Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

Stages of Occupation

The region of Pompeii came under Roman rule after


o The Etruscans were expelled from the area by
the Greeks
o And the Greeks were overthrown by the
Samnites
Officially proclaimed an ally of Rome in 202 BC
Romanization (integration of Roman structures and
culture) occurred in both Pompeii and Herculaneum
We know this because structures of basilica, arches,
temples, theatres and amphitheatres were
introduced
Eruption
62AD-Damaging Earthquake
Upper floors badly affected, local population
remained its prosperity, houses repaired and
redecorated
Representations over time
Pompeii was viewed as a source of artistic objects,
rather than a source of information on ancient life
Tourists ignored cultural diversity focusing on the
effects of the volcanic destruction
Neo-classical and romanticism influences

Overview of two letters & Modern Interpretation


Pliny the younger, 1st letter to Tacitus
Memorable disaster shared by people and cities
Letter about the eruption and death of his uncle
Realised an unusual cloud around Mt Vesuvius around
2-3pm (looked like s pine tree)
Uncle travelled across the sea to get a closer look at
the phenomenon
Pliny the younger turned down the opportunity to join
him
Tremors, ash and stones raised the ground level
Darkness surrounded them, Pliny the Elder collapsed
as he breathed in the dust filled air
Modern Interpretation

The wind was blowing form behind Pliny the elder, he


changed his landing place and was then unable to
escape due to forceful winds
Pliny the younger, 2nd letter to Tacitus
Tremors for many days prior, shaking grew stronger
that night
The shoreline moved outwards
Masses of lightening
The cloud from the mountain stretched down and
covered the sea
Finally the cloud thinned out after continuous
darkness and ashes
Modern Interpretation

Earthquakes 4-5 magnitude


Tsunami
Black clouds
Pyroclastic flow

Martial, Cassius and Statius all supplied like evidence

Table showing Modern and Ancient evidence of the


eruption
Writer

Dates

Text

Information

Pliny
the
Younger
Strabo

AD c.61-c.112

Letters

64BC-21AD

Geography

Lucius
(Roman
Philosopher)
Statius

4BC-65AD

Information

AD
96

Information

Martial

AD c.40-102

Epigrams

Suetonius
(historian)

AD c.70-c.140

Information

Dio Cassius

AD
c.235

Roman
History

Pliny
the
Elder
Scientists

AD 23-24-79

Details
the
eruption
Geographical
setting
&
historical
background
Details
the
earthquake of
62AD
The eruption,
buried cities
and people
Geographical
setting
of
Pompeii and
Herculaneum
Relief
work,
Pliny
the
Elders death
The eruption
and
its
aftermath
Geographical
Setting
Plate tectonic
theory,
understandin
g
of
volcanoes

c.45/50-

Recent

c.155-

Natural
History
Various
Information

Modern/Anci
ent
Ancient
Ancient

Ancient

Ancient

Ancient

Ancient

Ancient

Ancient
Modern

Pliny
Accounts of exaggeration
Does not state the year of the occurrence in his texts
Was not present during the statements he made of
his uncles journey and death (most likely written in
third person using facts given by those around him)

Preservation
To maintain and keep safe
E.g. Plaster casts

Restoration
Renewal, revival or reestablishment
E.g. sections of brick mosaics within Pompeii- the Villa of
Mysteries

Conservation
Prevention of injury, decay, waste, or loss
E.g. Perspex walls and roofs

Reconstruction
Rebuilding, recreating, copying previous plans
E.g. Rebuilt Villa

Second Death
Pompeii was an archaeological disaster of first
order Henri de Saint-Blanquat
Only 14% of site was open to public in the mid1990s due to deterioration
Disasters lead to international recognition of Italys
inability to protect its cultural heritage
For the past 200 years Pompeii and Herculaneum
have been subjected to widespread destructive
forces including natural and anthropogenic, some
unavoidable and others preventable

Poor Restoration Work


Incorrect construction methods used
Instead of protecting sites the addition of structures had
damaged them
More problems without roofing; sunlight, weather,
dampness, rain carries salts permeating plater and fabrics
Inappropriate use of materials- concrete flacking in
contact with steel support beams
Poor quality mortar used leading to cracking
Whole walls of painted plaster destroyed
Perspex attracts dirt and humidity
Weather, noxious weeds, parasites and birds
Interiors were left to exposure once excavated
Colours and objects deteriorated quickly
Airborne substances; carbon and gritty particles, oils and
bacteria/ mould spores
Water saturation
Non effective drainage system
Weeds and parasitic plants grow over many ruins clogging
gutters and sewers
Vines penetrate plaster clinging to ancient stone
Pigeons excrete acidic waste having a corrosive effect
Falcons were brought in to discourage the birds from
nesting in the area
Environmental factors
Frequent earth tremors
Seismic activity continues to shake the site

