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1) How to make critical line list or flexibility log?

How will you decide critical line list with help of ASME B31.3?
2) How to decide Stress critical systems for analysis using Caesar II?
3) Which lines can be eliminated from formal Stress analysis?
4) Can you make a typical Sketch & supporting for column piping? How to decide how many load bearing clip supports to be
5) Draw a typical Sketch & supporting arrangement for tank farm piping? How tank Piping analysis is different from normal
pressure vessel connected piping system analysis?
6) What is SIF? Formulas for In plane, outplane sif for elbow (B31.3)?
7) Value of sif, flexibility factor for Bend?
8) What are the necessary documents required for stress analysis?
9) Why a Spring hanger is used? Can you write the formula for spring HL, CL & variability?
10) What are the different types of supports used in piping systems?
11) What do you know about Expansion joints and thier types? When these come into picture?
12) What are the normal types of load cases? Write the load cases for a typical stress system using static method of seimic and
13) What is slug flow? What parameters are required to calculate Slug force?
14) What are the dynamic restraints? What is snubber and when do you use a snubber?
15) What is the minimum swing allowed in top mounted hanger? What will you do if that amount exceeds in a typical piping
16) What is cold pull and why it is used?
17) What is difference between Variable Hanger and Constant Hanger? What is the variability of Constant Spring hanger?
18) What are the inputs required for stress analysis? What do you check in Caesar analysis of a piping system?
19) What do you mean by the term liberal stress?
20) What is hot-cold philosophy for pump? Have you heard the term Pump alignment?
21) Write equation for SE in terms of Sb and St from ASME B 31.3?
22) What are the major difference between WRC 107 and WRC 297?
23) How Anchor load for a rack is calculated at the initial phases of project? What are the normal guidelines assumed?
24) Draw a typical control station layout and show its supporting?
25) How pump piping is routed and supported?
26) How you will decide the position of anchor bay in rack piping?
27) Which side (suction or discharge) in case of pump piping system is more critical from stress point of view? Justify the answer?
28) What are the main factors that decides support span?
29) What does API610 explains about aloowable nozzle loads for a Centrifugal Pump?
30) Can you show the typical layout and supporting for PSV lines?
31) What is the effect of friction in Piping stress analysis?
32) How layout of a pump piping changes with changes in temperature?
33) Why the allowable for primary stress is different from that of secondary stress?
34) Is the stress due to seismic anchor movement an occasional stress ? Explain with proper reason?
35) What is meant by the sentence primary stress is not self relieving but secondary stress is? Explain in detail the meaning of the term self
36) Will SIF increase or decrease with increase in pressure, other parameters kept constant? Justify your answer.
37) What is the role of Y factor in the pressure thickness eqn. of B31.3 and B31.1?
38) Is the pressure thickness eqn. for bends same as that of straight pipe in B31.3?
39) How B31.3 defines the terms Weldolet, Sweepolet?
40) Between a short and a long radius bend, which one has higher flexibility and why?
41) What does B31.3 tell about SIF for sockolet and reducer?
42) Explain the role of Appendix V of B31.3?
43) Does B31.3 allow a stress limit of 1.33Sh in PSV pop up case or is it 1.20 Sh?
44) Explain how to model snubber in CAESAR II.
45) Briefly explain the modeling of Sway Brace is CAESAR II.
46) What is the basic difference between a snubber and a sway brace in terms of applicability?
47) Explain with reason as to what should happen to the SIF and Flexibility factor of a bend when a trunnion is attached to it?
48) Explain the terms SIF and FLEXIBILITY factor.
49) Why SIF is not so significant with primary loading?
50) What happens to SIF of a reinforced connection if thickness of reinforcement increases beyond 1.5 times header thickness?
51) What special note B31.3 provides for SIF of welding tees (B16.9) ?
52) Explain with reasons as to which one is having higher SIF: a 45 bend or a 90 Bend?
53) Explain with reasons as to whether for a non 90 degree branch the same SIF can be taken as that for a 90 branch?
54) If thickness of the header of a branch connection increases, what happens to its SIF, other parameters kept constant?
55) What are the methods for flange leakage checking? Write euations used for flange leakage checking in pressure equivalent method?
56) What are the major difference between ASME B 31.3 and B31.1?
57) Place the following lines in Rack and show the placement of expansion loop?
a) A 16 inch High pressure steam line
b) A 6 inch Low pressure steam line
c) A 10 inch Medium pressure steam line

