
Lesotho, Mauritania, Melilla, Marocco, Mozambique, Republic of the Congo,
Rwanda, Sao Tome and Prncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Swaziland, and Zambia are scant.

MSW Composition in African Countries


The immediate impression at a glance from Table 11 is that organic waste
constitutes a very large part of MSW streams of all the countries and cities
in Africa. The typical composition of MSW in Egyptian cities is organic 60%,
paper and paperboard 10%, plastics 12%, glass 3%, and metals 2%. Therefore,
13% of the material is denoted as other, which mainly includes construction
and demolition debris and hazardous wastes. Organic waste is the main
component of MSW, although the quantities of the organic matter in the
solid waste are much less in rural areas as it is fed to animals or used as soil
conditioner or as fuel for ovens. It should be noted that rural areas comprises
about 60% of the Egyptian population but they contribute only 30% of the
total amount of MSW. Therefore, as a typical or an average composition of
MSW, the organic waste is a major component (Bushra, 2000).
A household solid waste characterization study carried out in different
income groups in Accra in 1999 showed that the proportion of organic waste
from high-income households was higher (approximately 70%) than that of
waste from medium (60%) and low-income (49%) household groups (Fobil
and Atuguba, 2004). The average proportion of organic, paper, textile, plastics, glass, metal, and inert fraction in MSW of Accra was found to be 65%,
6%, 1.7%, 3.5%, 3%, 2.5%, and 18.3% respectively (Fobil and Atuguba, 2004).
The proportion of plastics in the waste stream of Accra increased considerably, from 3.5% to 8%, during the period of 19951999. The composition of

1574

Mostaganem
Bejaia
Annaba
Tlemcen
Djelfa
Gaborone
Gaborone
Limbe
Nationwide
Labe
Accra
Kumasi
Nationwide
Nairobi
Monrovia
Bamako
Nouakchott
Nationwide
Windhoek

Algeria

Liberia
Mali
Mauritania
Mozambique
Namibia

Kenya

Cameroon
Egypt
Equatorial Guinea
Ghana

Botswana

Location

Country
2004
2004
2004
2004
2004
1996
2001
2004
1998
1989
1994
2006
NA
1999
2004
2007
NA
NA
NA

Year
64.6
69.4
68.2
71.0
83.5
59.3
67.9
54.8
60.0
69.0
73.1
64.0
58.2
58.6
47.6
36.2
48.0
67.0
36.0

Organic
material
15.9
11.1
12.6
11.0
7.9
0.6
12.5
12.5
10.0
4.1
6.6
3.0
17.3
16.8
10.0
12.8
6.3
13.0
20.0

Paper and
paperboard
10.5
12.3
11.2
11.0
2.4
0.6
4.5
12.4
12.0
22.8
3.3
4.0
11.8
12.6
13.0
16.0
20.0
10.0
16.0

Plastics

2.3
2.1
1.2
12.0
4.0
4.0
13.0

NR

2.8
0.7
1.1
1.0
1.2
0.2
6.4
1.6
3.0
0.3
1.5

Glass/
Ceramic
1.9
2.7
3.7
3.0
1.7
1.5
6.2
2.4
2.0
1.4
2.1
1.0
2.6
2.2
2.0
14.0
4.2
2.0
5.0

Metals
4.3
3.8
3.2
3.0
3.3
37.8
2.5
16.3
13.0
2.0
13.4
28.0
7.8
7.8
26.2
23.0
17.5
4.0
10.0

Textiles and
others

Reference
Guermoud et al., 2009
Guermoud et al., 2009
Guermoud et al., 2009
Guermoud et al., 2009
Guermoud et al., 2009
Kgathi and Bolaane, 2001
Bolaane and Ali, 2004
Manga et al., 2008
Bushra, 2000
Matejka et al., 2001
Boadi, and Kuitunen, 2003
Asase et al., 2009
Couth and Trois, 2010
Henry, et al., 2006
Mensah, 2006
Samake, 2009
METAP, 2002
Couth and Trois, 2010
Couth and Trois, 2010

TABLE 11. Percent of physical composition of MSW generated from different countries and major cities in Africa

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

1575

Lagos
Lagos
Lagos
Kano
Ibadan
Ibadan
Oyo
Ilorin
Hargeisa
Nationwide
Soweto
Durban
Mount Kilimanjaro
Tunis
Kampala
Masvingo city
Sakubva

Note. NA = not available; NR = not reported.

Tanzania
Tunisia
Uganda
Zimbabwe

Somaliland
South Africa

Nigeria

1987
NA
2000
1987
2005
NA
2004
1986
NA
2007
1996
2001
2006
NA
NA
2003
NA

60.0
59.0
68.0
43.0
57.5
78.0
56.7
61.0
21.2
22.3
9.0
42.5
55.0
68.0
81.8
15.0
32.0

14.0
17.0
10.0
17.0
7.1
10.0
14.4
7.0
19.9
24.8
9.0
19.3
9.0
11.0
5.4
30.0
27.0

NR
12.0
7.0
4.0
7.9
3.0
18.8
NR
16.0
31.5
3.0
17.4
24.0
7.0
1.6
40.0
23.0

3.0
2.0
4.0
2.0
11.3
2.0
3.1
NR
5.2
7.0
12.0
7.1
1.0
2.0
0.9
4.0
5.0

4.0
8.0
3.0
5.0
2.6
5.0
2.8
NR
2.5
6.1
3.0
6.9
8.0
4.0
3.1
5.0
6.0

Downloaded by [Tanmoy Karak] at 14:49 19 June 2012

19.0
2.0
8.0
29.0
13.6
2.0
4.2
32.0
35.2
8.3
64.0
6.8
3.0
8.0
7.2
6.0
7.0

Ali Khan and Burney, 1989


Ikem et al., 2002
Kofoworola, 2007
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Ayininuola and Muibi, 2008
Ikem et al., 2002
Afon and Okewole, 2007
Olorunfemi and Odita, 1998
Hoehne, 2008
Trois and Simelane, 2010
Blight et al., 1999
Trois et al., 2010
Kaseva and Moirana, 2010
Hafid et al., 2002
Couth and Trois, 2010
Mangizvo, 2008
Manyanhaire et al., 2009

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1576

T. Karak et al.

waste in Kumasi (in Ghana) is predominantly made of biodegradable materials (64%) and a high percentage of inert materials as well (22%; Asase et al.,
2009). The inert material is mostly made of wood ash, sand, and charcoal.
Paper, plastics, metals, wood, and textiles contribute only 14% of the total
MSW.
A one-day waste composition analysis was carried out in July 2004 by
Mensah (2006), based on the samples from five different locations (markets
and residential areas) in Monrovia (capital of Liberia), which gave the following results: organic 47.6%, paper and paperboard 10%, plastics 13.2%,
glass 1.2%, metals 2%, and others contributed 26%. MSW produced in a different city of Nigeria contents 5265% of organic matter (Imam et al., 2008).
A typical average composition of solid waste in Makurdi urban area in Nigeria in the year 2003 revealed that organic fraction contributed 74% followed
by plastics (7%), paper (5%), and glass and metals (2% each; ShaAto et al.,
2007).
The organic fraction accounts for 75% of the MSW in Cameroon (Parrot
et al., 2009). Studies carried out by JICA (1997) and Chaggu et al. (1998)
indicate that organic waste constituted the major portion of MSW in Dar es
Salaam city. Chaggu et al. (1998) estimated that the organic fraction of household solid waste was to be 78% of the total waste, however, the same institutional solid waste constituted 5664% (Mbuligwe, 2002) in Dar es Salaam
city. On the contrary, Mbuligwe and Kassenga (1998) estimated the total organic fraction of MSW in Dar es Salaam city to be 71%. A similar figure was
reported by Kaseva and Gupta (1996). The MSW in Tunisia were characterized by a large fermentable fraction, which is around 70% (Hassen et al.,
2001).

MSW Generation in American Countries


The study of the relevant literature reveals the diversities in waste generation
from one country to another and even from one city to another in American
continent (Table 12).
Total collected MSW in Brazil was 0.08 million tons per year (Barreira
et al., 2008) and generation rate varied form 182.5 to 474.5 kpc (Mahler
et al., 2002). In 1992 it was estimated that the Canadians used to manage
approximately 33.76 million tons of MSW (Sawell et al., 1996). This volume
represents an average waste generation rate of 1233.7 kpc. The distribution pattern of MSW for this year was residential waste (10.54 million tons
or 31.2%), industrial/commercial/institutional waste (12.66 million tons or
37.5%), and construction and demolition waste (10.56 million tons or 31.3%).
Canada reported a 5% increase in MSW generation from 365 kpc in 2000 to
383 kpc in 2002 (Statistics Canada, 2005). The total amount of MSW generated in the year 2004 was 13.38 million tons (OECD, 2007a). On the average,
438 kpc of household solid waste was generated in the city of London (city

1577

1996
NA

1996

2007
1996
1995

1989

1996
1996

1989

1996
NA

La Paz
Nationwide

Belo Horizonte

Belo Horizonte
Brasilia
Curitiba

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro
Salvador

Sao Paulo

Sao Paulo
Uberlandia

1996
1996

Buenos Aires
Rosario

Bolivia
Brazil

1989

Buenos Aires

Argentina

Year

Location

Country

16.40
0.44

11.00

9.90
2.80

5.50

2.45
1.80
2.10

3.90

0.75
191.80

12.00
1.10

12.00

Population
(in
millions)

8.07
0.08

4.02

3.61
1.02

2.01

1.30
0.58
0.47

1.17

0.14
59.78

3.83
0.26

3.50

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

491.9
186.2

365.0

365.0
365.0

365.0

529.0
324.4
226.0

299.5

184.9
311.7

319.4
232.3

292.0

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Remarks

Belo Horizonte is the capital of and largest


city in the state of Minas Gerais, located in
the southeastern region of Brazil.

