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KHARADI, PUNE - 411014

*** {2013-2015} ***


This is to certify that the project work entitled Recruitment and Selection Process, is a bonafide work

Carried out by MR.TIKONE AMRUT, a candidate for the PGDBM (2013-2015) of DSRF, Affiliated by

Savitribai Phule Pune University under my guidance and direction.



Acknowledgement is an art, one can write glib stanzas without meaning a word, and
on the other hand one can make a simple expression of gratitude

I take the opportunity to express my gratitude to all of them who in some or

other way helped me to accomplish this challenging project on INDIAN
RAILWAYS No amount of written expression is sufficient to show my deepest
sense of gratitude to them.

I am extremely thankful and pay my gratitude to our MRS. KAUR

and my

faculty guide DATA SYSTEM RESEARCH FOUNDATION,PUNE for their valuable

guidance and support on completion of this project in its presently.

I also acknowledge with a deep sense of reverence, my gratitude towards my

parents and member of my family, who has always supported me morally as
well as economically.
At last but not least gratitude goes to all of my friends who directly or
indirectly helped me to complete this project report.






Today, in every organization personnel planning as an activity is necessary. It is an

important part of an organization. Human Resource Planning is a vital ingredient for
the success of the organization in the long run. There are certain ways that are to
be followed by every organization, which ensures that it has right number and kind
of people, at the right place and right time, so that organization can achieve its
planned objective.
The objectives of Human Resource Department are Human Resource Planning,
Recruitment and Selection, Training and Development, Career planning, Transfer
and Promotion, Risk Management, Performance Appraisal and so on. Each
objective needs special attention and proper planning and implementation.
For every organization it is important to have a right person on a right job.
Recruitment and Selection plays a vital role in this situation. Shortage of skills and
the use of new technology are putting considerable pressure on how employers go
about Recruiting and Selecting staff. It is recommended to carry out a strategic
analysis of Recruitment and Selection procedure.
With reference to this context, this project is been prepared to put a light on
Recruitment and Selection process. This project includes Meaning and Definition of
Recruitment and Selection, Need and Purpose of Recruitment, Evaluation of
Recruitment Process, Recruitment Tips. Sources of Recruitment through which an
Organization gets suitable application. Scientific Recruitment and Selection, which
an Organization should follow for, right manpower. Job Analysis, which gives an
idea about the requirement of the job. Next is Selection process, which includes
steps of Selection, Types of Test, Types of Interview, Common Interview Problems

and their Solutions. Approaches to Selection, Scientific Selection Policy, Selection in

India and problems.
Recruitment and Selection are simultaneous process and are incomplete without
each other. They are important components of the organization and are different
from each other. Since all the aspect needs practical example and explanation this
project includes Recruitment and selection Process of INDIAN RAILWAYS. And a
practical case study.
Recruitment and Selection is one of the important aspects in the
Human Resource Management. In Indian Railways the Recruitment and selection
process will organise the UPSC & Railways recruitment board(RRB). all The group A
and B officers are recruited by the UPSC while the group C and D staff is recruited
by the 20 Railway Recruitment Boards in Indian Railways.

Human resource is an important corporate asset and the overall performance of
company depends on the way it is put to use. In order to realize company
objectives, it is essential to recruit people with requisite skills, qualification and
experience. While doing so we need to keep present and future requirements of
company in mind.
Successful recruitment methods include a thorough analysis of the job and the
labour market conditions. Recruitment is almost central to any management
process and failure in recruitment can create difficulties for any company including
an adverse effect on its profitability and inappropriate levels of staffing or skills.
Inadequate recruitment can lead to labour shortages, or problems in management
decision making.
Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process but also requires
management decision making and extensive planning to employ the most suitable
manpower. Competition among business organisations for recruiting the best
potential has increased focus on innovation, and management decision making and
the selectors aim to recruit only the best candidates who would suit the corporate
culture, ethics and climate specific to the organisation.
The process of recruitment does not however end with application and selection of
the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen.
Despite a well drawn plan on recruitment and selection and involvement of
qualified management team, recruitment processes followed by companies can
face significant obstacles in implementation. Theories of HRM may provide insights
on the best approaches to recruitment although companies will have to use their in
house management skills to apply generic theories within specific organizational

Introduction of recruitment And Selection Taking on Following Organisation



1. Objective theory
1) Assumes applicants use a very rational method for making decisions
2) Thus, the more information you can give them (e.g. salaries, benefits, working
condition, etc), the better applicants weight these factors to arrive at a relative
desirability index
2. Subjective theory
1) Assumes applicants are not rational, but respond to social or psychological
needs (e.g. security, achievement, affiliation)
2) Thus, play to these needs by highlighting job security or opportunities for
promotion or collegiality of work group, etc.
3. Critical Contact theory
1) Assumes key attractor is quality of contact with the recruiter or recruiter
behavior, e.g. (promptness, warmth, follow-up calls, sincerity, etc.)
2) Research indicates that more recruiter contact enhances acceptance of offer,
also experienced recruiter (e.g. middle-aged) more successful than young or
inexperienced recruiter - may be especially important when recruiting ethnic
minorities, women, etc.


Policies: Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel

policy of the same organization. However, recruitment policy by itself should take
into consideration the governments reservation policy, policy regarding sons of
soil, etc., personnel policies of other organizations regarding merit, internal
sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections, women, etc.

Specific issues which may be addressed in Recruitment Policy:

1) Statement : Nondiscrimination (EEO employer) or particular protected class
members that may be sought for different positions (see also Affirmative Action
2) Position description: Adherence to job description (& qualifications) in
recruitment & selection -BFOQs -bonafide occupational qualifications
3) How to handle special personnel in recruitment/selection: e.g. relatives
(nepotism) veterans (any special advancement toward retirement for military
experience?), rehires (special consideration? vacation days or other prior
benefits?), part-time or temporary personnel (special consideration? benefits?)
4) Recruitment budget/expenses: what is covered? Travel, Lodging/meals, Staff
travel to recruit, relocation, expenses, etc.
5) Others:
a. Residency requirement in district?
b. Favors, special considerations related to recruitment? - e.g. get spouse a job?