d) A 30 inch flare line

e) A 8 inch process line and
f) A 24 inch cooling water line.
58) How to decide the Spring height for a top mounted Spring hanger? What are the attachments used?
59) How do you calculate SIF for 45 degree lateral connections entering into flare header?
60) What are the transfer lines? Why does the stress analysis of transfer lines considered critical?
61. If a power plant is designed inside a Process refinery then where the specification break between ASME B31.1 & ASME B31.3 should occur?
62.What is category M fluid service? Provide some examples?
63.What will be the consequences of a steam piping having low pocket but not having a steam trap?
64.When and why the reducer of a pump suction piping is installed in bottom flat condition?
65. If you found a specification break (at flange) between carbon steel and stainless steel in a typical P&ID. What are the additional
arrangements which a piping engineer should make for this?
66.Assume a straight pipe of length L anchored at both ends. When a temp change occurs the anchor force at one anchor becomes F1. Now the
length of the same pipw increased to L2 and with similar temp change anchor force becomes F2. What is the relation between F1 and F2?
67. What is Piping Speciality item? How many types of piping speciality items are used in piping engineering? Can we include them in standard
piping specification, explain with reason?
68.Why does the sustained sagging for steam lines are limited within 3-5 mm?
69. What is a Double block & Bleed valve? When such type valves are required?
70.In a normal tie-in where do you insert the spectacle blind? a) before block valve and towards new plant or b) after block valve and towards
existing plant . Explain why.
71.What is the difference between a pipe elbow and a bend?
72. Among the following which material have the highest co-efficient of thermal expansion? A) Carbon steel b) Cast Iron c) Duplex
steel d)Stainless steel e) Galvanized Carbon steel
73.What are the major parameters to be reported in support tag for a Shoe/Saddle type support?
74.What are the Metallic expansion joints? When they are used and when they could be avoided?
75.What is hot sustained stress? Why do we check it? Do we need to chech expansion stress for hot sustained case?
76. What is the philosophy of arranging pipes in the Pipe rack and why? Normally what % of area is kept reserved for future expansion?
77.What are the major difficulties faced by a stress engineer while analysis two vertical rebolers connected with a single column?
78.What are the different types of combination methods available is Caesar II? What is the difference between Scalar and Absolute method?
79. Are process plant water lines considered pressure piping systems?
80. For what fluid service category may a hydro test be waived off as per B31.3?
81. Check the following load cases and tell me what is the difference between load case L3 and L4?
L1. W+T1+P1


L2. W+P1


L3. L1-L2


L4. T1


82. Which comes first?Stress or Strain?

83. What is the difference between Stress and Pressure?
84. What are the major differences between a Pipe and a Tube?
85. What is seismic co-efficient? How this is decided?
86. What is wind shape factor? How the value of wind shape factor is decided?
87. Why does the manufacturer produce pipes with OD constant for a specific size and varying ID?
88. What are the major responsibilities of a stress engineer?89. What are the major differences between primary and secondary
stresses in Piping?
90. Do you consider the vertical thermal growth for modelling fired heater in Caesar II? Explain with reason?
91. Why does the dummy of a piping system is also insulated for cold insulated piping system but not insulated for hot
insulated piping system?
92. What are the major parameters and process inputs required for performing dynamic slug flow analysis?
93. Which parameters do you seek from civil department for performing underground piping analysis in Caesar II? Describe
briefly the method of performing underground piping analysis using caesar II? What are the outputs to check and what to
interpret from caesar results?
94. How to calculate pipe thickness for externally pressured piping system?

