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A Novel SolGel Thin-Film Constant Phase

Sensor for High Humidity Measurement
in the Range of 50%100% RH
Tarikul Islam, Zia Ur Rahman, and Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay, Fellow, IEEE

Abstract This paper proposes a new type constant phase

sensor (CPS) for solving the problem of high humidity measurement. It is based on change in phase angle of the CPS
with variation of humidity. The CPS is having interdigitated electrode sandwiched between two identical thin films of
-Al2 O3 fabricated by solgel dipcoating method. In the presence
of relative humidity, the device shows a fairly constant phase
behavior over wide signal frequency and its fractional exponent
reduces to nearly 0.7 value at 90% RH from the initial value
of 1 at dry humidity. Results show that the CPS is effective in
measuring humidity in the range of 50%100% RH at the signal
frequency of 15 MHz. Finally, the device has been interfaced
with a simple fractional-order differentiator circuit to measure
the phase angle change with change in relative humidity.
Index Terms Constant phase sensor, sol-gel method, -Al2 O3 ,
fractional order differentiator, high humidity measurement.


CONSTANT phase sensor (CPS) is a fractional order

element whose impedance response shows constant
phase (CP) behavior over wide range of signal frequencies [1].
Most of the real objects behave as fractional order system
except in some cases the order of the system is close to
integer value. The basic passive circuit elements such as an
ideal resistance, capacitor and inductor are the examples of
CP device at 0, 90 and 90 phase angle respectively.
The CP behavior has been observed by many researchers
working in the area of electrochemistry, electrical power
transmission, communication, and many other engineering
applications [2][5]. This behavior has been observed at the
metal-insulator-solution interface. This occurs due to diffusions of ions in the interface of different phases. It is explained
by researchers as the frequency dispersion of capacitance by
Manuscript received September 19, 2014; revised November 12, 2014;
accepted November 19, 2014. Date of publication December 12, 2014; date
of current version February 10, 2015. This work was supported by the
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, under Grant
SR/S2/CMP-11. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper
and approving it for publication was Prof. Gotan H. Jain.
T. Islam is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia Central University,
New Delhi 110025, India (e-mail;
Z. U. Rahman is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia
Millia Islamia Central University, New Delhi 110025, India (e-mail:
S. C. Mukhopadhyay is with the School of Engineering and Advanced
Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available
online at
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JSEN.2014.2377242

dielectric relaxation, where the electric current density phase

lags the changing electric field [6]. Constant phase behavior
is not well understood, some researchers in the analytical
chemistry have reported that this phenomenon is observed
at metal-insulator interface in polarizing medium such as
water [7], [8]. The CP behavior of CPS arises due to porous
nature of the insulating film and the pore morphology of
the film has significant effect on the parameters such as the
fractional exponent and the amplitude [9]. CP behavior has
also been reported due to nonuniformity and porous nature of
the interface electrode [7]. Construction of the constant phase
sensor is very simple and its response shows fairly constant
phase angle within 0 to 90 over significant frequency range
in an ionized medium. The phase angle change depends on the
area of the contact electrode with the electrolyte, thickness of
the insulating layer and the ionic conductivity of the polarizing
medium [6], [7]. The CP device has been employed successfully in several sensing applications by some researchers such
as to monitor the microbial growth in yeast and raw milk, liquid level sensing and conductivity measurement etc. [6][10].
Interface electronic circuit to convert the phase angle change
into voltage output for such type of device is also very simple [10]. The experimental results of the CPS in measurement
applications lead us to develop a new kind of CP device to
measure high relative humidity. Humidity and temperature are
widely needed physical parameters which are to be measured
for different industrial and home appliances [11]. Although
the temperature can be measured accurately with present
transducers but measurement of humidity is complex since it
is having extremely wide dynamic range. Such wide range can
not covered by a single sensor [11], [12]. Also measurement
of humidity in trace level below 1000 ppm as well as high
level above 95% RH is still a challenge [13]. There are several
important applications where high level of humidity measurement is needed and its importance is gradually increasing day
by day [14]. The most important problem in high humidity
measurement above 95% RH is the water condensation in
the pores which causes difficulty in desorption [14]. Also
in some cases, due to water adsorption, the sensing film
gets damaged [15]. Nanostructured ceramic humidity sensors
are widely used to fulfill the application needs in different
ranges due to their chemical inertness, mechanical strength and
large working temperature [12], [13], [15]. Relative humidity
sensor is conventionally fabricated by porous ceramic, porous
silicon, polymer or electrolytic type materials [9], [10], [12].

