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TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE
1.1

ABSTRCT/SUMMARY

1.2

INTRODUCTION

1.3

AIMS

1.4

THEORY

1.5

APPARATUS AND MATERIALS

1.6

METHODOLOGY/PROCEDURE

1.7

RESULTS

1.8

CALCULATIONS

14

1.9

DISCUSSION

18

2.0

CONCLUSIONS

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2.1

RECOMMENDATIONS

19

2.2

REFERENCE

20

2.3

APPENDIX

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1.1 ABSTRACT/SUMMARY
An experiment is conducted to determine the acid ionization constants, Ka value of
the unknown monoprotic acid solution using two different experimental techniques.
There are titration of the unknown monoprotic acid with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide,
NaOH solution and by determination of the percent ionization of the unknown
monoprotic acid from the pH. Three trials are conducted for titration of the unknown
monoprotic acid with 0.1 M NaOH solution and therefore there are three plotted
titration curves. From the curves, the pKa values can obtained at half-equivalence
point to the corresponding of its pH value. Thus, the can calculated the Ka value for
each curves and the average Ka can be deternined.
The Ka value also can be determine by using the initial concentration and
initial pH value of unknown monoprotic acid. This method is used the ICE table
whereby it is a table that consists initial concentration of the component in acid-base
titration (I), change in concentration (C) and equilibrium concentration (E). After
obtained the value of Ka from both experimental techniques, both Ka values are
compared with the Ka values of some common acids found in a general chemistry
book. The more accurate method in order to determine the unknown monoprotic
acid is identified. The experiment is completed and successfully conducted.

1.2 INTRODUCTION
Titration is the process of obtaining quantitative information of a sample using a fast
chemical reaction by reacting with a certain volume of reactant whose concentration.
It is called acid-base titration when an acid-base reaction is used. A titration is a
technique where a solution of known concentration is used to determine the
concentration of an unknown solution. Likewise, it is useful to determine the pKa
values and the molecular mass of the substances. In this experiment, an unknown
monoprotic acid is titrate with NaOH solution by adding the volume of NaOH
solution by gradually into the Erlemenyer flask that contain unknown monoprotic
acid. The pH values is taken using pH meter in each 1 mL volume of NaOH solution
added.
A titration curve is a graph of measured pH values obtained from pH meter
readings versus volume of titrant being added. Basically, the equivalence point is the
most important that obtained from acid-base titration. The equivalence point is the
number of moles of acid is equal to the number of moles of base being added into
Erlemenyer flask. It occurs in the titration curve in the region. The region is where
the large and noticeable change in pH with a relatively small change in volume of
titrant.

1.3 AIMS
The aims for this experiment is determine the unknown monoprotic acid by using
two different experimental techniques. The first method is by comparing the
calculated average acid ionization constants, Ka values from the data obtained from
performing titration process based on the pH value with the Ka values of some
common acids found in a general chemistry book. The value of Ka of unknown
monoprotic acid also can be obtained by using the pH initial of the unknown
monoprotic acid.
1.4 THEORY
Monoprotic acid will be used in this experiment. An acid is substance that capable of
donating a proton, H+ based on Bronsted theory. Thus, monoprotic acid is an acid
that can donate proton while polyprotic acid is an acid that can donate more than one
proton. In addition, monoprotic acid can release one proton per molecule and hence
have only one equivalence point. The reaction has reached dynamic equilbrium when
a weak monoprotic acid (HX) is dissolved in water and only certain of its molecules
will be dissociate to yield hydronium ions, H 3O+ and X- ions. Consider the following
reaction:
HX (aq) + H2O (l) <

> H3O+ (aq) + X- (aq)

The total concentrations of each species remain constant even though the
species in solution are constantly recombining and dissociating. To characterize the
monoprotic acid, the ionization constant, Ka of weak acid is used.
Ka = [H3O+][ X-] ................................................(1)
[HX]

Weak acid have Ka valus much smaller than 1, typically less than 10-4 to be
more precise.
To determine number of moles of acid present, base can be used by assuming
1:1 molar ratio of acid:base, the concentration as well as the volume of sodium
hydroxide, NaOH solution.