95. What do you mean by the term flexibility ? How to ensure that the flexibility of a piping system is appropriate? What are the
means for increasing flexibility? What will happen if more flexibility is provided to a piping system?
96. As per code ASME B 31.3 how many types of fluid service is available?
97. What are the code cases for ASME B 31.3?
98. Describe step by step methods for modelling a sway brace in caesar II?
99. In which way PDS, PDMS and SP3D differs? Which one is the best user friendly?
100. How to calculate the piping stress manhour for a specific project?
101. Can we exceed the design pressure of a piping system more than its design pressure. If yes then in what condition?
102. What is the limitation of using PTFE slide plate? What can be done in such situation?103. How to decide whether hydrotest or pneumatic test
will be performed for a piping system?
104. What is bourdon effect of Piping system? When this effect become critical?
105. How do you check dummy ot trunnions for any project? Can you write the formulas used for this checking?
106. What is the difference between pressure safety valve and pressure relief valve?
107. Why do you consider slug flow in a piping system as critical?
108. What is the function of a gasket in flanged joint?
109. Why sustained stress is considered as a primary stress?
110. What are the major differences between SIF and SCF (Stress Concentration Factor)?
111. Lets assume from a 24 inch pipe header two tapping, one 2 inch and other one 4 inch, are taken. At the interconnection
point in which case the SIF will be higher?
112. What is the industry accepted procedure for transferring anchor load for intermediate anchors (anchor in between two
loops) where normally caesar shows very less value?
113. How to analyze stress packages when D/T ratio for the pipe exceeds 100?
114. Arrange the following piping elements with respect to flexibility and SIF (either increasing or decreasing order). Assume
pipe size and thickness are constant.: 1.5D bend, 1D bend, Straight Pipe, 4D bend, 10D bend.
115. What is primary membrane stress?
116. Which one is more flexible : 45 bend or 90 bend? Which one is having more SIF?
117. Can we call piping shoe a pipe component as per code? Explain with reason. What is your opinion about RF pad in this
118. What does the piping code says about the operation and maintenance of piping system?
119. You want to make some changes in the existing plant and want to add a new line by hot tapping. From which point the
ASME B 31.3 code will be applicable?
120. What are the terms Code Case and Code Interpretation signifies?

121. How to model Air fin Fan Cooler in Caesar II? Why do you consider equipment weight in AFC modeling while for other heat exchanger we do
not consider? What code need to be followed for nozzle load checking and what the code says about nozzle load checking? Why do we need thrust
blocks for air fin fan cooler?
122. Can you write the NEMA equipment nozzle equation sets? What are the major differences in between API 617 and NEMA SM 23 from stress
point of view? Draw a typical steam turbine piping layout?

123. Which standard is used for designing plate fin heat exchanger? Which table is normally followed for nozzle load checking?
124. How do you consider tank settlement while stress analysis? Is it a primary or secondary stress? Do you add tank settlement with sustained
load cases? If yes why? What code says about tank settlement? What is tank bulging and why does it happen?
125. Draw a typical layout of a line connected with fired heater (Heater Piping)? Which standard is used for allowble nozzle loads?
126. What are the major differences in between B 31.3 edition 2012 and 2010?
127. Which standard says about rotary equipment alignment check? What is the criteria mentioned in that standard? While alignment checking
spring will be in locked or design condition?
128. Calculate the number of loops for a 400 meter long carbon steel pipe having a temperature of 400 degree centigrade running over a pipe
129. How do you calculate PSV reaction forces in absence of reaction force in vendor data? What is the major difference in between pressure safety
valve and pressure relief valve?
130. Do you perform trunnion check while analysing a stress system? What are the associated formulas for trunnion checking?
131. What is the equation for calculating seismic co-efficient? How to calculate the wind force?
132. What is guided cantilever method? What is the importance of this method?
133. What does the Appendix F of API 610 ensures? What are the equations? What the standard says for vertical inline pumps?
134. What do you mean by weld joint strength reduction factor and quality factor? What is the importance of these factors?
135. While providing preliminary rack loading what assumptions do you consider?
136. What was the most critical system you analysed in the last company? Draw the layout? What changes you recommended? What is
temperature of that line?
137. What are the minimum load cases required to consider while performing stress analysis of a vertical reboiler connected piping system?
138. Have you performed stress analysis of reciprocating compressor connected line? What are the considerations? What is the minimum
frequency you achieved before sending for pulsation study? How do you consider upto what length of piping is to be send for pulsation study?
139. What actually do you check during flange leakage checking by NC 3658 method?
140. Can we reduce the hydrotest pressure of pipe to less than 1.5 times the line design pressure? If yes then in what condition?