Brasilia is the capital of Brazil.


Curitiba has the largest population and the
largest economy in the Brazilian state of
Parana in southern Brazil. Curitiba is the
capital and largest city of Parana.
Rio de Janeiro is the capital city of the State
of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city
of Brazil. MSW data represent the waste
generated from 28 Administrative Regions
in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro.
Population in metropolitan area only
Salvador is the largest city on the northeast
coast of Brazil and the capital of the
Northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia.
Waste data from 33 Administrative Regions.
This city is the capital of the state of Sao
Paulo.
Population in metropolitan area only
Uberlandia is the core city in Brazil.

Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of


Argentina, and the second-largest
metropolitan area in South America. MSW
data represent only in Federal District
excluding 19 municipalities.
Population in metropolitan area only
Rosario is the largest city in the province of
Santa Fe of Argentina.
La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia.
Population for 2009

TABLE 12. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of America

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PAHO, 1995b
Fehr et al., 2000
(Continued on next page)

Bartone et al., 1991

Mendez et al., 2008


Acurio et al., 1998

Bartone et al., 1991

UN-HABITAT, 2010
Acurio et al., 1998
Mendez et al., 2008

PAHO, 1995c
Troschinetz and Mihelcic,
2009
Acurio et al., 1998

Acurio et al., 1998


PAHO, 1996

Bartone et al., 1991

Reference

1578
1996

1994
1993

San Salvador

Guayaquil

Quito city
Guatemala city

El Salvador

Ecuador

Guatemala

1992

1994

Santo Domingo

1987

Medelln

Dominican Republic

1996

Cartagena

1995

1996
1996

Bogota
Cali

San Jose

1996

1995

Santiago

Barranquilla

1989

Year

Santiago

Location

Costa Rica

Colombia

Chile

Country

1.30
2.20

2.30

1.30

2.80

1.00

1.50

0.60

5.60
1.85

1.00

5.30

3.90

Population
(in
millions)

0.33
0.44

0.58

0.26

0.62

0.35

0.27

0.20

1.53
0.49

0.33

1.68

1.00

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

252.7
199.1

253.9

196.5

221.6

350.4

182.5

340.7

273.8
266.4

328.5

316.8

255.5

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Remarks
Waste data from 23 municipalities
(communes) in the Province of Santiago
Santiago is the capital and largest city of
Chile.
Barranquilla it is the largest industrial city
and port in Colombia.
Bogota is the capital city of Colombia.
Cali is a city in western Colombia and this
city is the fastest growing economies in
Colombia.
Cartagena is a popular tourist destination as
well as the fifth largest urban area in
Colombia. This city is the center of
economic activity in the Caribbean region
of Colombia.
Medelln is the second largest city in
Colombia.
San Jose is the capital and largest city of
Costa Rica.
Santo Domingo is the capital and largest city
in the Dominican Republic.
San Salvador is the capital and largest city of
the nation of El Salvador. It is the second
most populous city in Central America.
Guayaquil is the capital of the Ecuadorian
province of Guayas. Also known as the
largest and the most populous city in
Ecuador.
Quito city is the capital city of Ecuador.
Guatemala city is the capital as well as the
largest city of the Republic of Guatemala.
Population indicate in the metropolitan
area only

TABLE 12. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of America (Continued)

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PAHO, 1996
Acurio et al., 1998

Acurio et al., 1998

Acurio et al., 1998

Mendez et al., 2008

Acurio et al., 1998

JICA, 1994

Mendez et al., 2008

Acurio et al., 1998


PAHO, 1995c

Acurio et al., 1998

Mendez et al., 2008

Bartone et al., 1991

Reference

1579

2007
1996
2006
1996
NA

Mexico city
Mexico city
Monterrey
Managua

Managua

Asuncion

Asuncion
Lima

San Vicente de Canete

Nicaragua

Paraguay

Peru

Port-of-Spain

2001
2005
1996
1988

Mexico city

Trinidad and Tobago

1994

Guadalajara

Panama

1996

Nationwide

Mexico

Panama

2001

Nationwide

Jamaica

1993

1995

2003

Port-au-Prince

Haiti

1995

Tegucigalpa

Honduras

0.50

0.80

0.05

0.68
7.50

1.00
1.20

22.50

2.80
1.00

15.60

6.12

97.36

2.85

2.50

1.00

0.22

0.28

0.03

0.11
1.53

0.42
0.40

9.49
2.19
1.10
0.22

6.83

1.14

30.74

1.04

0.64

0.24

438.0

351.3

246.0

168.0
204.4

420.0
334.6

421.8

391.1
219.0

437.5

186.2

315.7

364.9

255.5

237.3

Tegucigalpa is the capital city and the largest


city of Honduras.
The Greater Port-au-Prince is the largest
urban agglomeration of the Republic of
Haiti.
Jamaica, a country in the Caribbean sea,
which is about 145 km south of Cuba.
Population mentioned here is for July
2010 (estimated data).
Mexico is the 14th largest country in the
world and is the fifth largest country in
the Americas.
Guadalajara is the second largest urban area
in Mexico
Mexico city is the capital and largest city of
Mexico. This city is also known as and the
worlds third biggest metropolitan area by
population. Population indicated here is
from metropolitan area only.

Population in metropolitan area only


Managua is the largest and the capital city of
Nicaragua.

Asuncion is the capital and largest city of


Paraguay. Population only for
metropolitan area
Population in 2009.
Lima is the capital and largest city of Peru.
Population only for metropolitan area.
San Vicente de Canete district is the capital
of Canete Province and is located on the
central coast of Peru, 140 km south of
Lima city.
Panama is the southernmost country of
Central America.
Port-of-Spain is the capital of the Republic of
Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys
third-largest municipality.

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(Continued on next page)

PAHO, 1996

PAHO, 1996

UN-HABITAT, 2010

Diaz et al., 2007


Acurio et al., 1998

UN-HABITAT, 2010
Acurio et al., 1998

Rosa et al., 2006


Diaz et al., 2007
Acurio et al., 1998
JICA, 1994

Bernache-Perez et al.,
2001
Acurio et al., 1998

Ojeda-Bentez and
Beraud-Lozano, 2003

Troschinetz and Mihelcic,


2009

Bras et al., 2009

Mendez et al., 2008

1580

1970
1980
1990
2000
2004
2005
2006
2007
1989

1995
1960

2004
1991

Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Caracas

Caracas
Nationwide

Nationwide
Havana

Venezuela

Cuba

Note. NA = not available.

1960

Nationwide

USA

1995

Montevideo

Uruguay

Year

Location

Country

11.00
2.00

3.00
7.00

203.98
227.26
249.91
281.42
293.66
296.41
299.40
301.62
3.60

179.98

1.40

Population
(in
millions)

2.15
0.51

1.28
0.99

121.10
151.60
205.20
239.10
249.80
250.40
254.20
254.10
1.32

88.10

0.46

Annual
MSW
generation
(in million
tons)

195.5
255.5

425.8
141.4

538.6
606.5
745.7
770.6
772.2
767.2
770.6
765.6
366.0

444.1

328.5

MSW
generation
(in
kpc)
Remarks
Montevideo is the capital, largest city and
chief port of Uruguay.
The United States of America is a federal
constitutional republic, lie between the
Pacific and Atlantic Oceans with a
capitalist mixed economy, well-developed
infrastructure, and high productivity

Caracas is the capital and largest city of


Venezuela.

Cuba is the most populous island nation in


the Caribbean.

Havana is the capital city, major port, and


leading commercial center of Cuba. This
city is also the second largest in the
Caribbean region.

