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Chapter 3

Exact alignment of the guided parts


Availability of means to compensate wear
Minimum friction
Ease of assembly and economy of manufacture
Allow freedom from restraint
Prevention of chip and dirt accumulation
Effective lubrication
High stiffness

Based upon the nature of friction between


bearing surface:

Guideways with sliding friction: slideways


Guideways with rolling friction: anti-friction
ways

a. Flat
b. Vee or Prism
c. Dovetail
d. Cylindrical

Advantage
Simple to manufacture
Self adjusting in case of wear
Saddle is well supported

Disadvantages
Tendency to accumulate dirt and chips
Need adjustment for clearance
Poor in lubricant retention

Use
High supporting force on long slideway
Bigger machine tool with high force

Two types: Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical


Symmetrical if load is evenly distributed
Usually combined with flat slideway for better
guidance and load bearing

Symmetrical Vee
Employed when the load on the slideway is
vertical, which is rare.

Unsymmetrical Vee
More commonly used in machine tool
Longer face should be placed perpendicular to the
direction of the resultant force.

Advantages
Self adjusting capability
Surrounded vee prevents dirt accumulation
Easy traverse and accurate guiding

Disadvantages
Surrounded type cannot retain lubricant
Surrounded type weakens the saddle
Wears rapidly

Use
Medium and small lathe
Planer machine

Advantages
Require small space
Simple clearance adjustment
Can stand vertical upward force

Disadvantage
Relatively costly to manufacture
Poor retention of lubricant

Use
Cross slides in lathe
Milling machine tables
Saddles and knees

Theoretically fully constrained slideway


Easy to manufacture
Disadvantages

Low rigidity as fixed at two ends


Clearance is difficult to adjust

Use
Column drilling machine
Over-arm of milling machine
Tailstock sleeve

Life and smooth functioning of slideways depends on


clearance between sliding surface
Too small clearance give rise to excessive frictional
force
Too large clearance adversely affect the uniformity
of travel
Initial clearance alters in the course of slideway
operation due to its wear
Necessary to provide devices for periodic
adjustments of clearances in the slideway

Flat slideways
Flat strip (adjusted by laterally arranged screws)

Flat slideways
Taper strip

Vee slideways

Dovetail Slideways
Flat strip

Dovetail Slideways
Taper strip

Dovetail Slideways
Wedge Strip

Cylindrical slideways

Selection of Materials depends on:


wear resistance
strength, specially bearing and bending strength,
damping capacity
heat capacity (It should not build up much heat.),
environmentally neutral (It must stand hostile
environment like new coolant, lubricant etc.)
the cost of production

Gray cast iron is the most commonly used material


for slideways.
Nickel and chromium is added to increase the wear
resistance and the bending strength
The surface hardness can be increased by flame or
induction hardening.
Hardness attained is 40-52 RC for ordinary gray cost
iron and 45-55 RC in nodular cast iron.
Hardness upto 60-62 RC can be attained by Hardened
steel

Laminated plastics strips backed by cost iron or steel


pieces can be used.
Advantages :
Uniform pressure
Less seizure
Reduced friction
Reduction of wear
Easy to fabricate
Lower cost

Disadvantages:
lower strength and hardness, usually designed
for pressure l0 kg/cm2
tendency to-swell when they absorb oil.
poor thermal conductivity, resulting in thermal
distortion.
low speed range, v< 40m/min for satisfactory
running.

Wear is caused by factors such as:


the properties of the material of the mating parts
the surface roughness of the mating parts
the pressure on the slideways
the sliding velocity
the total working life
the dirt and chip accumulation on the slideways.

Any shape of slideways can be hydro-statically


lubricated.

High load capacity and high rigidity are independent


of the sliding velocity.
There is no stick slip, because there is no metal to
metal contact.
Little wear of the sliding elements and thus longer
life.
Oil forces dust and chips out of the bearing area.
Oil leakage also facilitates heat dissipation.
High machining precision.
Good damping property.

Compressed air is passed through a filter and a pressure


regulating valve. It then enters the pocket at a pressure of 34 kg/cm2
The aperture
diameter varies
from 0.2 to 0.5
mm
humidity in air
is to be
reduced to a
minimum
value

ADVANTAGES:
low friction, coefficient of friction is approximately
0.001 for ground steel slideways and 0.0025 for
scrapped cast iron slideways.
Less stick slip effect.
highly accurate movement.
Uniform slow motion is possible
less wear and considerably long service life
operation without external lubrication.

DRAWBACKS :
The cost of a such slideway system is high, because it
is highly finished and hardened.
Because the contact is at a point or along a line, the
waviness of the surface impairs accuracy of motion.
The rolling elements (balls, rollers etc.) lags behind the
sliding member (Fig.3.28). Hence recirculation of the
rolling elements is a must, if the travelling distance is
long

The motion of tool or job in NC machine


tool faces the problem of friction an
backlash.
To eliminate and compensate these
problem, ball-nut screw assembly is
used.
The balls roll in the helical channel of the
thread from.