Spring hangers: Common interview Questions with

Using a Spring hanger in your Stress Package..Here are the questions you should able to answer before using it
1. What is the main difference between Constant and Variable Spring Hanger? When to use these hangers?
Ans: In Constant Spring hanger the load remains constant throughout its travel range. But In variable Spring hanger the load
varies with displacement.
Spring hangers are used when thermal displacements are upwards and piping system is lifted off from the support position.
Variable spring hanger is preferable as this is less costly.
Constant springs are used:
a) When thermal displacement exceeds 50 mm
b) When variability exceeds 25%
c) Sometimes when piping is connected to strain sensitive equipment like steam turbines, centrifugal compressors etc and it
becomes very difficult to qualify nozzle loads by variable spring hangers, constant spring hangers can be used.
2. What do you mean by variability? What is the industry approved limit for variability?
Ans: Variability= (Hot Load-Cold load)/Hot load= Spring Constant*displacement/Hot load.
Limit for variability for variable spring hangers is 25%.
3. What are the major parameters you must address while making a Spring Datasheet?
Ans: Major parameters are: Spring TAG, Cold load/Installed load, Vertical and horizontal movement, Piping design temperature,
Piping Material, Insulation thickness, Hydrotest load, Line number etc.

5. How to calculate the height of a Variable Spring hanger?

Ans: Select the height from vendor catalogue based on spring size and stiffness class.
For base mounted variable spring hanger the height is mentioned directly. It is the spring height.
For top mounted variable spring hangers ass spring height with turnbuckle length, clamp/lug length and rod length.
6. Can you select a proper Spring hanger if you do not make it program defined in your software? What is the
Ans: In your system first decide the location where you want to install the spring. Then remove all nearby supports which are
not taking load in thermal operating case. Now run the program and the sustained load on that support node is your hot load.
The thermal movement in that location is your thermal movement for your spring. Now assume a variability for your spring. So
calculate Spring constant=Hot load*variability/displacement. Now with spring constant and hot load enter any vendor
catalogue to select spring inside the travel range.
7. Why horizontal displacement is specified in datasheet? What will you do if the angle due to displacement is
more than 4 degree?
Ans: For bottom mounted springs it is mentioned to avoid large spring bending by frictional force and displacement. So that
additional measures can be taken to lower frictional force by providing PTFE/graphite slide plate.
For top mounted spring hangers horizontal displacement is mentioned to check angularity of 4 degree to reduce transmission of
horizontal force to piping systems as spring hangers are designed to take the vertical load only.
If angle becomes more than 4 degree due to large horizontal movement then install the spring hanger in a offset position so
that after movement the angle becomes less than 4 degree.
8. Which spring will you select for your system: Spring with low stiffness or higher stiffness and why?
Ans: Springs with lower stiffness provides less load variation for same travel. So this spring is a better choice than a spring
hanger with higher stiffness.