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Conventional polymer based RH sensor is not suitable for

the measurement of humidity above 95% RH [15]. The most
widely used capacitive sensors have interdigitated electrode for
relative humidity sensing [11]. When a capacitive humidity
sensor is exposed to the humidity there is a possibility for
the formation of double layer capacitance at the interface of
metal (electrode) and electrolyte (water vapor) [1], [7], [16],
[17]. The effect of the double layer capacitance is significant
at low signal frequency [7]. Formation of double layer capacitance depends on the pore morphology like pore dimension,
distribution of pores, thickness, nonuniformity of the porous
insulating film and the concentration of the humidity [6], [7].
Due to lack of unanimity, different equivalent circuits have
been proposed to represent the interface phenomenon such as
Helmholtz model for the formation of double layer capacitance
at the interface or the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model having
two capacitors in series [7] or more exact model utilizing
constant phase element [1]. Although this behavior has been
observed for almost all type of capacitive humidity sensors, it
is mostly overlooked in the equivalent circuit of the sensor for
many work reported in the literature [18], [19]. Selection of
signal frequency is very crucial for sensing relative humidity
because of the formation of double layer capacitance at low
frequency [19].
Present work studies the behavior of a CP element in presence of humidity thus proposes a new type device for sensing
high humidity. The CPS consists of an interdigitated electrode
sandwiched between two identical thin film layers of -Al2 O3 .
The film is prepared by the sol-gel method [13], [20], [21].
The construction of the device is very simple and it is bulk
producible at low cost. In the sol-gel method materials are
mixed at molecular level resulting a solution having colloidal
gel. Once the solvent is removed during heating, a pure solid
thin film with high degree of fine porosity is produced. The
solid film is then subsequently sintered to produce a more fully
dense nanostructured layer [20], [21]. -Al2 O3 film prepared
by this method is hydrophilic to water vapor condensation and
the film does not damage even if there is water condensation
as observed to the polymer based RH sensor [11], [15]. Also
the effective surface area of the film is very large which
is desirable for high sensitivity and the film can withstand
high working temperature. Fabrication of the device has been
described. The parameters of the constant phase sensor have
been studied under different % RH over wide frequency range
of 100 Hz to 5 MHz. An equivalent circuit has been proposed
to explain the behavior of the device. Finally a simple circuit
has been developed to measure the phase angle of the CPS
with change in relative humidity.
A. Fabrication of the Sol-Gel Thin Film CPS Sensor
The CPS has been fabricated slightly in different ways
as reported in the literature [1], [6], [9]. Instead of
using polymythayl metha accrylate (PMMA) insulating film,
aluminum oxide film because of its chemical inertness and
thermal stability has been used [6]. An alumina substrate
of dimension 19 mm 9 mm and thickness of 0.65 mm


Fig. 1.
Schematic of the constant phase sensor (CPS) for humidity

Fig. 2.

FESEM image of the nanoporous -Al2 O3 thin film.

was initially soaked in boiled acetone for some time then

cleaned in running DI water. The substrate was then dried
in the nitrogen gas flow [22]. Thin film of -Al2 O3 of
thickness 6 m has been deposited from the AlO(OH) sol
by dipcoating method. The sol solution has been prepared by
Yoldas method [20], [21]. The film was dried initially at 80 C
for 5m and then sintered at 450 C for 1h. The interdigitated
gold electrode of area 10 mm 7 mm has been printed on
the film by screen printing technique. The finger width of the
electrode is 5 mm and the gap between the fingers is 3 mm.
The electrode is then sintered at 900 C for 1h. Another thin
film of -Al2 O3 of same thickness has been formed on the
electrode and sintered at 450 C for another 1h. Thus the
device has thin film of Al2 O3 on both side of the electrode.
Thin insulation of Al2 O3 on the top layer of the electrode has
been provided to minimize the charge transfer process between
metal electrode and water vapor condensed on the electrode.
The insulated metal surface also makes the interface behavior
more consistent [1]. Fig. 1 shows the schematic representation
of the CPS.
Pore morphology of the thin film plays important role for
its CP behavior at different concentration of humidity. Pore
morphology of the film is controlled by varying the fabrication
parameters such as sintering temperature and sintering time in
addition to the preparation parameters of the sol solution [13].
To avoid the pilling off the film from the electrode, the film is
heated at small heating rate of 50 C/h. Pore morphology of the
film was studied by BET surface area analyzer and FESEM.
Detailed studies of the morphology have been reported
elsewhere [13].
Fig. 2 shows FESEM image of the porous Al2 O3 film. The
effective surface area of the film per unit gram of the sample



as obtained by the BET method is approximately 200 m2 /g.