Recruitment is defined as, a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet
the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for
attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of
an efficient workforce. Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment as the process of
searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
organization. In simple words recruitment can be defined as a linking functionjoining together those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.
The general purpose of recruitment is to provide a pool of potentially qualified job
candidates. Specifically, the purposes and needs are:
Determine the present and future requirements of the organization in
conjunction with its personnel-planning and job-analysis activities.
Increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
Help increase the success rate of the selection process by reducing the number
of visibly, under qualified or overqualified job applicants.
Help reduce the probability that job applicants, once recruited and selected,
will leave the organization only after a short period of time.
Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
appropriate candidates.
Induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company.
Infuse fresh blood at all levels of the organization.
Develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the
Search for talent globally and not just within the company.



The following are the 2 important factors affecting Recruitment: 1) INTERNAL FACTORS
Recruiting policy
Temporary and part-time employees
Recruitment of local citizens
Engagement of the company in HRP
Companys size
Cost of recruitment
Companys growth and expansion


Supply and Demand factors
Unemployment Rate
Labour-market conditions
Political and legal considerations
Social factors
Economic factors
Technological factors



Organisational inducements are all the positive features and benefits offered by an
organization that serves to attract job applicants to the organisation. Three
inducements need specific mention here, they are:-

Compensation: Starting salaries, frequency of pay increases, incentives and

fringe benefits can all serve as inducements to potential employees.

Career Opportunities: These help the present employees to grow personally

and professionally and also attract good people to the organization. The
feeling that the company takes care of employee career aspirations serves as
a powerful inducements to potential employees.

Image or Reputation: Factors that affect an organisations reputation include

its general treatment of employees, the nature and quality of its products
and services and its participation in worthwhile social endeavors.



Poor image: If the image of the firm is perceived to be low( due to factors like
operation in the declining industry, poor quality products, nepotism etc), the
likelihood of attracting large number of qualified applicants is reduced.
Unattractive jobs: if the job to be filled is not very attractive, most
prospective candidates may turn indifferent and may not even apply.this is
specialy true of job that is boring, anxiety producing, devoid of career growth
opportunities and generally not reward performance in a proper way( eg jobs
in post office and railways).
Government policy: Government policies often come in the way of
recruitment as per the rules of company or on the basis of merit and
seniority. Policies like reservations (scheduled castes, scheduled tribe etc)
have to be observed.
Conservative internal policies: Firms which go for internal recruitments or
where labour unions are very active, face hindrances in recruitment and
selection planning.


RECRUITMENT- Relationship with other activities


Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some
organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment while some
organizations like the Indian Railway resort to decentralized recruitment practices.
Personnel department at the central office performs all the functions of
recruitment in case of centralised recruitment and personnel departments at unit
level/zonal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of
the respective unit or zone.


The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal
sources and external sources. Both have their own merits and demerits.

Internal Sources:Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the internal

Retrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of deceased

employees may also constitute the internal sources. Whenever any vacancy arises,
someone from within the organization is upgraded, transferred, promoted or even

External Sources
External sources lie outside an organization. Here the organization can have the
services of: (a) Employees working in other organizations; (b) Jobs aspirants
registered with employment exchanges; (c) Students from reputed educational
institutions; (d) Candidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and existing
employees; (e) Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors; (f)
Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organization; and (g)
Unsolicited applications/ walk-ins.


Merits and Demerits of Recruiting people from within


1) Economical: The cost of


1) Limited Choice: The

recruiting internal candidates is

organization is forced to select

minimal. No expenses are

candidates from a limited pool. It

incurred on advertising.

may have to sacrifice quality and

2) Suitable: The organization can

pick the right candidates having

settle down for less qualified


the requisite skills. The candidate 2) Inbreeding: It discourages entry

can choose a right vacancy where

for talented people, available

their talents can be fully utilized.

outside an organization. Existing

3) Reliable: The organization has

employees may fail to behave in

the knowledge about suitability

innovative ways and inject

of a candidate for a position.

necessary dynamism to

Known devils are better than

enterprise activities.

unknown angels!
4) Satisfying: A policy of preferring

3) Inefficiency: Promotions based

on length of service rather than

people from within offers regular

merit, may prove to be a

promotional avenues for

blessing for inefficient candidate.

employees. It motivates them to

They do not work hard and

work hard and earn promotions.

prove their worth.

They will work with loyalty

commitment and enthusiasm.

4) Bone of contention:
Recruitment from within may
lead to infighting among

employees aspiring for limited,

higher level positions in an
organization. As years roll by,
the race for premium positions
may end up in a bitter race.

The merits and demerits of recruiting candidates from outside an organization may
be stated thus:

Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment



Wide Choice: The organization has

Expenses: Hiring costs could go up

the freedom to select candidates

substantially. Tapping multifarious

from a large pool. Persons with

sources of recruitment is not an easy

requisite qualifications could be

task either.

picked up.
Time consuming: It takes time to
Infection of fresh blood: People

advertise, screen, to test and test

with special skills and knowledge

and to select suitable employees.

could be hired to stir up the existing

Where suitable ones are not

employees and pave the way for

available, the process has to be

innovative ways of working.


Motivational force: It helps in

De-motivating: Existing employees

motivating internal employees to

who have put in considerable service

work hard and compete with

may resist the process of filling up

external candidates while seeking

vacancies from outside. The feeling

career growth. Such a competitive

that their services have not been

atmosphere would help an

recognized by the organization,

employee to work to the best of his

forces then to work with less


enthusiasm and motivation.

Long term benefits: Talented people Uncertainty: There is no guarantee

could join the ranks, new ideas could that the organization, ultimately will
find meaningful expression, a

be able to hire the services of

competitive atmosphere would

suitable candidates. It may end up

compel people to give out their best

hiring someone who does not fit and

and earn rewards, etc.

who may not be able to adjust in the

new setup.



Internal Methods:
1. Promotions and Transfers
This is a method of filling vacancies from internal resources of the company to
achieve optimum utilization of a staff member's skills and talents. Transfer is the
permanent lateral movement of an employee from one position to another
position in the same or another job class assigned to usually same salary range.
Promotion, on the other hand is the permanent movement of a staff member
from a position in one job class to a position in another job class of increased
responsibility or complexity of duties and in a higher salary range.
2. Job Posting
Job Posting is an arrangement in which a firm internally posts a list of open
positions (with their descriptions and requirements) so that the existing
employees who wish to move to different functional areas may apply. It is also
known as Job bidding. It helps the qualified employees working in the
organization to scale new heights, instead of looking for better perspectives
outside. It also helps organization to retain its experienced and promising
3. Employee Referrals
It is a recruitment method in which the current employees are encouraged and
rewarded for introducing suitable recruits from among the people they know.
The logic behind employee referral is that it takes one to know one. Benefits
of this method are as follows:


Quality Candidates
Cost savings
Faster recruitment cycles
Incentives to current employees
On the other hand it is important for an organization to ensure that nepotism or
favoritism does not happen, and that such aspects do not make inroads into the
recruitment process.