Questions Related to Stress Analysis:-

1. What is the objective of stress analysis?

Answer: A. To ensure that the stresses in piping components in the system are within allowable limits.
B. To solve dynamic problems developed due to mechanical vibration, fluid hammer, pulsation, relief
valves, etc.
C. To solve problems associated due to higher or lower operating temperature as: I. Displacement stress range.
II. Nozzle loading on connected equipment.
III. Pipe displacements.
IV.Loads & moments on supporting structure.
2. What are the steps involved in stress analysis (or any stress package carries out)?
Answer: A. Identify the potential loads that the piping system would encounter during the life of the plant.
B. Relate each of these loads to the stresses and strains developed.
C. Get the cumulative effect of the potential loads in the system.
D. Decide the allowable limits the system can withstand without failure as per code.
E. After the system is designed to ensure that the stresses are within safe limits.
3. How the loads are classified in stress analysis package?
Answer: A. Sustained Loads : Those due to forces present during normal operation.
B. Occasional Loads : Those present during rare intervals of operation.
C. Displacement Loads : Those due to displacement of pipe.
(Self-limiting stresses due to thermal effects).
4. What are the sources of sustained load generated in piping system?
Answer: A. Internal fluid pressure.
B. Dead weight of Pipe with fluid and its attachments.
Sustained load is calculated as: Weight of Pipe with Fluid + Internal fluid pressure load + Load due to springs (W+P1).
5. What are the Inputs required for stress analysis of a piping system?
Answer: A. Pipe Size.
B. Fluid Temperature.
C. Pipe Material.
D. Model.
E. Design pressure.
F. Insulation Thickness.
G. Specific gravity.
H. Friction coefficient.
6. How do you calculate the operating load?
Answer:-W +P1+T1
T1 Load due to thermal expansion.
7. Give some Examples for occasional Loads.
Answer: A. Wind load.
B. Seismic load.
C. Forces due to relief or blow down.
D. Pressure wave generated due to water hammer effects
8. What is the failure theory subscribed under ASME B31.3?
A. Maximum principal stress theory (Rankines Theory).
B. Maximum Shear Theory.
C. Octahedral Shear Theory.
Answer: - A. Maximum principal stress theory or Rankines theory.
9. Select the failure stress range for fatigue failure due to thermal expansion as per B31.3?
A. SA = (Sc+ Sh) 1.6f
B. SA = 1.25 (SC + Sh)
C. SA = (1.25 Sc+0.25Sh)f
Where, SA = Allowable Expansion stress Range.
Sc and Sh = Basic Allowable material stress in cold & hot conditions respectively.
f = Stress range reduction factor (1 for 7000 cycles.)
Answer: - C

10. What is the desired life cycle for Piping in operation?

Answer: Desired life cycle for Piping in operation is 20 Years (7000 Cycles).
The normal no. of cycles for which the displacement or thermal stresses are designed is 7000 cycles.
11. How do you calculate the stress developed due to thermal expansion?
Answer: Stress developed, e= E x a, (a= DL/L)
. Where, E = Youngs Modulus.
DL = Increase in length due to thermal expansion.
L = Original Length of the pipe.
12. How do you calculate the thermal expansion in a pipe?
Answer: DL = ax DT x L
In the codes and many reported calculations, ais used as inclusive of DT. Thus the above formula is
written as:DL = ax L
Where, a= Coefficient of thermal expansion from ambient to operating temperature.
L = Length of the pipe.
13. What do you mean by Stress Intensity Factor (SIF)? Give some examples.
Answer: Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) is the ratio of maximum stress intensity to normal stress. It is used as
safe factor to account for the effect of localised stress on piping under respective loading. In piping it
is applied to welds, fittings, branch connections etc where stress concentration and possible fatigue
failuremay occur.
Example: - SIF for Reducer and Weldneck Flange is 1.0
SIF for socket weld flange is 1.3
14. How much should be the pressure for Hydro-Test?
Answer: Hydrotest pressure should be calculated as follow except as provided against point No D.
A. 1.5 Times of Design Pressure.
B. For a design temperature above the test temperature, minimum test pressure can be calculated as:
Pt = (1.5 X P X St) / S
..Where, Pt : Minimum Test Pressure.
P : Internal design pressure.
St: Allowable stress at test temperature.
S : Allowable stress as design temperature.
C. If a test pressure as per above would produce a stress in excess of the yield strength at test
temp.the test pressure may be reduced to maximum pressure that will not exceed the yield
strength at test temp.
D. If the test pressure of piping exceeds the vessel pressure and it is not considered practicable to
isolate piping from vessel, the piping and vessel may be tested together at test pressure of the
vessel when approved by owner and provided the test pressure for vessel is not less than 115% of
piping design pressure adjusted for temperature as per point No.B.
15. How do you calculate the pipe spacing?
Answer: Pipe Spacing (mm) = (Do + Dt) / 2 + 25mm + Thickness of Insulation (mm).
Where: D0 : OD of Small size Pipe (mm).
Dt : OD of Flange of Large size Pipe (mm).
16. Which fluid is used in Heat Exchanger in shell side and tube side?
Answer: Generally corrosive fluid is used from the tube side (as tube can be easily replaced) and cleaner fluid
is used from shell side. Sometimes Hot fluid is also used from the shell side.
17. What is Reynolds number and what is the value of Reynolds number upto which the flow is
Answer: Its a dimensionless number to classify the nature of flow.
Re = a v d / f
Where, Re : Raynolds no.
a : Density of fluid.
d : Diameter of Pipe.
v : Average velocity of fluid.