Number of mole of base =

mass of base .................................(2)


molar mass of base

Number of mole of acid = Number of mole of base x 1 mol of acid...................(3)


1 mol of base

The pH of a solution is related to hydronium ions, H 3O+ , concentration by


equation:
pH = - log [H3O+] ................(4)
and the pKa of an acid is simply:
pKa = - log Ka ......................(5)
By considering equation (1), take log on both sides:
-log Ka = - log [H3O+] [X-] ............................(6)
[HX]
Thus, by substituting equation (6) into equation (5):
pKa = - log [H3O+] [X-] ............................(7)
[HX]
Therefore, by substituting equation (4) into equation (7)
pKa = pH log [X-] ............................(8)
[HX]
However, since pKa is constant and pH varies, hence:
pH = pKa + log [X-] ............................(9)
[HX]
Therefore, when [A-] = [HX], thus:
pKa = pH at half equivalence point ...............(10)
This is the midpoint to the equivalence point. In order to analyze the
ionization constant, Ka values of the unknown monoprotic acid, a titration curve is
needed in this experiment. The titration curve represents the pH values at particular

volume of NaOH solution being added. Thus, the pKa value can be identified
directly from the titration curve. From the experiment conducted, three titration
curves of pH versus volume of base added are plotted. The volume of base at
equivalence point and half- equivalence point are determined and clearly marked on
each curves. Then, the pH values at that particular half-equivalence point are
extrapolated. Now, the pH values can be used to determine the ionization constant,
Ka value and the average value of Ka is determined. The average Ka is then used to
identify the unknown monoprotic acid.
The value of Ka of monoprotic acid can also determined by using the initial
pH value and initial concentration of unknown monoprotic acid and use the ICE
table. The ICE table is initial concentration (I), change in concentration (C) and
equilibrium concentration (E). The pKa value can be calculated by using the value of
initial pH of unknown monoprotic acid.

1.5 APPARATUS

Volumetric flask
250 mL beaker
Balance
Retort stand
pH meter
Magnetic stirrer
Pipette
Burette

1.5 MATERIALS

Unknown acid solution


Sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution
Distilled water

1.6 PROCEDURE
1.6.1 Determination of the Ka value of a weak acids by titration with NaOH

1.
2.
3.
4.

Approximately 40 mL of an unknown acid solution is obtained.


10.0 mL of the unknown acid solutions is added to a 250 mL beaker.
The solution is titrated with NaOH.
The reaction mixture is poured into the waste container and washed with

copious amounts of water.


5. Steps 2-4 is repeat twice more.
6. The titration curve is drawn using Excel.
7. The volume of NaOH required to neutralize the weak acid solution in each
titration is determine from the titration curve and the data is recorded.
8. The volume of NaOH added at the half equivalence point in each titration is
calculated. The weak acid solution is determined from the graph and the data
is recorded.
9. The Ka value for each titration is calculated.
10. The average Ka value for the weak acid is calculated.
11. From the average Ka value, the unknown weak acid is identified.
12. The molarity of the unknown acid solution for each titration is calculated.
13. The average molarity of the unknown acid solution is calculated.

1.6.2 Determination of the Ka from the initial concentration and pH of a weak


acid solution.
1. 20 mL of the unknown weak acid solution is added to a dry beaker.
2. The pH electrode is removed from the pH 7 buffer solution. The electrode is
rinse with distilled water and the tip of the probe is dried.
3. The electrode is inserted into the beaker containing the acid solution from
step 1. The solution is stirred. The pH of the solutions is recorded after the pH
4.
5.
6.
7.

reading is stabilized.
The weak acid solution is decanted into the designated waste container.
Step 1-4 is repeated twice more.
The pH probe is rinse with distilled water.
The initial concentration from the molarity and the pH of the unknown acid

solution is used to calculated Ka for each trial.


8. The average Ka for the weak acid is calculated.
9. The weak acid is identified from table 1 by using the average Ka value
concentration in step 8.
10. Which method is more accurate is discussed.