TABLE 12. MSW generation in different countries and selected cities of America (Continued)

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Korner et al., 2008


Acurio et al., 1998

Acurio et al., 1998


Korner et al., 2008

EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
Bartone et al., 1991

EPA, 2008

JICA, 1994

Reference

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1581

in south east Ontario, Canada; Asase et al., 2009). In 2006, Canadians produced over 1,000 kg of waste per person, which was 8% more than in 2004
(Statistics Canada, 2006).
According to the data provided by the National Solid Waste Management Plan in 1991, Costa Rica generated approximately 4.29 million tons
per year. Since the beginning of the socialist regime, the Cuban population has substantially increased, from 7 to 11 million today. This contributed
to an increase in MSW generation from 0.99 million tons in 1960 to 2.15
million tons in 2004 (Korner et al., 2008). Of the total MSW, Havana city
alone produced approximately 20% of the total MSW generated in Cuba.
The waste generation rate in Cuba determined in the 1970s revealed that the
waste produced in different communities varied between 54.8 kpc (Santa
Clara) and 223 kpc (Guantanamo; Schleenstein, 2002). Generation of MSW
for the year 1996 in different Cuban provinces such as Camaguey, Ciego
Avila, Cienfuegos, Granma, Guantanamo, Havana city, Holguin, Isla de la
Juventud, La Habana, las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Santiago de Cuba,
Santis Spiritus, and Villa Clara was 0.07, 0.05, 0.06, 0.09, 0.04, 0.41, 0.11, 0.01,
0.10, 0.06, 0.90, 0.08, 0.13, 0.06, and 0.16 million tons per year, respectively
(Korner et al., 2008). The average amount of waste generated in Santiago de
Cuba (seaport in south east Cuba) was 31.39 kpc (Binder and Mosler, 2007;
Mosler et al., 2006). MSW generation rates in Mexico during 19921998 was
95.3, 119.7, 123.4, 121.9, 125.6, 113.2, and 116.1 kpc (Buenrostro and Bocco,
2003). The average solid waste generation rate of Chihuahua (the capital of
the State of Chihuahua and located in the northern region of Mexico) in 2006
was 246.7 kpc (Gomez et al., 2008). On average Mexico generated approximately 109.5 kpc MSW (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009). In the year 2000,
Guadalajara (city in west Mexico and capital of Jalisco) and Morelia (city in
central Mexico and capital of Michoacan) produced 186.2 and 230 kpc, MSW
respectively (Bernache-Perez et al., 2001; Buenrostro et al., 2001). A survey
during May and June of 1999 and March and April of 2000 (a total of 16
weeks) for the household solid wastes (as a part of MSW in Mexico) in Mexicali of Baja California in Mexico reported that the average daily production
of waste per resident was 216 kpc (Ojeda-Benitez et al., 2003). In 2004, Mix
iuhca and Balbuena (neighborhoods of Venustiano Carranza Delegaciona
demarcation and a smaller political division of Mexico city) reported that
0.46 million tons of waste were generated per year. Out of this, 50% came
Venustiano Carranza, 2005). An estimated rate
from households (Delegacion
of 0.37 million tons (8.3%) of urban solid waste was produced per year in
the streets of Mexico city (PAOT, 2005). This percentage would represent
0.04 million tons of urban street solid waste in the Demarcation Venustiano
Carranza (Munoz-Cadena et al., 2009) per year. Presently, Guyanese and Jamaican citizens generates 198.9 and 365 kpc MSW, respectively (Troschinetz
and Mihelcic, 2009). The Haitian Ministry of the Environment has estimated

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1582

T. Karak et al.

that approximately 0.58 million tons of waste were produced yearly in Portau-Prince (United Nations, 2002).The population growth rate in the city of
Cap-Hatien (capital of Republic of Haiti) was about 5.1% (IHSI, 2007) and
in the similar conditions, waste generation increased quickly in such a way
that the city authorities were overwhelmed. Presently MSW generation rate
in this place is 76.7 kpc (Philippe and Culot, 2009).
During the past 4 decades, the United States has witnessed an extraordinary generation of MSW. The overall MSW generation rate during 19602007
is presented in Table 12. In 1960, 180 million Americans produced 88 million
tons of waste (or 445.3 kpc). Generation rate of MSW in 1980 was 606 kpc
(U.S. EPA, 2008). MSW generation rate in the United States for the year 1990
was 741 kpc. In 1997, 266 million Americans produced nearly 217 million
tons of waste. Since 2000, MSW generation had remained fairly steady. In
2003, 236 million tons of MSW were produced in the United States, roughly
745 kpc, which is 50% higher than MSW generated in 1980 (U.S. EPA, 2003).
In 2006, the United States produced more than 228 million tons (U.S. EPA,
2008) of MSW, or 750 kpc. In the year 2007, the United States produced
approximately 254 million tons of MSW (i.e., 766.5 kpc; U.S. EPA, 2008).
Presently MSW generation rate in the United States is 759.2 kpc (Troschinetz
and Mihelcic, 2009).
The generation of MSW in different locations of Latin American countries
varied from 109.5 to 292 kpc (Acurio et al., 1998). Where household wastes
include other wastes such as residues from stores, markets, institutions, small
industries, sweeping, and others, this quantity increased from 25% to 50%.
The daily generation was from 182.5 to 438 kpc with a regional average of
0.92. Table 12 represents the MSW generation and generation rate in different
locations in Latin America, which is based on the information collected from
different sources and mainly from Pan American Health Organization (PAHO;
1995a) and Acurio et al. (1998). The values of MSW show that in metropolitan
areas and in the cities of 2 million people (sample of 16 cities), the average
generation was 354 kpc; in other 16 large cities of 0.52 millions people
the average generation was 270 kpc; and in a sample of 24 medium and
small cities of less than 0.5 million people, the average generation was
201 kpc. With an average generation of 335.8 kpc, it is estimated that the
urban population (360 million) in Latin American countries producing 120.45
million tons of MSW per year. This confirms that the size of the cities and per
capita income are factors that determine the increment of per capita waste
generation. In addition, the application of policies to reduce MSW generation
is still weak and these values are increasing. Studies of JICA in Guatemala city
carried out between 1992 and 1993, respectively, showed an
and Asuncion
annual increase of 13% in waste generation linked to a per capita increase
in income. On the other hand, the following MSW generation has been
observed in relation to income. Colombia produced 10.59 million tons of
MSW per day (Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1583

[MAVDT], 2005). Finally, Table 12 has few surprises. Developed countries


such as the United States and Canada have higher generation than developing
ones. However, MSW generation rate in some parts of America seems rather
high, which may be a general characteristic in the Americas.

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MSW Composition in American Countries


The waste composition in different countries of Latin America is presented
in Table 13. Organic matter is the major contributing ingredient in MSW
composition for most of the Latin American countries, which ranges between 4372% (Acurio et al., 1998). The percentages of paper and cardboard
(625%), metal (0.87%), glass (0.88%), and textiles (1.25.5%) are lower,
but the amount of plastics (314.2%) is similar.
According to Mahler et al. (2002), MSW composition such as natural
organic, paper and paperboard, plastics, glass/ceramic, metals, and others
including textiles in different parts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was found to
be between 39% and 64%, 11% and 28%, 16% and 24%, 2% and 9%, 1% and
3%, and 1.65% and 3.97%, respectively.
Organic waste comprises a significant portion of MSW stream in the
United States. The U.S. EPA (2002) estimated that the nations MSW contained
85.7 million tons of paper and paperboard, 25.2 million tons of food discards,
27.7 million tons of yard trimmings, and 12.3 million tons of wood in the
year 1999. This composition adding up to 66% of the total waste stream
produced in the year 1999 (U.S. EPA, 2002). Among 254 million tons of
MSW in the United States for the year 2007, organic materials continued to
be the largest component of MSW. Paper and paperboard accounted for 33%,
with yard trimmings and food scraps accounting for 25%. Plastics comprised
12%, metals made up to 8%, and rubber, leather, and textiles accounted
for approximately 8%. Wood followed at around 6% and glass at 5%. Other
miscellaneous wastes made up approximately 3% of the MSW generated in
2007 (U.S. EPA, 2008).
In the year 1992, the MSW produced in Canada was estimated as 51%
paper, 12% organics, 2% inorganic, 7% glass, 2% plastics, and 24% metal
(Sawell et al., 1996). Figure 13 depicts the comparative MSW composition
variation between 1983 and 1994 in Costa Rica, which reveals a significant
change in plastics composition during these years (Guzman, 1998).
According to McBean et al. (2007a), the composition of MSW in Argentina was 79.1% organic, 4.7% paper and paperboard, 11.1% plastics, 4.5%
glass/ceramic, 0.4% metals, and with the remaining 1.0% being textiles and
others. On average, the composition of waste from the city of Havana in Cuba
is as follows: organic materials (65.9%), paper and paperboard (13.3%), plastics (11.0%), glass (2.5%), metals (1.8%), and others including textiles (5.7%;
JICA, 2004). MSW composition in Cap-Hatien showed a higher content of

1584

Mexico

El Salvador
Ecuador
Guatemala
Haiti

Costa Rica

Colombia

Chile

Bolivia
Brazil

Argentina

Country

Nationwide
Nationwide
Tucuman
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Barra
Campinas
Estrela
Leblon
Uberlandia
Pavuna
Rocinha
Sao Paulo
Nationwide