f : Viscosity of fluid.
Flow is laminar upto Re=2100
18. Why do we provide Drip Leg in Steam Line?
Answer: To remove condensate when there is a rise of same in the pipe along the flow direction. If drip leg is
not provided in steam line, the condensate which forms inside the pipe will result in Water Hammer
effect causing damage to piping system.
19. What is the design standard followed for the calculation of allowable forces / Moments in
nozzles of centrifugal compressor & Steam turbines nozzle?
Answer: The strain sensitive equipment piping to be routed and supported to limit nozzle loading and moment
in equipment within allowable limits furnished by respective vendors or in absence of vendor data API
560/610/615/621/661 & NEMA SM23. (Referred by API 617) is used for compressor & steam turbine
20. What is the mill tolerance to be considered for the thickness of pipe during stress analysis as
per ASME B31?
(i) 1%
ii) 2.5%
(iii) 7.5%
iv) 12.5%
Answer : iv
21. Differentiate between static load and dynamic load?
Answer: Static loads are those which are applied slowly enough so that the system has time to react and
internally distribute the loads, thus remaining in equilibrium. In equilibrium, all forces and moments
are resolved (i.e., the sum of the forces and moments are zero), and the pipe does not move.
Dynamic loads are those which changes quickly with time. The piping system may not have time to
internally distribute the loads, so forces and moments are not always resolved & resulting in
unbalanced loads, and therefore pipe movement. Since the sum of forces and moments are not
necessarily equal to zero, the internally induced loads can be different either higher or lower than the
applied loads.
22. Give different types of dynamic loads with example?
Answer: A. Random Wind, Earthquake.
B. Harmonic Equipment Vibration, Pulsation, Acoustic Vibration.
C. Impulse Fluid Hammer, relief valve opening, slug flow.
23. What is Dynamic Analysis and why it is used?
Answer: Dynamic analysis is performed for all two phase lines in order to ensure that the line supported is safe
from vibrations loads which may occur during normal operation as well as in start up or any upset
condition. (Diesel mixed with hydrogen in DHDT process).
24. What areWRC 107 / WRC 297?
Answer: Localised stresses at Nozzle to Shell is calculated by WRC 107 / 297 and these computed stress
values shall be limited in accordance with ASME Sec VIII for Pressure Vessels.
25. Why loop is provided in piping system?
Answer: To adjust thermal expansion.
26. What is the maximum expansion absorbed in loops in normal design?
Answer: 10 Inches.
27. What is the allowable stress range for CS pipes?
Answer: 2070 kg/cm2.

Why Jacketed Piping is used?