External Methods:
External methods of recruitment are again divided into two categories- Direct
External Recruitment and Indirect External Recruitment methods.

Direct External Recruitment Methods

1. Campus Recruitment
In Campus Recruitment, Companies / Corporate visit some of the most
important Technical and Professional Institutes in an attempt to hire young
intelligent and smart students at source. It is common practice for Institutes
today to hire a Placement Officer who coordinates with small, medium and large
sized Companies and helps in streamlining the entire Campus Recruitment
Benefits of Campus Recruitment
Companies get the opportunity to choose from and select the best talent
in a short span of time.
Companies end up saving a lot of time and efforts that go in advertising
vacancies, screening and eventually selecting applicants for employment.

College students who are just passing out get the opportunity to present
themselves to some of the best companies within their industry of
interest. Landing a job offer while still in college and joining just after
graduating is definitely what all students dream of.
On the negative front, campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no
work experience.

Indirect External Recruitment Methods

1. Advertisements
Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. They can
be found in many places (local and national newspapers, notice boards,
recruitment fairs) and should include some important information relating to
the job (job title, pay package, location, job description, how to apply-either by
CV or application form, etc). Where a business chooses to advertise will depend
on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed i.e. how far away people will
consider applying for the job.

2. Third Party Methods

Walk-ins: Walk-ins is relatively inexpensive, and applicants may be filed

and processed whenever vacancies occur. Walk-ins provide an excellent
public relations opportunity because well-treated applicants are likely to
inform others. On the other hand, walk-ins show up randomly, and there


may be no match with available openings. This is particularly true for jobs
requiring specialized skills.

Public and private employment agencies: Public and private employment

agencies are established to match job openings with listings of job
applicants. These agencies also classify and screen applicants. Most
agencies administer work-sample tests, such as typing exams, to

E-Recruiting: There are many methods used for e-recruitment, some of

the important methods are as follows:

a. Job boards: These are the places where the employers post jobs and
search for candidates. One of the disadvantages is, it is generic in
b. Employer web sites: These sites can be of the company owned sites, or
a site developed by various employers.
c. Professional websites: These are for specific professions, skills and not
general in nature.

Gate Hiring and Contractors: The concept of gate hiring is to select people
who approach on their own for employment in the organization. This
happens mostly in the case of unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Gate hiring
is quite useful and convenient method at the initial stage of the organization
when large number of such people may be required by the organization



Time-lapse data: They show the time lag between the dates of requisition for
manpower supply from a department to the actual date of filling the vacancies in
that department. For example, a company's past experience may indicate that the
average number of days from application to interview is 10, from interview to offer
is 7, from offer to acceptance is 10 and from acceptance to report for work is 15.
Therefore, if the company starts the recruitment and selection process now, it
would require 42 days before the new employee joins its ranks. Armed with this
information, the length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment
can be ascertained - before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the
recruitment objectives of the company.
Yield ratios: These ratios indicate the number of leads/ contacts needed to
generate a given number of hires at a point at time. For example, if a company
needs 10 management trainees in the next six months, it has to monitor past yield
ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for this
purpose. On the basis of past experience, to continue the same example, the
company finds that to hire 10 trainees, it has to extend 20 offers. If the interviewto-offer ratio is 3:2, then 30 interviews must be conducted. If the invitees to
interview ratio is 4:3 then, as many as 40 candidates must be invited. Lastly, if
contacts or leads needed to identify suitable trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio, then
200 contacts are made.
Surveys and studies: Surveys may also be conducted to find out the suitability of a
particular source for certain positions. For example', as pointed out previously,
employee referral has emerged as a popular way of hiring people in the
Information Technology industry in recent times in India. Correlation studies could
also be carried out to find out the relationship between different sources of

recruitment and factors of success on the job. In addition to these, data on

employee turnover, grievances, and disciplinary action would also throw light on
the relative strengths of a particular source of recruitment for different
organizational positions. Before finally identifying the sources of recruitment, the
human resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate. The
cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the number of
candidates hired.



The size of the labour market, the image of the company, the place of
posting, the nature of job, the compensation package and a host of other factors
influence the manner of aspirants are likely to respond to the recruiting efforts of
the company. Through the process of recruitment the company tries to locate
prospective employees and encourages them to apply for vacancies at various
levels. Recruiting, thus, provides a pool of applicants for selection.
To select means to choose. Selection is the process of picking individuals who
have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organisation. The basic purpose is to
choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of
qualified candidates.
The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would
meet the requirements of the job in an
organisation best, to find out which job
applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet
this goal, the company obtains and assesses
information about the applicants in terms of
age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the
needs of the job are matched with the profile
of candidates. The most suitable person is










stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very

important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employees work.
Any mismatch in this regard can cost an organisation a great deal of money, time
and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time,
the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even
circulate negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the
company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant
monitoring of the fit between people the job.
The Process
Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully
cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next one. The time and emphasis
place on each step will definitely vary from one organisation to another and indeed,
from job to job within the same organisation. The sequence of steps may also vary
from job to job and organisation to organisation. For example some organisations
may give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to
interviews and reference checks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might
be enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for managerial
jobs might be interviewed by a number of people.



1. Reception
A company is known by the people it employs. In order to attract people with
talents, skills and experience a company has to create a favourable impression on
the applicants right from the stage of reception. Whoever meets the applicant
initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and courteous way.
Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If no jobs are
available at that point of time, the applicant may be asked to call back the
personnel department after some time.
2. Screening Interview
A preliminary interview is generally planned by large organisations to cut the
cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go through the further
stages in selection. A junior executive from the Personnel Department may elicit
responses from the applicants on important items determining the suitability of an
applicant for a job such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude,
location, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called helps the
department screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds the candidate
suitable, a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit.
3.Application Blank
Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used to
collect information on the various aspects of the applicants academic, social,
demographic, work related background and references. It is a brief history sheet of
employees background.
Usefulness of Application Blank or Form

Application blank is highly useful selection tool, in that way it serves three
important purposes:
1. It introduces the candidate to the company in a formal way.
2. It helps the company to have a cross-comparison of the applicants; the
company can screen and reject candidates if they fail to meet the eligibility
criteria at this stage itself.
3. It can serve as a basis to initiate a dialogue in the interview.