The average dimension of the pores is 10.4 and the
micropore volume is 0.20 cc/g. The film has distribution
of pores in the range of 0.8 to 60 .
B. Working of the CPS Device for Humidity Sensing
The impedance Z of CPS is given by [6], [8], [23]
Z (s) = Qs


where s is the Laplace operator, Q and are the parameters

of the sensor. Replacing s by j, (1) can be written as
Z ( j ) = Q ( j ) = Q j


where is the signal frequency, is the fractional exponent

(1 < < 1), Q is the coefficient. Magnitude of the
impedance is given by |Z ( j )| = Q and the phase angle
is given by = /2. Magnitude of the CPS depends on
the frequency as well as fractional exponent. The phase angle
does not depend on the signal frequency but depends on the
value of . For the CPS, varies from 1 to 0. When =1,
Z(j) = Q/j representing a pure capacitor and when = 0,
Z(j) = Q representing a pure resistance. The phase angle
depends on different factors as given by
= f (A, t, R H )

Fig. 3.
Schematic of the experimental set up for testing the CPS
with % relative humidity.


where A is the contact area of the electrode in polarizing

media, t is the thickness of the insulating layer and RH is the
percentage relative humidity. For the present CPS, parameters
A (= 44 mm2 ) and t (6m) are constant and RH varies
from 4 to 96%. When the sensor is exposed to ambient
humidity the water molecules are initially chemisorbed in the
porous layer and subsequently with increase in humidity, water
molecules are physisorbed on the chemisorbed layer [16].
At low humidity, monolayer of chemisorbed water is dissociated into hydroxyl ion (OH ) and proton (H+ ). These ions
are remained attached on the oxide surface. At high humidity,
water molecules will be physisorbed on chemisorbed layer and
subsequently multilayer water molecules behaving as liquid
water will be formed. The water molecules will condense
in the pores of the film having radius less than the Kelvin
radius [11], [16]. At high humidity, H+ is the dominant
charge carrier and the condensed physisorbed water layer
possesses high dielectric constant causing large change in both
conductance and capacitance [11], [16], [17].
Experiment has been performed using Agilent 4294A
impedance analyzer with sinusoidal ac voltage of
500 mV (rms) in (Z, ), and (R,X) modes. The frequency of
the input signal is varied from 100 Hz to 5 MHz. Effect of
variation of signal amplitude to the phase angle change has
also been studied. The schematic of the experimental set up
for testing the sensor is shown in Fig. 3. Percentage relative
humidity has been varied by mixing dry N2 gas with water
vapor created using a bubbler. The concentration of humidity
in the N2 gas is varied from 4 to 96% RH. The humidity level
in the chamber has been measured with a commercial RH

Fig. 4. Variation of impedance of the sensor with humidity (%) at different

signal frequency.

meter (Honeywell). The accuracy of the meter is 3.5% RH.

The sensor is placed inside a stainless steel sample chamber
of volume 100 cc. The leads of the sensor are connected
to the impedance analyzer which is interfaced to a desktop
PC with a data acquisition card. Experiments are performed
at room temperature of 25 C to determine the device
parameters such as: (i) impedance response, (ii) phase angle
shift, (iii) variation of CPS parameters (, Q), (iv) variation
of phase with amplitude of ac signal, (v) transient response
for response and recovery time and (vi) repeatability of the
sensor output.
A. Determination of the Electrical Characteristics
of the Sensor
Initially, the sensor is refreshed by dry N2 gas at 4% RH
and it is then exposed to different percentage humidity. The
impedance response with humidity at different signal frequency is shown in Fig. 4.
Initially at low humidity, the impedance change is small
and above 40% RH, the impedance of the sensor decreases
significantly with increase in humidity. Impedance value also
decreases with increase in signal frequency. Fig. 5 shows the
variation of phase angle with signal frequency for different
humidity. It is observed that at constant RH, the phase angle
is fairly constant over wide range of frequencies (1 to 5MHz)
but as the humidity level increases, the constant phase angle is
shifted from initial value. At 3 MHz signal frequency when the
sensor is exposed to 4% RH, the phase angle is close to 90
but at 96% RH, the phase angle is 63. From the experimental data in Z, mode for different RH, the parameters of CPS
such as Q and have been determined. Values of and Q
at different signal frequency with the variation of humidity



