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creation of a model of a system? Develop a mathematical model of a simple

system of your choice and explain.

SYSTEM

A system is an organized, purposeful structure regarded as a whole and consisting of interrelated

and interdependent elements (components, entities, factors, members ,parts etc). These elements

continually influence one another (directly or indirectly) to maintain their activity.

TYPES OF SYSTEMS

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Open or Closed Systems.

State Maintaining Systems.

Goal Seeking Systems.

Purposeful Systems.

Reactive Systems.

Physical systems are solid entities that may be static or dynamic in operation.

Example

The physical parts of the computer center are the offices , desk and chairs that facilitate operation

of the computer. They can be seen and counted as they are static. In contrast, a programmed

computer is a dynamic demands or the priority of the information requested changes. Abstract

systems are conceptual or non physical entities.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Define system.

Background Research

State Project Goal

Define Relationships

Develop Model

by a spring. The reaction force fk on each end of the spring is the same

and is equal to the product of stiffness k and the amount of deformation

of the spring. End c has a position yc and end d has a position yd measured from

the respective equilibrium positions.

The force equation, in accordancewith the Hooks law is

fk = k ( yc- yd)

If the end d is stationary, then yd = 0 and the above equation reduces

to

Fk = k y

and areactive system. Give related examples from daily life to clarify each

class.

1. State-maintaining system:

A state maintain system is one that can react in only one way to any one external or

internal event but it reacts differently to different external or internal events.

Example:

i.

ii.

2.

A heating system whose internal controller turns it on when the room temperature is below a

desired level, and turns it off when the temperature is above this level, is state maintaining.In

general most systems with stats e.g thermostats and humidistats are state maintaining.

A compass is also state maintain because in many different environments it points to the

magnetic north pole

Goal seeking systems is one that can respond differently to one or more different external

or internal events in one or more different external or internal states and that can respond differently to a

particular event in an unchanging environment until it produces a particular state.

Example:

i.

3. Purposeful System

A purposeful system is one which can produce the same outcome in different ways in the same

(internal or external) state and can produce different outcomes in the same and different states.

Thus a purposeful system is one which can change its goal under constant conditions.

Example:

i.

4.

Reactive systems

The reactive systems are those in which reaction ofan event or events in terms of a

Example:

A coin operated soft drink machineswitches on its advertising lights when someoneapproaches it

within two meters distance. Suchmachines are reactive systems.

Q3.What are major parts of a model of a system? How one can identify them;

Parts of a System:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Variables,

Parameters,

Functional Relationships,

Constraints,

Criterion Functions.

1. Elements of a system:

The elements of a system are components that takentogether with interactions will produce a

basic structureof the system.

Example:

A model of a missile may have apropulsion sub-system, a guidance sub-system, a controlsubsystem and a structural sub-system and these subsystemscan be termed as main elements of the

totalsystem.

2. Parameters of a system:

Parameters of a system are quantities that are assigned by the properties of system components

or elements. For instance, in a system based on a mathematical equation

Example

f(x) = ax2 + bx + c;

3. Constraints of a system:

It's some factor that limits what the system canachieve. If it is not limited then the system might

be able to achieve much more inrealizing its goal. The limiting factor may be internal or external

to the system. It may be a physicalcomponent, a condition, or an imposed policy of some kind.

Example:

p=2x+3y

Constraints:

x<3, y<7,

x>0,y>0

Q.4Where physical models are used and how they are different from the actual

systems?

How industry is employing physical models for simulationpurposes?

Make a detailed study for one system.

Physical models and Actual models:

A model is a simplified representation of a system at some particular point in time or space

intended to promote understanding of the real system.

Physical models allow visualization, from examining the model, of information about the thing

the model represents. A model can be a physical object such as an architectural model of a

building. Uses of an architectural model include visualization of internal relationships within the

structure or external relationships of the structure to the environment.

Model of building

A physical model of something that can move, like a vehicle or machine, may be completely

static, or have parts that can be moved manually, or be powered. A physical model may show

inner parts that are normally not visible.

Actual system is some kind of a working system may be on a small scale or on a large scale.