4.Selection Testing
Selection tests or the employment tests are conducted to assess intelligence,
abilities, and personality trait.
A test is a standardized, objective measure of a persons behaviour, performance or
attitude. It is standardised because the way the tests is carried out, the
environment in which the test is administered and the way the individual scores are
calculated- are uniformly applied. It is objective in that it tries to measure individual
differences in a scientific way giving very little room for individual bias and
interpretation. Some of them are
1. Intelligence Tests: These are mental ability tests. They measure the incumbents
learning ability and the ability to understand instructions and make judgements.
The basic objective of such test is to pick up employees who are alert and quick
at learning things so that they can be offered adequate training to improve their
skills for the benefit of the organization.
2. Aptitude Test: Aptitude test measure an individuals potential to learn certain
skills- clerical, mechanical, mathematical, etc. These tests indicate whether or


not an individual has the capabilities to learn a given job quickly and efficiently.
In order to recruit efficient office staff, aptitude tests are necessary
3. Personality Test: The definition of personality, methods of measuring
personality factors and the relationship between personality factors and actual
job criteria has been the subject of much discussion. Researchers have also
questioned whether applicants answer all the items truthfully or whether they
try to respond in a socially desirable manner. Regardless of these objections,
many people still consider personality as an important component of job
4. Simulation Tests: Simulation exercise is a tests which duplicate many of the
activities and problems an employee faces while at work.
5. Graphology Test: Graphology involves using a trained evaluator to examine the
lines, loops, hooks, stokes, curves and flourishes in a persons handwriting to
assess the persons personality and emotional make-up.
6. Polygraph (Lie-Detector) tests: the polygraph records physical changes in the
body as the tests subject answers a series of questions. It records fluctuations in
respiration, blood pressure and perspiration on a moving roll of graph paper.
The polygraph operator forms a judgement as to whether the subjects response
was truthful or deceptive by examining the biological movements recorded on
the paper.


Tests are useful selection devices in that they uncover qualifications and
talents that cant be detected otherwise. They can be used to predict how well one
would perform if one is hired, why one behaves the way one does, what situational
factors influence employee productivity, etc. Tests also provide unbiased
information that can be put to scientific and statistical analysis.


However, tests suffer from sizeable errors of estimate. Most psychological

tests also have one common weakness, that is, we cant use scales which have a
known zero point and equal intervals. An intelligence test, for example starts at an
arbitrary point, where a person may not be able to answer question properly. This
does not mean that the person is totally lacking in intelligence. Likewise, a person
who is able to answer all the 10 questions correctly cannot be called twice as
intelligent as the one who was able to answer only 5.

SELECTION INTERVIEW: Interview is the oral examination of candidates for

employment. This is the most essential step in the selection process. In this step
the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through
various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his
own observations during the interview. Interview gives the recruiter an opportunity
To size up the candidate personally;
To ask question that are not covered in the tests;
To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence;
To assess subjective aspects of the candidate facial expressions,
appearance, nervousness and so forth;
To give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies, etc. and
promote goodwill towards the company.

Types of interviews:
Several types of interviews are commonly used depending on the nature and
importance of the position to be filled within an organization.
In a non directive interview the recruiter asks questions as they come to mind.
There is no specific format to be followed.

In a patterned interview, the employer follows a pre-determined sequence of

questions. Here the interviewee is given a special form containing questions
regarding his technical competence, personality traits, attitudes, motivation, etc.
In a structured or situational interview, there are fixed job related questions that
are presented to each applicant.
In a panel interview several interviewers question and seek answers from one
applicant. The panel members can ask new and incisive questions based on their
expertise and experience and elicit deeper and more meaningful expertise from
Interviews can also be designed to create a difficult environment where the
applicants confidence level and the ability to stand erect in difficult situations are
put to test. These are referred to as the stress interview. This is basically an
interview in which the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of, often, rude,
annoying or embarrassing questions.

Steps in interview process:

Interview is an art. It demands a positive frame of mind on part of the interviewers.
Interviewers must be treated properly so as to leave a good impression about the
company in their minds. HR experts have identified certain steps to be followed
while conducting interviews:
Establishing the objective of the interview
Receiving the candidates application and resume
Keeping tests score ready, along with interview assessment forms
Selecting the interview method to be followed

Choosing the panel of experts who would interview the candidates

Identifying proper room for environment

1.RECEPTION: The candidate should be properly received and led into the interview
room. Start the interview on time.
State the purpose of the interview, how the qualifications are going to be
matched with skills needed to handle the job.
Begin with open-ended questions where the candidate gets enough freedom
to express himself.
Focus on the applicants education, training, work experience, etc. Find
unexplained gaps in applicants past work or college record and elicit facts
that are not mentioned in the resume.
3.EVALUATION: Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification given by
the applicant in the interview.
4. PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL EXAMINATION: After the selection decision and before
the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A
job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the
physical examination.
5.REFERENCE CHECKS: Once the interview and medical examination of the
candidate is over, the personnel department will engage in checking references.
Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3 references in their application
forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the
candidates academic achievements or from the applicants previous employer,
who is well versed with the applicants job performance and sometimes from the

The line manager has to make the final decision now whether to select or reject a
candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques
discussed earlier. The line manager has to take adequate care in taking the final
decision because of economic, behavioral and social implications of the selection
decisions. A careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of
the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection
in a particular organization.
A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers
should be established so as to facilitate good selection decisions. After taking the
final decision, the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as
well as unsuccessful candidates. The organization sends the appointment order to
the successful candidates either immediately or after sometime depending upon its
time schedule.
Interviewing Mistakes: May have been influenced by cultural noise, snap
judgments, halo effect, stereotyping, first impression etc.
A clear, accurate and up-to-date job description is crucial to ensuring a good
person-job fit. It is worthwhile spending some time making sure that the job
description matches the everyday reality of the job.



Periodically evaluating the effectiveness of your recruitment strategy, such as the

type of sources used for recruiting, can be a useful activity. For instance, a costbenefit analysis can be done in terms of the number of applicants referred,
interviewed, selected, and hired.
Comparing the effectiveness of applicants hired
from various sources in terms of job performance and absenteeism is also helpful.
One could also examine the retention rates of workers who were hired from
different sources.



