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Chapter 3

Exact alignment of the guided parts

Availability of means to compensate wear
Minimum friction
Ease of assembly and economy of manufacture
Allow freedom from restraint
Prevention of chip and dirt accumulation
Effective lubrication
High stiffness

Based upon the nature of friction between

bearing surface:

Guideways with sliding friction: slideways

Guideways with rolling friction: anti-friction

a. Flat
b. Vee or Prism
c. Dovetail
d. Cylindrical

Simple to manufacture
Self adjusting in case of wear
Saddle is well supported

Tendency to accumulate dirt and chips
Need adjustment for clearance
Poor in lubricant retention

High supporting force on long slideway
Bigger machine tool with high force

Two types: Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical

Symmetrical if load is evenly distributed
Usually combined with flat slideway for better
guidance and load bearing

Symmetrical Vee
Employed when the load on the slideway is
vertical, which is rare.

Unsymmetrical Vee
More commonly used in machine tool
Longer face should be placed perpendicular to the
direction of the resultant force.

Self adjusting capability
Surrounded vee prevents dirt accumulation
Easy traverse and accurate guiding

Surrounded type cannot retain lubricant
Surrounded type weakens the saddle
Wears rapidly

Medium and small lathe
Planer machine

Require small space
Simple clearance adjustment
Can stand vertical upward force

Relatively costly to manufacture
Poor retention of lubricant

Cross slides in lathe
Milling machine tables
Saddles and knees

Theoretically fully constrained slideway

Easy to manufacture

Low rigidity as fixed at two ends

Clearance is difficult to adjust

Column drilling machine
Over-arm of milling machine
Tailstock sleeve

Life and smooth functioning of slideways depends on

clearance between sliding surface
Too small clearance give rise to excessive frictional
Too large clearance adversely affect the uniformity
of travel
Initial clearance alters in the course of slideway
operation due to its wear
Necessary to provide devices for periodic
adjustments of clearances in the slideway

Flat slideways
Flat strip (adjusted by laterally arranged screws)

Flat slideways
Taper strip

Vee slideways

Dovetail Slideways
Flat strip

Dovetail Slideways
Taper strip

Dovetail Slideways
Wedge Strip

Cylindrical slideways

Selection of Materials depends on:

wear resistance
strength, specially bearing and bending strength,
damping capacity
heat capacity (It should not build up much heat.),
environmentally neutral (It must stand hostile
environment like new coolant, lubricant etc.)
the cost of production

Gray cast iron is the most commonly used material

for slideways.
Nickel and chromium is added to increase the wear
resistance and the bending strength
The surface hardness can be increased by flame or
induction hardening.
Hardness attained is 40-52 RC for ordinary gray cost
iron and 45-55 RC in nodular cast iron.
Hardness upto 60-62 RC can be attained by Hardened

Laminated plastics strips backed by cost iron or steel

pieces can be used.
Advantages :
Uniform pressure
Less seizure
Reduced friction
Reduction of wear
Easy to fabricate
Lower cost

lower strength and hardness, usually designed
for pressure l0 kg/cm2
tendency to-swell when they absorb oil.
poor thermal conductivity, resulting in thermal
low speed range, v< 40m/min for satisfactory

Wear is caused by factors such as:

the properties of the material of the mating parts
the surface roughness of the mating parts
the pressure on the slideways
the sliding velocity
the total working life
the dirt and chip accumulation on the slideways.

Any shape of slideways can be hydro-statically


High load capacity and high rigidity are independent

of the sliding velocity.
There is no stick slip, because there is no metal to
metal contact.
Little wear of the sliding elements and thus longer
Oil forces dust and chips out of the bearing area.
Oil leakage also facilitates heat dissipation.
High machining precision.
Good damping property.

Compressed air is passed through a filter and a pressure

regulating valve. It then enters the pocket at a pressure of 34 kg/cm2
The aperture
diameter varies
from 0.2 to 0.5
humidity in air
is to be
reduced to a

low friction, coefficient of friction is approximately
0.001 for ground steel slideways and 0.0025 for
scrapped cast iron slideways.
Less stick slip effect.
highly accurate movement.
Uniform slow motion is possible
less wear and considerably long service life
operation without external lubrication.

The cost of a such slideway system is high, because it
is highly finished and hardened.
Because the contact is at a point or along a line, the
waviness of the surface impairs accuracy of motion.
The rolling elements (balls, rollers etc.) lags behind the
sliding member (Fig.3.28). Hence recirculation of the
rolling elements is a must, if the travelling distance is

The motion of tool or job in NC machine

tool faces the problem of friction an
To eliminate and compensate these
problem, ball-nut screw assembly is
The balls roll in the helical channel of the
thread from.