1.7 RESULTS
1.7.1 Titration 1

Volume of NaOH
(mL)

pH reading

1.00

4.97

Volume2.00
of NaOH
(mL)
3.00
1.00
4.00
2.00
4.50
3.00
5.00
4.00
5.50
5.00
6.00
5.50
Volume6.50
of NaOH
6.00
(mL)
7.00
6.50
1.00
7.50
7.00
2.00
8.00
7.50
3.00
8.50
8.00
4.00
9.00
8.50
4.50
9.50
9.00
5.00
10.00
9.50
5.50
10.50
10.00
6.00
11.00
10.50
6.50
12.00
11.00
7.00
13.00
12.00
7.50
14.00
13.00
8.00

pH reading
5.17

14.00

12.60

9.00

6.66

9.50

6.95

10.00

7.92

10.50

11.73

11.50

12.34

12.50

12.51

13.50

12.66

8.50

5.34
5.04
5.51
5.23
5.58
5.30
5.65
5.48
5.74
5.63
5.86
5.70
pH 5.94
reading
5.79
6.01
5.88
4.93
6.11
5.96
5.14
6.23
6.05
5.32
6.35
6.16
5.50
6.55
6.26
5.58
6.72
6.40
5.68
7.07
6.57
5.74
10.34
6.84
5.85
11.87
7.36
5.94
12.30
11.25
6.05
12.52
12.20
6.16
12.62
12.43
6.28

1.7.2 Titration 2

6.44

1.7.3 Titration 3

Titration 1

Titration 2

Titration 3

average

Volume of NaOH at
equivalence point (mL)

10.75

10.25

10.25

10.42

pH at half-equivalence

point pKa

5.6825

5.6725

5.6953

5.6834

2.077x10-6

2.126x10-6

2.017x10-6

2.073x10-6

Acid ionization
constant,Ka

Titration 1

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Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH


14
12
10
pH reading

8
6
4
2
0
0

10

12

14

16

Graph 1: Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH for titration 1.

Titration 2

Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH


14
12
10
pH reading

8
6
4
2
0
0

10

12

14

16

Graph 2: Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH for titration 2.

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Titration 3

Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH


14
12
10
pH reading

8
6
4
2
0
0

10

12

14

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Graph 3: Graph of pH reading versus volume of NaOH for titration 3.

1.8 CALCULATION

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1.8.1 Sample calculation

no of mol

MV
(0.1)(500)

1000
1000

=0.05mol of NaOH

From the reaction equation, no of mol of base is equivalence to the number of moles
of aced. Thus,

No of mol acid = No of mol base


= 0.05mol

Calculate acid ionization constant,

Titration 1 :
pH at equivalence point

pKa = -log Ka
5.6825 = -log Ka
Ka = arc log -5.6825

= 2.077 10-6

pKa = 5.6825

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Titration2 :
pH at equivalence point

pKa = 5.6725

pKa = -log Ka
5.6725 = -log Ka
Ka = arc log -5.6725

= 2.126 10-6

Titration 3 :
pH at equivalence point

pKa = 5.6953

pKa = -log Ka
5.6953 = -log Ka
Ka = arc log -5.6953

= 2.017 10-6

Average Ka,

Ka(titration1 titration2 titration3)


3

= (2.077x10-6 + 2.126x10-6 + 2.017x10-6)


3
=2.073x10-6

Likewise, from the equation,

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HA(aq) + H2O(l)

H3O+(aq) + A-(aq)

By considering the following -ICE- table :

components

HA

H3O+

A-

Initial concentration

0.1

Change in
concentration

-X

+X

+X

0.1-X

Concentration at
equivalence

The concentration of H3O+ is calculated using the average value of pH reading from
the titration conducted in the earlier experiment. The value of average pH is 3.48.

pH= -log[H3O+]
3.48= -log[H3O+]
[H3O+]= arc log (-3.48)
= 3.311x10-4

Thus, the acid ionization constant, Ka of the unknown monoprotic acid is determine,

Ka

X .X
0.1 X

= (3.311x10-4)2
0.1-3.311x10-4
=1.099x10-6

Thus, the pKa is equal to :

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pKa = -log Ka
= -log (1.099x10-6)
= 5.959

1.8.2 Sample error calculation

The unknown monoprotic acid is identified to be acetic acid. However, theoretically,


the pKa value for acetic acid is 4.75,whereas the value corresponds to the unknown
monoprotic acid from the fraction is 1.76x10-5. Thus, the percent errors for each
theoretical value to the calculated value are :

Percentage error (pKa)