Determine how the recruitment and selection practices affect

organizational outcomes at Indian Railways
To identify general practices that organizations use to recruit and
select employees.
To determine which recruitment and selection practices are most
To determine how the recruitment and selection practices affect
Organizational outcomes.
Recruitment is the process of hiring the right kinds of candidates on
the right job.



Indian Railways (IR / . ) is an Indian state-owned enterprise, owned and

operated by the Government of India through the Ministry. It is one of the world's
largest railway networks comprising 115,000 km (71,000 mi) of track over a route
of 65,436 km (40,660 mi) and 7,172 stations. In 2014-15, IR carried 8.397 billion
passengers annually or more than 23 million passengers a day (roughly half of
whom were suburban passengers) and 1050.18 million tons of freight in the year. In
20142015 Indian Railways had revenues of 1634.50 billion (US$26 billion) which

of 1069.27

billion (US$17 billion)



and 402.80

billion (US$6.3 billion) from passengers tickets.

Railways were first introduced to India in the year 1853 from Bombay to Thane. In
1951 the systems were nationalized as one unit, the Indian Railways, becoming one
of the largest networks in the world. IR operates both long distance and suburban
rail systems on a multi-gauge network of broad, meter and narrow gauges. It also
owns locomotive and coach production facilities at several places in India and are
assigned codes identifying their gauge, kind of power and type of operation. Its
operations cover twenty nine states and seven union territories and also provide
limited international services to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Indian Railways is the world's seventh largest commercial or utility employer, by
number of employees, with over 1.307 million employees as of last published
figures in 2013. As for rolling stock, IR holds over 239,281 Freight Wagons,
62,924 Passenger Coaches and 9,013 Locomotives (43 steam, 5,345 diesel and
4,568 electric locomotives). The trains have a 5 digit numbering system and runs
12,617 passenger trains and 7421 freight trains daily. As of 31 March 2013,
20,884 km (12,977 mi) (31.9%) of the total 65,436 km (40,660 mi) route length was
electrified. Since 1960, almost all electrified sections on IR use 25,000 Volt AC
traction through overhead centenary delivery.

History of rail transport in India

India's first train run between Bombay and Thane

The B.B. & C.I. Railway Head Offices, 1905

Indian Railways headquarters, Delhi


Map of the completed and planned railway lines in India in 1871, thirteen years
after the end of Company rule.
The history of rail transport in India began in the mid-nineteenth century. The core
of the pressure for building Railways in India came from London. In 1848, there was
not a single kilometer of railway line in India. The country's first railway, built by
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIPR), opened in 1853, between Bombay and
Thane.[8] A British engineer, Robert Maitland Brereton, was responsible for the
expansion of the railways from 1857 onwards. The Allahabad-Jabalpur branch line
of the East Indian Railway had been opened in June 1867. Brereton was responsible
for linking this with the GIPR, resulting in a combined network of 6,400 km
(4,000 mi). Hence it became possible to travel directly from Bombay to Calcutta.
This route was officially opened on 7 March 1870 and it was part of the inspiration
for French writer Jules Verne's book Around the World in Eighty Days. At the
opening ceremony, the Viceroy Lord Mayo concluded that it was thought desirable
that, if possible, at the earliest possible moment, the whole country should be
covered with a network of lines in a uniform system.
By 1875, about 95 million were invested by British companies in India guaranteed
railways. By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km (9,000 mi),










of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own
locomotives, and in 1896, sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda
In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to
the modern day states of Ahom Kingdom, Rajputhana and Madras Presidency and
soon various autonomous kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. In 1905,
an early Railway Board was constituted, but the powers were formally vested
under Lord Curzon. It served under the Department of Commerce and Industry and
had a government railway official serving as chairman, and a railway manager from
England and an agent of one of the company railways as the other two members.
For the first time in its history, the Railways began to make a profit.
In 1907 almost all the rail companies were taken over by the government. The
following year, the first electric locomotive made its appearance. With the arrival
of World War I, the railways were used to meet the needs of the British outside
India. With the end of the war, the railways were in a state of disrepair and
In 1920, with the network having expanded to 61,220 km (38,040 mi), a need for
central management was mooted by Sir William Acworth. Based on the East India
Railway Committee chaired by Acworth, the government took over the
management of the Railways and detached the finances of the Railways from other
governmental revenues.
The period between 1920 and 1929, was a period of economic boom; there were
41,000 mi (66,000 km) of railway lines serving the country; the railways
represented a capital value of some 687 million sterling; and they carried over 620
million passengers and approximately 90 million tons of goods each year. Following
the Great, the railways suffered economically for the next eight years. The Second
World War severely crippled the railways. Starting 1939, about 40% of the rolling

stock including locomotives and coaches was taken to the Middle East, the railways
workshops were converted to ammunitions workshops and many railway tracks
were dismantled to help the Allies in the war. By 1946, all rail systems had been
taken over by the government.
On 23 April 2014, Indian Railways introduced a mobile app system to track train
Organizational structure

Indian Railway zonal map.

Indian Railway organizational structure
Railway zones
Indian Railways is divided into several zones, which are further sub-divided
into divisions. The number of zones in Indian Railways increased from six to eight in
1951, nine in 1952 and sixteen in 2003. Each zonal railway is made up of a certain
number of divisions, each having a divisional headquarters. There are a total of
sixty-eight divisions.
Each of the seventeen zones is headed by a general manager who reports directly
to the Railway Board. The zones are further divided into divisions under the control
of divisional railway managers (DRM). The divisional officers of engineering,
mechanical, electrical, signal and telecommunication, accounts, personnel,

operating, commercial, security and safety branches report to the respective

Divisional Manager and are in charge of operation and maintenance of assets.
Further down the hierarchy tree are the station masters who control individual
stations and the train movement through the track territory under their stations'
Zonal railway details









Chennai, Tiruchirappalli,








Madurai and
Salem, Palakkad,








urand Nagpur











CST, Bhusawal, Pune, Solap

Central, Ratlam, Ahmedaba

d,Rajkot, Bhavnagar and Va

April 2414



Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol










and Malda

Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur,








Lucknow,Moradabad and







Izzatnagar, Lucknow and



Adra, Chakradharpur,



Kharagpur and Ranchi

Alipurduar, Katihar, silchar,



15 January



Rangia,Lumding and

Vijayawada, Secunderabad,


2 October


Hyderabad, Parbhani and






KMR 24 October









HRBC House, St.



gate NA


Danapur, Dhanbad, Mugha



1 October



lsarai,Samastipur and



1 October

Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner and









Road, Sambalpur and












Allahabad, Agra and Jhansi

Bilaspur, Raipur and


















Hubli, Bangalore and





Jabalpur, Bhopal and



Types of passenger services

Trains are classified by their average speed.[37] A faster train has fewer stops
("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travel.