Example:

Ejector Air removal Actual system

Industry uses simulation and modelling to observe the output

Example:

Consider a consulting company which has 120 employees. These 120 employees are composed

of 60 rookies and 60 professionals. The company wishes to maintain the total number of

employees at 120 so it hires a new rookie for each professional who quits. Rookies don't quit!

Professionals quit at a rate of 10 per month and it takes 6 months to develop a professional from

a rookie. Additionally, the company bills out rookies at $10k/month and professionals at

$15k/month. All 120 employees are fully applied.

Now, in the 10th month the company notices its revenue has dropped from $1.5m/month to

$1.35m/month and it wonders what has happened. And where do wethink it looks for the

problem? All around the 10th month of course. And what does it find? The company finds that it

still has 120 employees, yet there are now 30 professionals and 90 rookies

As it turns out, there was an organizational policy change made in month 3 which seemed to

annoy professionals more than in the past, and the quit rate jumped from 10 to 15 professionals a

month. The system, with it's built in hiring rule, essentially an auto pilot no thought action, hired

one rookie for each professional that quit. What this one time transition in quit rate actually did

was set off a 6 month transition within the organization leading to a new equilibrium state with

30 professionals and 90 rookies. The following graph represents this transition.

Thus, one of the real benefits of modeling and simulation is its ability to accomplish a time and

space compression between the interrelationships within a system. This brings into view the

results of interactions that would normally escape us because they are not closely related in time

and space. Modeling and simulation can provide a way of understanding dynamic

complexity.

Example 2:

INDUSTRIAL VEHICAL MODEL

Engine

Transmission

Transmission controller

Like clutch, a torque converter couples two independent driveline axes in such a way as to

transfer angular motion and torque from an input to an output shaft. However, unlike a clutch, a

torque converter never locks and the output shaft never exactly reaches the speed of the input.

(The torque converter transfers motion by hydrodynamic viscosity, not by surface friction.) Thus

a torque converter does not step through discrete stages and avoids the motion discontinuities

inherent in friction clutches.

The Engine RPM scope shows the engine speed in revolutions per minute (rpm), as well as the

engine output power delivered to the Torque Converter, in watts (W). When the transmission

shifts to second gear at 10 seconds, the engine reaches its maximum speed and power.

Vehicle Speed

The Vehicle Velocity scope displays the vehicle's linear velocity in miles per hour (mph).

Drive Ratio

The Speed ratio scope measures the effective gear ratio of the speed transmission by computing

the ratio of the output shaft to the input shaft angular velocities, respectively. (This ratio is the

reciprocal of the drive ratio.) As the transmission shifts through each gear from 1 to 4, its speed

ratio goes up, and the drive ratio goes down.

Q5. Explain discrete and continuous models. How a stochastic model differ

froma deterministic model, explain these differences using some systems?

1. Discrete model: The state variables change only at a countable number of points in time.

These points in time are the ones at which the event occurs/change in state.

2. Continuous model:The state variables change in a continuous way, and not abruptly

from one state to another (infinite number of states).

A system is deterministic if the variables of the system are deterministic or completely

predictable and no such variable or activity displays any degree of randomness. A stochastic

process is a collection of random variables { Xt , t T }.

If T is countable set { Xt , t T } is called discrete time stochastic process. If T is an

uncountable subset of the set oof real numbers { Xt , t T } is called continuous time stochastic

process.

Suppose y = 2+3x-.4x2. We can predict that if x=3, then y=7.4.

Note that this "prediction" does not necessarily occur in the past, future, or even the present. It is

simply a hypothetical, "what-if" statement. It helps us identify what would be the outcome if we

were to use a particular x. For example, what would be the maximum stress (y) that a dam could

bear, if we were to use x=(thickness of concrete).

For example, suppose you wish to predict whether the next customer will buy either a red car, a

gray car, or a green car. The possible values of y are "red", "gray", or "green", and the

distribution p(y) might have the form:

y

p(y)

red

.35

gray

.40

green .25

Total

1.0

The model does not tell you precisely what the next customer will do, but does allow aggregate

what-if predictions of the following type.

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