Fig. 8. Variation of phase angle with change in signal amplitude at 50% RH.
Fig. 5. Variation of phase angle of the sensor with humidity at different
signal frequency.

Fig. 9. Nyquist plot of the impedance data of the sensor: (a) 3060% RH
and (b) 70%96% RH.

Fig. 6. Variation of fractional exponent () with humidity (%) at different

signal frequency.

Fig. 7.

Variation of Q with humidity (%) at different signal frequency.

are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 respectively. At 4% RH,

parameter is close to unity behaving as a capacitor but as
RH level increase, decreases and at 96% RH, it reduces
to nearly 0.70 (f = 3 MHz). Thus, the value decreases by
almost 30% due to nearly 92% change in RH. The response
of the CPS for varying signal amplitude at constant RH is
shown in Fig. 8 and it has been observed that the phase angle
is nearly constant with signal amplitude. CP behavior does not
change due to change in signal amplitude [6].
The constant phase behavior of the sensor is due to the
porous nature of the -Al2 O3 film deposited on the electrode.
At low humidity the device shows CP behavior over wide
signal frequency but at humidity above 40% RH, it is shifted
to higher frequency range. When the sensor is exposed to

higher humidity, water is diffused inside the pores. Some

pores are deep enough that water comes in contact with
the electrode. The origin of the CP behavior is attributed to
the capacitance dispersion of double layer at metal electrode
and water interface. There is a surface distribution of time
constant (RC) due to inhomogeneous nature of the thin film.
This distribution of time constant also causes CP behavior
of the sensor [24][29]. The complex impedance plot where
negative of imaginary component of the impedance (X) is
plotted against real component (R) is shown in Fig. 9.
Fig. 9(a) shows the plot between X v/s R for variation
of humidity from 3060% and Fig. 9(b) shows the plot for
the variation of humidity from 7096%. The data for the
plot have been obtained by performing an experiment using
impedance analyzer in R, X mode. At lower humidity, the
response is a curved line but at higher humidity, the response
has two distinct parts (i) a semicircle at higher frequency
and (ii) curved straight line at lower frequency. The radius
of the semicircle is different for different humidity level. The
curved line in the complex impedance plots can be explained
by diffusion mechanism. Diffusion gives rise to CP behavior
due to inhomogeneities in the shape and the size of the pores of
the film as well as electrode. A constant phase element can be
used to model this behavior of the sensor [8], [16], [17], [23].
The semicircular part of the complex impedance plot shrinks
as the humidity level increases. H+ ion is the dominant
charge carrier at high humidity. The concentration of the
carrier increases with increase in humidity. These H+ ions
can move more freely through the physisorbed water layers.
This increases the electrical conductivity of the sensor. The
sensor also possesses high effective dielectric constant as the
water molecules form dipoles and condense in the pores of the
film. Hence at high humidity, both conductance and dielectric
constant of the film change significantly. The semicircular
nature of the plot can be modeled by a parallel RC circuit.



Fig. 10.

Proposed equivalent circuit of the sensor.

At low frequency, the dipoles can orient-reorient freely under

ac field causing large change in capacitance. Impedance of the
parallel RC circuit is given by
Z RC =

C1 R12

1 + 2 C12 R12
1 + 2 C12 R12

Fig. 11.

Phase angle change of the sensor when dipped in liquid water.

Fig. 12.