Rank Train


These are the non-stop (except for technical halts)

Duronto Express

point to point rail services introduced for the first

time in 2009. They connect the metros and major
state capitals of India and are faster than Rajdhani
Express. They provide first AC, two-tier AC and three-


tier AC accommodation. Some of them provide

Sleeper Class accommodation.

Rajdhani Express

These are air-conditioned trains linking major cities

to New Delhi. They have high priority and are one of
the fastest trains in India, travelling at an average
speed of 130 km/h (82 mph). They have only a few
stops. In the Railway budget of 2014, it was proposed
that the speed of Rajdhani express, and Shatabdi
Expresses would be increased up to 200 km/h.

AC Express

These are fully air-conditioned trains linking major

cities in the country. They have high priority and are
one of the fastest trains in India, travelling at about
130 km/h (82 mph). They have only a few stops.


Decker These are fully air-conditioned two floor express


trains. They have high priority and are considered

among fast trains in India.


Shatabdi Express

The Shatabdi trains are air-conditioned intercity

trains for travel during daytime. They have seats and
executive class seats. Some of them have 3-tier AC
berths. They are the fastest trains in India, travelling
at about 130160 km/h.

Yuva Express

These trains were started along with Duronto Express

trains to provide air conditioned travel to youth of
the country. Sixty percent of the seats of these trains
were reserved for passengers between 18 45 years
of age. These trains did not got a good success. Today
these trains only operate on Delhi - Howrah and Delhi
- Mumbai routes.

Garib Rath

Air-conditioned no-frills trains with seats and 3-tier

Economy AC berths. The maximum speed is
130 km/h.


Shatabdi Jan Shatabdi Express are a more affordable variety of

the Shatabdi Express, which have both AC and nonAC classes. The maximum speed is 130 km/h.


Kranti These are series of trains which provide super fast

Express like connectivity to national capital Delhi.
These trains have higher priority than Super Express /


Intercity Superfast These are trains travel at a speed greater than 100

120 km/h (60-75 mph). Tickets for these trains have

an additional superfast surcharge.


Kavi Guru Express

These trains were introduced in honor of Ravindra

Nath Tagore. Currently four pair of these trains
operate in Indian Railways network.


Vivek Express

These trains were started to commemorate 150th

birth Anniversary of Swami Vivekanand in 2013.
Currently four pair of Vivek Express run in country.


Rajya Rani Express These trains are started to connect state capital to
important cities in that state.



These are the most common kind of trains in India.

They have more stops than their super-fast
counterparts, but they stop only at relatively
important intermediate stations.



These are slow trains that stop at most of the station

or every station along the route and are the cheapest
Passenger and
Fast Passenger

trains. The trains generally have unreserved seating

accommodation but some night trains have sleeper
and 3-tier AC compartments. These also travel about
40-80 km/h


Suburban trains








of Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahm

edabad, Pune and

between Kanpur and Lucknow,

usually stop at all stations and have unreserved

seating accommodation.



These trains are designed for city transport. Indian

Railway constructed Kolkata Metro for the city
of Kolkata.


Tourist Trains

Indian Railways also operate luxurious tourist trains

like Palace on Wheels, Maharaja Express, The Golden
Chariot, Royal



Wheels etc. Fairy

Queen has also gained tourist attraction because it is

the oldest steam engine in operation hauling
luxurious train from Delhi to Alwal.


Accommodation classes

Air-conditioned Chair Car (CC) coaches in an Shatabdi Express.

Indian Railways coaching stock

Indian Railways has several classes of travel with or without air-conditioning. A
train may have just one or many classes of travel. Slow passenger trains have only
unreserved seating class whereas Rajdhani, Duronto, Shatabdi, garib rath and yuva
trains have only air-conditioned classes. The fares for all classes are different with
unreserved seating class being the cheapest. The fare of Rajdhani, Duronto and
Shatabdi trains includes food served in the train but the fare for other trains does
not include food that has to be bought separately. In long-distance trains a pantry
car is usually included and food is served at the berth or seats itself. Luxury trains
such as Palace on Wheels have separate dining cars but these trains cost as much
as or more than a five-star hotel room.
A standard passenger rake generally has four unreserved (also called "general")
compartments, two at the front and two at the end, of which one may be
exclusively for ladies. The exact number of other coaches varies according to the
demand and the route. A luggage compartment can also exist at the front or the


back. In some mail trains a separate mail coach is attached. Lavatories are
communal and feature both the Indian style as well as the Western style.

The following table lists the classes in operation. A train may not have all these



First class AC: This is the most expensive class, where the fares are
almost at par with air fare. There are eight cabins (including two
coupes) in the full AC First Class coach and three cabins (including
one coupe) in the half AC First Class coach. The coach has an
attendant to help the passengers. Bedding is included with the fare
in IR. This air conditioned coach is present only on popular routes
and can carry 18 passengers (full coach) or 10 passengers (half
coach). The sleeper berths are extremely wide and spacious. The
coaches are carpeted, have sleeping accommodation and have
privacy features like personal coupes. This class is available on broad
gauge and metre gauge trains.


AC-Two tier: These air-conditioned coaches have sleeping berths

across eight bays. Berths are usually arranged in two tiers in bays of
six, four across the width of the coach and two berths long ways on
the other side of the corridor, with curtains along the gangway or
corridor. Bedding is included with the fare. A broad gauge coach can
carry 48 passengers (full coach) or 20 passengers (half coach). This
class is available on broad gauge and meter gauge trains.



First class: Same as 1AC but without air conditioning. No bedding is

available in this class. The berths are wide and spacious. There is a
coach attendant to help the passengers. This class has been phased
out on most of the trains and is rare to find. However narrow gauge
trains to hill stations have this class.


AC three tier: Air conditioned coaches with 64 sleeping berths.

Berths are usually arranged as in 2AC but with three tiers across the
width and two long ways as before giving eight bays of eight. They
are slightly less well-appointed, usually no reading lights or
curtained off gangways. Bedding is included with fare. It carries 64
passengers in broad gauge. This class is available only on broad


AC three tier (Economy): Air conditioned coaches with sleeping

berths, present in Garib Rath Trains. Berths are usually arranged as
in 3AC but with three tiers across the width and three long ways.
They are slightly less well-appointed, usually no reading lights or
curtained off gangways. Bedding is not included with fare.


