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Essential skills every public speaker should have:


Research a topic Good speakers stick to what they know. Great speakers research what they need to
convey their message.
Focus Help your audience grasp your message by focusing on your message. Stories, humor should
connect to the core idea.
Organize ideas logically A well-organized presentation can be absorbed with minimal mental strain.
Employ quotations, facts, and statistics use them appropriately to complement your ideas.
Master metaphors Metaphors enhance the understandability of the message in a way that direct
language often can not.
Tell a story Everyone loves a story. Points wrapped up in a story are more memorable.
Start strong and close stronger The body of your presentation should be strong but your audience
will remember your first and last words.
Incorporate humor Knowing when to use humor is essential. So is developing the comedic timing
to deliver it with greatest effect.
Vary vocal pace, tone, and volume A monotone voice is like fingernails on the chalkboard.
Punctuate words with gestures Gestures should complement your words in harmony.
Utilize 3-dimensional space Chaining yourself to the lectern limits the energy and passion you can
Complement words with visual aids Visual aids should aid the message; they should not be the
Analyze your audience Deliver the message they want (or need) to hear.
Connect with the audience Eye contact is only the first step. Aim to have the audience conclude
This speaker is just like me!
Interact with the audience Ask questions (and care about the answers). Make your presentation a
Conduct a Q&A session Not every speaking opportunity affords a Q&A session, but understand
how to lead one productively. Use the Q&A to solidify the impression that you are an expert, not a
Lead a discussion engage the audience productively.
Obey time constraints customize your presentation to fit the time allowed, and respect your
audience by not going over time.
Craft an introduction Set the context and make sure the audience is ready to go, whether the
introduction is for you or for someone else.
Exhibit confidence and poise These qualities are sometimes difficult for a speaker to attain, but easy
for an audience to sense.
Handle unexpected issues smoothly Have a plan to handle every situation.
Be coherent when speaking off the cuff speaking (before, after, or during a presentation) leaves a
lasting impression. Doing it well tells the audience that you are personable, and that you are an expert
who knows their stuff beyond the slides and prepared speech.
Seek and utilize feedback Understand that no presentation or presenter is perfect. Aim for
continuous improvement, and understand that the best way to improve is to solicit candid feedback
from as many people as you can.
Listen critically and analyze other speakers Study the strengths and weakness of other speakers.
Act and speak ethically Since public speaking fears are so common, realize the tremendous power
of influence that you hold.

What are the important characteristics of Culture ?

Culture is a unique possession of man. Man is born and brought up in a cultural environment. Culture is the
unique quality of man which separates him from the lower animals. Culture includes all that man acquires in his
social life.
Definitions of Culture: a complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morale, laws, custom and any
other capabilities and habits as acquired by man as a member of society.
Characteristics of Culture:
(1) Culture is social:
Culture does not exist in isolation. It is a product of society. It develops through social interaction. No man can
acquire culture without association with others.
(2) Culture is shared:
Culture is not something that an individual alone can possess. Culture in sociological sense is shared. For
example, customs, traditions, beliefs, ideas, values, morale etc. are all shared by people of a group or society.
(3) Culture is learnt:
Culture is not inborn. It is learnt. Culture is often called "learned ways of behaviour". Unlearned behaviour is
not culture. By shaking hands, saying thanks, dressing etc. are cultural behaviour.
(4) Culture is transmissive:
Culture is transmissive as it is transmitted from one generation to another. Language is the main vehicle of
culture. Language in different form makes it possible for the present generation to understand the achievement
of earlier generations. Transmission of culture may take place by imitation as well as by instruction.
(5) Culture is continuous and cumulative:
Culture exists as a continuous process. In its historical growth it tends to become cumulative. It becomes
difficult for us to imagine what society would be like without culture.
(6) Culture varies from society to society:
Every society has a culture of its own. It differs from society to society. Culture of every society is unique to
itself. Cultures are not uniform. Cultural elements like customs, traditions, morale, values, beliefs are not
uniform everywhere. Culture varies from time to time also.
(7) Culture is dynamic:
No culture ever remains constant or changeless. It is subject to slow but constant change. Culture is responsive
to the changing conditions of the physical world. Hence culture is dynamic.
(8) Culture is gratifying:
Culture provides proper opportunities for the satisfaction of our needs and desires. Our needs both biological
and social are fulfilled in the cultural ways. Culture determines and guides various activities of man. Thus,
culture is defined as the process through which human beings satisfy their wants.
Each and every society has a culture of its own. Culture is not only diverse but also unequal, but is found in
societies throughout the world.

Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping

Ethnocentrism is the belief that ones own culture is superior to all the other cultures. Ethnocentric attitude
takes ones own culture as superior and evaluates the others culture as being right or wrong, major or minor
depending on how similar or different it is to his own culture.
Ethnocentrism operates with concepts like: chosen people, blessed nation, true faith or savages.
Ethnocentrism is universal and can be met in all groups or societies. Although ethnocentrism is universal it can
also have negative effects: such as not being able to empathize with other groups or persons, not being able to
see the others point of view. These negative effects can be overcome through intensifying communication and
interactions between different groups. When studying aboard, People faced problems of trying to hold ones
cultures while facing new different cultures. The problem is how to accept other cultures.
Stereotyping are widely held beliefs about a group of people. Some times stereotyping can lead to
misunderstandings and even build barriers between communication with people from another culture.
Communication and continuous interaction can also invalidate the stereotypes which a group has toward another
group. Stereotypes are strong beliefs about the psychological characteristics and/or behaviours of another social
group (ethnic, religious, age etc). These strong beliefs are preconceived in the sense of not being based on the
direct observation, often arbitrary and having a simplified scheme of judgment. In the recent social science
usage the stereotypes are mostly referring to negative attitudes toward different ethnics and/or races.
Discrimination is the first and most important effect of negative stereotypes.
Here are some ways to overcome Ethnocentrism and Stereotyping:

Avoid Assumptions: Dont forget that people from different culture would have other customs, beliefs,
values or traditions that we should respect.
Learn about other cultures. Research about traditions and lifestyle from other countries; when you
keep an open mind to new or different things its easy to learn appreciate culture diversity.
Avoid judgments: When people around you act differently, do not assume they are making a mistake.
Learn to appreciate differences.
Be respectful: Keep in mind the golden rule. Treat people the way you want to be treated.