Sun exposure continues to fade paintings and deteriorate


the site
Sunlight, acid rain, carbon particles, rain penetration,
rising damp, algae and weeds have and will continue to
destroy plaster frescoes

Poor site protection

Both sites have been subject to looting


Between 1975-2000 approximately 600 items were stolen
Objects vanished into private collections
On-site museum in Pompeii was closed after it was robbed
in 1975
In 1977 14 frescoes were cut from the walls
Herculaneum storeroom robbed
Inside jobs involving mafia
Mafia fought back when the superintendent stood up to
them; heads cut from plaster casts, fire started, 33
kilogram head stolen
Only a maximum of 23 guards protecting the site at one
time that are far from vigilant
Vulnerable to theft and vandalism
No necessary bag checks

Poor Site Management

Lack of resources, good leadership or a skilled workforce


Failure to maintain constant monitoring of the site
Corruption
Divided authority between the superintendent and a city
manager
Outsourcing of contractors
Cultural bureaucracy and red tape
Negligence
Calls to completely privatise the site, dismissed

Pressures from tourism


3 million tourists visit the sites yearly
Only small areas are accessible to the public making these
sections feel the strain of the true destructive nature of
humans
Paths worn down
Body oils reflect with surfaces
Camera flashes fades painting
Rubbish litters the site and attracts animals
Modern day amenities and catering must be built within
Today the bigger danger for the old town is the increasing
number of visitors

Protection, Restoration and Conservation


1. Protection- closure against the effects of excess tourism,
coverings (roofs and Perspex), prevention of graffiti and
fading, erection of scaffolding reinforcing crumbling walls
2. Restoration- any process which contributes to enhancing
the visual or functional understanding of an object or
building. It is intended to aid in the interpretation of
objects, interpretation is needed to complete restoration.
3. Conservation- the action of safeguarding the objects and
structures which compromise the material remains of the
past to ensure those remains are available to use and
enjoy today and in the future
Codes and standards
Careless conservation and restoration can cause damage,
distortion or even destruction
Principles of Conservation;
- Responsibility for object/ structure
- No endangering treatment or techniques used
- Only techniques that alter the object the least may be
used
- All intervention clearly documented
Conserver/ restorer should consider
- Some objects are intended to deteriorate
- Change is an inevitable consequence of using the
objects and structures that make up a cultural heritage

- It is inappropriate as well as impossible to restore to a


pristine state
E. Pye in Caring for the Past: Issues in Conservation for
Archaeology and Museums
The questions of
reconstructions

replicas,

visual

restorations

and

Replicas are an alternative to restoring the original


Only represent one possible interpretation
Hinder future interpretation
Digital imagery can manipulate and enhance an image of
the original object, this technique satisfies minimal
intervention

Projects since the late 1970s


The Italian Central Institute for Cataloguing and Documentation
Complete documentation with 18000 photographs of all
painted walls and mosaic floors
Less than 20 percent of the revealed site
Completed before the 1980 damaging earthquake
The houses in Pompeii project
Investigate and salvage architectural features, mosaics
and wall paintings at least on paper from the two
Pompeian houses first excavated in 1830 left to decay
The Neapolis Project
As a result of the 1980 earthquake an electronic database
of all archival documents and archaeological remains was
set up
The Philodemus Project
Reading writing from charred papyrus scrolls found in the
Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum
Translation to English from Greek

The Pompeii Forum project


Initiated because
- Existing architectural plans of the forum were
inaccurate and incomplete
- Architectural and decorative remains documented as
late as 1983 were already deteriorating quickly
Objectives to provide more accurate plans and the
elevations of surviving remains
Team led by John Dobbins, much of the documentation
work was done using computer software
The Via dellAbbondanza Project
Record the facades of the main thoroughfare of Pompeii,
before they completely decayed
Photo mosaics of the total 900-metre length of the Via
dellAbbondanza giving a valuable digital archive of the
site