AC chair car: An air-conditioned seater coach with a total of five

seats in a row used for day travel between cities.


Executive class chair car: An air-conditioned coach with large

spacious seats and legroom. It has a total of four seats in a row used
for day travel between cities. This class of travel is only available on
Shatabdi Express trains.


Sleeper class: The sleeper class is the most common coach on IR,

and usually ten or more coaches could be attached. These are

regular sleeping coaches with three berths vertically stacked. In
broad gauge, it carries 72 passengers per coach.

Seater class: same as AC Chair car, but with bench style seats and
without the air-conditioning. These may be reserved in advance or
may be unreserved.


Unreserved: The cheapest accommodation. The seats are usually

made up of pressed wood in older coaches but cushioned seats are
found in new coaches. These coaches are usually over-crowded and
a seat is not guaranteed. Tickets are issued in advance for a
minimum journey of more than 24 hours. Tickets issued are valid on
any train on the same route if boarded within 24 hours of buying
the ticket.


The Research Methodology of the study includes the above core objectives. The
data is collected from the secondary source. The period of study is from 1950-51 to
2010-11. The statistical tools are applied in accordance to the requirements of the
study purpose.
Indian Railways is governed by three tier vertical organization structure. It reveals
the flow of authority from top to bottom of the organization in a vivid manner.
Indian Railways is Headed and Governed by Union Minister of Railways, two
Ministers of State for Railways, Chairman Railway Board, Financial Commissioner,
Human Resource Development in Indian Railways
Member Staff, Member Electrical, Member Mechanical, Member Engineering and
Member Traffic at the apex level,. The Railway Board takes the right decisions at
the right time and right place. It is the supreme decision making body in Indian
Railways. General Managers of 16 Zonal Railways at the zonal level and the lowest
level of 68 Divisions headed by Divisional Railway Managers for effective and
efficient management of scare resources in order to attain the goals of the
organization in a rapid manner.



Recruitment and Selection is one of the important aspects in the Human Resource
Management. The group A and B officers are recruited by the UPSC while the group
C and D staff is recruited by the 20 Railway Recruitment Boards in Indian Railways.
However, the number of Railway Recruitment Boards should be reduced
drastically to five in number. The RRBs should follow the recruitment and selection
pattern on par with the UPSC. The Training and Development in Indian Railways is
one of the important aspects of Human Resource Management. Railway Staff
College and the six Centralized Training Institutes in Indian Railways impart Training
and Development to officers to develop into World Class Executives. About 5171
Gazetted officers are trained and developed every year.
They render yeomen's service in Indian Railways. The Zonal Railway Institutes
impart training to the group C and D staff in Indian Railways. The number of staff
trained are 3, 19 910 during the year 2008-09 in contrast to 121181 staff trained
during the year 1950-51. The number of staff trained has increased substantially by
164 percent during the above study period. The pay is the basic input for
motivating the employees. Reward management aims at to retain, and sustain the
Hence, once in a decade pay commission are set up in order to restructure the pay
scales in Indian Railways. The 4th 5th and 6th pay commission recommended the
revised pay scales w.e.f 1.1.1986., 1.1.1996, and 1.1.2006 respectively. The
implementation of the 6th pay commission resulted in decline of the net revenue
during the year 2008-09.



The selection and recruitment process of railways is done by Railway Recruitment
Board (RRB).
In all, there are 19 (nineteen) RRBs, which cater to the respective zonal staffing
requirements. Based on the Indents received, Employment Notifications are released
in Employment News ( A publication of the Government of India) and Indicative
advertisements in other News Papers.

In order to ensure uniformity throughout the RRBs, there is a standard format for

The applications received are scrutinized for different eligibility criteria and a list of
eligible candidates is drawn. Thereafter, examination date and centre is fixed and call
letters are dispatched to eligible candidates one month in advance of the date of
examination. Simultaneously the rejected applications data is published in the website
for information of in-eligible candidates.

The examinations may be single stage, two stages, single stage written exam followed
by skill test/aptitude test/interview depending on the nature of the posts advertised.

Candidates qualified in all stages of the examination are finally called for document
verification, wherein, all the records are verified and checked with original documents.

The employment notification is also published on the Internet web site. The

applications are scrutinized for eligibility. Eligible candidates are called for a written
examination with call letters being sent a month in advance of the date of the
If number of candidates is large, the candidates who qualify in the preliminary exam
are called for the main written exam, and the merit list is prepared based entirely upon
the result of the main exam. In most categories of jobs, there is no interview after the
written examination. For a very few specific categories there is a viva after the written
exam, while for certain other categories there is a skill test. For categories related to
operational safety, there will be a psychological test.
Following is intended to serve as guidelines for recruitment process for RRB (Indian
railway recruitment board):
1. The selection is made strictly as per merit on the basis of written/online
examination. In addition, Aptitude/Skill Test/Interview etc. may also be conducted
wherever applicable. Short listed candidates will be called for verification of the
original documents according to merit, availability of vacancies and reservation rules.
2. There shall be negative marking in written/online examinations and marks shall be
deducted for each wrong answer AT 1/3 of the allotted marks for each question.
3. The syllabus for the written/online examination will be generally in conformity with
the educational standards and /or technical qualifications prescribed for the posts. The
Questions will be of objective type with multiple answers and likely to include
questions pertaining to General Knowledge, General English/General Hindi, General
Arithmetic, Analytical and Quantitative Skills and those subjects covered as part of
minimum educational/technical qualifications for the post. The question paper will be
bilingual i.e English and Hindi. The duration of the examination will be 90 to 120
minutes with approximately 100 to 150 questions.

4. The Railway Recruitment Board, at its discretion may hold additional written test(s)
and/or interview/skill test if considered necessary for all or for a limited number of
candidates as may be deemed fit by Railway Recruitment Board.
5. The date, time and venue of the written/online examination and Aptitude/Skill
Test/Interview will be fixed by the RRB and will be intimated to the eligible candidates
in due course. These will also be published in the Employment News and indicated in
the website of RRB. Request for postponement of the examination/skill test/interview
and change of center/venue will not be entertained under any circumstance.
6. Stages of examination are given against each post. Based on the performance of
candidates in the examination, the candidates equal to the number of vacancies will be
called for document verification in the main list. In addition 30% extra candidates are
also called as standby candidates and they are considered for empanelment only if
there is shortfall in empanelment from the main list. During document verification, the
candidates will have to produce their original certificates. No additional time will be
given and the candidature of the candidates not producing their original certificates on
the date of verification is liable to be forefeited.