Concepcion
Nationwide
Medellin
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Cape Haitian
Port-au-Prince
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Chihuahua
Chihuahua

Location
1996
NA
2001
1994
1996
NA
2007
2001
2009
2000
2001
NA
2001
2001
1998
1992
2001
1996
1985
1983
1994
NA
1994
1991
2008
1989
1992
1995
1998
2000
April,1996 to Dec,1997
2006
April and August, 2006 and
January, 2007

Year
53.2
69.0
64.1
59.5
NR
72.0
36.1
40.2
46.0
71.0
39.6
68.0
58.8
64.7
49.5
49.3
86.0
52.3
56.0
62.1
57.9
43.0
71.4
63.3
65.5
75.0
75.0
43.0
68.7
52.4
61.0
76.8
NR

Organic
material
20.3
13.0
12.2
6.2
25.0
6.0
17.1
25.0
20.0
3.9
28.1
9.0
14.6
11.6
20.1
18.8
2.0
18.3
22.0
17.9
19.1
18.0
10.5
13.9
9.0
3.0
3.0
20.0
20.0
14.1
14.0
8.8
13.0

Paper
and
paperboard
8.2
NR
7.1
4.3
3.0
NR
23.3
24.4
15.0
5.8
18.6
10.0
16.5
19.3
23.5
10.3
11.0
14.2
5.0
5.6
11.3
6.1
4.5
8.1
9.2
7.0
7.0
6.1
4.3
4.4
NR
6.8
74.0

Plastics
8.1
NR
3.1
3.5
3.0
NR
3.5
6.9
2.0
1.6
9.1
4.0
3.2
2.3
1.5
1.6
NR
4.6
2.0
7.0
2.1
0.8
2.2
3.2
5.8
2.0
2.0
8.2
1.6
5.9
NR
3.5
1.0

Glass/
Ceramic
3.9
NR
2.1
2.3
4.0
NR
2.4
2.1
4.0
2.3
2.3
2.0
3.0
2.1
2.8
2.3
NR
1.6
1.0
1.4
1.9
0.8
1.6
1.8
2.6
3.0
3.0
3.2
3.2
2.9
NR
1.9
11.0

Metals

TABLE 13. Percentage of average MSW composition in different countries and selected cities of America

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6.3
18.0
11.4
24.2
65.0
22.0
17.6
1.4
13.0
15.4
2.4
7.0
4.0
0.1
2.6
17.7
1.0
9.0
14.0
6.0
7.7
31.3
9.8
9.7
7.9
10.0
10.0
19.5
2.2
20.3
25.0
2.5
1.0

Textiles
&
others

Acurio et al., 1998


Fehr, 2002
McBean et al., 2007b
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Fehr, 2002
Machado et al., 2009
Munnich et al., 2006
Lino et al., 2010
Konrad, 2002
Munnich et al., 2006
Fehr et al., 2000
Munnich et al., 2006
Munnich et al., 2006
Mendes et al., 2003
Acurio et al., 1998
Aguayo, 2001
Acurio et al., 1998
Ali Khan and Burney, 1989
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Philippe and Culot, 2009
Bras et al., 2009
Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003
Acurio et al., 1998
Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003
Fehr, 2002
Buenrostro et al., 2001
Gomez et al., 2008
Gomez et al., 2009

Reference

1585

Note. NA = not available; NR = not reported.

Cuba

Canada

Paraguay
Peru
Trinidad & Tobago
Uruguay
USA

City of Mexicali,
Baja California
Cuitzeo Basin

El Socavon
Federal District of
Mexico
Guadalajara
Guadalajara
Jardn Balbuena Sur
Magdalena
Mixiuhca
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Toronto
Vancouver
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Havana
Santiago de Cuba
56.6
50.0
27.0
56.0
13.8
10.6
8.6
10.1
11.2
12.7
28.7
30.2
37.4
51.0
37.0
49.0
63.0
34.0

52.9
50.6
60.6
57.1

1997
2000
2006
2006
1995
NA
NA
1996
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2008
1992
NA
1998
1973
1983
2004
2004
2004

16.1
5.3
18.5

48.0
26.8
NR

10.2
10.0
20.0
8.0
34.0
36.6
36.4
35.4
36.7
31.0
37.7
29.6
27.2
24.0
27.0
19.0
10.0
11.0

10.5
13.1
2.9
11.0

10.6

62.0

May and June of 1999 and


March and April of 2000
2003
2003
1985

4.2
3.2
20.0
13.0
0.4
2.4
4.5
8.3
10.7
12.0
8.0
20.3
13.3
1.0
4.0
4.0
8.0
11.0

9.2
23.4
11.3
7.9

11.9
34.5
72.0

8.9

3.5
1.3
10.0
4.0
7.6
10.5
10.0
6.4
5.3
4.9
4.4
2.0
3.1
NR
NR
NR
NR
22.0

4.1
4.7
4.5
4.7

5.6
5.2
1.0

4.0

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1.3
2.1
10.0
7.0
12.3
11.4
10.2
8.1
7.9
8.4
10.4
2.1
3.4
NR
NR
NR
NR
17.0

1.5
1.9
2.5
1.8

2.4
16.0
8.0

1.5

24.2
33.4
13.0
12.0
31.9
28.5
30.3
31.7
28.2
31.0
10.8
15.8
15.6
24.0
32.0
28.0
19.0
5.0

21.8
6.3
18.3
17.5

16.0
12.2
0.5

13.0

Acurio et al., 1998


Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
Acurio et al., 1998
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
EPA, 2008
Sakai et al., 1996
Vogt et al., 2002
McBean et al., 2007a
Korner et al., 2008
Korner et al., 2008
Korner et al., 2008
Korner et al., 2008
Mosler et al., 2006

Bernache-Perez et al., 2001


Bernache, 2003
Munoz-Cadena et al., 2009
Munoz-Cadena et al., 2009

Delgado et al., 2007


Hernandez-Berriel et al., 2008
Milke and Aceves, 1989

Ojeda-Benitez et al., 2002

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1586

T. Karak et al.

FIGURE 13. Comparison of MSW composition for 1983 and 1994 in Costa Rica (Source:
Guzman, 1998).

organic matter, and by weight it was 65.5%, which is similar to that in several
cities in developing countries (Philippe and Culot, 2009).

MSW Generation in Oceania Countries


The continent which is centered in the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean
is known as Oceania region. Australia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon
Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu are the sovereign states that are usually
considered to be Oceanian, all having their capital city in Oceania. Among
them, main continental landmass of Oceania is Australia, with the second
largest being New Zealand. Others are known as South Pacific countries
(discussed in separate section).
MSW in Australia includes domestic wastes and other council wastes
(e.g., beach, parks and gardens, and street litter bins). According to OECD
reports, Australia was a higher producer of municipal waste of the OECD
countries (OECD, 2004). Waste statistics in Australia for 1997, 2003, and 2007
are depicted in Figure 14. In 199697, Australians generated 22.75 million
tons of MSW, which is approximately 1200 kpc (ABS, 2010; Twardowska and
Allen, 2004). Australians generated approximately 32.4 million tons of solid
waste or approximately 1,629 kpc in 200203. Of this amount, approximately
27% of Australias solid waste came from municipal source, which is equal

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

50

Annual MSW generation (million tons)

1587

1700

MSW generation rate (kpc)

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1600
40
1500

35

30

1400

25

MSW generation rate (kpc)

Total MSW generation (million tons)

45

1300
20

15

1200
1997

2003

2007

Year

FIGURE 14. Waste statistics in Australia for 1997, 2003, and 2007.

to 8.9 million tons (ABS, 2010). The statewise MSW generation for the year
2003 in Australia was 3.33, 2.29, 1.74, 0.83, 0.60, and 0.11 million tons for
New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia,
and Australian Capital Territory (ACT), respectively. This is also equal to
1820, 1751, 1046, 1804, 2248, and 2087 kpc for respective states. Therefore,
the increasing trend of MSW generation by Australians from 1996 to 2003 is
about 42%. By 20062007, Australians generated approximately 2,100 kg of
waste per person. Therefore, between 199697 and 200607, the volume of
waste produced per person in Australia grew at an average annual rate of
5.4%. (ABS, 2010).
In 1999, 1.27 million tons of MSW was generated from New Zealand
(Twardowska and Allen, 2004). In 20032004, Christchurch people generated
1.67 tons of MSW per capita per annum where the total population was
320,000 (Street and Zydenbos, 2004). According to Christchurch City Council,
Christchurch people generated 0.78 tons of MSW per capita per annum in
2005; however, it was 1.15 tons of MSW per capita per annum for 2006.