4.75 5.6834

4.75
19.65%

-5

100%

-6

Percentage error (Ka) = 1.76x10 - 2.073x10

100%

1.76x10-5
=88.22%

From the identifying the unknown acid using pH value in order to determine the Ka
value, the value is slightly different from the one obtain from the titration process.
The percentage errors is calculated to be :

Percentage error (pKa)

4.75 5.959
4.75

= 25.45%

100%

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Percentage error (Ka) =1.76x10-5 - 1.099x10-6

100%

1.76x10-5
=93.75%

1.9 DISCUSSION
From the data recorded from the 3 titration, a lot of information is required
in order to determine the identity of the unknown acid. With the data of the
equivalence point that obtained, we can find the pKa value by taking the pH half of
the equivalent point. After analyzing the Ka value, we can conclude it is remarkably
similar to the acetic acid. By doing the calculation, we obtained Ka value that is
2.073 X 10-6. Whereas, the actual value of the acetic acid is 1.76 X 10-5.
For the pKa value that we calculated, the value is 5.6834 whereas the acetic
acid pKa value is 4.75. the objective of this experiment, is to obtained the Ka value
of the unknown monoprotic acid so as to identify the acid. but, the error that occur is
88.22 percent after comparing with the theoretical value.
Therefore, a few mistakes or lack of awareness of the precautions must be
considered when conducting the experiment. First error that might happen in the
experiment is during weiging the pellet of sodium hydroxide. The weight of an
empty beaker should have be considered too. Then, it will must be tared before
taking the pellets of sodium into the beaker. Hence the titrations curve might not
have the accurate values as the concentration of sodium hydroxide is not perfectly
0.1 M.
Second, the ph meter that has been used not giving the actual readings, as the
values that are shown are always changing rapidly. Thus, one can never know the
accurate readings of the pH values. Therefore, these will affect the titration curve as
well as the pKa values which correspond to the pH values at half of the equivalence
point.
Besides that , the equivalence point is not necessarily being at pH of 7 as it
occurs when the concentration of base reacts in solution. Therefore, the final pH
depends on the major species of ions left in the solution after reaction.

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Other than that, the pH electrode might have come in contact with the
magnetic stirrer. Then, a problem might happen when taking the readings of the pH
meter.

2.0 CONCLUSION
From the calculation of the data recorded, the values of tha pKa and Ka
values is obtained. The experimental values of pKa and Ka is 5.6834 and 2.073 X
10-6 respectively. Whereas, the pKa and Ka values obtained from using the initial pH
of the unknown acid are 5.959 and 1.099 X 10-6 respectively. Theoretically, the pKa
and Ka values of the unknown monoprotic acid which is believed to be acetic acid
are 4.75 and 1.76 X 10-5.
Therefore, an error of 19.65 percent of the pKa values and 88.22 percent of
Ka value from the titration process are calculated. Then, an error of 25.45 percent
and 93.75 percent of Pka and Ka valus obtained from using the initial pH of the
unknown acid. so, there is a slight differences from the theoretical valuecompare to
between the two method of experiment . hence, the unknown monoprotic acid is
defined as acetic acid and the value determined from using the titration of the
unknown acid with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide is more accurate method.

2.1 RECOMMENDATIONS
To gain the more accurate and best result, there are a few of recommendatios
that has to be taken. The precautioned step that have to be taken while doing the
experiment in order to get the accurate value and readings of data. Firstly, the
standard solution that is should be a hundred percent pure and stable at room
temperature. So, it is more preferable to use a dried standard material before
weighing and diluting .
Secondly, in order to be more conclusive in identifying the unknown mono
protic acid, the molecular weight of the acid reconsidered as well. This then can be

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used to compare it with the theoretical value of molecular weight of acetic acid.
therefore, it is more preferable roobtain the mass of the solid acid and then only it is
diluted and titrated .
Thirdly, when doing the titration. The eye must be perpendicular to the
meniscus of the sodium hydroxide solution to get the accurate reading.

2.2 REFERENCES
-

http://www.scribd.com/doc/39166239/Identifying-an-Unknown-Weak-Acids-

Experiment
web.utk.edu/~kcook/319S02/exp5m.pdf
http://www.docstoc.com/docs/85186188/Experiment-Identification-of-an-

Unknown-Weak-Acid
http://www.markedbyteachers.com/university-degree/physicalsciences/identification-of-an-unknown-weak-acid.html

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2.3 APPENDICES