Phase angle response of the sensor with humidity at 2.75 MHz.


where, is the angular frequency. If the negative of imaginary

part of the above impedance is plotted against the real part,
the resulting plot will be a semicircle with diameter equal
to R [16], [27]. As humidity increases, resistance of the
film decreases and the diameter of the semicircle reduces.
The slightly curve straight line reflecting CP behavior can
be represented by (2) [16]. Based on the experimental data
shown in Fig. 9, the approximate equivalent circuit is shown
in Fig. 10.
Parallel (C1 , R1 ) represents the semicircle part of the
response curve, (CPpore , Cpore ) indicates water diffusion
occurring inside the nano order pores of the sensor and
(CPelec , Celec ) represents interface between water and electrode
(electrode charge transfer). CPpore and CPelec are the two CP
elements formed at the pores and the interface of electrode
and ionic medium. Cpore and Celec are the capacitance formed
at the pores and the interface. These four elements represent
the straight line part of the complex impedance plot. The
capacitance Cc depends on the geometries of the electrode.
It is possible to detect the humidity level above 96% RH
by the sensor. Testing of the device above 96% RH using
reference meter has been avoided to protect the reference RH
sensor from water condensation which may cause failure of
the RH meter. At saturation vapor pressure, when the RH level
reaches 100%, the water molecules do not remain in vapor
form rather these become liquid and there will be condensation
of water in the sensing film. The reference RH sensor utilizes
polymer sensing film which is spoiled sometimes due to water
condensation [15]. However, to obtain the reponse of the CPS
above 96% RH, the experiment has been conducted by dipping
the sensor in liquid water and its impedance change with
signal frequency from 100 Hz to 5 MHz has been determined.
The response has been noted at different dipping length. The
response curve of the sensor in liquid water is plotted in
Fig. 11. It has been observed that the phase angle is shifted
from almost 90 at 4% RH to 25 at almost 100% RH
at 2.75 MHz frequency (1cm dip). Since, the sensing film of
CPS is of Al2 O3 , it is not damaged even though it is dipped in
liquid water. Fig. 12. shows the constant phase angle response
of the sensor with different RH at 2.75 MHz frequency.

This response has been plotted to observe the total shift

in phase angle of CPS for change in humidity from
4% to 96% RH. Phase angle change starts at 40% RH and
above 50% RH it is significant.
However phase angle change below 50% RH is not significant. At lower RH, due to the lower concentration of water
inside the pores, phase angle of the impedance response of
the sensor is close to 90. As humidity increases, amount of
water diffused inside the pores increases causing the sensor to
show CP behavior and phase angle deviates from 90. Porous
nature of the electrode surface and the pore morphology of
the insulating film may play an important role in enhancing the sensitivity and lowering the frequency range of the
CP device [27], [30]. In the present case, the pore size
is less than 50 nm and the constant phase is observed at
higher frequency. It is expected that by optimizing the pore
morphology, both sensing range of humidity and frequency
band of CP can be improved. Response time and repeatability
of the output are other important characteristics of the sensor.
The repeatability of the sensor has been determined from the
transient response curve for 10 to 90% step change of relative
humidity for several cycles at signal frequency of 1 MHz.
The reproducibility of the sensor is shown for three identical
humidity cycles. The sensor output for phase angle shift is
highly repeatable as shown in Fig. 13. The response time of
the device is 80s and recovery time is 53s respectively. The
stability of the thin film of Al2 O3 for developing capacitive
trace moisture sensor due to variation of ambient temperature
was studied and the sensor showed negligible change in the
output [13].


Fig. 13. Reproducibility of the sensor output for 10% to 90% step change
in humidity.


Fig. 16. Change in phase angle of output signal of the electronic circuit with
relative humidity.

humidity, the phase shift is close to zero. With increase in

humidity beyond 50% RH, the phase shift increases and it
becomes 50o at 96% RH. The shift in phase angle can be
converted into voltage signal by using phase detection circuit
shown in the Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Schematic of the phase angle measuring circuit at different RH.

Fig. 15. Photograph of the digital oscilloscope (DSO) screen showing phased
shift at 90% RH.