MSW Composition in Oceania Countries


MSW composition in Australia includes organics (food and garden), paper,
plastics, glass, metals, concrete, timber, and others and their contribution
in composition is 47%, 23%, 4%, 7%, 5%, 3%, 1%, and 12%, respectively

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(ABS, 2010). In the year 2006, MSW of New Zealand consisted of on average
rubble and concrete (88.8%), timber (9.3%), organic waste (1.6%), and other
materials, which includes small amount of paper, metals, and rubber (Waste
Not Consulting, 2006). According to the Ministry for the Environment (2008)
of New Zealand, the waste composition proportions for the national indicator
sites for 20072008 were potentially hazardous (14%), paper (7%), nappies
and sanitary (3%), plastics (8%), organic (28%), glass (4%), rubble (16%),
timber (11%), textiles (4%), rubber (1%), ferrous metal (4%), and nonferrous
metal (0.5%). Between 2002 and 2004 and 2007 and 2008, organic waste had
the largest increase in proportion to the overall waste stream in New Zealand,
increasing from 21% to 28%. Varying economic production and consumption
patterns are likely to have influenced the change of this composition in
MSW. Rubble waste had the largest decrease in proportion between 2002
and 2004 and 2007 and 2008, dropping from 23% to 16% of the overall waste
stream. Paper waste decreased from 11% to 7%, and metal from 6% to 4%.
The proportion of paper waste in the waste stream decreased consistently
between 1995 and 2007 and 2008 from 19% to 10% of the overall waste
stream. Metal waste decreased from 6% to 4%, with most of this decrease
occurring in the past four years.

MSW Generation in Eight South Pacific Countries


The South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) carried out
the solid waste characterization and management plans project in eight Pacific countries including Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands,
Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, and Western Samoa. On the basis of the available literature, the status of MSW among these countries is discussed subsequently.
The Ministry of Health (MoH) in Tonga undertook a solid waste management study in 1994. The study was undertaken over a five-day period.
Based on the results of the study it was estimated that the average daily waste
generated was about 0.5 l per person or 255.5 kpc. In 1999, the amount of
waste generation per person per year was 299.3. Waste generation rate in
Nukualofa (the capital of Tonga) was 299.3 kpc (Davetanivalu et al., 2009).
According to the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP)
for solid waste management, Fijian people generated 381 tons per week,
which is equal to 343 kpc (Grano et al., 1997). In 2009, the generation rate
of MSW in Lautoka and Nadi Town (a regional center in Fiji) was 168 and
153.3 kpc, respectively (Davetanivalu et al., 2009). According to the Asian
Development Bank (ADB) study for the year 1996, approximate mean yearly
waste generation in Kiribati was 120.5 kpc (ADB, 1998). South Tarawa (capital of Kiribati) generated 120.5 kpc in 2009 (Davetanivalu et al., 2009). In
1985, the Department of Environment and Conservation carried out a 30-day
domestic solid waste survey at the Baruni Dump of Papua New Guinea. This
survey estimated that the average yearly waste generated by the domestic,

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

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commercial, and industrial sectors varied between 76.7 to 142.4 kpc. The
mean yearly generation of MSW in Papua New Guinea for the year 2000 was
estimated as 149.7 kpc (Raj, 2000). The Solomon Islands comprise a scattered
archipelago of mountainous islands and coral atolls with a total land area of
27,566 km2. According to the WHO Mission Report (1991), it was estimated
that the average daily waste generation in the Solomon Islands by the domestic sector was 138.7 kpc and its bulk density was 270 kg m3. There was
no data on generation of commercial and industrial wastes. Port Vila (capital
and largest city of Vanuatu) generated 193.5 kpc MSW in 2009 (Davetanivalu
et al., 2009). Tuvalu consists of nine low-lying coral islands with Funafuti
being the capital. Tuvalu has a land area of approximately 2,500 ha and the
capital Funafuti is only 254 ha in size. The waste generation rate in Tuvalu
was approximately 438 kpc for the year 1997 (Grano et al., 1997). In Funafuti, the waste generation rate for 1999 was 157 kpc (Raj, 2000). According to
the ADB Report (1998), Vanuatu people generated 219 kpc in 1998. A waste
characterization study conducted in Apia (capital city of Western Samoa) in
1993 by the SPREP had a waste generation rate of 189.8 kpc with a bulk
density of 350 kg per cubic meter (Henson, 1993). MSW generation rate in
Apia for the year 2009 was 401.5 kpc (Davetanivalu et al., 2009).

MSW Composition in Eight South Pacific Countries


Figures 15AH depict the MSW composition in eight South Pacific countries.
Figure 15A depict the volume percentage of MSW composition in Tonga
for the year 1994. Among the different compositions, wood, grass, and yard
waste contributed about 65% of total waste generated. Figure 15B provides
and indicates the waste composition in Fiji but is based on a short period
of time (four days only) so it does not allow for weekly or seasonal variations. The analysis should be repeated in the future at regular intervals to
give more accuracy to the data and to allow trends to be identified. Figure
15B shows paper, including cardboard boxes, magazines, newspaper, office,
tetrapak, packaging, and sanitary; plastics, including polyethylene terephthalate (PET), rigid high-density polyethylene (HDPE), flexible HDPE, and other
plastics; and all textiles, including clothing, carpets, and curtains. According
to Raj (2000), organic fraction in MSW of Lautoka and Nadi Town of Fiji
contributed 71.2 to 74.5% of total waste. Figure 15C reflects the MSW composition in Kiribati on MSW for 1996. From the Figure 15C it is clear that
biodegradable waste in generated MSW contributes more than 50%. Figure
15D depicts the waste composition in Papua New Guinea for the year 1998
(Raj, 1998), of which over 53% was biodegradable. Figure 15E depicts the
waste composition in the Solomon Islands for the year 1998 (WHO 1991).
The data in Figure 15E show that there is approximately 83% organic waste
in the domestic waste stream. The Figure 15F shows the waste composition
only on the basis of the existing data available in Tuvalu (Grano et al., 1997).

T. Karak et al.

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FIGURE 15. MSW composition in Eight south specific countries: (A) Tonga, (B) Fiji, (C)
Kiribati, (D) Papua New Guinea, (E) Solomon Islands, (F) Tuvalu, (G) Vanuatu, and (H)
Western Samoa (Source: Grano et al., 1997; Peturu, 1994).

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1591

The percentage (v/v) MSW composition in Port Vila (capital of Vanuatu, on


the island of Efate) for the year 1990 is presented in Figure 15G. The MSW
composition for 1993 in Western Samoa is presented in Figure 15H.

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MANAGEMENT OF MSW
Management of MSW is not only environmental issue, but also a sociopolitical problem. Increased MSW generation throughout the world creates more
environmental problems in different countries, particularly in developing
countries where the cities are not able to manage wastes due to lack of institutional, financial, technical, regulatory, knowledge, and public participation
(Ngoc and Schnitzer, 2009). The consequence is environmental degradation,
caused by inadequate disposal of wastes. The impact of disposed waste
has significant adverse effect on atmosphere, including (a) contamination of
surface and groundwater through leachate (Xiaoli et al., 2007); (b) soil contamination through direct waste contact or leachate (Prechthai et al., 2008);
(c) air pollution through burning of wastes (McKay, 2002); (d) spreading
of diseases by different vectors such as birds, insects, and rodents (Pahren
and Clark, 1987); (e) adverse effects on the environment and human health
(Giusti, 2009); (f) odor in landfills (Nie and Dong, 1998), and (g) uncontrolled release of methane by anaerobic decomposition of wastes (Erkut
et al., 2008). Therefore, there is no denial the fact that the proper disposal
of MSW is a necessity and an integral part of the urban environment, degradation of land resources, and planning of the urban infrastructure to ensure
a safe and healthy human environment while considering the promotion of
sustainable economic growth. MSW management practices employed in the
different countries so far are (a) landfilling, (b) incineration, (c) composting,
(d) recycling or recovery from waste, and (e) open burning.

