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Sine and Cosine square functions

Aleksandar Ciric
At first we have function in the form
where squared cosine is multiplied by
some number. By graphing we see that
this function is cosine function, just with
different amplitude, vertical shift, and
with two times smaller period. Every
cosine function can be written in the form
of a*cos(b(x + c))+d (note: the letter b
has no connection with the letter b in the
original equation).
To find the maximum and minimum of
the function, we differentiate it. The
graph shows that differentiation is
correct. Maximum and minimum show
where the derivative is equal 0. We find
the x values for which this function is 0,
and then plug that x value in the original
equation. Maximum of the function is b,
and minimum is always 1.

f ( x ) sin x b cos x
2

f ( x ) a cos(b( x c)) d

f (x) y
dy
2 sin x cos x b * 2 cos x * ( sin x )
dx
sin 2x b sin 2 x (1 b) sin 2 x 0
sin 2x 0

xn
2
y max sin 2 (0 n) b cos 2 (0 n) b
y min sin 2 (

n) b cos 2 ( n) 1
2
2

To prove this theory, we graph two


equations with different b. The minimum
is same, always 1, and maximum is b.

Now to find the amplitude. Amplitude

y max y min b 1

2
2

of every function is equal to its maximum


value, minus minimum value, and then
divided by 2. The amplitude is *(b-1).
The amplitude is the same as the half of
the amplitude of the functions derivative.
2
2
T
b 1
f (x)
cos 2 x
2

The amplitude is found, but the


function has different period then the
original function. To find this, we use the
equation for period of the function. Since
period is , we find that b is 2. Both
functions are graphed, and they look the
same, except the original function is
higher then the second one.

The second function looks as the


standard cosine function, without vertical
shift. To find its maximum we
differentiate, and then plug the x value
into the original equation. The difference
of two maximums is equal to the vertical
shift. This vertical shift is equal to some
number d, which is equal to maximum of
the first function, minus the maximum of
the second function, or the difference of
minimums. We find this vertical shift,
and now to prove the theory. We plug
both functions in the same graph, and
observe. They match, they are exactly the
same.

f (x) y

dy du b 1
b 1

cos 2 x
* ( sin 2 x ) * 2
du dx 2
2

(1 b) sin 2 x 0

xn
2
b 1
b 1
y 2 max
cos 2 0 n
2
2
y1 max b
b 1
d b
2
b 1 2 b 2d
b 2d 1
b 1
2
f ( x ) sin 2 x b cos 2 x
d

f ( x ) a cos( b( x c)) d

b 1
b 1
cos 2 x
2
2

We may wish to find this function but


when the sine is multiplied by some
number b. If we graph the previous
function and the new one, with the same
b, we see that the amplitude of the second
is negative amplitude of the first. It is
possible to prove this using the
mathematical method, but there is no real
need since we know that it is the truth.
Graph 2 shows that these functions are
now the same.

The function where the same number,


b, is in front of cosine and sine, is
constant b.

f 1 ( x ) sin 2 ( x ) b cos 2 ( x )
f 2 ( x ) b sin 2 ( x ) cos 2 ( x )
b 1
2
b 1 1 b
a2

2
2
a1

f 2 ( x ) b sin 2 ( x ) cos 2 ( x )

1 b
b 1
cos 2 x
2
2

f ( x ) b sin 2 x b cos 2 x b(sin 2 x cos 2 x ) b

f ( x ) a sin 2 x b cos 2 x

If we have the function where the


number multiplied by the square sine is
larger then the number in front of cosine,
than we can use the following steps to
find its algebraically equal function.

ab

y max a

From the graph we see that the


maximum of this function is a, and the
minimum b. Now we use the standard
notation for cosine function. For the
amplitude we find that it is equal negative
half of maximum minus minimum. Now
we graph both functions, and see that the
second one needs to be vertically shifted.

y min b
f ( x ) A cos(B( x C)) D
2
2
T
ab ba
A

2
2
ba
f (x)
cos(2 x ) D
2
B

ab
a b 2b a b
b

2
2
2
2
ba
ab
f (x)
cos 2 x
2
2

This vertical shift seems to be equal to


half of difference between the maximum
and the minimum, plus the minimum.
This is the same as the amplitude, plus
the minimum. We plug it in the graph and
see that it matches.

Now, lets see what will happen if b>a.


Then the maximum is b, and the
minimum is a. Amplitude of the function
is maximum minus minimum, and
divided by 2, which is the same notation
for amplitude when a was greater then b.
Vertical shift is equal to amplitude plus
minimum, which is also the same as it
was in the function when a>b. This
means that it does not matter which one
is larger for the notation. The larger
number is functions maximum, smaller,
minimum, and half of their difference is
the functions amplitude. Vertical shift is
always the middle point between
minimum and maximum. This is the
unification for algebraically solving the
equation
in
the
form:

ba
y max b
y min a
f ( x ) A cos 2 x D
ba
2
ba
b a 2a a b
D
a

2
2
2
2
b

a
ab
f ( x ) a sin 2 x b cos 2 x
cos 2 x
2
2
A

f ( x ) a sin 2 x b cos 2 x