Ans: It is commonly used to convey very viscous process fluids in an inner pipe, heated by steam/hot water/hot oil or other heating medium
between the jacket and core pipe. Vacuum jacketing is also used as an insulator for cryogenic fluids and can be analyzed using the same
calculation method for heated jacketed piping.

If water (density=1000Kg/m3) is flowing through the jacket then what is value of density you will enter into
Caesar spreadsheet?

Ans: We have to calculate equivalent density for the same. The following formula can be used

Actual jacket fluid equivalent density = [(rj2 - Rc2)/ rj2 ] x dj


rj = Inner radius of core

Rc = Outer radius of pipe
dj = Density of heating medium

What are the major stress checks that you will perform while analysing Jacketed Piping system?


Sustained And Expansion Stress Check

Limits of calculated stresses due to sustained loads (primary stresses) and displacement strain due to expansion (secondary
stresses) should be evaluated separately for core and jacket pipe (as per clause 302.3.5 of ASME B31.3).

Checking of buckling load. (Manual Calculation):

This check will not be performed by Caesar-II as it is not in the code. However it will provide force calculated at the junction
point (P) between core and jacket. It should be less than Pcr which is given by the formula
Pcr = 42 *Ec*Ic , For Core
Pcr = 4 *Ej*Ij , For Jacket

P = Force calculated by computer program at junction point
Pcr = Critical force
Ec, Ej = Modulus of Elasticity of core/ jacket material
Ic = Moment of Inertia of Core
Ij = Moment of Inertia of Jacket
L = Length of pipe between junction of core/ jacket.
If P Pcr then no buckling failure

Weld strength check between jacket and core pipe:

P calculated at the junction point between core & jacket pipe compared with allowable load at the weld point.
P allowed = area of weld * 80% of hot allowable stress of material
Area of weld = D * root of weld
D = Diameter of core pipe
Root of weld = 0.707 * weld size
If P calculated P allowed, then the system is safe

Checking of deflection of jacket:

In this case, it is assumed that no spider/spacer is used between core and jacket. Deflection for the jacket with available length has to be computed
and should be ensured that it does not create obstruction to the flow of hot medium in the jacket. Normally maximum allowed deflection of jacket
is T/2, where T is the thickness of jacket.

Checking for External Pressure (By material Group):

Sometimes jacket may be subjected to partial vacuum conditions due to failure of steam supply and subsequent condensation
of steam inside the jacket. In such cases, jacket should be checked for vacuum condition.
Like another example in a system the core is at a pressure of 30 psig and the jacket is at a pressure of 180 psig, then the core is
subjected to an external pressure of 150 psig. For this the core must be investigated for collapse or local buckling from the
external pressure load (Refer para 304.1.3 of ASME B31.3 and UG-28 through UG-30 of ASME BPVC Section-VIII Division-I)

Checking for Axial stress:

As per ASME B31.3 calculated displacement stress range (Expansion case stress) is
SE = (Sb2 + 4St2)1/2. Code does not take into account the axial forces and consequent axial stress in calculating expansion
stresses. This is because for the normal pipe axial forces are normally due to longitudinal stresses which is already taken care in
thickness calculation and sustained stress calculations, but in case of jacketed piping, axial stresses at core-jacket junction
point is just not due to longitudinal stresses, but mainly due to differential thermal expansion of core and jacket pipes. Thus
calculated stress should be corrected by adding axial stresses for local analysis of that particular junction point. Thus,
Actual StressSEa = SE + Axial Force/ Area
Axial force can be obtained from CAESAR output or can be calculated by the equation,
Faxial = E x L x Area

Or else, CAESAR also calculates the value of axial stresses which it calculates for operating case. Activate the option Add F/A in
stress in configuration file. Axial stress due to thermal differential is added to the calculated expansion stress and then it
should be compared with the allowable loads as per ASME B31.3.
What allowable value is considered for welding check at core jacket interconnection?
Two methods are prevalent. You have to consider any one of the following (discuss with the stress