Management of MSW Through Landfilling


Both in developing and developed countries, the main disposal method of
MSW is landfilling. Developed countries carry out it in a systematic manner,
however, developing countries usually throw out MSW in open dumps in an
unscientific manner (Bartone and Bernstein, 1993).
In 1999, 57% of MSW was landfilled (67% in 1995) in Western Europe,
and 83.7% in central and Eastern Europe. MSW disposed at landfills accounted for 3% in Japan in 2003, 18% in Germany in 2004, and in 2005
was 36% in France, 54% in Italy and the United States, and 64% in the
United Kingdom (Shekdar, 2009). In 2007, the member states of the EU with
the highest share of municipal waste landfilled were Bulgaria (100% of waste
treated), Romania (99%), Lithuania (92%), Malta (93%), Poland (90%), Cyprus
(87%), Latvia (85%), Czech Republic and Turkey (both 83%), Slovakia and

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Slovenia (both 78%), Greece (77%), and Hungary (75%; Eurostat, 2009a).
The contribution of landfilling of other European countries through the year
2007 recorded as Iceland (67%), Portugal (63%), Spain (60%), Ireland (59%),
United Kingdom (57%), Estonia (54%), Italy (52%), Finland (53%), France
(34%), Norway (32%), Luxembourg (19%), Austria (14%), Denmark (5%),
Belgium and Sweden (both 4%), the Netherlands (2%), and Germany (only
1%) of the total generated MSW. The landfilling rate in these countries was
comparatively lower than other European countries, as governments introduced a ban on landfilling of waste. Disposal of wastes in the United States
to a land had decreased from 89% of the total amount generated in 1980 to
54% of MSW in 2007 (U.S. EPA, 2008). In the former USSR landfilling was
96.5% for the year 1989 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1991). During 2005, around
53 million tons of MSW was managed in Japan, of which 13% was landfilled
(MoE Japan, 2006). During the period of 19952005, the proportion of MSW
landfilled in South Korea decreased from 68.3% to 41.5% due to the introduction of a volume-based waste fee system (unit pricing system) in 1995
(Dong, 2006).
Presently more than 90% of the MSW in China is disposed in landfills;
however, China has recently closed more than 1,000 landfills because of
environmental concerns (Xiaoli et al., 2007). In 2002, China sanitary landfill
was 27.93% (APO, 2007) and total landfilling accounted for more than 80%
of MSW disposal (Xiaoli et al., 2007). With the rising landfill costs, severe
scarcity of landfill sites, and enhancement of peoples environmental consciousness, 44% of MSW was landfilled (OECD, 2007b) in 2004. In 2008,
China dealt with 103.07 million tons of MSW by innocuous disposal. In the
year 2004, Beijing (China) disposed 94% of MSW in sanitary landfill as it was
the main treatment strategy to MSW. However, this treatment configuration
poses challenge to the land availability surrounding Beijing and environmental pollution through greenhouse gases. Therefore, presently only 33.3% of
MSW being sanitary landfilling in Beijing (Xiao et al., 2007).
Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore have been aggressively improving their MSW management systems with the ultimate aim of eliminating landfills from their systems. For this reason these countries are moving
through the campaign articulated the goals of zero landfill and zero waste
(Teo, 2007). In 2005, 5.49 million tons of solid waste was produced in Taiwan, of which 21.3% was used to landfill (Lu et al., 2006). During 2005,
Hong Kong generated 6 million tons of MSW, of which 57% was disposed
by landfilling (Poon, 2006). Australia has also a strong dependence on landfill for waste management, with more than 17 million tons deposited in
200203, of this, 70% was municipal waste. This equates to approximately
6.2 million tons of MSW. In Australia 21.22 million tons of solid waste was
used to landfill in 199697. This indicates a 19% decrease of landfilled waste
through MSW over the 6 years till 2003 (ABS, 2010). In the year 2003, New
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, and

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

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ACT disposed 2.17, 1.55, 1.30, 0.74, 0.37, and 0.08 million tons of MSW,
respectively. New Zealand disposed an estimation of 3.156 million tons of
waste to landfill in 2006 (Waste Not Consulting, 2006). Presently 3.4 million
tons of waste ends up in landfills, of which the quantity of waste per person
dumped every year in Auckland has increased by almost 75% since 1983.
Improper management of MSW is a common practice in Cameroon
due to short of funds, deficient in institutional organization and interest,
poor equipment for waste collection and lack of urban planning (Henry
et al., 2006). The collection rate of MSW in this country is only 70%, of
which 73.6% of collected waste is being disposed in open landsite and
24.7% is thrown away in rivers, forests, and roadsides (Parrot et al., 2009).
Approximately 74% of all MSW in Canada was disposed in landfills for the
year 1995 (Sawell et al., 1996). In 2000 and 2002, Canada disposed 9.07
and 9.46 million tons, respectively, of solid waste, which is equal to 80.66%
and 78.74% of the total waste (Statistics Canada, 2004). Most of Tehrans
solid waste is disposed to landfill in the Aradkuh Center (Kahrizak; OWRC,
2006). This is a 500 ha center and located in the southern part of the city
and has been used for waste landfilling for more than 40 years (Damghani
et al., 2008). However only 28.81% generated MSW is being landfilled in
Rasht, Iran (Moghadam et al. 2009). Unsanitary crude dumping practice is
very common in Bangladesh. Presently the average collection efficiency of
generated MSW in Bangladesh is 56% (Sujauddin et al., 2008) and for this
purpose 140.99 acres of land with 4 m depth will be required each year.
However, the land area will be increased to 585 acre with 4 m depth for the
year 2025 (Sinha, 2006). Only 60% of the MSW generated is actually collected
in most of the Pakistani cities and disposed in open dumps, while 40% is not
collected and lies along roadsides, street railway lines, depressions, vacant
plots, drains, storm drains, and open sewers (Batool and Ch, 2009). The
collection efficiency of MSW ranges between 70% and 90% in the major metro
cities in India, whereas several smaller cities collection efficiency is below
50% (Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization,
2000). When the disposal method for the waste is considered, it has been
observed that Indian cities dispose their waste in open dumps located in
the outskirts of the city without any concern of environmental degradation
or impact on human health (Talyan et al., 2008). Further, the financial and
infrastructural constraints, including nonavailability of land for safe disposal
of generated waste and the lack of awareness and apathy at all levels, also
inhibit progress leading to efficient, safe management of urban solid waste
(Government of India, 1995). In India, it is estimated that around 50 million
tons of MSW is collected from urban areas each year (Shekdar, 2009). More
than 90% of MSW in India is directly disposed to the land in an unsatisfactory
manner (Sharholy et al., 2007). The targets set for treatment of MSW for
20052024 in India are shown in Table 14. To meet the targets, the treatment
capacity of selected technologies will be enhanced in phases.

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T. Karak et al.

TABLE 13. Recommended targets for MSW treatment and disposal for Master Plan
(20052024) in India (source: MCD, 2004)
Year
MSW diversion

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MSW for treatment


(%)
MSW for sanitary
landfilling (%)

2004

2009

2014

2019

2024

22

33

39

42

91

78

67

61

58

The share of open dumping through MSW in Sri Lanka and Thailand
contributed 85 and 65%, respectively. The collection rate of the generated
MSW amount was estimated to be 45.551.1% of the total generation in Thailand (Hiramatsu et al., 2009). In Thailand, the main methods for treatment
of MSW are open dumping and unsanitary landfills (65%; Prechthai et al.,
2008). However, limited area of landfill site in this country makes the landfilling operation compounded. Therefore, a fresh look should be taken at the
MSW management strategy (Liamsanguan and Gheewala, 2008). Although
the national government tries to promote sanitary landfills, many regions
still do not have sufficient funds, technology, and human resources to improve MSW management (Hiramatsu et al., 2009). The traditional practice of
managing MSW in most of the municipalities of Nepal includes open dumps
in abandoned fields or on the bank of the rivers or streams (65100% of
the MSW depending on the municipalities). Prior to 1979, all solid waste
collected in Singapore was used to dispose by dumping on sanitary landfills.
According to MoE (1997), the total landfills in Indonesia number 450, of
which six are sanitary landfills, 57 are controlled landfills, and 387 are open
dump sites.
In Bhutan MSW collection rate is only 71%, of which approximately
40% of MSW was informally disposed in open dump sites in 2000 (Urban
Sector Programme Support Secretariat, 2000). However, presently the rate
of landfilling in Bhutan is in decreasing trend and only 20% of generated
MSW is being disposed in the year 2010 (Norbu et al., 2010). Uncontrolled
waste dumps and nonsanitary landfills through MSW was also very often in
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia, and these countries were
using 100% of generated MSW for open dumping (Regional Environmental
Center, 2000). According to Simonetto and Borenstein (2007), about 95% of
MSW was disposed in open dump site or in environmentally sensitive area
in Brazil in the year 2006, most of which are frequented by scavengers including children. A major portion of MSW (75%) is being managed through
open landfilled in South Africa till date (Nahman and Godfrey, 2010). Chile

disposed of 80% of MSW through landfilling from 2002 to 2006 (Comision


Nacional del Medio Ambiente, 2006). In Colombia, 45% of the total generated

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1595

MSW was deposited to landfills (Ministerio de Ambiente, Vivienda y Desarrollo Territorial, 2005). Landfilling is the dominant option for MSW disposal
in Dalmatia in Croatia. According to a national landfill database (Croatian Environment Agency, 2006), there are over 55 landfills in the Dalmatian region,
49 of which are presently active. Only 16 have all of the necessary certifications as sanitary landfills, with five more undergoing approval procedures;
17 landfills are not certified in any way, and 11 are totally illegal (Vego
et al., 2008). Landfills (dumps) are the primary municipal waste disposal
method in Serbia. Around 180 registered landfills are present in this country.
Despite the aggressive economic development in Malaysia, the solid waste
management is relatively poor and haphazard and major portion of MSW is
managed through landfillings (Saeed et al., 2009). Typical examples of selfdisposal methods of MSW in Tanzania are burying of waste in pits and illegal
dumping, which implies that the waste generated by a source is dumped in
the vicinity of the source or in a place where such a practice is prohibited
such as at the roadside, in open spaces, in drains, and in valleys. About 90%
of generated MSW is being dumped in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Mbuligwe
and Kassenga, 2004). The percentage of waste disposed to landfills in South
Pacific countries ranged from 20% to over 90% (Skinner, 1998). During the
19th century, Mexico collected only 70% (for the year 1992) to 85% (for the
year 1998) of total generated MSW, of which 24.5% (for the year 1994) to
61.4% (for the year 1998) MSW was used to landfill, 3.9% (for the year 1998)
to 17.6% (for the year 1992) was used to landfill with uncontrolled access,
and 52.1% (for the year 1998) to 94.1% (for the year 1992) was disposed in
sanitary dumping ground (Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003).
Percentage contribution of landfilling in Ethiopia is 86% (Tadesse et al.,
2008). Cambodian MSW collection is 50% of the total waste generated, which
mostly managed by landfilling (Parizeau et al., 2006). The percentage of
MSW collection rate in some other African cities is 3040% in Abidjan (Cote
dIvoire), 3040% in Dakar (Senegal), 48% in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), 42.1%
in Lome (Togo), 1520% in Ndjamena (Chad), 3058% in Nairobi (Kenya),
2030% in Nouakchott (Mauritania), and 43% in Yaounde (Cameroon), and
most of them are dumped in open dumpsite (Parizeau et al., 2006).