Sensor was interfaced with a fractional order differentiator
circuit to measure the phase shift with humidity. Fig. 14 shows
the schematic of the circuit. Sinusoidal excitation voltage of
2.6 V and frequency of 1 MHz was applied as input to the
circuit. 1 MHz signal frequency has been selected as the
CPS has shown fairly constant phase behavior above 1 MHz
frequency. A simple circuit has been used to produce two
180 out of phase signals using conventional low cost Opamps
LF-356 at 1 MHz frequency. The sensor is connected to the
input of the differentiator circuit and a resistor of suitable value
is connected to the feedback path [6].
The device is exposed to different humidity and the phase
shift between input and output wave forms is measured by
a digital oscilloscope (Agilent technologies DSO 1002A).
Fig. 15 shows the photograph of the DSO screen at 90% RH
showing phase shift from reference input.
Fig. 16 shows the phase shift at different humidity measured
from DSO output. The behavior of the curve is similar to that
of CP response obtained using the impedance analyzer. At low

Present work deals with the development of a novel constant

phase humidity sensor using thin porous film of metal oxide
of Al2 O3 . Film is deposited by sol-gel dip coating method.
Sensor behaves as CP device when it is exposed to humidity
due to the porous nature of the film. Experimental result shows
that there is a significant change in the fractional order of the
CPS with humidity. The sensor was finally interfaced with
a fractional order differentiator to measure phase shift with
humidity at 1 MHz frequency. The phase shift versus RH plot
was similar to the phase angle response of the sensor obtained
from impedance analyzer. From the results and discussions
it is apparent that the proposed CP device can be used for
humidity measurement above 50 % RH even the humidity
level at saturation vapor pressure. The fabrication as well as
detection electronics circuit for phase angle measurement is
very simple. The device is suitable for large scale production
and it has the potential for industrial application. Future work
requires improving the detection range of the sensor to lower
humidity by optimizing the pore morphology and electrode
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Tarikul Islam received the B.Sc.Eng. degree in

electrical engineering and the M.Sc.Eng. degree in
instrumentation and control systems from Aligarh
Muslim University, Aligarh, India, in 1994 and
1997, respectively, and the Ph.D. (Eng.) degree from
the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata,
India, in 2007. He is currently a Professor with
the Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering and Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia
Central University, New Delhi, India. He has
authored 36 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 45 papers in the international
and national conferences. He received a grant from the Department of Science
and Technology and the Department of Atomic Energy, India, over 161 000
on different research projects. His research interests include thin-film sensor,
sensor and electronic instrumentation, and soft computing techniques for
signal conditioning.

Zia Ur Rahman received the M.Tech. degree in

instrumentation and control systems from Aligarh
Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He is currently
a Ph.D. Research Scholar with the Department of
Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and
Technology, Jamia Millia Islamia Central University,
New Delhi, India. His research interest is in instrumentation and measurement.

Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay (M97SM02

F11) received the (Hons.) degree from the Department of Electrical Engineering, Jadavpur University,
Kolkata, India, the masters degree in electrical
engineering from the Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, India, the Ph.D. (Eng.) degree from
Jadavpur University, and the Dr.Ing. degree from
Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan. He is currently a Professor of Sensing Technology with the
School of Engineering and Advanced Technology,
Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
He has over 25 years of teaching and research experience. His fields of
interest include sensors and sensing technology, instrumentation, wireless
sensor networks, electromagnetics, control, electrical machines, and numerical
field calculation. He has authored or co-authored three books and over
300 papers in different international journals, conferences, and book chapter.
He has edited 12 conference proceedings. He has also edited 11 special
issues in international journals as a lead Guest Editor and 19 books out of
which 17 books are with Springer-Verlag. He has delivered 216 seminars as
keynote, invited, tutorial, and special lectures in 24 countries. He received
numerous awards throughout his career and attracted over NZ 3.6 M on
different research projects. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and
Technology (U.K.) and the Institution of Electronics and Telecommunication
Engineers (India). He is a Topical Editor of the IEEE S ENSORS J OURNAL,
M ECHATRONICS , and a Co-Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal on
Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. He was the Technical Program Chair
of ICARA 2004, ICARA 2006, and ICARA 2009. He was the General Chair/
Co-Chair of ICST 2005, ICST 2007, the IEEE ROSE 2007, the IEEE EPSA
2008, ICST 2008, the IEEE Sensors 2008, ICST 2010, the IEEE Sensors 2010,
ICST 2011, ICST 2012, ICST 2013, and ICST 2014. He has organized the
IEEE Sensors Conference 2009 at Christchurch, New Zealand, as the General
Chair. He is planning to organize the Ninth ICST in Auckland, New Zealand,
in 2015. He is the Founding and Ex-Chair of the IEEE Instrumentation and
Measurement Society New Zealand Chapter, and the Chair of the IEEE IMS
Technical Committee 18 on Environmental Measurement.