7. The appointment of selected candidates is subject to his/her passing requisite

Medical Fitness Test to be conducted by the Railway Administration, final verification
of educational and community certificates and verification of antecedent/character of
the candidate. The function of RRB, Bhubaneswar is to empanel the suitable
candidates and send the panel to the Chief Personnel Officer.



The following documents are to be produced in original:

* All academic certificates and date of birth proof.

* Caste certificate in case of SC/ST/OBC Candidates.
* Latest caste certificate and the certificate enclosed along with the application in
respect of OBC candidates.
* NOC in case of departmental candidates
* Discharge certificate in case of EXS
8. As soon as a candidate is empanelled, an intimation is sent to the candidate by
registered post regarding the epanelment. The offer of appointment is issued by the
Chief Personnel Officer.

The application details furnished by successful candidates are verified and they are
called for counselling and scrutiny of original documents. A panel of names is then
recommended to zonal Railway / Production unit to the extent of vacancies. The
candidates will be required to pass a medical examination before appointment.

The results of selection at every stage will be made available

on the Notice Board of RRB
in "The Employment News" and various newspapers, both local & national
through the Internet website
to the successful candidates through registered post
The selection process is based on merit and is subject to the rules and regulations


issued by the Ministry of Railways (Railway Board), Government of India which

includes reservation of jobs for certain castes/communities such as Scheduled Castes
(SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST), Other Backward Communities (OBC), etc. Ex-servicemen
are also entitled for reservation as per the rules.

The entire computerized recruitment system functions impersonally without fear or

favour. There is no scope for corruption, influence or discretion in this process.
Candidates indulging in malpractices and unfair means are dealt with strictly.

Appointments: Appointments are made by respective zonal Railways /Production

The overall policy guidelines for all Railway Recruitment Boards in India are laid
down by Railway Recruitment Control Board, New Delhi.



1. A parabolic curve introduced between straight and a circular curve or between
two branches of a compound curve for ease, comfort and safety of movement of
trains on curve is called:
(a) Spur curve
(b) Transition curve
(c) Summit curve (d) Valley
2. The staggered rails joints are usually provided on:
(a) Bridge
(b) Curves
(c) Branching
(d) Tangents
3. The track capacity can be increased by:
(a) Faster movement of trains on the track
(b) By using more powerful engines
(c) All the above
(d) None of the
4. The railway station at which a track line meets a main line is called:
(a) terminal station
(b) flag station
(c) way side station
(d) junction station
5. The limiting value of super elevation of board gauge in Indian Railways is:
(a) 16.50 cm

(b) 30 cm
(c) 15 cm
(d) 10
A 6. The chart used for recording the condition of track is known as:
(a) Rolling chart
(b) Track chart
(c) Hallade chart
(d) Vibro chart
7. The most common system of signaling in India is the system.
(a) automatic block
(b) section clear system
(c) absolute block
(d) pilot guard system
8. The feeder gauge . is commonly used for feeding raw materials to big
Government manufacturing concerns as well as to private factories such as steel
plants, oil refineries, sugar factories etc.
(a) 0.6096 m
(b) 0.792 m
(c) 1m
(d) 1.676 m
9. Which one of the following bolts is not used in rail track:
(a) Fang bolt
(b) Eye bolt
(c) Rag bolt
(d) Fish bolt


Preparing for a long term Railway Development Plan Preparing for a long
term Railway Development Plan to meet growing demand arising from to
meet growing demand arising from accelerating economic growth

Required accelerating economic growth Improving service quality.

Need to Improving service quality reducing unit costs of transport.

Preparing Reducing unit costs of transport improving asset reliability through


Required to Improving asset reliability through higher maintenance

standards maintenance standards.

Increasing use of IT in Railway Management Increasing use of IT in Railway


Required To Upgrading technology in rolling stock, track, upgrading

technology in rolling stock, track, signaling and operational management
signaling and operational management hiving off non core activities Hiving
off non core activities.



The human element of organization is the most crucial asset of an organization.

Taking a closer perspective it is the very quality of this asset that sets an
organization apart from the others, the very element that brings the organizations
vision into fruition.
Thus, one can grasp the strategic implications that the manpower of an
organization has in shaping the fortunes of an organization. This is where the
complementary roles of Recruitment and Selection come in..
The essence of recruitment can be summed up as the philosophy of attracting as
many applicants as possible for given jobs.
The end result of the recruitment process is essentially a pool of applicants. Next to
recruitment, the logical step in the HR process is the selection of qualified and
competent people. As such, this process concentrates on differentiating between
applicants in order to identify and hire- those individuals whose abilities are
consistent with the organizations requirements
. The Indian Railways has emerged today as the main vehical for the socioeconomic development of the country. Railway is a sunrise industry, not only in
India but in many parts of the world. The vision for information technology in the
Indian Railways for the next 25 years is to reach a stage where all the information
needs of the organization can be met by a comprehensive information highway,
available to all internal and external stakeholders.


The Human Resource per kilometer during the year 2008-09 is about 22 is an
indicator of human resource density in Indian Railways. The number of Railway
stations in Indian Railways has increased significantly by 17.63 percent during the
above study period depicting the network increased
In this project, we examine this angle through the case studies of INDIAN RAILWAYS
involved in the same sector but essentially different in their perceptions towards
recruitment and selection.
In the end, this project endeavors to present a comprehensive picture of
Recruitment and Selection and hopes to enable the reader to appreciate the
various intricacies involved.



K Ashwathappa, (1997) Human Resource and Personnel Management, Tata

McGraw- Hill 131-176
Chris Dukes, (2001) Recruiting the Right Staff
John M. Ivancevich, Human Resource Management, Tata McGraw- Hill, 2004
Steve Kneeland, (1999) Hiring People, discover an effective interviewing system;
avoid hiring the wrong person, recruit outstanding performers
Stone, Harold C and Kendell, W.E Effective Personnel Selection Procedures, 1956



o Indian Railways--Annual Report and Accounts, Ministry of Railways,
Government of India.
o Indian Railways Year Books, Ministry of Railways, Government of India.
o Report of Indian Railways