Management of MSW Through Incineration


The opportunities for landfilling as a disposal method of MSW are rapidly
declining with depleting available cheap land resources and the wasteful nature of disposing useful resources in the landfill operation. Due to the limited
economic benefits of separation and recycling, resource recovery in the form
of heat and power production has gained favor in the past 20 years (McKay,
2002). According to Brunner (1994) and Chimenos et al. (1999), during this
period incineration of MSW has seen turbulent in terms of popularity, but

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it is an attractive alternative for disposal and has significant benefits such as


(a) the volume and mass of MSW is reduced to a fraction of its original size
(by 8590% by volume), mass reduction (about 70%), and the possibility of
energy recovery; (b) the waste reduction is immediate and not dependent on
long biological breakdown reaction times; (c) incineration facilities can be
constructed closer to the MSW sources or collection points, reducing transportation costs; (d) using heat recovery technology, the cost of the operation
can be offset by energy sales; and (e) air discharges can be controlled to
meet environmental legislative limit values. Despite the beneficial effect of
incineration, it would not be a suitable option in developing countries due
to the extreme moisture content and accordingly a low calorific value, too
low for a self-sustaining incineration.
In 2000, 21 incinerators disposed 1.1 million tons of solid waste, only
5% of the total amount of waste disposed in Canada (Statistics Canada, 2000).
Among the European countries, the highest shares of incinerated MSW were
observed in Denmark (53%), followed by Sweden (46%), France (36%), Luxembourg (35%), Germany (34%), Belgium (33%), the Netherlands (32%),
Austria (30%), Portugal (19%), Norway (16%), Czech Republic/Finland/Italy
(12%), Slovakia (11%), Spain (10%), Iceland/United Kingdom (9%), and Hungary (8%) for the year 2007. However, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Switzerland, and
Turkey had no incineration at all. By the late 1970s, landfilling was progressively replaced by incineration, as incineration is the main method of waste
disposal in Singapore. There are presently four refused incineration plants
in Singapore with a total capacity of incinerating 8,200 tons of refused a day
(APO, 2007). Presently, the disposal of refused in Singapore is mainly done
by incineration and the refused incineration is handled by three modern
incinerators with the combined capacity of 2.19 million tons per year (Tin
et al., 1995). In 2003, about 2.3 million tons of waste was incinerated in
Singapore. Presently Singapore disposes 90% of the burnable waste at four
incineration facilities (MoE, 2006).
Incineration would not be a suitable option in other low-income Asian
countries due to its cost and the high organic material (4060%) and
amenable to biodegradation, extreme moisture content (4060%), high inert
content (3050%), and accordingly low calorific value (8001100 kcal kg1),
too low for a self-sustaining incineration (Kansal, 2002). In 1963, the Japan
government set up the first Five-Year Plan for Development of Living Environment Facilities, presenting the principles of its new urban waste disposal
policy involving incineration, with residues disposed in landfills. However,
incineration technology, suitable for use under Japanese conditions are only
during hot, humid summers and in areas where final disposal sites are scarce,
to reduce the volume of waste and kill bacteria. Japan has relied on incineration as its predominant means of waste disposal; nearly 70% of MSW
is incinerated. Kamikatsu-cho and Tokushima prefecture of Japan Promotes

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1597

zero waste (e.g., by declaring that the town will reduce the amount of landfill and incineration waste to zero by 2020; MoE, 2006). In the former USSR
incineration was 2.2% in the year 1989 (U.S. Census Bureau, 1991).
The first large-scale MSW incineration plant in India was constructed at
Timarpur, New Delhi, in 1987, with a capacity of 300 tons per day. However,
this plant was out of operation after six months: the Municipal Corporation of
Delhi was forced to shut down the plant due to its poor performance (MCD,
2004; Sharholy et al., 2007). Another incineration plant was constructed at
BARC, Trombay (near Mumbai), for burning only the institutional waste,
which includes mostly paper. In many cities of India, hazardous wastes such
as hospital wastes are being incinerated at a small scale (Sharholy et al.,
2007).
Incinerators are also not commonly used by the municipalities in Indonesia. Only Surabaya, Bogor, and Padang used an incinerator to treat
MSW. An incinerator in Surabaya was developed through publicprivate
partnership in 1989. The 200 tpd incineration facility became operational in
1991. The low calorific value of the waste (between 900 and 1,200 kcal/kg)
caused start-up problems, and fuel had to be added constantly to maintain
the combustion process. The Surabaya plant incinerated only 170 tpd due to
the spatial requirements for the air drying system (Silas, 2002).
In 2002, the waste treatment percentages of general waste with methods
of incineration in China was 56.62% (APO, 2007). In 2004, 3% was incinerated
(OECD, 2007b). Due to Macaos small geographic area and high cost of land,
landfilling has the lowest priority for waste disposal. Therefore, solid waste
incineration has been given a top priority over other waste disposal methods,
although it is much more expensive. In the last decade, more than 80% of
the total waste in Macao was incinerated (Jin et al., 2006).

Management of MSW Through Composting


In most parts of the world, MSW is largely incinerated or landfilled though
significant quantities of organic residue in MSW can be used as alternative
manner. Therefore, increased attention has been given to alternative waste
management options such as source separation into organic and inorganic
fractions followed by either composting or anaerobic digestion with accompanying biogas production. MSW composting is a controlled bioprocess that
has been proposed as an alternative to landfilling and the incineration of
MSW (Wolkowski, 2003). Composting is a waste management practice that
allows transformation of organic waste into a stabilized product. In France,
out of 20.5 million tons of MSW per year, 7% (1.44 million tons) is treated and
transformed into 0.64 million tons of compost (Noyon, 1992). The number
of composting facilities and the amount of source-separated and composted
MSW has been increasing in many countries of Europe (Barth and Kroeger,
1998; Evans, 2004) and in the United States (Goldstein, 2003). The European

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Community has initiated a consultative process that will assist in the creation
of new policies for waste prevention and recycling. Composting and anaerobic digestion of MSW are strategies that are likely to be employed to reduce
waste generation and to recycle nutrients. About 34% of the produced MSW
was managed by composting and recycling procedure in United Kingdom for
the year 2007 and 2008 (DEFRA, 2008), and 33% of the total generated MSW
across the United Kingdom has been planned for recycling and composting by 2015, although DEFRA (2006) explored a proposed increase of 45%
by 2015, rising to 50% by 2020. Increasing demand of composting in other
European countries has also been shown. For example, the increasing rate
of composting from 1995 to 2007 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France,
Luxembourg, Austria, Poland, Sweden, and Switzerland was 175%, 54.55%,
54.55%, 55.56%, 200%, 51.85%, 50%, 100%, and 88.89%, respectively. In Italy,
94.74% increasing rate of composting was observed over 20012007. However, decreasing trend was observed over 19952007 in Malta (78.26%), the
Netherlands (4.17%), Portugal (23.08%), and Turkey (100%). In 2007, composting of municipal waste was most common in Austria (41%), Italy (37%),
the Netherlands (23%), Belgium (22%), and Luxembourg (21%), followed by
Denmark/Germany/Spain and Switzerland (all are 17% each), France (14%),
Sweden and United Kingdom (both 12%), Finland and Portugal (both 10%),
Malta and Slovakia (both 5%), Poland (3%), Greece/Ireland/Lithuania (2%
each), and Czech Republic/Estonia/Hungary/Latvia (1% each), and not done
at all in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Iceland, and Romania.
The composition of the MSW generated in Asia and other developing
countries is around 4080% of MSW comprises organic waste (Visvanathan
et al., 2004), while in Europe and developed American continents an average
of 3040% of MSW consists of food and garden wastes (European Environment Agency, 1999). This clearly shows that developing countries generate
higher organic contents of MSW than European countries. However, it is
expected that the waste composition will be likely to be similar in the future
due to the strong Asian economic development. The amount of MSW compost produced in Tehran was 25,969 (12.3% of the total MSW) and 6,097 tons
(15.9% of the total MSW) in 2004 and 2005, respectively (Damghani et al.,
2008). Therefore, a comparison of composting data in the two consecutive
years shows that compost production in Tehran showed a 3.6% growth in
2005. Centralized composting facilities in Canada have become more common since the early 1990s. In 2002, 1.2 million tons of organic waste was
composted at centralized composting facilities (Statistics Canada, 2002). In
the year 2002, the general MSW treatment rate in China was 96.11% of which
composting contributed only 0.03% (APO, 2007). In 2004, 5% was composted
(OECD, 2007b). About 7080% of generated MSW in New Delhi (India) is
collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps.
Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting in New Delhi
(Talyan et al., 2008), however, 4.5 million tons of MSW, equaling 10% of the
total MSW, is being composted throughout India (Saha et al., 2009).

MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

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Management of MSW Through Recycles


Recycling means the waste generated by a source is sold or given away
for reuse. A common item for recycling includes paper, metal, and glass.
Developed countries typically utilize curbside recycling programs to collect
and sort wastes for recycling processing. Conversely, developing countries
utilize the social sector known as scavengers to handle such activities. Scavengers are citizens with low- to no-income group that collect materials that
are dispersed throughout the city or concentrated at dumpsites. The recycling rate in 2006 was 51%, 2% more from 2005 in Singapore; 15% of the
total generated waste in Dhaka (mainly inorganic; amounting to 475 tons per
day) is recycled daily. In 200203, approximately 30% of Australias municipal waste was recycled (2.7 million tons). Australian municipal recycling is
comparable to the average recycling rate in Europe (36.4%). Despite being
an excellent alternative for the reduction of waste destined to landfills, only
4.7% of wastes are reused or recycled in Brazilian cities on average, according to Non-Governmental Organization Company Commitment (CEMPRE).
Recycling has gained an important role in nearly all EU-15 countries, and
accounts for the treatment of up to 33% (Germany) of the total municipal
waste. In South Africa the recycled materials from MSW have increased from
0.49 million tons to 1.47 million tons within the last two decades (Sakai,
1996). In 2003, South Korea recycled 44% of the total MSW and the amount
reached 8.01 million tons per year (WHO, 2004). The reuse rate of glass
beverage bottles in Tanzania is very high (99%) because of the deposit system and the total amount of recycled waste at Dar es Salaam is estimated
to be 1131.5 tons per year for the whole city (Mbuligwe and Kassenga,
2004). Presently recycled rate in Mexico is about 0.68% of the total collected
MSW (Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003). According to a recent report (Yang,
1995), the following useful materials were found in Taiwans MSW: paper,
21.8826.24%; plastics, 19.7222.79%; rubber, 0.111.37%; glass, 4.826.22%;
and metals, 7.128.08%. These five waste items totaled over 55% of the MSW
by weight. Thus, if a recycling program for MSW is well conducted, it not
only could potentially recover, reuse, and/or regenerate useful resources,
but also could reduce the amount of waste to be disposed. Approximately
50% or more of the waste items in urban waste in Taiwan are found to be
valuable and worth recycling. Recycling is has great implications in Taiwan
because of its lack of natural resources (Yang, 1995). Mongolia has significant recycling activities, as evidenced by scavengers comprising 10% of the
capital citys population and a womens federation that operates household
collection of recyclables via their blue bag campaign (World Bank, 2004).
The overall recycling rate in different developing countries such as Brazil,
China, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey, and Vietnam, is 41%, 710%, 5%,
13%, 15%, 31%, and 1320%, respectively (Troschinetz and Mihelcic, 2009).
The overall recycling rate of MSW in the EU for 2007 was 18%. Among European countries, Germany recycled higher amount of MSW, equaling 45%

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of total waste for the year 2007. In the same year Slovenia recycled 40%
of the total generated MSW, followed by Belgium (38%), Sweden (37%),
Switzerland (34%), Ireland (32%), Estonia (29%), Netherlands (27%), Finland
(26%), Luxembourg (25%), Denmark (24%), Austria (23%), United Kingdom
(22%), Greece (21%), France (16%), Cyprus (13%), Spain (13%), Italy (12%),
Latvia (12%), Hungary (11%), Portugal (8%), Poland (5%). Czech Republic,
Lithuania, Malta, and Slovakia are 2%. Both the generation and recovery rates
of plastics and glass packaging have increased between 2002 and 2008 in
New Zealand. Plastic recycling rates are presently the lowest among all of
the recyclable materials, which reflects the difficulties of collecting, sorting
and processing plastics (Environment New Zealand, 2007). The Singapore
government has been initiated the recycling of waste in the country from
2000 through a variety of public awareness programs. From 2000 to 2005,
the recycling rate was increased from 40% to 49%, and waste (domestic
and nondomestic) generation was reduced by 8% (Shekdar, 2009). In 2002
and 2003, China recycled 15.60% and 22.39%, respectively, of the total MSW
(APO, 2007). In 2003, the total amount of recycled materials from MSW
stream was 1.38 million tons. A typical composition of the wastebasket of
waste collectors or pickers from MSW dumpsite in New Delhi, India, was
found as plastics 12 kg per day, polythene 7.8 kg per day, paper 6.4 kg
per day, metals 4.7 kg per day, bottles (unbroken) 1.9 kg per day, broken
glass 1.7 kg per day, and rubber 0.9 kg per day (Hayami et al., 2006). While
MSW generation in the United States had increased from 445.3 to 766.5 kpc
between 1960 and 2007, the recycling rate had also increased, from less than
6.4% of MSW generated in 1960 to 33.4% in 2007 (U.S. EPA, 2008).

Management of MSW through open burning


Open burning is still widespread in low-income countries to reduce the
volume or odors of dumped or uncollected MSW. For example 25% and 12%
of the total MSW are openly burned in Burkina Faso and Nepal, respectively.
However, open burning is the major source of toxic gas emission such as
dioxins and furans (McKay, 2002).

CONCLUSION
With an ever-increasing population and economic development coupled
with increasing consumption pattern, there is no sign that MSW generation
in the world will dwindle. The generation of MSW per capita of population
has been increased in most of the countries throughout the world and in
some cases the increase is quite significant. The huge amount of MSW generation is not only an environmental threat, but also a cause of major social
handicap. Therefore, proper management of MSW is of primary concern.

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MSW Generation, Composition, and Management

1601

MSWM encompasses the functions of collection, transfer, resource recovery,


recycling, and treatment. The primary target of MSWM is to protect the health
of the population, to promote environmental quality, to develop sustainability, and to provide support to economic productivity. To meet these goals,
sustainable solid waste management systems must be embraced fully by local
authorities in collaboration with both the public and private sectors. Although
in developing countries the quantity of solid waste generated in urban areas is low compared with industrialized countries, the MSWM still remains
inadequate. Therefore, the following factors should be highly emphasized:
promulgation of the Waste Management Bill, which will create an enabling
environment for enforcement and will provide a legal framework within
which environmental impact can be implemented; political motivation (waste
management must be seen as a priority at all levels of government); education and awareness (waste management must be taken as a priority among
businesses and communities, to encourage waste minimization and recycling
to enable acceptance of instruments); development of capacity at all levels of
government (for administration, monitoring and enforcement of instruments
and of illegal dumping, billing for services to enable cost recovery); increased
access to resources for waste management departments (to allow development of capacity, recovery of costs, and improved waste management services); waste licensing and managing data (e.g., through a waste information
system); infrastructure for extension of basic waste services, improvement in
existing services, and enhancement and convenience of recycling (e.g., dropoff centers, possibility of curbside pickup); and enforcement of basic waste
management practices, including cost recovery, and existing command and
control instruments, such as the minimum requirements for landfill design
and operation, which would result in an increase in landfill charges, making recycling a more attractive option. Furthermore, respondents expressed
concern with the lack of monitoring and enforcement capacity at the municipal level, especially for the billing of waste services and the monitoring
of illegal dumping in the case of quantity-based waste collection charges.
Research is therefore required concerning how environmental impact can
be selected, designed, and implemented in a way that takes into account
circumstances of developing countries (including institutional limitations,
such as the lack of monitoring and enforcement capacity at the municipal
level).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewer for insightful comments
that have improved the manuscript. Grateful thanks is also due for useful discussions with Dr. Sudripta Das (biotechnologist, TRA) whenever we
needed. The authors are also thankful to Dr. S. Debnath (microbiologist) and

1602

T. Karak et al.

Mr. Shyamal Chakravorty of Tocklai Experimental Station (Jorhat, Assam, India) and Dr. Sampa Das (Dibrugarh Polytechnic, Dibrugarh, Assam, India)
for their valuable suggestions.

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